Posts Tagged With: skulls

Burial vault discovered ‘accidentally’ at Gloucester Cathedral…..

Coffins inside a tomb at Gloucester Cathedral
Archaeologists said they did not expect to find the vault beneath the floor of the cathedral

An “extremely well preserved” family burial vault has been discovered “accidentally” at Gloucester Cathedral.

The tomb in the North Transept contains coffins belonging to the Hyett family dating from the 17th and 18th Century.

It was found by archaeologists who lifted a neighbouring ledger stone while carrying out an evaluation ahead of the installation of a new lift.

The process caused a small hole to be created which allowed the contents of the vault to be seen.

Human remains found beneath ledger stone in Gloucester Cathedral
Re-deposited human remains were discovered beneath a ledger stone

Cathedral archaeologist Richard Morriss said the discovery of the 8ft (2.5m) deep chamber was unexpected.

“What you normally find when you dig up a ledger slab is earth and bones, there’s nothing specific in there.

Coffin inside a tomb at Gloucester Cathedral
Experts say the coffins are extremely well preserved

“But we can just see into a genuine intact family vault.

“You would expect the cathedral to have been restored time and time again. The floors get churned up and re-laid, but this has stayed intact.

“The coffins are extremely well preserved, you can still see the name plates.

Archaeological dig inside Gloucester Cathedral
Archaeologists were digging in the North Transept when the discovery was made

“And the name plates actually match up with the names on the ledgers above, which is remarkable.”

Mr Morriss said the family must have been “pretty wealthy” to have afforded this kind of burial vault within the heart of the cathedral.

The Reverend Canon Celia Thomson, said the discovery of the vault was “really exciting” and the discovery of a child’s coffin was “particularly poignant”.

Ledger stone
Name plates on the coffins match up with names on the ledger stone above them

“You can just imagine the grief of the parents at that stage. It brings history to life,” she said.

Lord Dickinson, who is a descendent, by marriage, of the Hyett family, said the discovery was “fascinating”.

“Like the rest of the world I didn’t know there was anything under the slab,” he said.

Lord Dickinson
Lord Dickinson said the discovery of the tomb was “fascinating”

Re-deposited human remains were discovered beneath the ledger stone, including a number of skulls and leg bones.

The installation of a new lift in the North Transept is part of a 10-year plan, known asProject Pilgrim, to improve facilities at the medieval building.

Child's coffin in vault in Gloucester Cathedral
One of the coffins belonged to a child who died aged nine months old

The discovery of the vault will be featured on Inside Out West on BBC One on Monday 2 November at 19:30 GMT and afterwards for 30 days on the BBC iPlayer.

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10 Legendary Mysteries Involving The Knights Templar…..

The List Of 12 Who Escaped


Photo credit: JoJan/Wikimedia

Templars were famously burned at the stake after being convicted of heresy in the beginning of the 14th century, rounded up and slaughtered wholesale. Less popularly known is the story of the French Templars who escaped. Even the Templar organization as it exists today isn’t sure what the whole story was.

According to the popular story, all the Templars were arrested on Friday the 13th, in October 1307. But it’s also been speculated that some escaped persecution. Estimates of numbers in the order at the time are somewhere around 3,000, but we only have records of the interrogations—and the fate—of about 600 of them. The rest? No idea.

If a massive, coordinated, country-wide series of arrests would have been impossible, many Templars had a chance to get out. Records tell of authorities pursuing some of the escaped knights, and one document in particular has been languishing in French archives for centuries. Only proved authentic recently after handwriting comparison, the document is a list of 12 names that were of particular interest to authorities.

Historians have identified a couple of these names and connected them with the reasons they were of such great interest. Humbert Blanc was a Crusader and master of Auvergne; he was captured and put on trial in 1308, denying all charges (save the secrecy of the order, which he thought unnecessary). Records say he was put in irons, but we’re not sure what happens to him afterward. A couple other names on the list—Renaud de la Folie and Pierre de Boucle—crop up again in trial records, but it’s difficult to tell why they were so important. The spelling of names is less than consistent, making it hard to connect names and deeds.

As for the others on the list, just why they were special targets of the authorities above others is a mystery. One, Guillaume de Lins, even has a question mark next to his name on the list. He’s perhaps Gillierm de Lurs, one of the officers in charge of ceremonies and receptions, but again, spelling gets in the way of establishing anything for sure. We don’t know much about Hugues Daray, either, or Adam de Valencourt, save that he was an elderly man who had, for some reason, joined the Templars twice.

Debt, An Assassination Plot, And The Arrests


Photo credit: Giovanni Boccaccio

Also on the list of 12 is one man that we know just enough about to raise a whole bunch of other questions—Hugues de Chalon. De Chalon was put on trial after the arrests, but his name shows up in some pretty strange places even before that. A high-ranking officer in Champagne, he met with the pope in 1302 despite orders from the king that they weren’t to respond to the papal summons. History tells us what usually happens to people who disobey the king.

He’s also mentioned in another document associated with Heinrich Finke, the historian who discovered the list. That document refers to a plot to kill the king, supposedly hatched by de Chalon and a handful of unnamed others from the same sect within the Templars. But just what any of it refers to is unknown. We’re not sure what this plot was, if it even existed.

Also mentioned in the document is another name, Gerard de Montclair, and we’re not entirely sure who he is, either. The closest name historians have found in other records is Richard de Montclair from Cyprus, but no one’s been able to connect the two.

A plot to kill the king of France wouldn’t have been entirely out of the question. Philip IV was massively in debt, and he had already been doing quite a bit of creative requisitioning to try to alleviate that debt—some of which had been accumulated before he even took the throne. For starters, he began randomly declaring entire communities heretical and seizing their assets for the crown. He’d already targeted the Jewish community and several Lombard merchants. When that wasn’t enough to finance his campaigns to expand France’s territory, he turned to debasing the French currency at a rate of about two-thirds.

The Templars’ actions somewhat overshadows the rest of the populace’s rioting in protest of the currency adjustment. The riot’s supposed leaders were hanged in the streets as examples. Armed forces were then called in. That was right before the arrests of the Templars. It’s never been proven entirely that their arrests were a money grab, but it seems a likely conclusion.

What Was The Head Of The Templars?


According to accusations, the Templars had an idol in their possession, a head. While most Templars denied knowing anything about the worship of a head, William of Arreblay claimed to have seen a ceremony in Paris where a silver head sat on an altar at the center of adoration. It was supposedly the head of Saint Ursula—the saint and her 11,000 virgins were reported to have remained faithful in the face of death and torture and were venerated by the Templars for it.

If that’s not unsettling enough, he also stated that the head had two faces. Other descriptions of the head were interpreted as being the head of Baphomet, while others said it was either wood, black and white, or metal.

The idea of the worship of an idol or head of Baphomet is one of the most popularly associated with the accusations presented at the Templar trials, but mention of the name in particular isn’t in any of the official arrest warrants. Supposedly, a version of the name Mahomed was, at some point assigned to the idols.

When things were going all sideways for the Templars, a head was supposedly recovered from their Paris temple. It was said to be a skull covered in silver, wrapped in linen, and labeled “Number 58.” Perhaps one of the 11,000 virgins William of Arreblay described?

It would be easy to dismiss the idea of the mysterious Templar head if the only mentions of it were around the accusations from those trying to brand them as heretics. But other historical accounts indicate that they did have a head, supposedly belonging to Saint Euphemia of Chalcedon.

The Greek orthodox saint was martyred by Emperor Diocletian and was thought to have particular powers against, ironically, heretics. Templar records indicate that during the Fourth Crusade, relics from the saint fell into their possession in Constantinople and were taken to Cyprus. The relic is pretty well recorded and can be traced through the Hospital of St. John and Rhodes, finally ending up in Malta as late as the early 17th century. The Templars used the presence of the skull, which they believed they had received by the grace of God, as evidence that they weren’t a heretical organization.

However, the body of Saint Euphemia rests in the church of St. George in Constantinople, and it’s intact.

The Skulls Of The Templars


Photo credit: Library of Congress

High up in the mountains of France is an area called Luz. It’s the stuff of ancient forests and avalanches, of remote outposts recently only accessible by electric tram, of waterfalls, of mountains, and of lots of snow. It’s so remote that until the French Revolution, it was nearly independent. Even afterward, they held on to freedoms that absolutely didn’t exist elsewhere in France. Today, the whole area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, in large part because of its layers and layers of human occupation dating back to at least 10,000 BC.

Luz is also home to one of the most well-preserved Templar churches in the world. While the Castle of Saint Marie sits in ruins, not far away is the immaculately preserved parish church, surrounded by crenellated walls, several towers, ramparts, and gateways. Clearly, the church was built by people who weren’t messing about.

The entire thing sits on the edge of the Gavarnie Cirque, a huge valley in the midst of canyons, crags, and mountains. And in the church of Gavarnie, there are 12 skulls, said to be the heads of the Templars who had been living at the fortified Luz church when the order for the Templar execution went out. There are no names, no bodies, and no other information on them, save a legend.

It’s said that every year, the specter of Grand Master de Molay enters the church and asks if there is anyone there who is willing to fight for the order and for the temple. One by one, each of the skulls answers, “None; the temple is destroyed.” While the legend is certainly fanciful, the fascinating story of what happened in the remote, disconnected, and mostly self-governing village to their Templars is long lost.

What’s Hiding Beneath Rosslyn Chapel?


Photo credit: JeremyA/Wikimedia

No location is more closely tied with Templar lore and mysteries than Rosslyn Chapel. Once called the Collegiate Church of St. Matthew and located in Midlothian, Scotland, it’s always been known for its incredible stone carvings and seemingly mystical symbolism. The stories about Rosslyn have been growing for decades and range from the outright bizarre (alien landing spot) to the epic and romantic. (Twelve Templars lie in slumber beneath the chapel, ready to return when the world needs them again.)

Most of the stories come from a combination of the Sinclair family’s ties to the Templars and a work written by Father Richard Hay in the 1700s, where he tells of secrets within the chapel, hidden vaults, and a network of tunnels beneath it that led to the temporary resting place of the 12 knights. With the help of Sir Walter Scott, the stories were taken into that weird place between history and legend.

In 2010, The Glasgow School of Art and Historic Scotland started a project that seemed like it might solve all the mysteries of Rosslyn Chapel for good. The joint effort was to survey the entire site—and other World Heritage Sites—with 3-D scanners. The goal was to not only preserve the details of the chapel in its entirety but also to guide the multimillion-dollar restoration and preservation project that had been laid in place for the site.

It seems like completely scanning the building would clear up any mystery about secret doors, hidden tunnels, or undiscovered chambers, but it’s only made things a little bit more muddled. A vault sits beneath the chapel, but it was likely built in the late 1800s. No knights lie there, but one of the Earls of Rosslyn was buried there in 1937. And one researcher says results from an earlier scan done by the US Navy did go underground. He claims that the results showed a series of tunnels snaking along underground, away from the chapel.

Beneath Temple Mount

The Templars have long been associated with lost treasure and artifacts like the Ark of the Covenant and the Holy Grail. While most of these theories are definitely in the realm of fiction and fantasy, one of the first Templar outposts had some definite treasure-bearing possibilities. In fact, we think they did one of the first large-scale excavations of the land and tunnels beneath Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Whether it was an accidental excavation that started when they were building their own additions or if they were looking for something in particular is not known. Nor is whether they found something.

In 1118, the Crusaders had been holding Jerusalem for 19 years. The Templars, originally having no real base of operations, received the land and the buildings of the Temple on Mount Moriah from Baldwin the Second, king of Jerusalem. At the time, the buildings there were partially Christian (from Emperor Justinian) and Muslim (from Caliph Omar). It was already documented as a place to store and display relics, as well as being built on the spot where God had appeared to David.

Originally, the Islamic temple was topped with a crescent, but Christian Crusaders tore it down and replaced it with a cross. Once the Templars took possession of the area, they not only took their name from it, but they started some construction projects of their own. The rock beneath the temple’s dome, long held to be the place where an angel had descended, had been left untouched for 15 years before the addition of an altar.

Here, the purpose of the Templars underwent a bit of a change. The original purpose of the group was to protect pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land, and once they were there, they decided that their role as protectors should extend to the holy places and relics of Christianity as well. Not long after, the newly established order had the backing and support of the king of Jerusalem, along with a host of European nobility and clergy.

Just how the Templars managed to get so big and get so much support so quickly is up for debate. They certainly had their supporters, but it’s also been suggested that when they moved in, they found some valuable relics that showed just how much God approved of their fledgling order.

That’s not to say that they found the Holy Grail or the Ark of the Covenant, but questions remain. No actual traces of the First Temple had been found on the site. Recently, excavations uncovered an easily overlooked but important piece of potential evidence: a seal imprinted with the name of one of the First Temple’s chief administrators. While it confirms a lot about what was on the location, it also brings up more questions about what was uncovered and spirited away.

Henry Sinclair’s Trip To The New World


Photo credit: Dennis Jarvis

The Knights Templar were one of the groups long said to have beaten Columbus to the Americas. The theory is built on rather shaky ground, though, with a major piece of evidence being a 1558 Venetian manuscript that told the family history of the Zenos.

According to the story, Italian navigators Nicolo and Antonio Zeno recorded the details of a journey that started in 1380. It unfolded through a series of letters, in which they told of their experiences on an island they called Frislanda. Nicolo was the first there, shipwrecked and stranded, when a mysterious figure came to his rescue. Nicolo called him Prince Zichmni, painting him as a great warrior and inviting his brother to come join him in his service to the warrior prince. Supposedly, they spent the next 14 years fighting for the prince before learning of a group of fishermen that had returned after being gone for 25 years. They told of a land to the west, full of savages and strange animals, and Zichmni headed in that direction.

The story of Henry Sinclair leading the Knights Templar to the New World is built on this manuscript and the argument that “Zichmni” is an interpretation of “Sinclair.” Frislanda was an island in Orkney called Faray, and Sinclair’s status certainly would have made him appear to be a prince.

The theory wasn’t a popular one when it was first published, either. It wasn’t until a librarian from the British Museum looked at the text again in 1873, along with a map of the journey described, that the theory went more mainstream.

The possibility brings up questions about just what the Templars did during their time in the New World, but the possibility that it’s not Sinclair is just as intriguing.

Henry Sinclar And Glooscap


Photo credit: SimonP/Wikimedia

According to the origin story of a handful of Atlantic-region people (including the Mi’kmaq, the Abenaki, and the Maliseet), the Earth first created a pair of twins called Glooscap and Malsm, or Good and Evil. Glooscap created all the animals (except the badger) and eventually created humans. After killing his evil twin, he gave humans all the basic knowledge they would need to survive, and then he disappeared. Before he left, though, he said that he wasn’t entirely gone, and he would return if he was ever needed again.

A theory developed in the 1950s that the ever-evolving story of Glooscap has been heavily influenced by Henry Sinclair. Frederick Pohl claims that the stories of Glooscap were based on a real person, and even representatives from the Mi’kmaq have suggested that it’s not entirely that far-fetched an idea. They say that it’s entirely possible that the stories of Glooscap were built around the appearance of real, living people, immortalized in stories and receiving the identity of the creator of humankind as an honor.

Supporters point to what they see as the evidence linking Sinclair to the Glooscap myth. Supposedly, Glooscap was said to have been royalty from an island far away, and he wielded a sword. He had three daughters, like Sinclair. A European presence in Nova Scotia and the resulting cultural exchange also allegedly drove a shift in the diet of the people living there. Around the same time Sinclair would have theoretically been there, the Mi’kmaq show a shift in their diet to one more heavy in fish—because, they say, Glooscap taught them how to use nets for a more bountiful catch.

The Templars At Bannockburn


Just what happened to all the men that escaped the purge of Templars has been up for speculation for a long time. According to one theory—that’s at least partially supported by a Templar presence in Scotland—they headed north and joined forces with Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn.

Bannockburn turned the tide of Scottish history with a triumph over English forces. It happened in 1314, and according to some, the Scottish victory was in no small part due to Templar influence. Supporters of the theory say there’s no way Robert the Bruce could have won against the English army alone. Critics say that argument is both wrong and damages Scottish pride. Scotland was something of a safe haven for the Templars, as the order had already been given land there. They knew this, and (according to the story) fled persecution in France for the safety of Scotland and entered the Battle of Bannockburn on the side of the Scots.

There’s little to no accepted historical evidence for their presence there, though. Rumored written reports suggest the Scottish victory was largely due to the sudden appearance of an unknown group of warriors.

The Unknown Knights Of Temple Church


Photo credit: Diliff/Wikimedia

The Temple Church of London was consecrated in 1185 as the London headquarters of the Knights Templar. Built in the typical round designreminiscent of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, it saw Henry II there for its opening. At one point, it was almost the final resting place for Henry III.

Inside the church are the effigies of several figures. A piece from 1576 describing the interior of the church talks about the monuments and sculptures to nobles and knights. We know one is William Marshal, the Earl of Pembroke, and two others are his sons, William and Gilbert. There’s also one for Geoffrey de Mandeville, William de Ros, and Richard of Hastings. The identity of the others is a mystery.

The earliest accounts don’t even agree on how many of the effigies there were. The effigies are defined as either lying cross-legged or straight-legged. The Survey of London refers to 11 effigies, while others say eight, and still others say nine. It’s thought that one of the effigies we have identified—William de Ros—was added after the others had been laid, but there are no records indicating why or when he was moved there.

In 1842, the figures underwent a thorough restoration, uncovering the names of the knights we’ve mentioned but finding no trace of who the others might be. It’s suggested that they’re not even knights, as their images don’t seem to be properly armored or bearded. We’re also not sure why some are cross-legged and some aren’t, although knowing their identities would probably help clarify that.

In 1941, Temple Church was hit by a bombing raid. The effigies, badly damaged, have since been repaired, and plaster casts that were made before the damage are housed at the Victoria and Albert Museum.

It’s unlikely we’ll ever know who the remaining figures are. In their day, they were important enough to rank a place of honor in the headquarters of the Knights Templar, but today, we’ve forgotten everything about them.

Categories: Ancient Treasure, Archaeology, gold, gold chains, gold coins, gold crosses, gold ingots, jewels, Legends | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Mars Carved Cone-head Statues…..

Some ancient alien carved stone head statues on Mars from Curiosity sol 528. MARS ZOO 2014. These look very much like some Egyptian statues or perhaps cone-head art from Central and South America. As well as these giant carved heads there are other carved stone artefacts here as well as what looks like a dead aliens skull lying in the sand nearby.

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Over 100 graves have been dug up in the West African country of Benin, looted by grave robbers seeking body parts for use in magic rituals.

According to a Reuters news story,

“The incident is the most serious case of grave-robbing in the West African state, the world capital of voodoo where most of the country’s 9 million residents practice a benign form of the official religion. Authorities in Dangbo, a village 6 miles from the capital Porto-Novo, began an investigation after a mason working at the cemetery said he spotted several masked men digging up the graves, from which organs and skulls were removed. ‘The desecration of graves is about money in this region,’ said Joseph Afaton, director of the cemetery. ‘It is for sacrifices, or for bewitching.'”

Many Americans only think of witches and witchcraft around Halloween. But in many countries belief in witches is common, and black magic is considered part of everyday life. In Africa, witch doctors are consulted not only for healing diseases, but also for placing (or removing) magic curses or bringing luck — much like many psychics and fortunetellers in America.
A 2010 Gallup poll found that belief in magic is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa; on average 55 percent of Africans believe in witchcraft.

Though graves are the most common source of bones, organs and limbs, in the past few years albino children and adults in Africa have been attacked and killed for their body parts. The belief and practice of using body parts for magical ritual or benefit is called muti.

Muti hunting was featured in the 2009 South African science-fiction film “District 9,” in which the hero’s body parts were sought after by a local warlord who believed that the limbs would give him magical powers. Muti murders are particularly brutal, with knives and machetes used to cut and hack off limbs, breasts, and other body parts from their living victims. Many of the albinos were beheaded, their heads carefully collected and preserved as gruesome good luck charms or for use in rituals.

Throughout most of history, medical knowledge of anatomy was poor and indirect, partly because of fear and taboos against cutting open corpses. The Renaissance brought an emphasis on practical, real-world knowledge, which necessarily meant examining and cutting up the dead.

In Europe, the rise of early medical centers created a strong demand for dead bodies; a few cadavers were made available by royal decree, usually the bodies of condemned criminals. In the 1700s, in fact, dissection was a punishment for serious crimes.

By 1720, theft from graveyards was common in London, England, and grave robbers (or “resurrection men,” as they were known) were making a profit digging up bodies and selling them to anatomists and doctors. Among the most infamous of these criminals were Irish grave robbers and murderers Brendan Burke and William Hare, who committed sixteen murders and sold the bodies to a well-known London anatomist in 1828.

By the 1900s most grave robbing in the West had ceased, though as the incidents in Benin demonstrate the practice lingers where belief in magic is common.

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Celtic sacrifices confirmed at famed ancient site…….

Ancient Celts practiced startling ritual murder practices, decorating sacrifice sites with ghoulish entanglements of human bones, most likely as a warning to foes and the folks they ruled.

The ancient Celts who cooked up the autumn festival of Samhain, a predecessor to today’s Halloween, a new study confirms such displays were serious business.
“The ancient Celts were most definitely head-hunters,” prone to displaying these trophies, says anthropologist Mary Voigt, who has long headed the Penn Museum’s excavations at the storied site of Gordion in modern-day Turkey. “And they were definitely Celts at Gordion.”

What were those Celts (pronounced with a hard “K” sound) doing in Turkey? Well, in a forthcoming study in the Journal of Osteoarchaeology by archaeologist Page Selinsky of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, it seems they were definitely continuing some startling ritual murder practices. They decorated sacrifice sites with ghoulish entanglements of human bones, perhaps as a warning to foes and the folks they ruled.

Gordion is the place where Alexander the Great famously severed the intractable “Gordian Knot,” a knot so complex that legend has it that whoever undid the knot would rule all of Asia, on his conquests around 334 B.C. The death of Alexander also brought Celts, originally mercenaries and later conquerors, to Gordion, a citadel mound in central Turkey that was once ruled by the King Midas of the golden touch myth.

But by 240 B.C., the time examined in Selinsky’s study, Gordion was ruled by a group of Celts called the Galatians (which very roughly means the “Greek Gauls,” where the Gauls were the Celtic tribes who ruled today’s France in the era when ancient Rome was a rising republic). Houses and pottery, loom weights and other artifacts at the site take on Celtic appearances from that time.

The other thing that takes on a Celtic appearance at the time, Selinsky reports in her study, is a graveyard. Bones and skulls from more than a dozen men, women and children arranged in odd ways appear to have been scattered around the site, in six clusters. Later Roman-era burials at the site, in contrast, are in rows of coffins and cremation urns, unlike the Galatian ones, with one exception.

“Understanding what they intended is the million-dollar question in Celtic ritual practices,” Selinsky says. “These are big questions of life and death and what they believed. We may be seeing several different types of rituals.”
In one case, a middle-aged woman’s skeleton, her skull dented by three hammer blows, lay atop a younger woman’s skeleton pinned under two large grinding stones. The bones of two children lay placed among them. In another, a teenager’s clearly-decapitated head was arranged amid dog bones. Perhaps most bizarre, three skeletons mingled in doubled-over positions include the skull of a woman who appears to have been decapitated. Several men appear to have been decapitated among the bone clusters, their heads displayed singly in the manner of war trophies.

The Celts were big fans of skulls, Voigt notes in a chapter of the bookSacred Killing: The Archaeology of Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, edited by Anne Porter and Glenn Schwartz. The Romans noted they collected heads of enemies to hang from their horses, and they sacrificed criminals and captured enemies, using their death throes to foretell the future. “The heads of those enemies that were held in high esteem they would embalm in cedar oil and display them to their guests, and they would not think of having them ransomed even for an equal weight of gold,” wrote the ancient Greek historian, Strabo.

Voigt suggests that the bodies displayed by the Galatians, which would have been clearly visible to anyone living in the town below their citadel, were meant as a warning either to foes or the subject population of the town. Perhaps some were victims of ritual murder in attempts to tell the future when the Romans invaded their realm. While Selinsky is more cautious about attaching meaning to the bone displays than Voigt, her study does confirm violent death as the end for many of the skeletons, a suggestion that first made news a decade ago. “Here we see further investigation confirming a hypothesis, which is a good thing in science,” Selinsky says.
It’s worth noting that the Galatians didn’t expose everyone who died this way. One young woman found near the ritual area was buried in a wooden coffin and was wearing lion-headed gold earrings, according to Voigt. The Romans who buried people so nicely after them weren’t sweethearts either; they wiped out the Galatians in a war marked by genocide around 189 B.C.

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Archaeologists have unearthed gruesome evidence of brutal Aztec rituals by uncovering 50 skulls and over 250 jaw bones at the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City).

Found at one sacrificial stone below a ceremonial platform called the “cuauhxicalco,” the human remains date back more than 500 years and represent the largest number of skulls ever found in one offering.
Used in rituals associated with the worship of Mictlantecuhtli, god of death, the skulls were unearthed in different locations: 45 appeared to have just been dumped on top of the stone, while the remaining five were buried under it.
Each of the five skulls had holes on both sides, suggesting they belonged to a tzompantli. This was a skull rack on which the crania of sacrificed people were hung and displayed near temples or at other locations.

“Some of the 45 skulls found on the sacrificial stone were manipulated with the intention of preparing skull-masks that were never finished,” archaeologist Raul Barrera of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) said.

According to the archaeologist, the skulls belonged to women and men between 20 and 35 years old. Some could have been dug up from other sites and reburied.
Looking like a gray headstone, the 18-inch-high, 14 to 17-inch-long and 3-inch-thick sacrificial rock revealed new ways that the Aztecs used skulls in their rituals.

Indeed, sacrificial stones were rarely associated with decapitation.
“Usually people were killed on those stones by cutting open the chest and pulling out the heart,” Barrera said.

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Mexico finds 50 skulls in sacred Aztec temple

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Mexican archaeologists said Friday they uncovered the largest number of skulls ever found in one offering at the most sacred temple of the Aztec empire dating back more than 500 years.
The finding reveals new ways the pre-Colombian civilization used skulls in rituals at Mexico City’s Templo Mayor, experts said. That’s where the most important Aztec ceremonies took place between 1325 until the Spanish conquest in 1521.
The 50 skulls were found at one sacrificial stone. Five were buried under the stone, and each had holes on both sides — signaling they were hung on a skull rack.
Archaeologist Raul Barrera of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History said the other 45 skulls appeared to have just been dumped on top of the stone.
The team of archeologists unearthed the skulls and jaw bones in August. They stumbled on them as they were renovating a section of the Templo Mayor in the heart of Mexico City.
Barrera said they believe the 45 skulls were those of women and men between 20 and 35 years old and could have been dug up from other sites and reburied.
Last August, the Mexican government announced experts had found an unprecedented human burial at another spot in the same temple in which the skeleton of a young woman, possibly sacrificed personifying a goddess, was surrounded by piles of nearly 1,800 bones. Another unusual finding this summer was a “sacred tree,” which looks like a battered oak trunk emerging from a well and which experts say was brought from a mountain region for a ritual.
The skulls shown to the media Friday were in good condition but cracked on each side of the head, possibly because of the wooden stake that ran through them so they could be placed in a skull rack.
Barrera said the key in the discovery was the sacrificial rock, which looks like a gray headstone.
“Underneath the sacrificial stone, we found an offering of five skulls. These skulls were pierced with a stick,” he said. “These are very important findings.”
University of Florida archaeologist Susan Gillespie, who was not involved in the excavation, said it caught her attention that the skulls that had been on the rack, called tzompantli, were buried separately.
“It provides rather novel information on the use and reuse of skulls for ritual events at the Templo Mayor,” Gillespie said in an email.
Also, the common belief about Aztec sacrificial stones is that a person being sacrificed was killed by cutting open the chest and pulling out the heart.
“We normally associate (it) with heart removal rather than decapitation,” she said. “It ultimately gives us a better understanding of how the Aztecs used the human body in various ways in their ritual practices.

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