Posts Tagged With: Michigan

National Raffle for Desert Storm/Desert Shield monuments at the Belding Mich Veteran’s Park….


This is a Nation Wide Raffle, shipping is included with your ticket price, all States invited to get into the fun…Proceeds to be used for the Desert Storm and Desert Shield monuments at the Belding Veterans Park

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Dr. J. L. Whiting on early Detroit, Black Hawk, Cholera and speaking on the ‘the father of medicine in Michigan.’


DR. J. L. WHITING.

Evening News, April 30, 1880.

Dr. Whiting, after fifteen years of successful practice as a physician and surgeon, retired from the profession to engage in the forwarding and commission business.

Concerning this step, he said, “The tide of immigration from the east was beginning to pour in upon us in a steady flood, and the business was most promising.

I quit medicine to follow my new venture in February, 1832, but I was compelled to return to it in July, and work harder at it than ever I had in my life.

The cholera had broken out.

“The dreadful disease was brought to us by a vessel carrying troops ordered to the scene of the Black Hawk war, a war almost unknown to the history readers of this generation.

You are aware that Black-Hawk was a powerful Sac chief, somewhat after the Pontiac pattern.

The Sacs and Winnebago’s of Wisconsin had long been ugly and spoiling for a fight.

They were angry over the rapidly advancing colonization of Illinois, and dreaded further white encroachment.

In the spring of

1832 they commenced warfare upon the frontier settlements of Illinois, killing, scalping, burning, and outraging, and a national as well as a militia force was sent out to teach them a lesson.

After a number of fights the United States troops and Illinois militia, under General Atkinson, inflicted a crushing defeat upon the redskins at the junction of the Bad Axe River with the Mississippi, capturing Black-Hawk and his son and drove the Indians beyond the father Hawk and his son were taken to Washington. On their return Black Hawk stopped for a while in Dtroit, where I saw them both.

Young Black Hawk fell desperatly in love with a prominent society belle and wanted to honor honor her by making her his squaw.

She declined the proffered dignity for reasons best known to herself, but she has never married, and is still living in a state of single blessedness at Mackinac.

“Well, as I was saying,” continued the doctor, “I had just about got used to my new work down at the dock, when along came these troops with the cholera.

One of the men died of a pronounced case of Asiatic cholera on the Fourth of July.

The military surgeon accompanying the detachment was scared almost out of his wits, and immediately upon landing betook himself to bed in the hotel.

The commanding officer, thus deserted, called upon Dr. Rice, an able physician and an amiable man, to attend the sick, and Rice came to me to ask me to go with him.

I didn’t care to go, for I knew, though I had never seen a case of

Cholera that it was frightfully contagious and rapid in its results, and I told Rice so.

He urged that he had been authorized by the quartermaster to spare no expense in securing the most competent help, and finally he persuaded me to go with him.

I told my wife when I went home that Saturday evening that I had been called upon to attend the sick soldiers.

She looked grave and sorrowful, but said that as it was a case of duty she could not ask me to back out.

“That night sixteen cases were brought ashore and placed in the quartermaster’s stores, which had been converted into a temporary cholera hospital.

The stores were back of Fisk’s present crockery warehouse, between Jefferson Avenue and the river, fronting on Woodbridge Street.

Of the sixteen cases eleven proved fatal before morning.

“On the same day Dr. Rice had the sick call sounded and carefully examined every man of the detachment.

To everyone who showed predisposing symptoms of the disease, such as the premonitory diarrhea, he administered a thumping dose of ipecacuanha and calomel on the spot.

It acted like a charm.

There wasn’t another new case in the command.

After the dead were interred the detachment was hurried up to

Fort Gratiot to recruit, and before they left, the commanding officer warmly thanked Dr. Rice and myself for our services.

“The cholera visitation upon the citizens came later in the year 1832, and imposed a vast amount of work upon me.

It was confined largely to the lower classes, and swept off the intemperate and dissipated in large numbers.

In 1834 it attacked an entirely different class; the upper orders, the sober, temperate, and church-going people.

As in 1832 I was taken away from my commission business to attend to the stricken, and had to go out to Marshall, 100 miles, to attend to the cases there, the cholera having hopped over from Ann Arbor.

Dr. Rice did wonders during both visitations.

He practiced in Detroit for some 20 years, and was a man of great merit and as quick as lightning.

“This was not the only time I was called upon to minister to United States troops.

In 1823 the quartermaster insisted upon my going to Saginaw to attend to a sick garrison from Green Bay.

The troops were suffering from malignant intermitting fever, and at the end of three weeks’ attendance upon them I was knocked over myself.

I found the whole garrison sick, with one or two exceptions, and Dr. Zina Pitcher, the surgeon in charge, was the sickest of the lot.

He was completely broken up.

He had some 120 souls, old and young—60 enlisted men, with officers, laundresses, and children—under his charge, and all of them sick but one, with one of the most abominably distressing fevers imaginable.

He was all alone, one hundred miles from anywhere, with an appalling amount of work on hand, and no wonder he broke down.

When I reached Saginaw he was being carried all over the garrison on a mattress by men well enough as yet to move about or lift anything, giving opinions and advice, and a dreadful sight he presented, I can assure you.

The garrison was broken up in October and moved to Detroit where the troops were quartered on Fort street.

I did Pitcher’s duty from August, 1823, till May, 1824, nearly a year.

At that time I began to talk to him of moving into Detroit, for I had a high opinion of him as an able physician and a fine man.

In 1828, when I was making arrangements to give up my practice, I began writing to him, endeavoring to induce him to settle in Detroit and take my place, but I did not succeed until 1835 or ’36.

“Dr. Pitcher was styled not long ago, by a president of the county medical association, the ‘father of medicine in Michigan.’

With all due respect to the president, who knew better, as I told him afterwards, medical history compels me to dispute the title awarded to my old friend.

As long ago as 1811, I commenced the formation of a medical society among the few scattered physicians of the territory.

We had three at the capital and one respectively at Pontiac, St. Clair, Mount Clemens and Monroe, and they all joined me.

Long afterwards, when I had retired from practice, and when the number of physicians was greatly increased, county and State associations were formed and Dr. Pitcher was one of the first presidents of the Wayne County Society.”

Dr. Whiting had some experience with Cass among the Indians, and was a traveling companion with General Winfield Scott as early as 1827.

“In 1827,” he said, “General Cass called upon me to accompany a treaty-making expedition to the Buttes des Morts, or Hills of the Dead, on the Fox River about 40 miles above Green Bay.

The treaty was to be executed between General Cass and Col. McKinney, Indian agent at Washington, joint high commissioners for the United States, and Winnebago’s, Chippewa’s, Pottawattamie’s, Foxes, Sacs, and Menominee’s.

The expedition went out on board the steamer class vessel in her time.

She had only a main deck, which was a fore and after, with a cabin below.

The affair was regarded as a splendid chance for speculation, so the steamer was loaded down with Detroit merchants and their goods.

I was myself entrusted with $3,000 worth of goods of one kind and another, which I disposed of to advantage.

One of the passengers was General Winfield Scott, who was on a tour of inspection of forts and posts, and as two companies were stationed at Sault Ste. Marie he persuaded the captain to take him there.

This is how the first steamboat voyage to the Sault came to be made.

“The general was about 40 hours inspecting the post, and while he was busy we were having a splendid time enjoying ourselves in pleasure and trade.

There were about a dozen beautiful young ladies on board and we had a dance nearly every night.

The after cabin was given up to the demoiselles, so General Scott used to sleep on the dining tables every night, with a whale sperm candle burning at either side of his pillow; for there was an awful deal of fuss and feathers about the old fellow, even at that early stage of his career.

“My duties as medical officer were sufficient to keep me busy night and day.

I had to attend to the Indian sick, and as it was a season when green corn was in, they gorged themselves to repletion with it, and of course, suffered torments.

I was a big gun among them, I can tell you, as the ‘medicine man,’ with a couple of interpreters in constant attendance, moving around among people who regarded me as little less than a divinity, and swallowed the most atrociously unpleasant draughts with relish.

To hear them smack their lips over rancid castor oil which spoke for itself at long range, was a caution.

“We had to wait a long time for the Winnebago’s to come in, for they were saucy and disposed to show the whites that they didn’t care for them, but at the same time they were suffering from a bad attack of green corn.

A Menominee runner came in one day in advance of his people, many of whom came down from the neighborhood of Hudson’s bay, and in answer to my inquiries replied, with gesticulations far more eloquent than words:

‘Menominee sick like hel-l-l! Eat corn!

Break up Munnominee, purroo purro-o-o-o-f ! ! !’

“There were about 3,000 Indians of the different tribes present, many of whom had marched one thousand miles to partake of the benefits of the treaty and receive the presents of food and clothing.

They were supported while they were on the treaty ground and given all the provisions they could carry away with them.

The valuable lands which they ceded have long since become among the most fertile portions of the western granary.

We went upon this expedition in June and returned in August.

The Indians thought the world of Cass, whom they named OsKotchee, or ‘Big Belly.’ ”

Of his personal share in the Black-Hawk war Dr. Whiting tells in a modest, interesting way:

“I was appointed,” he said, “surgeon of the First Michigan militia regiment in 1818, and held my commission till 1832, when the war broke out.

A Dr. Hurd, who came here in 1819, was very anxious to displace me and brought a number of recommendations from people in high position which he pressed upon General John R. Williams, then commander in chief.

When we were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Dearborn (Chicago) preparatory to marching upon Illinois, Hurd spent a whole day with the general trying to get the position.

The fact was, he had been rather unsuccessful in Detroit, and the pay was an object to him, as much as the prestige was to me.

I was determined I would not be thrust out of my rank to suit Hurd, and in the long run I defeated him and was ordered to provide a supply of medicines and make ready to march at once.

I got Dr. Chapin, then our only druggist doing anything like a business, to fit me up a big medicine chest sufficient for the requirements of 200 infantry and a company of cavalry.

We got marching orders and had gone about fifty-five miles in the direction of Illinois when we received an order from General Williams ordering us back.

Our expedition lasted from the Thursday of one week till the too short a time entirely to give the First Michigan an opportunity to disquingish themselves on the field of glory, and I regret to say, also too short to qualify any of us for the 160 acres of land which every patriot had in his eye.

I didn’t have an opportunity of physicking a single combatant before the whole business was over.”

On the close of the “second cholera” in 1834, Dr. Whiting retired permanently from the practice of medicine, and devoted himself for the ensuing eight or ten years to the forwarding business, which consisted principally in the receipt and handling of the goods of immigrants who were then flowing into the State in large numbers.

The rush of immigration began in 1828 and continued for a long period afterwards.

“I saw,” said Dr. Whiting, “the early movement of emigration to Ohio, which was vigorously proceeding when I was on my way to Michigan.

I have seen the huge wagons of the pioneers, drawn by four teams of horses or yokes of oxen, making their way over the terrible roads, laden to the bursting point with household goods, and so arranged as to be moving homes for the family for the whole duration of the journey and until the settler could erect his log cabin in the unbroken wilderness.

The immigrants who came to us were from the thriftiest and most industrious New England stock, principally from the northeastern States and New York; people who could turn their hands to almost anything, and whose industry and perseverance, which they transmitted as a heritage to their posterity, have made Michigan what she is to-day.

“While keeping an eye on immigration, I saw the arrival of most of the men who have attained to note and position in this city and State.

It was while I had my office on the dock that Zachariah Chandler, then quite a new-comer, applied to me for a situation.

I well recollect when my friend, Mr. C. C. Trowbridge, came here—I was practicing then—a bright-eyed, ambitious, enthusiastic young man whose friendship I have enjoyed for scores of years, and whose career I have watched from early manhood to old age.”

Digressing a little, Dr. Whiting said:

“I observe in your sketch of Mr. Trowbridge that he speaks of an M. Laselle having once whipped the commandant of the fort in a dispute over a question of etiquette.

M. Laselle was well known as a peppery French officer in the Union service, who was present at Winchester’s defeat at River Raisin in the war of 1812-15.

He was the officer of the day, and, as the troops slept on their arm after the carnage, while posting a tall, gaunt New Hampshire soldier as a picket guard, intelligently instructed him as to his duties as follows:

” ‘Spose you see Hinjin, you say how?

How?

Dat call him ‘tenshun.

Den you say Endoss! Endoss!

Dat come here!

Come here!

‘Spose Hinjin no endoss, you vill sa-a-acra-wentelment baionnez le dans la ventre!”

[You will sacramentally bayonet him in the bowels.]

“To return to forwarding.

There was not much of a general trade in my earlier experience of the business.

The fur trade was carried on by a few houses, Judge Abbott, Mack & Conant, Dequindre, and the Buhls.

There were a few small manufacturing concerns turning out boots and shoes, clothing, wool hats, and so on, but nothing to signify.

For all our iron work we had to send to Cleveland, and large quantities of goods, now manufactured in and exported from Detroit, were imported from Ohio.

But as the flood of population poured in from the eastern states a change came rapidly about, which had a remarkable effect upon my business.

I had at one time the agency of five steam boats, something enormous for that period—purchased their supplies, and gave a decided impetus to the fuel trade by requiring a constant supply of from 1,500 to 2,000 cords of wood.

The steamers for which I was agent ran to Buffalo, calling at the different lake ports on the way.

Once or twice a year they went to Chicago and Mackinac with supplies and stores.

In my younger days we had quite a contemptuous opinion of Chicago as a little swampy hamlet compared with which Detroit was of metropolitan grandeur.

Times fully since then, yet always for the better in Detroit whose growth has been gradually solid and substantial.

I have seen the population grow from 900 to 130,000, and I know whereof I speak.”

Dr. Whiting, after a lengthened experience as a forwarder and commission merchant, went into business as a land and tax agent, in which he continued till his physical infirmity obliged him to retire.

He stayed at his post till he was forced to seek repose.

Speaking of politics, he said:

“I have never been actively engaged in politics.

I was originally what was called a ‘blue-light federalist,’ and cast my first vote for DeWitt Clinton for president just before I left for Detroit.

Parties have come and parties have gone, leaving me, in my opinions, pretty much where I was standing when I cast my first vote.

Though I was elected city clerk in 1832 and again in 1834, I have never sought office.

During my second term as clerk of the city I found I had to either giveup my warehouse or resign the clerkship, and I chose the latter.

This completes my experience of office.

I became a Whig when Whiggery represented principles, and when it died out I found it terrible hard work to become a republican, and only surrendered under protest.

However, I had not much time to throw away on politics and politicians; my life was too busy a one for any dissipation of the kind, and besides I have always had the confidence that this Union could take care of herself, without my going into hysterics about saving her.”

As I rose to go, Dr. Whiting said: “When you hear young fellows of yesterday talking of Detroit as a slow, fossilized place, remember that I have seen it grow from a frontier post, with half a hundred English speaking Americans in it, depending upon the precarious support afforded by the fur trade and the disbursement of public money by the troops; from a little settlement, yet showing the ravages of a long war, to a great imperial city, with the most thrifty and generally prosperous population of the United States, at the distributing head of the most magnificent inland water system of the world, and growing year by year in power and riches.”

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PATRICK SINCLAIR; BUILDER OF FORT MACKINAC – BY WILLIAM L. JENKS in 1915


By far the most conspicuous object in the Island of Mackinac is the old fort which overhangs so protectingly the village below.

The thick stone and earth walls, the three old block houses, built, according to the cards upon the doors, in 1780, the old buildings within the enclosure, all force the attention of the visitor, resident or tourist, to the age of the structure, but to few is known even the name, much less anything of the career of its creator.

In the extreme northeast of Scotland lies the shire or county of Caithness; a large part of it low and boggy, it rises toward the south and west, and contains but three streams of any size, the Wickwater and the Forss and Thurso Rivers.

Most of the coast line is rocky and forbidding and good harbors are few.

Near the northeast corner is John O’Groat’s house, and south of that along the East Coast is a large bay called Sinclair’s Bay.

For several centuries the name Sinclair or St. Clair-they are in reality the same, the latter being nearer to the original Norman form-has been the leading one in Caithness; the first earl of Caithness, created in 1455, being Sir William Sinclair.

From this shire, forbidding in its natural aspects, but like so many other places in Scotland, furnishing an abundant supply of young, energetic, capable and courageous men, came Patrick Sinclair, the subject of this sketch, of interest to Michigan, not alone because of his connection with Mackinac, but because he was the first man to establish a permanent foothold in the way of occupation, erecting buildings and cultivating land along St. Clair River.

Patrick_Sinclair

This noble river should today bear the name of Sinclair as it did for many years a century ago.

The present name is derived from Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Territory, the original name passing gradually through forgetfulness of the one and growing importance of the other to its present form.

It is a curious fact that both Arthur St. Clair and Patrick Sinclair were born in the same year in the county of Caithness, within twenty-five miles of each other, and they were undoubtedly distantly related.

Whatever the cause, temperament, roving disposition, hard and forbidding material conditions at home, certain it is that Scotchmen have proved through centuries the mainstay of British enterprise and glory in foreign lands, and Scotch soldiers and explorers have done much to extend England’s domains.

Patrick Sinclair mas born in 1736 at Lybster, a small hamlet on the east coast of Caithness about 11 miles southeast of Wick, the chief town of the County, and was the half son and oldest of four children of Alexander who had married a connection in the person of Amelia Sinclair, the daughter of another Alexander Sinclair.

His father was the fourth Sinclair of Lybster and the name Patrick was common in the family, his grandfather bearing it, and his great grandmother was the daughter of Patrick Sinclair of Ulbster.

We have no knowledge of his youthful education but it must have been considerable as his papers and correspondence evince facility in expression, clear ideas and a good command of language,

In July, 1758, Patrick Sinclair purchased a commission as ensign – practically equivalent to 2nd Lieutenant, a grade not then existing in the famous 42nd Highlanders, or Black Watch Regiment, but he may have had some previous service in some capacity as in a letter to Gen. Haldimand in August, 1779, he refers to his 25 years’ service in the army, which if not a rhetorical exaggeration would imply that he had entered the service in 1761.

At any rate he soon saw active service, as his regiment was sent to the West

Indies in 1759, and he participated in January of that year in the attack and capture of Guadeloupe.

Not long after with his regiment he went to New York and then to Oswego where they spent several months.

In July, 1760 he was promoted to lieutenant and in August his regiment joined the army which under the leadership of General Amherst invaded Canada and captured Montreal.

Later it went to Staten Island, and in October, 1761, shortly before his regiment left for the West Indies he exchanged into the 15th Regiment of Foot.

The reason for this exchange is not evident as the 15th Foot went to the West Indies the same Fall and in August, 1763 came back to New York and then to Canada.

One Company however of the 15th Regiment remained in America and it is possible that this was Sinclair’s Company, as there is some evidence that he was at Quebec for a year from October, 1761, then for a time at New York, and again at Quebec.

For a part of the time at least he was in Capt. Robert Stobo’s Company.

In the Fall 1763 or the Spring of 1764 Sinclair must have been transferred to or connected with the Naval Department of the Lakes, as in a petition to the Earl of Hillsborough in 1769, he states that he “hath servedhis Majesty near six years last past on the Great Lakes in North America where he had the honor to command his Majesty’s vessels on the Lakes Erie, Sinclair, Huron and Michigan,” and the inscription on a silver bowl presented to him by the merchants of Detroit in 1767 refers to him as Captain Sinclair of the Naval Department.

The 15th Regiment of Foot was stationed at various posts in Canada, but no part of it as far west as Detroit, which was garrisoned mainly from the 60th Regiment during the entire period Sinclair mas in charge (as he says), of the navigation on the lakes,’ his’ headquarters, however, being Detroit.

Sinclair’s duties were general but important; to maintain and provision the boats, see to their arming and protection against the Indians, who were numerous, and, for some time after 1763, largely hostile to the English, and so dispose the shipping as to serve best the interest not only of the various garrisons, but also of the Indian traders and the merchants, who of necessity depended upon these boats for the bringing in of their goods and the carrying out of their furs.

The boats then in use consisted of canoes, batteaux, snows, sloops and schooners.

The canoe was the famed birch bark canoe noted for its carrying capacity in proportion to its weight and admirably adapted to the carriage of persons but not freight.

The batteau was a light boat worked with oars, long in proportion to its breadth and wider in the middle than at the ends.

It was well adapted for carrying freight, and for some years after the English obtained possession of the lakes it was extensively used between the posts in transporting both freight and passengers.

Of necessity the shore was closely followed both with batteau and canoe.

The snow was a type of vessel long since gone out of existence, with two ordinary masts and rigged much like a brig, but having in addition a small mast near the main mast to which the trysail was attached.

All the sailing vessels were of small burden.

The schooner “Gladwin,” famous for her successful attempt in bringing aid to the besieged Detroit garrison was of 80 tons burden.

Up to 1780 the largest boat on the lakes was the brig Gage of 154 tons, built in 1774.

In the same petition referred to above Sinclair states that he is the only person on the lakes who has ever explored the navigation of the lakes for vessels of burden “by taking exact soundings of them and the rivers and Straits which join them with the bearings of the headlands, islands, bays, etc., etc.”

The beginning of the siege of Detroit by Pontiac was signalized by the murder by the Indians on May 7th, 1763, of Captain Robertson, Sir Robert Davers, six soldiers and a boat’s crew of two sailors while engaged in taking soundings near the mouth of the “River Huron” as the account states it, now called St. Clair River, to seeif the lakes and rivers were navigable for a schooner then lying at Detroit on her way to Mackinac.

As a means of facilitating his duties, especially in regard to the communications between Detroit and the upper lakes, Sinclair erected, in 1764, a small fort just south of the mouth of Pine River in St. Clair County, the buildings comprising two barracks, one for sailors and one for soldiers, two block houses for cannon and small arms, and a wharf for drawing out and careening vessels, all enclosed within a stockade.

This post, about midway between lakes Huron and St. Clair, enabled him to control the river as regards the Indians, and also furnished a place for trade with them.

This establishment was ordered and approved by Colonel Bradstreet who was in Detroit in August, 1764.

During the season of 1764 Sinclair had under his command the schooner “Gladwin” which had brought relief to the beleaguered garrison at Detroit in the siege of Pontiac, and at the close of that season’s navigation he put her in winter quarters at Pine River.

In connection with his duties while stationed on the Lakes he made a trip of exploration down in the Indiana Country along the Wabash River, thus acquiring considerable knowledge of the French settlements in that vicinity.

Sinclair seems on the whole to have got along with the Indians very satisfactorily, and to have obtained their respect and liking and to have established a widespread reputation to that effect.

He was not entirely free from troubles however, as in 1767 the Chippewas, or Mississaguas, murdered a servant of his near the foot of Lake Huron.

The murderers were apprehended and sent to Albany for trial but were finally released to his indignation.

In 1767 the system of operating boats on the Lakes was changed and delivered over to private contractors, and Sinclair’s duties and official position terminated but it required some time to close out his matters, and when in the early summer of 1768 his regiment returned to England he remained upon the Lakes, and did not return to England until the spring of the following year.

That his conduct of affairs while in charge was acceptable to the class with whom he came most in contact outside of his government relations is proved by the presentation to him in 1767 of a silver bowl-still preserved in the family-with the following inscription engraved upon it:

“In remembrance of the encouragement experienced upon all occasions by the merchants in the Indian countries from Capt. Patrick Sinclair of the Naval Department, not as a reward for his services, but a public testimony of their gratitude this is presented instead of a more adequate acknowledgment which his disinterested disposition renders impracticable.

Dated the 23rd September, 1767.”

The merchants of Mackinac also gave him a testimonial.

Sinclair had erected the buildings and made the improvements at his fort mainly at his own expense, and in March, 1769, he applied to Gen. Gage, then commanding the British forces in America., to be reimbursed for his outlay £200, but Gage replied that the Government had not directed the construction and therefore Sinclair could do with the improvements what he saw fit.

Proposed_outline_of_Fort_Mackinac

 

Perhaps in anticipation of such result and as a measure of self-protection

Sinclair had obtained from the Indians a deed to a tract of land upon the St. Clair River, 2 ½ miles along the river by the same in depth to include his improvements. This deed was dated July 27th, 1768, and was signed by Massigiash and Ottawa, chiefs of the Chippewa Nation, in the presence of 15 Indians of that Nation and of George Turnbull, Captain of the Second Battalion of the 60th Regiment, George Archbold, Lieutenant, and ensigns Robert Johnson and John Amiel of the same Regiment, also of John Lewis Gage,Ensign of the 31st Regiment, and Lieut. John Hay of the 60th Regiment, Commissary of Indian affairs.

 

In the deed the land is described as being “on the Northwest side of the River Huron, between Lake Huron and Lake Sinclair, being one mile above the mouth of a small river commonly called Pine River and ending one mile and a half below the mouth of said Pine River.”

The consideration stated is “the love and regard we bear for our friend Lieut. Patrick Sinclair and for the love and esteem the whole of our said nation has for him for the many charitable acts he has done us, our wives and children.”

The King of England in his proclamation of October 3rd. 1763, establishing the province of Quebec, had expressly prohibited the obtaining of deeds from the Indians except under special license, and through certain officials.Site_of_Fort_MichiliMackinac_on_Mainland

This deed, therefore, although executed with considerable formality, and in the presence of the highest British Officials in the vicinity, did not operate to convey any legal title and this was recognized by Sinclair himself in 1774, in a petition to the government to be reimbursed for his expenditures on the property.

The property thug obtained was of sufficient size and quality to entitle him to consideration among the land owners of his native home, and he improved it by clearing, by setting out an orchard on the north side of Pine River, and by additional buildings.

It included a considerable body of pine and it is a curious fact that this marked on the East side of Michigan the Southern line of the great pine section of the Lower Peninsula.

During the period of his station at Detroit, Sinclair used the fort, buildings and pinery, but it is not known who looked after it during his absence from this locality after leaving in 1769 until 1759 when he arrived at Mackinac, but in 1780 Francis Bellecour, the British Indian Agent at Detroit, mas in charge.

He evidently was not giving satisfaction to the Indians in the vicinity, as in July of that year Maskeash, one of the Chiefs who signed the deed, with his wife and ten other Indians from along St. Clair River, went up on one of the government vessels, commanded by Alex Harrow, to Fort Mackinac to ask that Baptiste Point de (or du) Sable, be appointed to take cliai.ge of the property in place of Bellecour. DeSable mas a free mulatto who had traded with the Indians at the lower end of Lake Michigan, and, as he was friendly to the Americans, had been captured in 1779 by a British force from Fort Mackinac on the ground of his being a sympathizer with the American Rebels, and taken to Mackinac and detained.

By his conduct after his capture he commended himself to his captors and to Sinclair, then Lieutenant Governor, and as a result he was released and sent down to look after this property and trade with the Indians.

He appears to have remained there more or less continuously until 1784 when his effects were taken to Detroit and he returned to Illinois and continued at Peoria and Chicago until his death in 1811.

Although not in chronological order the subsequent history of this tract may be here narrated.

Sketch_of_Fort_Mackinac

In 1783 Lieutenant Governor Sinclair was living on the Isle of Orleans awaiting a decision upon the allowance of his accounts.

A young man by the name of Nicholas Boilvin who was a native of the Parish of St. Nicholas near Quebec. decided to try his fortunes in the far west, and April 5th., 1783, Sinclair gave to him a power of attorney to take charge of 1iis.farm on Pine River, his “stock, houses, barns, orchards, gardens, timber and every other article thereto appertaining.”

The same instrument recommended Boilvin to the protection of the officers at Detroit, so that all other persons might be prevented from cutting timber or trading near the post to Boilvin’s detriment.

Boilvin, on reaching Detroit, decided to go still farther west and September 20th, 1783, he assigned his power of attorney to David Ross and shortly after went to St. Louis.

He there became an Indian agent of the United States, but later removed to Prairie du Chien, where he mas for many years a person of some consequence.

In 1788, Sinclair’s rights were sold at auction and bought by Meldrum & Park, a firm of merchants and Indian traders of Detroit who went into possession of the property, made improvements and erected two saw mills and a grist mill.

In 1795, as the Indian deed to Sinclair had never been registered, but taken by him to England. finally finding its way to the Public Record office in London, Meldrum & Park obtained another deed from twenty-six Chippewa Chiefs, purporting to be in confirmation of the former deed to Sinclair; but the new deed conveyed a tract ten miles along St. Clair River by four miles in depth or about six times as much land.

This seems to have been in accordance with the usual way of honesty and fairness with which the white men treated the Indian.

This deed was not recognized by the United States as a conveyance of title, but the possessions taken under it enabled Meldrum & Park and their grantees to obtain patents from the United States, in 1810, to nearly five thousand acres.

In 1768 or 1769 Sinclair petitioned the Earl of Hillsborough, then Secretary for the Colonies, for the appointment of Superintendent of Navigation upon the Lakes, pointing out his experience, his successful services and the great need of such an official to protect the interests of the government, but the petition was refused, much to Sinclair’s disappointment.

It is not known exactly when he returned to England and his regiment, but it was sometime in the spring of 1769 and he was engaged in recruiting for upwards of a year.

In May 1771 he applied to the Earl of Hillsborough for the grant of a house at Detroit belonging to the Crown in lieu of his buildings at Pine River.

The matter as referred to General Gage, then at New York, who promised to look into the matter and see if that could be done without injury but apparently the inquiry was never made and nothing came of the petition.

He was promoted to Captain April 13, 1772, and the next year retired with the provision that he would not lose his rank if he rejoined the army.

Upon his retirement Sinclair returned to his ancestral home at Lybster, but time moved slowly there to a man accustomed for years to the wilderness and freedom of the Great Lakes in America and to the power and influence which Sinclair had been wont to exercise and directly upon his retirement he began exerting influence to get back to this country.

On June 1st, 1773, Sir Charles Thompson who had been for seven years the Colonel of the 15th Regiment, and who was an intimate personal friend of the King, wrote Lord Dartmouth in his behalf, recommending him as a proper person for appointment in Pennsylvania, the Jerseys, New York and the New England Provinces, but nothing came of it.

The government had never recognized his title to his land in America, nor had it ever repaid his outlays upon it, and in December, 1774, he applied for payment not only of these charges, but also for £56 which he paid to the Indians in redemption of white captives.

In the same account he includes £27 for his expenses caused by his being detained in the west when his regiment was sent to Europe and £70 for two servants killed by the Indians.

In February, 1775, his same kind and influential friend wrote again to Lord Dartmouth recommending Captain Sinclair for employment in Canada.

This time the fates were propitious and prompt, as on April 7th, 1775, he was commissioned by King George III, as Lieutenant Governor and Superintendent of the Post of Missillimakinac.

By the Proclamation of 1763 the Province of Quebec was established with such boundaries that practically all the Great Lake region lay outside, and therefore without any established form of government, which remained essentially military, without courts or ordinary civil officers.

The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament and effective in October, 1774, greatly extended the limits of the Province so as to reach the Ohio on the South and the Mississippi on the west.

By this Act a form of government by Governor and Council was provided and the old French laws recognized.

Although the Act itself made no reference to or provision for the western posts, the King in April, 1775, recognized four western districts or posts, and appointed as many Lieutenant Governors or Superintendents, one each to the posts of Detroit, Missillimakinac, St. Vincennes, and the Illinois.

These appointees were respectively Henry Hamilton, Patrick Sinclair, Edward Abbott and Matthew Johnson.

There was no attempt made to define the limits of each district, but ordinarily no question could arise over conflict of jurisdiction.

There was in each case a fortified place, which formed the center of operations.

There was, however, a clear distinction between the Post or District, and the fortified place; thus in the case of Sinclair, his seat of operations was Fort Mackinac, while his post was Missillimakinac and extended to cover the territory of all the Indians who were wont to come to that point to trade.

In the commission appointing Sinclair Lieutenant Governor there was no definition of his powers but he was to hold the position with all its “rights, privileges, profits, perquisites and advantages during the King’s pleasure.”

The incumbent, however was required to obey such orders and directions as he might receive from time to time from the Captain General and Commander in Chief of Quebec.

As there was no statute or general regulation upon the subject, the relation of the Lieutenant Governor, a civil officer, to the military force stationed at his post was indefinite and at Detroit was productive of considerable trouble.

Anxious to arrive at his post of duty promptly, there being no direct shipping from Glasgow to Quebec, Sinclair sailed for Baltimore, where he arrived July 26th, 1775, and at New York August 1st.

His purpose then was to go up the Hudson to Albany, thence to Oswego, and from there by boat to Quebec, and he made all preparation to leave New York August 4th, but on that day the Provincial Congress of New York then in session, having learned the previous day of his presence in the city, and of his great influence with the Indians, thought it unwise to permit him to go to his post where he might prejudice his Indian friends against the Colonies, and took him in custody and sent him on parole to Nassau Island in Suffolk County, Long Island, where he remained

until the following March, when upon his application to be permitted to retire to Europe, the Continental Congress granted his petition and he returned to England that summer.

He remained in England about a year and, apparently, found it rather difficult to get passage back to America, as in May, 1777, we find Lord George Germaine, then Secretary of the Colonies, granting Sinclair permission in response to request to come over in the packet Bristol rather than as “an unwelcome guest in a man-of-war.”

He did not reach America until the fall of 1777, this time at Philadelphia where he went with letters to Sir William Howe who advised him that his best plan to reach his post of duty via Quebec was to go by way of the St. Lawrence River the following spring.

Accordingly he spent the winter with Lord Howe and when the English fleet and forces left for England in May, 1778.

Captain Sinclair went as far as Halifax, where he was again compelled to wait until he could obtain transportation to Quebec.

Communications between Halifax and Quebec were infrequent and slow and it was a year later, in June, 1779, that Captain Sinclair arrived at Quebec and was ready to present himself and his commission to the Governor and receive his instructions and proceed to his post, although he had sent a communication to the Governor from Halifax in October of the year before.

At this time Sir Frederick Haldimand was Governor General.

He was of Swiss birth and, after some years’ service in the Prussian army joined the British forces in 1754 and was rapidly promoted.

He was an efficient officer and a good soldier, but his character and training both emphasized the military over the civil power.

On more than one occasion he received severe reprimands from the English government because of actions due to this feeling.

The officer then in command at Fort Mackinac was Maj. Arent Schuyler DePeyster who had been there for five years.

He was a capable officer, quite influential with the Indians and tactful in his intercourse with others.

He was gifted in a literary way, and although of American birth had strong English sympathies, sewing in the English army during the Revolutionary War.

Upon his retirement from the army he went to Dunfries, Scotland, his wife’s native place, where he became a close friend of the Poet Burns.

For some time DePeyster had been desirous of leaving Mackinac, giving as his reasons that his health was poor and that his private affairs at New York where his family had long been established sadly needed his presence but his real reason was the distance of his post from civilization, as no further complaints were heard from him after he was transferred to Detroit.

It is probable that Haldimand and Sinclair had met before.

In 1760 Haldimand, as lieutenant Colonel, accompanied the British force from Oswego to Montreal and Sinclair’s regiment, the 15th Foot, was a part of the force. Although Sinclair arrived in Quebec early in June, 1779, and undoubtedly presented himself promptly with his commission and a letter from Lord Germaine, which stated that, as Lieutenant Governor, he would have command over the military force stationed there, as well as civil authority, the Governor General, who did not relish the idea of Sinclair’s exercising military as well as civil powers at his post, put him off on various pretenses for over a month-in the meantime writing to DePeyster that he intended to delay Sinclair until the ship’s arrival from England in mid-summer, hoping perhaps to receive by then some authority to reduce or negative the instructions in Lord Germaine’s letter.

The ships arrived, but nothing to favor his wishes: he thereupon wrote to England, commenting upon the union of the civil and military authority in one person; but the reply received the following year made plain that the action of the government in this respect was fully considered and not to be altered.

In the meantime Haldimand issued a set of instructions for Sinclair, in which, disobeying the express terms of Lord Germaine’s letter, he authorized Sinclair to act as Commandant only until a senior officer of the garrison stationed there should arrive, and impressed upon him that only such senior officer had power over the troops to be sent beyond garrison limits, and in addition the perquisites attached to the commander of the post were to go to the officer.

Naturally such instructions proved very distasteful to Sinclair who at once addressed a spirited remonstrance to the Governor.

After some vigorous correspondence, in which Sinclair proposed to return to England rather than occupy a position which might be humiliating, the matter was compromised;the instructions were somewhat modified, and it was represented to him that there was in fact no senior officer at the post and an early opportunity would be given to purchase a commission as officer which would entitle him to outrank anyone who would be sent to the garrison.

With these assurances he left Quebec the last of August, 1779, for his post, and arrived at Fort Mackinac October 4th, 1779, probably by way of the Ottawa River, four and one-half years after the date of his commission.

He had crossed the ocean three times and while, until this date, he had not been able to exercise any authority under his commission, he had not neglected one important part of his duty, to draw his annual salary of £200.

Three days after his arrival, Major DePeyster left for Detroit, and Sinclair was free to examine his empire.

The fort was on the mainland on the south side of the strait, and practically in the same condition as it existed in 1763 at the time of its capture by the Indians.

It enclosed about two acres and the ramparts consisted solely of pickets driven into the ground.

It was on the sand and so near the shore that the waves in time of storm dashed over the pickets.

The practiced eye of Captain Sinclair at once noted its insecure condition, its inability to resist any attack but that of small arms, and that it could not afford protection to vessels.

In a letter to Captain Brehm, aide to Governor Haldimand, written four days after his arrival, he suggested the removal of the fort to the Island of Michilimackinac, and pointed out at some length the many advantages which the island possessed in the way of easy construction of a defensible fort, the protection of vessels, and good building material “but for God’s sake be careful in the choice of an engineer and don’t send up one of your paper engineers fond of fine regular polygons.”

In another letter to Brehm a week later, he returned to the subject and urged prompt action.

“It is the most respectable situation I ever saw, besides convenient for the subsistence of a Garrison, the safety of troops, traders and commerce.”

Without waiting for authority from the Governor, which could not be expected to be received until the following spring, Sinclair proceeded to set men at work on the island clearing, making shingles, pickets, etc.

By February he had so much done that he set about moving the French Church over to the Island and persuaded the traders and Canadians (as the French were generally called) that the removal was not only desirable but certain.

In May, 1780, came the consent of the Governor to the change with the information that lie had so much confidence in the Lieutenant Governor’s engineering abilities that no other engineer would be sent.

Sinclair soon found, however that, with the limited means at his command in masons and artificers, it would not be possible to complete the new fort sufficiently to move into it during that season, and he accordingly took all steps to put the mainland fort into the best possible condition to repel attack which he feared might come from the “rebels” – friends and adherents of the United States and their Indian friends.

In the meantime Sinclair had obtained the desired reinstatement, in military rank, so he was properly styled the Commandant (as well as Lieutenant Governor), thus uniting the military and civil powers of the post.

It so happened that Capt. George McDougall of the 84th Regiment, had been for some time anxious to sell out and retire on account of his health, but as he was an active and efficient officer, well-liked by the Indians, the Governor was loath to permit him to go.

However, in the spring of 1780, on the representation of failing health, permission was granted him to sell out and Lieut. Patrick Sinclair became the purchaser and a Captain again in the British Army, his commission being dated from April 1, 1780.

Sinclair received notice of his appointment July 8, and it evidently was a source of much satisfaction to him as he signed his letters for a time “Patrick Sinclair, Capt. 84th Regiment &Lieut. Gov.”

It was not long before an affair justified his insistence with Governor Haldimand upon the propriety and necessity of the provisions in Lord Germaine’s letter. Captain Mompesson of the 8th Reg., then at Detroit, was ordered by Maj. DePeyster to take a part of his company to Mackinac to relieve a company of Grenadiers.

Upon his arrival, Ang. 21st, 1780, he immediately refused to take orders from Sinclair and the next day issued a Regimental order that he expected obedience to his commands from the troops in the garrison.

Both officers wrote at once to the Governor who immediately decided that Captain Sinclair was in the right, that his former rank as Captain in the 15th Regiment had been ‘preserved upon his leaving that regiment, and he therefore clearly outranked Captain Mompesson.

The Governor in his letter to Sinclair about the matter added that he had at length obtained his Majesty’s decision upon the disputed rank of Lieutenant Governors of the post; this decision was, in fact, merely a confirmation of Lord George

Germaine’s letter.

Another episode happened at this time not calculated to soothe a somewhat peppery disposition and one regardful of the dignity and authority of its owner. Capt. Alex Harrow, of the Schooner Welcome, arrived July 29th, 1780, and assumed, as superior in naval command, to give an order to Captain McKay, of the Felicity, which had been plying chiefly between the post and the Island.

(Captain Harrow was a Scotchman who came to the Great Lakes in 1779 as an officer in the naval department and, in 1794, settled in St. Clair County on a large tract of land lying a short distance above Algonac and upon a part of which descendants of his are now living.)

The Lieutenant Governor resented this interference with his own authority and as both men were tenacious of their dignity, it resulted in Harrow being taken from his vessel and imprisoned in the fort.

After confinement of a month or two the authority of Sinclair was confirmed by the Governor, and Harrow, through the good nature of Sinclair, who, though quick to anger, was equally quick to relent, was released and reinstated in command of his vessel.

The command of a post so distant and isolated as that of Mackinac was a severe test of the qualities of promptness, decision, judgment and tact, and an early opportunity displayed Sinclair’s possession of the first two qualities in ample quantity.

After France embraced the cause of the United States she endeavored to get Spain to do the same; but the latter, though aiding the Americans in many ways, including the sale of a large quantity of gunpowder at New Orleans, made no formal declaration of war until May 8, 1779.

Lord Germaine either devised or adopted a plan to drive the Spanish out of Louisiana and on June 17, 1779, wrote General Haldimand, directing him in co-operation with Brigadier General Campbell to attack New Orleans and the other

Spanish posts on the Mississippi River.

Haldimand issued a circular letter to the Governors of all the Western posts giving general instructions.

This letter after passing from Colonel Bolton, at Niagara, to Major DePeyster, at Detroit, was forwarded by the latter Jan. 2, 1780, to Sinclair at Mackinac.

The day after its receipt Sinclair sent a war party to engage the Sioux Indians to proceed down the Mississippi River.

He also ordered Mr. Hesse, a trader, but formerly in the army, to collect a force of Indians and supplies in Wisconsin for the same purpose.

A few days later he dispatched a sergeant with Machiquawish, a noted Indian Chief, and his band.

The combined force made an attack on St. Louis which was only partially successful, and the project, as a whole, was a failure, the result being to leave the district South of Lake Michigan and as far West as the Mississippi River in American control.

Sinclair shows up, however, very favorably in the affair and, if the King had been as well served elsewhere, the result might have been very different.

The removal to the Island fort was made in the summer of 1781, although the fort was not entire1 completed.

When finally completed for occupation it contained four block houses, three of which are still standing; the fourth, which stood near the southeast corner was later removed.

The walls have since been widened and raised, and the roadway from the lower town brought nearer to the face of the hill and parallel to it, and lengthened so as to reduce the grade.

The officers’ quarters within the enclosure stand where they were originally constructed and the guard house, built in 1835, is on the site of the one built by Sinclair.

However, the general plan of the fort remains substantially the same today as when it was originally constructed 134 years ago, except that the North wall toward the West is brought in. thus contracting the enclosure by about one-fourth.

Sinclair proposed to call the new fort “Haldimand” after the Governor, but the latter decided that the fort should be called Fort “Makinac,” and the post should be continued to be called Michilimackinac, thus indicating that the post, meaning the civil jurisdiction, was more extensive than the fort, which included only the garrison limits.

The Governor’s spelling of the name of the fort was never carried out but the name of the post continued as long as the British retained control.

When they left and the Americans took possession, the post, as such, ceased, and both island and fort took the same name, Mackinac.

Sinclair, as a means of propitiating the Indians and securing their approval of removal to the Island, had negotiated with some of the Chiefs for a deed which he finally obtained in May, 1781.

By this deed five Chiefs of the Chippewa nation relinquished to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair, for the behalf and use of the English King, the Island of Michilimackinac, and agreed to preserve in their village a belt of wampum seven feet in length to perpetuate and be a lasting memorial of the transaction.

The consideration was £5,000 New York currency (equal to $12,500 in 1915).

The deed was signed with the totems of the Chiefs, also by Patrick Sinclair, Lt. Governor & Commandant, Captain Mompesson, Lieutenant Brooke and Ensign McDonall, and witnessed by six of the resident traders.

The work of completing the fort went on slowly as the Commandant could not get the necessary workmen.

Major Depeyster at Detroit was not feeling very friendly to Sinclair and when requested to send artificers reported that he could not spare any.

In August, Brigadier General Powell was compelled to peremptorily order him to send up two carpenters.

During the years of the construction of the fort an unusually large number of Indians came to Mackinac from all quarters to receive their annual presents from the British Government.

Sioux, Menominies, Sacs, Foxes, Ottawas and Chippewas, Winebagoes and all other tribes between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, and even beyond, had become accustomed to make an annual pilgrimage to & Michilimackinac to meet the representative of their Great Father across the water and receive in return an outfit which would please their sense of display and enable them to support life until another season.

The coming of the white man and the introduction of strong drink and firearms had completely revolutionized the status of the Indians.

From an independent self-supporting people procuring their spare and difficult livelihood by the exercise of natural talents heightened by ever present necessity, they had become dependent for clothing and the means of obtaining food.

So longer were their own developed weapons sufficient.

They needed guns, powder and shot to kill the animals whose flesh gave them food and whose skins gave the furs the white man coveted and was willing to pay for.

The French had found it advantageous to give the Indians some presents to stimulate and maintain their friendship, but the English found it necessary to give far more.

The French, by their willingness to live the life of the Indians, to intermarry with them, and by their understanding and appreciation of Indian nature, were naturally regarded as their friends, and in the long French and English war the sympathies of the Western Indians were with the former and Pontiac found it easy to obtain the adherence of the most of the tribes.

When the English obtained possession of the western posts they thought it wise to conciliate the Indians by presents, and as time went on the number of Indians who applied for gifts and the extent of their demands increased until it became appalling to the British authorities.

An additional reason why during the period of Governor Sinclair’s station at Mackinac a larger amount of presents was needed than in ordinary times was that, owing to the Revolutionary War, the English feared-and with good reason-that the French were, in the main, friendly to the Americans, and would use their influence with the Indians to turn the latter against the English.

If this should happen all the Western posts would inevitably fall into the hands of the Americans.

The three posts on the lakes to which the Indians resorted in large numbers for supplies were Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac.

One of the articles most in demand was rum and, as an illustration, it appears that there was consumed during the year from June, 1780, to June, 1781, at the three posts, 19,386 gallons of this article euphemistically called “milk” at the Indian pow-wows.

This does not include the large amount used and furnished by the traders.

The nature of other articles sent by the Government as presents can be seen from the return showing that in 1781 there was sent to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair for Indian presents, 991 pairs of blankets, mostly 2% and 3 point, 102 dozen calico shirts, and 50 dozen linen ones, laced hats, feathers, looking glasses, knives, tomahawks, medals, needles and thread, axes, razors, brass and copper kettles, tobacco, powder, shot and guns, and a host of other minor articles.

It happened not infrequently that the supply of goods furnished by the government became low, or was very late in arriving at the post and, as the presents must be made when the Indians were there, the officers at the posts had been in the habit of buying from the traders such articles as they thought to be absolutely necessary.

In consequence they often were compelled to pay high prices.

These purchases as well as all other outlays were met by drafts drawn by the Lieutenant Governor upon the Governor General.

In order to prevent a further continuance of this practice and reduce, if possible. the great and Increasing expenses of the Western posts, on June 22nd, 1781, Governor Haldimand issued orders that the officers at Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac should, on no account whatever, after receipt of the order, purchase liquors or any other articles whatever for the use of the Indians from the trader, and that no circumstances whatever would he admitted a reason for not complying with the order.

Lieutenant Governor Sinclair did not observe this order very closely, evidently believing that this order was only intended for ordinary occasions, and that, as he was on the ground, he was entitled to use his judgment, even if it resulted in violating orders made at a great distance.

During the years 1780, 1781, 1782 the new fort was under construction, and in 1781 Sinclair drew on the Governor General drafts to the amount of £43,000 New York currency, for the engineering works and £65,000 for the Indian Department. This was an increase over the preceding year of £18,000 in the latter and nearly £35,000 in the former, which, however, was probably not unexpected as much more work was done on the new fort in 1781 than in 1780.

In 1782 the Lieutenant Governor drew for immense sums in both departments; in January one draft went forward for over £43,000 to be charged against the fort building, and to this no objection seems to have been made.

On the same day, however, he drew £11,450 on account of Indian expenditures, and when this draft was presented to Haldimand he refused to accept it, and referred the accounts to Mr. Goddard, general storekeeper and inspector of Indian presents, with instructions to charge out all articles he might consider presents to the Indians.

He later requested advice from his Attorney General upon the question whether he could legally pay part of the account, without acknowledging the whole.

Apparently he was advised that he might safely pay part as he did pay over £9,000.

In April Sinclair drew drafts to the amount of £14,500 of which £9,500 was on account of the fort and was paid, and £5,000 for Indian expenditures which was paid in part.

In July he drew for over £60,000 of which £40,000 was for the Indian department and the remainder for the Fort construction, about one-half of these drafts were accepted and the others refused and protested.

Although the Commandant at Detroit was at the same time also drawing heavily-in 1781, £162,000 and in 1782, £66,000 nearly all of which was on Indian account, none of his bills were refused.

In August, 1782, Haldimand alarmed at these enormous expenditures, which were affecting his own standing with the authorities in London, appointed Lieut. Col. Henry Hope, Sir John Johnson.

Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and James S. Goddard, to go to Mackinac and examine into the situation.

They arrived September 15th and found a number of irregularities.

There evidently had been looseness and carelessness in the keeping and checking of accounts, and the instructions of Governor Haldimand had not been followed with regard to the purchase of articles from the traders.

One of the perquisites which had been enjoyed and which though profitable to the Lieut. Governor, was detrimental to the public interests, was the reception by that official of presents from the Indians, generally in the nature of furs which naturally called for increased presents to the Indians, paid for by the Government.

It is apparent, however, that Sinclair’s actions had some justification.

Supplies ordered by him had not been sent, or were damaged in transit, or were so greatly delayed as not to arrive in time for distribution to the Indians, and the Commandant was obliged to choose between disappointing and alienating the Indians, a consequence of much importance until the Revolutionary War was ended – or purchasing goods from the traders.

Most of these drafts which were objected to were drawn in favor of George McBeath to be used by him in the payment of the various traders who had furnished articles.

McBeath had been sent up by Haldimand for the very purpose of taking charge of these expenditures and evidently thought them proper and necessary.

A few days after the arrival of the investigating board, Sinclair turned over the command of the post to Captain Robertson, the next ranking officer of the garrison, and left for Quebec arriving in October.

The fort was not yet entirely completed.

A careful survey made at the time by an engineer indicated the extent of the work done, and estimated that with 100 laborers and the necessary artificers, the fort could be put into a safe condition in about two months.

As nearly $300,000 had then been spent upon its construction without serious objection by the English authorities it may be easily conceived that they regarded the post as of high importance.

November 1st, Sinclair applied to Governor Haldimand for permission to go to Great Britain, which was refused on the ground that he was needed for the examination of his accounts.

He then took up his residence on the Isle of Orleans, awaiting action on this matter, and there he remained until the fall of 1784, when he finally obtained the desired permission and left for England.

In the meantime Haldimand wrote in October, 1782, to the English Treasury stating what he had done and that he would investigate and report.

In November, he followed this by an explanation of his reasons, which were in the main, that Sinclair had acted contrary to the order of June, 1781, in buying Indian presents from the traders.

He also promised to have the matter carefully looked into.

A year went by without any action whatever and in October, 1783, Haldimand wrote the Treasury that he was waiting with great impatience for instructions.

To this the Lords of the Treasury replied that he had failed to give them the information which he had promised, and which they needed before giving full instructions.

In January, 1784, the Treasury received remonstrances from the merchants whose bills were unpaid, and they wrote Haldimand that such parts of the bills as represented articles furnished and labor performed should be paid for at the usual rates.

In July, 1784, Haldimand wrote that he had offered £22,000 upon bills drawn for £57,000, and that his offer had been refused and he had been threatened with prosecution by the claimants.

In the meantime Sinclair was eating out his heart on the Isle of Orleans.

Prevented from going to England and meeting his family and friends, feeling the hostility of the Governor General, receiving the frequent importunities of the unfortunate traders who had parted with their goods, but had not received their money.

It is not to be wondered at that he fell into a state of deep and settled melancholy, and that even to his best friends his faculties began to seem impaired.

Representations were made to the Governor General and in August, 1784, he was allowed to return to England in company with Captain Erskine Hope and his wife, who was a connection of Sinclair.

The trip and his surroundings and his friends and relatives in Scotland, where he at once repaired upon his arrival in England, restored his health.

In November Haldimand himself left Canada for England, arriving at London in January, 1785.

As soon as Sinclair heard of this he left at once for London determined to have his affairs settled, and arrived there February 28, 1785.

He was delayed in meeting Haldimand, however, by being arrested at the suit of some of the holders of the protested Mackinac bills and thrown into Newgate prison, from which he was released on March 17th by his paying the bills.

He immediately demanded of Haldimand that the latter repay the amount at once, or he would apply for a Court Martial.

Apparently neither action was taken but early in April, Haldimand was sued for £50,000, he at once called upon the Government to defend him.

In the following year the action was dismissed, and the claimants appealed to Government for their pay.

The result of this application is unknown but the standing of Sinclair with the English authorities does not seem to have been impaired by all these proceedings. While at Mackinac he had advanced in military rank, having become a Major in 1782.

The next year his regiment, the 84th, was disbanded.

His absence from his post as Lieut. Governor did not affect his title or his salary except the allowance which he drew as commanding officer.

In August 1784, the Governor General was careful to impress upon Captain Robertson, then commanding at Mackinac, that his authority was merely in the absence of the Lieut. Governor.

In October, 1793, Sinclair was made a Colonel.

The post of Michilimackinac was transferred in June, 1796, to the Americans, and although Sinclair had not set foot in it since he left in August, 1782, he had continued to draw his yearly salary of £200 with great regularity.

According to modern ideas this would have been an unjustifiable sinecure, but that was an age of sinecures and it was acknowledged that an office was a vested right of which no possessor should be deprived without the payment of compensation.

Accordingly, it is not surprising to find that in April, 1797, Colonel Sinclair, then in London, petitioned the Duke of Portland, Secretary of State, that as he had been at great pains in fortifying and defending the post of Michilimackinac, and his Majesty had found it expedient to give it up to the United States, he flattered himself that this action would not be prejudicial to him and that his salary might be transferred to the general establishment.

This petition apparently seemed reasonable and his salary continued during the remainder of his life.

Not long after he was retired on half pay and withdrew to Lybster where he spent the remainder of his days.

Being still in line for promotion he was made a Major General on September 25th, 1803; he was made Lieut. General, July 25th, 1810, and at his death, which occurred January 31st, 1820 at the age of 84, he was the oldest officer of his rank in the British army.

From a consideration of all the evidence now available in the matter of the protested bills Sinclair was unfairly treated.

Haldimand, although a good soldier, was a stubborn opinionated man whose training as a soldier inclined him to be overbearing and impatient of anything except the most exact obedience to his orders.

In the face of the King’s commission to Sinclair with the accompanying letter of Lord George Germaine, which made the Lieut. Governor the Commandant entitling him to outrank any officer under a Brigadier General, he refused to recognize any military authority in the position.

Although admitting the great importance of placating the Western Indians, and having himself no personal knowledge of the difficulties of the situation, he thought his orders issued from a thousand miles away should be implicitly obeyed.

It is clear that Sinclair did not understand until the Board put in its appearance at Mackinac that he was doing anything more than the necessities of the situation required, in view of the fact that the government agencies were often so dilatory and neglectful as to leave the far distant post short or entirely lacking.

From his reply to Haldimand’s letter of June, 1781, it is apparent that he understood that his position as Lieut. Governor gave him discretion and this position was never contradicted by Haldimand.

His good faith is manifest all through, and even if Haldimand were justified in claiming that Sinclair had acted in contravention of his orders, that furnished no excuse for not paying the traders who had, in good faith, furnished articles actually used by the government and ordered by a representative they had no reason to suspect.

It seems probable that in the end the government paid the bills, as in 1786 the Treasury at London called on Haldimand to furnish information why the bills had been protested, and to explain why he had continued McBeath at Mackinac in connection with Indian disbursements after he had repudiated his actions in connection with Sinclair.

Sinclair married Catherine Stuart, of Invernesshire, and had four sons and one daughter.

Three sons died unmarried, and one married but left two daughters, who never married.

His only lineal descendants are through the children of his daughter, Susan, who married David Laing, surgeon, of Thurso.

A full length silhouette of General Sinclair taken after he had retired from the army shows a large handsome man of imposing presence.

Family tradition depicts him as an impulsive, warm hearted, as well as warm tempered individual, quick to resent and to punish, and equally quick to forgive; kindly and generous to dependents; philanthropic and helpful to the needy and improvident.

He lived to the good old age of eighty-four and his thoughts must frequently have gone back to this Inland Empire in which nearly a decade of his life was spent, and in which he had wielded a wide influence, and had erected a monument still enduring.

His name which was so closely connected with the early history of Michigan should be perpetuated and both Mackinac and St. Clair County should mark, by proper memorials, the name of Sinclair, as a most important one in their rolls of historic characters.

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ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN


griffon-drawing-1

INDIAN AGENTS.

EARLY VISITORS.

ORIGINAL INHABITANTS.

The origin of the first occupants of this region is shrouded in mystery.

Several writers have adopted the theory that they were descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, and they fortify their position with a variety of interesting facts.

The founder of our fair domain was a believer in this theory, and the archives of France contain a lengthy memorial written by Cadillac in which he distinctly asserts his belief that the Indians are descendants of the Hebrew race, strengthening his argument with statements of many remarkable coincidences and customs confirmatory of the idea.

The researches of Schoolcraft, Prescott, Pickering, and others, indicate that the first comers were from Asia, that they were driven by winds and waves over to the Pacific coast, or made their way by the Aleutian Islands or Behring’s Strait to Alaska, and from thence southward to Mexico and South America, afterwards spreading northward and eastward over the American continent.

Elaborate and plausible arguments have been made to prove the converse theory, that the Chinese are descended from the Aztec race.

In support of this supposition, it is urged that the trade winds from the Peruvian coast pass directly to China, and that even frail vessels could easily be wafted thither.

Unique and ancient bronze implements are found alike in both countries; the picture-writings of the two countries are in many cases similar, and in others are exactly the same; and the Feast of Souls, as celebrated in Central America, is remarkably like certain of the Chinese ceremonies.

The order of the ancient occupancy of the country seems to have been, first the Olmec’s, then the Toltecs, then the Aztecs, or Aztecas.

Various reasons give rise to the theory that the Aztec race were the first occupants of this particular region.

Humboldt was of the opinion that the country of the Aztecas was in this latitude.

The meaning of their tribal name is “People of the Lakes;” and there is no place in the United States in which small lakes are so numerous as in Michigan, while the State is nearly surrounded by lakes, which are almost seas in extent.

The name Michigan is derived from two Chippewa words, Mitchaw, great, and Sagiegan, lake. Great Lake.

The so-called Indian mounds in various Western States, in their size, form, and contents, add force to the Aztecan theory.

In the township of Springwells, just below Detroit, were four of these mounds; one of them still remains inside the grounds of Fort Wayne; the second was on property now occupied by the Copper Smelting Works, and the third lay between the other two.

They were circular in form, from thirty to seventy feet in diameter, and varying from three to ten feet in height.

Two parallel embankments, about four feet high, led to them from the east.

One of these mounds was opened in 1837, and the one inside the fort, by permission of the War Department, on May 22, 1876.

Both were found to contain numerous skeletons, arrow-heads, and vases or pots of earthenware.

The one last opened contained also an iron vessel capable of holding two or three gallons, and several pounds of what appeared to be a sort of paint.

The Great Mound of the River Rouge, about half a mile below Fort Wayne, was at first, probably, fully three hundred feet long and two hundred feet wide.

In 1876 it was twenty feet high.

It has never been fully explored, but a partial investigation by Henry Gillman resulted in the discovery of stone axes, arrow-heads, fragments of pottery, and human bones much decayed.

An old Indian told a member of the Cicotte family that these mounds were erected as forts, at the time the tribes were fighting each other.

Indian tradition also ascribes these mounds to the Tuetle Indians, who preceded the Wyandotts.

The name Tuetle is believed to be a corruption of Tuteloes, a tribe once supposed to have emigrated from Virginia only as far north as the Susquehanna; but it now seems probable that some came as far as the Detroit.

Of the more modern Indian tribes who roamed over this region, the Algonquin race was the earliest.

They counted among their numbers in the northwest the tribes of the Ottawas, Menominees, Sacs, Foxes, and Chippewas.

There were also in this vicinity the tribes of the Miamis, Potowatamies, Winnebagoes, and the Ouendats, or Wyandotts.

The latter who came to this vicinity about 1680, excelled the other tribes in energy and progressiveness.

From time to time the Iroquois also appeared.

This nation was composed originally of the Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Oneidas, and Mohawks.

In 1714, the Tuscaroras of North Carolina united with them, and they were afterward known as the Six Nations.

They claimed all of Michigan, and between them and the Algonquins warfare was frequent.

Indeed, the Iroquois were the enemies of all the Indians at or near Detroit, and in 1649 they drove the Algonquins from this region.

They were unfriendly to the French, and during the French and English war did good service for the English.

They were the cannibals of America, and French residents of Detroit, in 1756, stated that the Iroquois actually ate the flesh of persons slain in battle.

It was the settled policy of the French commandants to induce as many friendly Indians as possible to settle near their forts.

We find Cadillac, in 1703, urging the Ottawas to move to Detroit.

The French records of the same year show that several Miamis were already settled there, and that on June 28 thirty Hurons arrived from Mackinaw and erected wigwams near the fort.

The Potowatamies had their village west of the fort, near the mouth of what was afterwards called Knagg’s Creek.

The Ottawa settlement was where Windsor now is, and the Hurons were gathered on the Canada side, opposite the Cass Farm.

In 1705 about two hundred Indians had been persuaded by Cadillac to settle in the vicinity.

In furtherance of his plans a great council of chiefs was held, continuing from August 6 to August 10, 1707.

The following translation from a French Colonial Memoir, written in 1707, and preserved at Paris, gives a vivid picture of Indian life at this period:

The village of the Pottowatamies adjoins the fort; they lodge partly under Apaquois, which are made of mat-grass.

The women do all this work.

The men belonging to that nation are well clothed, like our domiciliated Indians at Montreal; their entire occupation is hunting and dress ; they make use of a great deal of vermilion, and in winter wear buffalo robes richly painted, and in summer either blue or red cloth.

They play a good deal at la crosse in summer, twenty or more on each side.

Their bat is a sort of little racket, and the ball with which they play is made of very heavy wood, somewhat larger than the balls used at tennis; when playing they are entirely naked, except a breech cloth, and moccasins on their feet.

Their body is completely painted with all sorts of colors.

Some, with white clay, trace white lace on their bodies, as if on all the seams of a coat, and at a distance it would be apt to be taken for silver lace.

They play very deep {gros j’eu) and often.

The bets sometimes amount to more than eight hundred livres.

They set up two poles and commence the game from the center; one party propels the ball from one side and the other from the opposite, and which ever reaches the goal, wins.

This is fine recreation and worth seeing.

They often play village against village, the Poux against the Outaoues or the Hurons, and lay heavy stakes.

Sometimes Frenchmen join in the game with them.

The women cultivate Indian corn, beans, peas, squashes, and melons, which come up very fine.

The women and girls dance at night; adorn themselves considerably, grease their hair, put on a white shift, paint their cheeks with vermilion, and wear whatever wampum they possess, and are very tidy in their way.

They dance to the sound of the drum and sisiquoi, which is a sort of a gourd containing some grains of shot.

Four or five young girls sing, and beat time with the drum and sisiquoi, and the women keep time and do not lose a step ; it is very entertaining, and lasts almost the entire night.

The old men often dance the Medelinne (Medicine Dance); they resemble a set of demons, and all this takes place during the night.

The young men often dance in a circle {le tour) and strike posts; it is then they recount their achievements, and dance, at the same time, the war dance (des decouvertes), and whenever they act thus they are highly ornamented.

It is altogether very curious.

They often perform these things for tobacco. When they go hunting, which is every fall, they carry their Apaquois with them to hut under at night.

Everybody follows, men, women, and children, and winter in the forest and return in the spring.

The Hurons are also near, perhaps the eighth of a league from the French fort.

This is the most industrious nation that can be seen.

They scarcely ever dance, and are always at work; raise a very large amount of Indian corn, peas, beans; some grow wheat.

They construct their huts entirely of bark, very strong and solid; very lofty and very long, and arched like arbors.

Their fort is strongly encircled with pickets and bastions, well redoubted, and has strong gates.

They are the most faithful nation to the French, and the most expert hunters that we have.

Their cabins are divided into sleeping compartments, which contain their misirague, and are very clean.

They are the bravest of all the nations and possess considerable talent.

They are well clad; some of them wear close overcoats {juste au corps de capot).

The men are always hunting, summer and winter, and the women work.

When they go hunting in the fall, a goodly number of them remain to guard their fort.

The old women, and throughout the winter those women who remain, collect wood in very large quantity.

The soil is very fertile; Indian corn grows there to the height of ten to twelve feet.

Their fields are very clean, and very extensive; not the smallest weed is to be seen in them.

The Outaoues are on the opposite of the river, over against the French fort ; they, likewise, have a picket fort.

Their cabins resemble somewhat those of the Hurons.

They do not make use of Apaquois except when out hunting: their cabins in this fort are all of bark, but not so clean nor so well made as those of the Hurons.

They are as well dressed and very laborious, both in their agriculture and hunting.

Their dances, juggleries, and games of ball (la crosse) and of the bowl, are the same as those of the Poux.

Their game of the bowl consists of eight small pebbles (noyaux), which are red or black on one side, and yellow or white on the other; these are tossed up in a bowl, and when he who holds the vessel tosses them and finds seven of the whole eight of the same color he gains, and continues playing as long as he receives the same thing.

When the result is different, the adverse party takes the bowl and plays next, and they risk heavy stakes on all these games.

They have likewise the game of the straws, and all the nations gamble in like manner.

In 1736 there were five hundred Indian warriors at Detroit,—two hundred each from the Huron and Ottawa tribes and one hundred from the Potowatamies.

Bougainville, who was here in 1757,says:

The Indians who usually come to trade at Detroit are the Hurons of the same tribe of those of Lorette, near Quebec, a perfidious and deceitful nation in whom we must never put confidence.

There are also the Ottawas, the Sauteux, and the Potowatamies; these last named are of all the Indians the most faithful and the most attached to our interests.

They have never murdered any Frenchmen, and have often warned us of the plots of other tribes.

Cadillac says that the Ottawas wore, as an ornament, a little stone suspended from their nose, and that “Ottawa,” the name of the tribe, signified “the nation with a hole in their nose.”

The French gave nicknames to most of the tribes in this region.

The Wyandotts they designated as Hurons, because of their fierce aspect, comparing them to a wild boar; the Chippewas, as Sauteurs, from their residence near the Sault St. Marie; the Menominees were called Folles Avoines, from “wild rice,” one of their principal articles of food.

The name Potowatamie was abbreviated into Poux.

This nation was very uncleanly.

All of the tribes known to the Americans, north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi, had their council-fire at the village of the Wyandotts, near the mouth of the Detroit River.

The Wyandotts alone had the power to convene the tribes, and when a council was to be held, application was made to them, and it was held at their village.

This fact gave the locality a peculiar importance and made it familiar to all the Indians.

At various times nearly all the noted Indian leaders visited this post.

Pontiac, Tecumseh, and his brother The Prophet, were frequent visitors. John Logan, the Cayuga chief, whose speech to Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, is familiar to every schoolboy, was here in 1774, and after the treaty of Chillicothe, he resided for many years in this vicinity.

He became a drunkard, and was killed, between Detroit and Miami, by an Indian.

The French trusted the Indians almost without fear.

No seals or locks were placed on the storehouses, and the Indians came and went as they pleased. Under English and American rule the Indians were welcomed inside the stockade during the day, but at night all were turned out except those who were entertained by private persons.

The Indians were always persistent beggars, and no Arab of the present day demands backsheesh more clamorously than did the red men of their French and English “brothers.”

Their requests were generally acceded to, and the presents given them in some measure made up for the exorbitant prices charged them for articles offered in exchange for furs.

Their likes and dislikes turned, like a pair of scales, according as they had free range or were restricted in their visitations to the houses.

On September 18, 1770, Captain Stephenson, of the Eighteenth Regiment, then in command, wrote to Sir William Johnson:

My children here are quiet at present.

They have all been to pay me a visit and suck my breast, to which they made so close an application that I told them I was afraid they would throw me in a consumption.

They are very happy at having free access to my house, which my predecessor’s delicacy would not admit.

Even after this region was surrendered, the English Government sought the favor of the Indians by annual gifts; and year by year up to 1836 thousands from various tribes gathered at Detroit, Sandwich, or Maiden to receive the presents of their Great Father, the King.

The American Government was compelled to follow this precedent.

On November 24, 1807, Governor Hull wrote to the Secretary of War that within the two or three days previous seven or eight hundred Indians had called at Detroit, on the way to their villages, and that he had been compelled to feed them.

In the autumn of 1812, while the city was in possession of the British, the Indians committed many outrages.

A party of them went in a body to rob Colonel Lambert Beaubien’s orchard, but the Colonel attacked them with his fists, and made so courageous a defense that he drove them from his premises.

After the city again passed under American control, Colonel Cass was obliged to feed great numbers of the Indians.

In one communication to the War Department he states that for several years he fed an average of four hundred Indians per day.

Between 1814 and 1817, he disbursed $200,000 for the benefit of the Indians.

To divide and distribute among them the goods and bounty of the Government was a task vexatious in the extreme, and almost unbearable, for it was impossible to satisfy the stupid and stolid savages.

All the year round they came and went, and the agent’s family was “driven from one extremity of the house to the other by them.”

In addition to the annuities the “government blacksmith” repaired, free of charge, their guns and traps.

There was always some excuse for their coming, and citizens were not surprised at any time to see a swarthy face at the window-pane; oftentimes the click of the latch was the only warning of the entrance of one of the nation’s wards.

Some of them were gayly dressed with blankets of scarlet broadcloth, and strings of silver half-moons graduated in size from one to several inches in length, hung from neck to ankles, both in front and down the back.

Their moccasins and leggins were gay with beads and the stained quills of the porcupine.

The heads of the war chiefs were frequently gayer still with the vermilion and bear’s grease which had been rubbed thereon.

The squaws were not left behind.

There was always some burden for them to carry, and the procession ceased on one day only to begin the next.

Indians and more Indians, and still they came! Indians lazy and Indians drunk, Indians sick and Indians hungry, all crying “Give! give!”

After receiving their payments, hundreds of them would lie about the city stupidly drunk; in August, 1825, they so disturbed the peace of the city, that the Council, through the mayor, sought aid from the governor to quiet and control them.

A few of these Indians came to buy goods, and were really trustworthy.

An old account book of that period contains charges made against Indians called “Saw Goose’s Wife,” “Big Wind’s Daughter,” “The Rat,” “The White Devil,” ” The Old Cow,” “The Cow’s Sister,” “The Old Eagle and Son,” “The Red Bird,” and “The Turtle.”

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Allegan and Barry Counties, Michigan in the Civil War….Officers and Enlisted men.


5228557711_b98ce008ff_oSECOND AND THIRD INFANTRY.

Formation of the Second Infantry-Battle of Bull Run-In Kentucky-In Mississippi-Siege of Knoxville-Re-enlistment-Off to Virginia-The Campaign of the Wilderness-Muster out-Members from Barry County-Members from Allegan County-

The Third Infantry-Representation from Barry and Allegan Counties –

The Regiment at Bull Run-Steadiness of its Brigade-Praise of the New York Tribune-Winter-Quarters-Gallantry at Williamsburg-At Fair Oaks-Prince de Joinville’s EncomiumThrough the Seven Days’ Fight-Second Bull Run-At Chancellorsville-At Gettysburg-Sent to New York-Back to Virginia The Mine Run Campaign-In the Wilderness and Subsequent Fights-Non-Veterans sent Home-Veterans and Recruits formed into a Battalion-Consolidated with the Fifth Infantry —Call for Men in July, 1864-Raising the New Third Infantry-It goes to Alabama-Back to Murfreesboro’-Depots-Faulkner’s Brigade The Regiment goes to Texas in 1865-Stays there till 1866-Mustered out in May-Barry County Officers and Soldiers-Allegan County Officers and Soldiers.

SECOND INFANTRY.

THE Second Regiment of Michigan Volunteer Infantry, the first three years’ regiment to take the field from that a During the civil war Allegan County received credit for twenty-one hundred and seventy-five men, and Barry for sixteen hundred and twenty-seven.

This is more than can be found in the reports of the adjutant-general of the State, but the discrepancy is principally due to the fact that re enlisting veterans were credited to the county twice, while their names appear in the reports but once.

A number of men, also, served in the navy whose names do not appear in the reports.

The credits also include those drafted men who, in the first months of the draft, were allowed to pay three hundred dollars each in lieu of personal service, though of course they are not represented on any rolls.

A few names were also, doubtless, omitted from the reports, in spite of the energy and fidelity of Adjt.-Gen. Robertson, on Second and Third Infantry rendezvoused at Detroit, and was mustered into the United States service May 25, 1861.

With an aggregate force on its muster-rolls of one thousand and thirteen men, commanded by the brave Col. Israel B. Richardson, it left Detroit, June 5, 1861, and at once proceeded to the seat of war on the Potomac.

The Second participated in the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and was one of the few regiments that did not become thoroughly demoralized as a result of that engagement (see history of the Third Infantry).

From that time until March, 1863, it shared in all the victories and defeats of the Union arms in Virginia.

It was then transferred to Kentucky, where it remained until June, when, with Gen. Parke’s division of the Ninth Army Corps, it reinforced Gen. Grant at Vicksburg.

With Sherman at Jackson, Miss., it lost heavily.

From Mississippi it re-returned to Kentucky, and in September, 1863, marched via Cumberland Gap to Knoxville, Tenn., where, under Gen. Burnside, it took part in all of the severe fighting incident to the siege of Knoxville, losing one-half its effective strength.

A large number of its remaining men re-enlisted in December, 1863, and returned home on furlough.

From Mount Clemens, Michigan, the regiment returned to Virginia in May, 1864, arriving in time to plunge into the Wilderness and bear its share on that hotly-contested field.

Thereafter, at Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, and in all the other principal engagements which culminated at Appomattox, the Second was an active participant.

It was mustered out of service at Delaney House, D. C., July 28, 1865, and arrived at Detroit, Michigan, for final pay and disbandment, August 1st of the same year.

MEMBERS OF THE SECOND INFANTRY FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company B.

Henry D. Thompson, discharged for disability, Sept. 16, 1862.

Company C.

William G. Fox, Wounded 5/5/1862 Williamsburg, VA, discharged for disability, Oct. 2, 1862.

Royal G. Rice, discharged at end of service, July 21, 1864. After the War he lived in Dowling, Mich

Charles I. Robinson, discharged at end of service, Jan. 26, 1865.

George Rogers, missing in action at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863. Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS (Severe wound in left leg, amputated)

Samuel R. Wilson, discharged for disability, Feb. 3, 1865.

Company D.

William Scudder, discharged at end of service, Feb. 10, 1864.

Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS http://www.fadedfootsteps.net/veterans/profile/4071/private-william-m-scudder-company-d-2nd-michigan-infantry-us-us-union-army.html

Company K.

Moses Boyden, discharged at end of service, Jan. 7, 1864.

Thomas M. Ellsworth, discharged at end of service, Nov. 16, 1863.

Estes Rorke, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863. Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS

John C. Stewart, discharged at end of service, Jan. 7, 1864. After the War he lived in Stanton, MI

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SECOND INFANTRY.

Company I.

David S. Buck, missing in action at Savage Station, Va., June 29, 1862.

Martin Crane, veteran, Dec. 31, 1863; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., Oct. 27, 1864.

James Carruthers, discharged at end of service, June 22, 1864.

Clark Conrad, veteran, enlisted Dec. 31, 1863.

George B. Myers, discharged at end of service, June 22, 1864.

Nathan A. Tanner, died of wounds at Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1863.

George P. West, discharged for disability.

Company K.

Alfonso Crane, died of disease at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863.

THIRD INFANTRY.

The Third Regiment of infantry, which was recruited during the month of May, 1861, was mainly from the counties of Allegan, Barry, Clinton, Easton, Gratiot, Ionia, Kent, Muskegon, Mecosta, Montcalm, Newaygo, and Ottawa and had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids.

It was the first regiment organized in this portion of the State, the second mustered for three years, and the third to take the field from Michigan.

Barry County was represented by about a hundred and fifty men scattered through all its companies except I, while Allegan’s representation was divided among companies A, C, E, F, I, and K.

Having upon its muster-rolls the names of one thousand and forty officers and enlisted men, the regiment left Grand Rapids on the 13th of June, 1861, and proceeded directly to the seat of war on the Potomac.

It was soon after assigned to the brigade commanded by Col. Israel B. Richardson, and first met the enemy at Blackburn’s Ford, Va., July 18, 1861.

Three days later Richardson’s brigade was engaged in that famous conflict, the first battle of Bull Run.

To show that the Michigan regiments then and there gave evidence of the material composing them, we need but cite the New York Tribune’s account of that battle, from which the following is an extract:

” I was told that a few regiments besides the three faithful ones of Blenker’s brigade had come in fair order, and that they were the Second and Third Michigan and the Massachusetts First, of Richardson’s brigade.

“Gen. McDowell also stated that “Richardson’s troops were the last to leave the field.”

When the defeated and almost disbanded Union army fell back on Washington, Richardson’s brigade served as rear-guard.

It maintained its position at Centreville Heights until the morning of July 22d, and when all detachments and stragglers had passed to the rear, it deliberately took up the line of march to Washington, where it arrived in perfect order.

To this brigade was then assigned the duty of guarding Bailey’s Cross-Roads and picketing other highways leading from Rebeldom to Alexandria and Washington.

After I account of the apathy or ignorance of the regimental and company officers.

In the preparation of the sketches of the services of the regiments great care has been taken to make them —although necessarily brief -as correct and interesting as possible.

The adjutant-general’s reports and the “Red Book of Michigan” have been closely examined, surviving soldiers of the various regiments have been consulted, and in many cases items have been added derived from the personal information of the gentleman who, under the direction of the general historian, compiled these military sketches.

That gentleman, Mr. J. S. Schenck, was formerly adjutant of the Sixteenth Illinois, and served nearly three years side by side with several of the Michigan regiments whose exploits he has here narrated.

It is intended that the sketches of the various regiments shall bear some proportion as to size to the number of men from these two counties in them.

It may be proper to add here that during the Mexican war Samuel Brown, Jr., Henry Starring, Franklin H. Heath, Silas S. Price, and Chester Ross, of Allegan County, served in Captain F. W. Curtenius’ company in the First Michigan Infantry of that period; the two men last named dying in the service. C. J. * Col. Richardson was a native of Vermont, and a graduate of West Point.

He served in the Mexican war, and attained the rank of major.

He was made brigadier-general of volunteers in September, 1861, promoted to the rank of major-general soon after, and met his death at the battle of Antietam, Sept; 17, 1862, while commanding a division.

This number represents all who served in both the first and second terms of service.

The Third Infantry assisted in the construction of the defenses of Washington, the Third went into winter-quarters near Alexandria, Va., where it remained until March, 1862.

Then the Third Michigan Infantry moved with McClellan’s army to the Peninsula.

At the battle of Williamsburg, the Third fought on the 5th of May, 1862.

The Third Infantry then with Berry’s brigade of Kearney’s division moved, through mud and rain, to the front at double-quick.

Here the Third Michigan Infantry formed line under fire, and, immediately charging a superior force of the enemy, recaptured a lost position and artillery, and did not stop until the enemy was dislodged and beat back from his own position to the plains below.

In regard to this fight, a Tribune correspondent said:

“By confessions of rebel prisoners, eight hundred of Berry’s men, mostly of Michigan regiments, drove back sixteen hundred of the enemy.”

At Fair Oaks, on the 31st of May. the Third particularly distinguished itself.

Its commander, Col. Stephen G. Champlin, was severely wounded, and the gallant Captain Samuel A. Judd was killed.

The total losses of the regiment in this action were thirty men killed, one hundred and twenty-four wounded, and fifteen missing.

The Prince de Joinville, an eye-witness of this battle, said:

“As at Williamsburg, Kearney comes to re-establish the fight.

Berry’s brigade of this division, composed of Michigan regiments and an Irish battalion, advanced as firm as a wall into the midst of the disordered mass which wanders over the battle-field, and does more by its example than the most powerful reinforcement.

“The Third was also engaged at Savage Station and Peach Orchard, June 29, 1862; Glendale (or Charles City CrossRoads), June 30th; Malvern Hill, July 1st; and Groveton (or Second Bull Run), Aug. 29, 1862.

In the latter battle it lost twenty men killed, besides a large number wounded and missing. Proceeding from Edward’s Ferry, Md., via Warrenton and Falmouth, Va., to Fredericksburg, Va., the regiment was engaged at the latter place Dec. 13, 1862, losing nine men wounded.

At Chancellorsville, on the 1st, 2d, and 3d of May, 1863, it sustained a loss of sixty-three men, killed, wounded, and missing.

On the 11th of June the regiment began a toilsome march via Centreville, Va., Edward’s Ferry, and Frederick City, Md., to Gettysburg, Pa.

The roads were dusty, the heat was intense, and the men suffered terribly.

At Gettysburg, on the 2d and 3d days of July, 1863, the Third again dealt staggering blows to the cohorts of treason, sustaining a loss on its side of forty-one men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Having followed the enemy to Williamsport, it marched thence to Harper’s Ferry, crossed the Potomac at that point, and moved forward to Manassas Gap.

On the 17th of August, 1863, the regiment proceeded to Alexandria, Va., and from there to New York City, whither it had been ordered to aid in the preservation of the public peace and the keeping down of a mob during the then pending draft.

Remaining there some days, it proceeded up the Hudson to Troy, N. Y., where it was stationed two weeks.

The Third Michigan Infantry then returned to its brigade in the Army of the Potomac, arriving at Culpepper, Va., Sept. 17, 1863.

On the 26th of November, 1863, the regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign, engaging the enemy on the 27th at Locust Grove, and on the. 30th at Mine Run.

With the army it returned to Brandy Station December 2d, having lost during the movement thirty-one men in killed, wounded, and missing.

One hundred and eighty members of the regiment reenlisted as veterans Dec. 23, 1863.

They received a thirty days’ furlough, and at the expiration of that time returned to their command.

From December, 1863, until the beginning of May, 1864, a season of inactivity prevailed.

On the 4th of the latter month the Third crossed the Rapidan at Ely’s Ford, advanced to Chancellorsville, and during the three following days was in the midst of the terrific battle of the Wilderness, sustaining a heavy loss.

It was also engaged at Todd’s Tavern on the 8th and at Spottsylvania on the 12th, where it participated in the successful charge of the Second Army Corps.

At the North Anna River it again encountered the enemy, May 23d and 24th.

The Pamunky River was crossed on the 27th, and the advance continued toward Cold Harbor.

During this month of continuous fighting the regiment sustained a loss of thirty-one men killed, one hundred and nineteen wounded, and twenty-nine missing.

At Cold Harbor, on the 9th of June, 1864, the regiment, with the exception of the re-enlisted men and such as had joined since the original organization, and certain designated officers, was ordered home for the purpose of being discharged.

The remaining officers and men-some three hundred and fifty in number-were formed into a battalion of four companies, and attached to the Fifth Michigan Infantry.

The order consolidating these regiments was confirmed by the War Department June 13th, and on the 20th day of June, 1864, the old Third, which had been one of the first to take the field in defense of the government, was formally mustered out of the United States service.

THIRD INFANTRY (NEW).

In addition to the hundreds of thousands gone before, on the 18th of July, 1864, the President issued his proclamation calling upon the loyal States for five hundred thousand more men.

Volunteers from the several States were to be accepted for one, two, and three years, as they elected.

Michigan’s quota under this call was more than eighteen thousand, of which twelve thousand had to be recruited or drafted.

Governor Blair determined to raise six new regiments of infantry, viz., the Third, Fourth, Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first, or one in each Congressional district, and in pursuance of this plan issued his proclamation on the 21st of July, 1864.

On the 29th of the same month orders were issued to reorganize the Third Infantry, and to Col. Moses B. Houghton (formerly lieutenant-colonel of the old organization) was entrusted the charge of raising the new regiment.

Grand Rapids was named its place of rendezvous, and the Fourth District its field for recruiting.

The exigencies of the service did not permit the complete organization of all these regiments before the enforcement of the impending draft (Sept. 5, 1864), and seven companies, which had been raised for the Thirtieth at * Composed of the Second, Third, and Fifth Michigan, and a New York regiment.

The Third, thus reinforced, completed its organization at once (October 15th), and, being mustered in with eight hundred and seventy-nine officers and men, left camp for Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1864, going thence to Decatur, Ala.

It remained at Decatur-having meanwhile a skirmish with the enemy at that point-until November 25th, when it was transferred to Murfreesboro, Tenn., and ordered to duty at Fort Rosecrans.

On the 7th of December, while Gen. Milroy was engaged at the Cedars with the principal part of Forrest’s rebel command, Faulkner’s rebel brigade of mounted infantry made a dash on the picket-line at Murfreesboro, drove in the guard, and gained possession of the town.

After a spirited engagement of an hour’s duration, four companies of the Third, together with an equal number of companies of the One Hundred and Eighty-first Ohio, with a section of artillery, repulsed the rebels and pursued them two miles.

The regiment remained at Murfreesboro and its vicinity until Jan. 16, 1865, when it was moved to Huntsville, Ala., and assigned to the Fourth Army Corps.

On the 31st of January it was ordered to Eastport, Miss., and proceeded as far as Nashville, Tenn., when, the order being countermanded, it returned to Huntsville, remaining there until the middle of March.

With its brigade it then marched to East Tennessee, occupying successively positions at New Market, Bull Gap, and Jonesboro’, where it was employed in pursuing, capturing, and driving off the numerous guerrilla bands infesting that region.

The Third was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., on the 20th of March, arrived there the 28th, and on the 15th of June, 1865, with its corps, proceeded by rail from Nashville to Johnsville, Tenn.; thence by steamers down the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, arriving on the 5th of July.

After a short delay the regiment proceeded in vessels to Indianola, Texas, and thence it marched to Green Lake.

On the 12th of September it started out for Westerin Texas, and, after a fatiguing march of fourteen days’ duration, it reached San Antonio.

During the following winter two companies were on duty at Gonzales.

Early in the spring of 1866 the entire regiment was ordered to Victoria, Texas, and was there mustered out of the service, May 26, 1866.

Marching to Indianola, it took steamers to New Orleans, going thence via the Mississippi River to Cairo, Ill., whence it was transported by railway to Detroit, Michigan.

It arrived there June 10, 1866, and was soon after paid off and discharged.

BARRY COUNTY OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE THIRD INFANTRY (FIRST TERM).

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major Israel S. Geer, enlisted June 10, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. C, Aug. 1, 1861.

Company B.

John Goff, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Willard Main, mustered out July 9, 1865.

Robert Strong, mustered out May 19, 1865.

Company C.

Captain Israel S. Geer, com. Dec. 26, 1861; wounded and taken prisoner at Wilderness, May 6, 1864; mustered out Sept. 21, 1864.

Jacob T. Bipley, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., July 12, 1864.

Jacob Broepphe, missing at Mine Run, Va., Nov. 30, 1863.

Christian Fostler, transferred to 5th lrf., June 10, 1864.

Lewis Ruthardt, discharged for disability, May 1, 1864.

Company D.

John Winebremer, transferred to 5th Inf., June 10, 1864.

Company E.

Sergeant Andrew Nickerson, Hastings; enlisted June 10, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. H, Aug. 5, 1862.

Musician James L. Reed, discharged May 24, 1862.

Mathew Bain, discl. for disability.

George W. Btgl)ee, discharged for disability, Feb. 17, 1865.

James G. Birdsall, discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1863.

Cornelius Barkluff.

Alonzo H. Bennett, mustered out May 30, 1865. Thomas Burke, mustered out May 27, 1865.

Daniel E. Birdsall, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Samuel B. Cook, discharged for disability. George Decker, mustered out June 28, 1865.

Washington Feriis, discharged for disability.

D. W. Foster, died of wounds at Portland, June 17, 1862.

Franklin Green, transferred to 5th Inf.

Emmett A. Hamilton, died of wounds at Groveton, Va, Aug. 29, 1862.

George H. Hill, died in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864.

Ralph IHenley, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Andrew J. Jordan, mustered out May 17, 1865.

John A. Kellogg, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Andrew G. Kilpatrick, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

James Kilpatrick, discharged for disability, Sept. 30, 1862.

David C. Leach, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Samuel McMurray, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Dwight T. Merrill, mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. John B. Osgood, mustered out July 5, 1865.

William Paustle, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, July 28, 1865.

Merrick D. Reed, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Daniel A. Randall, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Truman Sawdy, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 26, 1863.

Martin M. Sweet, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Joseph E. Sutton, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Simeon C. Stanton, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Edward Stevens, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Truman J. Wisner, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Company F.

James R. Dexter, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1861.

Samuel S. Garrison, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

John Oberly, discharged for disability, Jan. 14, 1863.

Timothy Penders, discharged for disability, Nov. 12, 1863.

Ephraim Parsons, mustered out May 8, 1865.

Owen F. Palmer, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Isaac Walker, ditch. for disability, Feb. 7, 1863.

Company G.

Captain Abram J. Whitney, Hastings; com. 2d Lieutenant, Co. I, May 13, 1861; promoted to 1st liout. Aug. 1, 1861; Captain, June 9, 1862; resigned Sept. 26, 1862.

Company H.

2d Lient. Andrew Nickerson, com. Aug. 5, 1862; promoted to slt Lieutenant, Co. K, Oct. 20, 1862.

Aaron E. Dupee, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

James F. Dibble, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Jeremiah Sanders, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Company K.

Captain Andrew Nickerson, Hastings; com. Nov. 1, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Oct. 20, 1862; killed in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

Corp. Edwin H. Mallory, enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Wagoner Isaac D. Reed, enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Edward Bugbee, died of disease at Yorktown, May 3, 1862.

William Buck, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Henry II. Bailey, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Austin Dibble, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

Charles W. Feber, discharged at end of service, June 17, 1864.

Oscar Gaines, discharged to enlist in regular service, Dec. 17, 1862.

Jonathan Kellogg, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Jonathan Kelly, transferred to Vet. Res Corps.

Orange McClure, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Mortimer Millard, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Lorenzo W. Payne, discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863.

Jacob S. Pickle, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Sept. 17, 1861.

William Parrish, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Henian Parrish, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Cody M. Reed, discharged to enlist in regular service, Nov. 29, 1862.

Alfred H. Slocum, discharged for disability, June 20, 1862.

Charles H. Sanford, died in action at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863.

Warren Wilkinson, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE THIRD INFANTRY (FIRST TERM).

Company A.

Captain Milton Leonard, com. 1st Lieutenant Nov. 1, 1863; 2d Lieutenant Feb. 5, 1863; died in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864.

Company C.

Musician John B. Champion, discharged Feb. 28, 1862.

Theo. Castor, transferred to 5th Inf., June 10, 1864; mustered out Sept. 4, 1865.

Christian Pleigden, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

John P. Scheidt, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

Valentin Schaeffer, discharged for disability, June 20, 1861.

Anton Steffles, discharged for disability, Feb. 23, 1862. Thomas Schneider, died of disease at Baltimore, July 19, 1863.

Jos. A. Schuler, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864. Peter Wagner, discharged for disability, Oct. 1, 1861.

Company E.

Edward T. Webster, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. Harvey Wilson, discharged for disability, July 29, 1861.

Samuel F. Woolman, died May 30, 1864, of wounds.

Company F.

2d Lieutenant Milton Leonard, transferred 2d Lieutenant from Co. A, May 1, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. A, Nov. 1, 1863.

Musician Edward C. Wheelock, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Geo. W. Bailey, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Harvey S. Briggs, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865. J

ohn Calkins, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

John Hefner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Martin Jones, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Daniel G. Slade, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

Company I.

Wm. H. Campion, discharged for disability, November, 1862.

Nelson J. Davis, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Edward R. Goble, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Sylvester Gay, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1864.

Alfred M. Gardner, discharged for disability, Dec. 31, 1862.

Perry Goshom, discharged for disability, Nov. 17, 1862.

Josiah E. Huff, died of disease, Nov. 18, 1861.

Lonson Hill, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Albert Hamlin, discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

Calvin Hall, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Jerome Kibbee, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

John McDonald, discharged for disability, Oct. 1, 1863.

Joseph L. Paney, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Jas. Reeves, discharged for disability, Aug. 7, 1862.

John Simpkins, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Willard Sweet, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Company K.

John Felton, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

Win. H. Harvey, transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Edwin Nickerson, transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out June 9, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY IN THE REORGANIZED THIRD INFANTRY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

Asst. Surg. Philo H. Drake, Hastings; com. Nov. 24, 1864; res. June 20, 1865.

Sergeant-Maj. Geo. W. Sheldon, promoted to 2d Lieutenant May 19, 1865; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Company A.

Francis Rogers, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Company B.

Charles Tichenor, discharged at end of service, March 18, 1866.

Company C.

Corp. Vine E. Welch, Barry; enlisted Sept. 3, 1864; transferred to Co. F.

Richard D. Hudson, mustered out May 23, 1865.

Company D.

Captain Washington K. Ferris, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; res. March 12, 1865.

Corp. Jacob Rhodes, Baltimore; enlisted Aug. 26, 1861.

Corp. James Marvin, Johnstown; enlisted Aug. 17, 1861; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Barry Baulch, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Thomas Boggart, mustered out Nov. 6, 1865.

John H. Day, mustered out June 12, 1866.

Simon Eberly, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

David L. Fereter, mustered out Aug. 11, 1865.

Benjamin G. Foster, mustered out May 26, 1866.

John A. Harrington, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Leonard M. Hyde, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Bayliss T. Sweezy, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 16, 1865.

Anthony B. Wisner, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1865.

Philip A. West, mustered out July 11, 1865.

William H. Watts, mustered out May 2.5, 1866.

Company E.

Captain Reuben P. Lamb, Prairieville; com. July 28, 1864; res. May 12, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Albert H. Ellis, Hastings; cornm. July 29, 1864; hon. discharged, May 15, 1865.

Sergeant Samuel M. Tripp, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 17, 1864; discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Sergeant Edwin King, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; mustered out May 26, 1866.

Sergeant John T. Shelp, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 17, 1864; discharged by order, April 16, 1866.

Sergeant Henry M. Merritt, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 5, 1864; discharged by order, July 3, 1865.

Sergeant John White, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Corp. James N. Collister, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 18, 1864; discharged July 12, 1865.

Corp. Samuel Lamb, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; discharged May 17, 1865.

Corp. Robert Frost, Woodland; enlisted Sept. 3, 1864; discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

Corp. John H. Freeman, Prairieville; enlisted July 28, 1864; discharged by order, Sept. 5, 1865.

Corp. William Wickham, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 30, 1864; discharged by order, Sept. 5, 1865.

Corp. William Scudder, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 19, 1861; absent sick at muster out.

William Atwood, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 30, 1865.

C. J. Brown, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

Joseph Barnes, mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Eugene A. Beach, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Lewis S. Campbell, mustered out from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 12, 1865.

David F. Campbell, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 10, 1865.

Fabrius Deplanta, mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Jacob Frink, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Stephen Heath, mustered out July 24, 1864.

Stephen Haight, mustered out Oct. 6, 1865.

Benjamin Hass, mustered out Sept. 4, 1865.

William N. Haight, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., December, 1864.

Conrad Kehler, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

Seth Lovell, mustered out July 15, 1865.

William J. McArthur, mustered out May 25, 1866.

John H. McArthur, mustered out May 25, 1866.

William Myers, mustered out Sept. 28, 1865.

William Mills, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Alpheus F. Morse, mustered out July 13, 1865.

James Myers, mustered out Sept. 9, 1865.

Samuel M. Martin, mustered out June 13, 1865.

William McNeil, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

William Nichols, mustered out March 3, 1866.

Oliver P. Nichols, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Nelson H. Orr, mustered out April 16, 1866.

Charles W. Pickle, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Willis Peck, mustered out Sept. 5, 1865,

Samuel A. Phillips, discharged at end of service, May 2, 1866.

Andrew Smith, mustered out May 25, 1866.

David Sisco, mustered out May 25, 1866.

John E. Spaulding, mustered out Sept. 28, 1865.

Gilbert Van Brunt, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., April 19, 1865.

Sidney J. Wiley, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Company F.

Corp. George S. Ward, Barry; enlisted March 2, 1865; mustered out March 2, 1866.

Lewis S. Campbell, mustered out from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 12, 1865.

Philip Ragle, mustered out June 18, 1865.

Allegan County had no credited representatives in the new regiment.

SIXTH AND SEVENTH INFANTRY.

Formation of the Sixth Infantry-“The Peculiar Regiment”-The Allegan County Company-On Duty in Baltimore-By Ship to New Orleans-Sickness there-Services in Louisiana-Siege of Port Hudson-Converted into Heavy Artillery-Re-enlistment-Services in Arkansas-Reducing Mobile-Subsequent Services-Mustered out-Members from Allegan County-From Barry County Organization and Departure of the Seventh Infantry-Ball’s Bluff -On the Peninsula-Second Bull Run and South Mountain-Terrible Fight at Antietam-Gallant Passage of the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg-Chancellorsville-The March to Gettysburg Hard Fight there-At New York-Re-enlistment-The Great Campaign of 1864 and 1865-Mustered out —The Barry County Members.

SIXTH INFANTRY.

This regiment was formed during the summer of 1861, having for its rendezvous the village of Kalamazoo.

It was afterwards organized as heavy artillery, and on account of its almost entire isolation from other Michigan regiments during its term of service, and of the fact that it served as both infantry and artillery as occasion required, it was denominated at State headquarters the “peculiar regiment of Michigan.”

Allegan County had a large representation in its ranks.

Company G, which started for the front under the command of Captain Chauncey J. Bassett, was most emphatically an Allegan County company, and was the first entire command to leave that county’s borders.

Bearing upon its rolls the names of nine hundred and forty-four officers and enlisted men, and commanded by Col. Frederick W. Curtenius, of Kalamazoo, a veteran of the Mexican war, the regiment left its rendezvous Aug. 30, 1861, and proceeded to Baltimore, Md., where it remained on duty for several months.

Early in March, 1862, it sailed for Ship Island, Miss., and from there in April proceeded to New Orleans, and was one of the first regiments to enter that city upon its surrender to Gen. Butler and Admiral Farragut.

On the 15th of May it sailed up the Mississippi, and was engaged in the battle at Baton Rouge on the 5th of June, and again at the same place on the 5th of August, losing on the latter day fifty-three men.

From Aug. 20, 1862, until December 6th, the regiment was stationed at Metairie Ridge, guarding one of the approaches to New Orleans.

This location was exceedingly unhealthy, and the command was so reduced that on the 6th of December, when it moved to New Orleans, only one hundred and ninety-one, out of an aggregate of seven hundred and fifty-five, were fit for duty; but the men soon recovered upon their arrival in the city.

In January, 1863, the regiment was with the expedition, under Gen. Weitzel, to Bayou Teche, which destroyed a rebel gunboat.

In the early part of February it was stationed a few miles out from New Orleans, and on the 23d of the month accompanied an expedition to Ponchatoula, where it had quite a sharp skirmish, losing two men Captain Bassett was commisioned major of a colored regiment in October, 1862.

He afterwards rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the same regiment, and was killed while in command of it, during the disastrous Red River campaign. Wounded.

On the 12th of May it made a raid on thy Jackson Railroad, destroying a camp at Tangipahoa, capturing sixty prisoners, and destroying property of the value of four hundred thousand dollars.

On the 21st of the month it embarked for Port Hudson, where it arrived on the 23d.

During the siege of this stronghold by Gen. Banks it was in an advanced position, and participated in the assaults of May 27th and June 14th, in which it lost severely.

On the 29th of June a detachment of thirty-five men formed the forlorn hope of an assaulting column which attacked the “citadel,” but were driven back with a loss of eight killed and nine wounded.

By an order of Major-Gen. Banks, commanding the Department of the Gulf, issued on the 10th of July, following the surrender of Port Hudson, the Sixth was converted into a heavy artillery regiment, and on the 30th of the same month the order was approved by the Secretary of War.

The regiment was stationed at Port Hudson from the last-mentioned date until March 11, 1864, engaged in garrison duty.

At the latter date, the men having mostly re-enlisted as veterans, the command proceeded to Kalamazoo, Michigan, on a furlough of thirty days.

On the 11th of May it arrived at Port Hudson, with its ranks well filled by men recruited in Michigan.

On the 6th of June it was ordered to Morganza to serve as infantry, at which place it remained until the 24th, when it proceeded to Vicksburg, where it joined the engineer brigade.

On the 23d of July it was sent to the mouth of White River, Arkansas, and thence to St. Charles, in that State, where it was attached to a regiment of infantry.

A detachment of the regiment, while on a transport en route from Vicksburg to White River, was fired upon by a rebel battery, and lost two men killed and several wounded.

It remained but a short time at St. Charles, when it returned to Morganza, where it was for some time employed on engineer service, but subsequently was returned to duty as heavy artillery by the chief of artillery.

It was present at the surrender of Fort Morgan, Alabama, but not in time to participate in the bombardment.

On the 1st of October portions of the regiment were stationed at Forts Gaines and Morgan, in Mobile Bay.

On the 23d of December, 1864, five companies were detached for an expedition under Gen. Gordon Granger against Mobile, and were temporarily attached as infantry to the brigade of Gen. Bertram, with which they continued until Jan. 27, 1865, when they were returned to the regiment.

On the 31st of March, Companies A and K were detached from the command at Fort Morgan and ordered to report to Gen. Granger at the front, each being equipped with a battery of ten-inch mortars.

On their arrival they were placed in position under the guns of the Spanish Fort, where they did fine execution at fourteen hundred yards’ range.

Upon the surrender of this fort the two companies manned and turned the captured guns, consisting of seven-inch Brooks rifles and one-hundred-pounder Parrotts, on the remaining rebel forts, Huger and Tracy, which soon after surrendered.

April 10th, Company B was placed on picket duty at Navy Cove, and Company E was assigned to duty in garrisoning Fort Powell.

Companies A and K rejoined the garrison at Fort Morgan, April 20th, and on the 9th of July the regiment was ordered to report to Gen. Sheridan at New Orleans, where it arrived on the 11th, and encamped at Greenville, four miles from the city.

At that place it was furnished with new camp-equipage and wagontrain, and placed under orders for Texas; but on the 5th of August orders were received for its muster out, which was completed on the 20th, and on the 30th it arrived at Jackson, Michigan, and on the 5th of September was paid and disbanded.

Its losses during the war were sixty-five men killed or died of wounds, and four hundred and fifty died of disease,-the heaviest loss by disease of any Michigan regiment during the war.

MEMBERS OF THE SIXTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Non- Commissioned Staff.

Com.-Sergeant Leander W. Leighton, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability.

Hosp.-Stew. Geo. W. Moore, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; promoted 1st Lieutenant 11th Regiment Col. Art’y, Aug. 6, 1863.

Drum-Msj. Danl. W. Marbell, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, March 30, 1862.

Company A.

Win. R. Ashcroft, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company B.

Clayton M. Carr, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company C.

Jefferson Brown, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Wm. Gorman, mustered out Sept. 5, 1865.

Albert Pearsall, died of disease at New Orleans, La., Oct. 9, 1864.

Company E.

Geo. Nichols, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company G.

Captain Chauncey J. Bassett, Allegan; com. Aug. 19, 1861; promoted Major in Louisiana Regiment Col. Troops, Oct. 20, 1862.

Captain Henry Stark, Otsego; com. Oct. 21, 1862; 1st Lieutenant Aug. 20, 1861; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. White, Otsego; com. July 1, 1862; died of disease at Carrolton, La., Oct. 16, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Oscar Haire, Otsego; com. Oct. 21, 1862; enlisted as Sergeant Oct. 21, 1861; res. July 19, 1864.

2d Lieutenant Alfred C. Wa!lin, com. Aug. 21, 1861; res. June 30, 1862.

Sergeant Win. H. White, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; promoted 1st Lieutenant July 1, 1862.

Sergeant Jas. E. Garrison, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, June 26, 1864.

Jas. Stewart, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 29, 1863.

Sergeant Sidney Ruuse, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; veteran, Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Corp. Richard W. Duncan, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; killed at Port Hudson, June 30, 1863.

Corp. Alonzo H. Chandler, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability.

Sergeant Geo. M. Guest, enl: Aug. 20, 1861; discharged by order, Sept. 28, 1863.

Corp. Walter Wood, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Corp. Rodolplhus Symonds, died of disease at Port Hudson, July 23, 1863.

Corp. Geo. H. Hiarris, discharged Dec, 10, 1863.

Corp. John E. Hopper, discharged for disability, Feb. 19, 1863.

Musician Charles Bassett, died of disease, Nov. 10, 1861.

Musician Curtis Myers, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Musician Warren Johnson, discharged for disability, Jan. 20, 1862.

Wagoner John P. Parish, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Jas. Austin, died of disease at Fort Morgan, Ala., April 12, 1865.

Wm. Bailey, discharged for disability, Oct. 15, 1862.

Daniel Buskerk, discharged for disability, Jan. 20, 1862.

John Born, died in action at Baton Rouge, Aug. 5, 1862.

Jas. H. Booker, died in action at Port Hudson, May 27, 18a3.

John Bartlett, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Milo Baker, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865. Thomas Carey, died of disease at New Orleans, Aug. 15, 1862.

Elijah Crane, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28, 1863.

Richard L. Darling, died of disease, June 28, 1862.

Frederick Dailey, died of disease at Port Hudson, Aug. 24, 1863.

Geo. W. Dailey, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Carlos E. Dexter, discharged for disability, June 5, 1863.

Enoch S. Dexter, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Jas. W. Edwards, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Lewis Eggleston, died of disease, May 28, 1862.

Terry C. Fuller, died of disease at Port Hudson, Aug. 26, 1862.

Geo. W. Frank, discharged at end of service, Aug. 2:3, 1864.

Bevj. Fry, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

James Frew, discharged at end of service, Aug 2:3, 1864.

David C. Frew, discharged by order, April 26, 1864.

William Frew, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Joseph W. Fay, missing in action. Jennings Goring, died of disease, Nov. 18, 1861.

IHenry Guest, discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

Abram E. Garrison, discharged by order, Oct. 8, 1863.

Miles Horn, discharged for disability, June 30, 1862.

Edward Haumer, discharged at end of service, Feb. 20, 1865.

Robert Harrison, died of wounds, July 1, 1863.

Freeman Hudden, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Francis M. Hurd, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Almos J. Jackson, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

William Kerns, discharged for disability, April 10, 1862.

John J. Kennison, dis(ch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

J. E. Kennison, discharged by order, Feb. 26, 18C4.

William Kidder, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28,18C3.

Luke Maloy, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28, 1863.

Homer Mankus, died of disease at Vicksburg, July 12, 1864.

William Marshall, died of disease, Sept. 16, 1862.

Henry Marble, died of disease, Oct. 24, 1862.

Leonard Minard, discharged for disability, Dec. 10, 1861.

John J. Maine, discl. for disability, Jan. 30, 1864.

Solomon McBride, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

John McBride, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Ebenezer G. Murma, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Robert H. Norris, (lied of disease at New Orleans, La., Jan. 5, 1863.

George Newton, discharged for disability, Oct. 3, 1863.

Oliver Potts, discharged for disability, Api il 9, 1862.

William H. Parish, discharged for disability, April 11, 1862.

Curtis Z. Pratt, discli. by order, Oct. 8, 1863.

Silas Pratt, died of disease.

Charles Parkhurst, died of disease at Carrollton, La., Feb. 11, 1863.

Robert Payne, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Charles E. Plummer, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out. Aug. 20, 1865.

William Ross, discharged tor disability, Dec. 10, 1861.

Leander Ross, discli. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

Orlando D. Rosenburg, discharged at eind of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

John Rollins, discli. at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Riley Southwell, discharged for disability, Oct. 15, 1862.

Henry Southwell, discharged for disability, Dec. 26, 1862.

John B. Smith, discharged for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

Enoch Simpson, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Csborn Swaney, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Hiram Sliriver, died of disease at Carrollton, La., Sept. 30, 1862.

George H. Starkweather, died of wounds, July 1, 1863.

Samuel Schrickengast, died of disease at Port Hudson, July 23, 1863.

Frank B. Seymour, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20. 1865.

Orvis Sweetland, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Charles Symonds, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

James C. Symonds, veteran, etl.March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Byron Teal, discharged for disability, Oct. 10, 1861.

John W. Van Lent, discli. for disability.

Peter Wyner, died of wounds at Baton Rouge, July 3, 1863.

Henry A. Wiltse, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Brown Wynne, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Frank Whipple, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Theodore Weed, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

James Youlden, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company I.

George M. Pardee, died of disease at Vicksburg, Sept. 25, 1864.

Company K.

Henry Ilixon, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SIXTH INFANTRY.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major George T. Griswold, Vermontville; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. H.

Company C.

Chauncey Boyce, discharged to enlist in regular service, Nov. 17, 1862.

William H. Burges-, discharged by order, May 18, 1865.’

G. P. Sterling, discharged to enlist ill regular service, Nov. 17, 1862.

Company G.

Samuel Russell, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company H.

1st Lieutenant Henry C. Baer, Castleton; com. March 7, 1865; 2d Lieutenant Dec. 2, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

2d Lieutenant George T. Griswold, Hastings; com. March 7, 1865; previously SergeantMajor; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Allen T. Baer, died of disease at Oak Hall, Va., Nov. 18, 1861.

Henry C. Baer, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864.

Leander Cross, died of disease at New Orleans, La., Dec. 25, 1862.

John A. Gregg, veteran, enlisted Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Ely Myers, died of disease at Natchez, Miss., May 18, 1862.

SEVENTH INFANTRY.

The Seventh Regiment of Infantry was recruited during the summer of 1861, and rendezvoused at Monroe.

It was mustered into the service for three years, August 22d, and, bearing upon its rolls the names of eight hundred and eighty-four officers and enlisted men, set out for Virginia, Sept. 5, 1861.

Arriving there, it was stationed on the upper Potomac.

It was one of the regiments detailed to go to Ball’s Bluff, on the 21st of October, under Gen. Baker, and shared in the losses inflicted by the sudden and overwhelming attack of the enemy on that disastrous day.

In the spring of 1862 it proceeded with the Army of the Potomac to the Peninsula.

At Yorktown, West Point, Fair Oaks, and the “Seven Days’ Fight,” the Seventh was an active participant.

Retiring with the same army from the Peninsula, the enemy was again met at the second Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862, and at South Mountain, September 14th.

Three days later it stood face to face with the foe at Antietam.

Here it was engaged in one of the most terrific struggles of the war, and bravely maintained itself throughout, though the victory it assisted to achieve was purchased at the cost of a list of killed and wounded embracing more than one-half of its force present in action.

After Antietam the Seventh continued with the Army of the Potomac, in its marches through Northern Virginia, until the 11th of December, 1862, when that army stood on the north side of the Rappahannock gazing across at the enemy’s works at Fredericksburg.

During the night of the 10th the Union pontoniers had partially constructed a pontoon-bridge across the stream, but at daylight the rebel sharpshooters soon drove them away.

Volunteers were called for to cross the river and seize a foothold on the opposite shore.

Lieutenant-Col. Baxter, then in command, called on the Seventh for that duty, and as one man they responded to the call.

Foremost of all the army, they sprang into the boats and pulled for the opposite side.

The rebel bullets fell thick and fast among them and many were slain or wounded, among the latter being their gallant commander, but still they held on their way, and at length made good their landing.

Close behind them came a Massachusetts regiment.

The two formed on the bank, dashed up to the heights above, drove the enemy from his entrenchments, and captured several hundred prisoners at the point of the bayonet.

The bridge was then completed, and a portion of the army crossed in safety.

The subsequent disasters which befell the forces there assembled under Gen. Burnside cannot dim the glory gained by the Seventh Michigan Infantry in the execution of this brilliant exploit.

On the 3d of May, 1863, the regiment again crossed the Rappahannock to take part in the battle of Chancellorsville, but was not seriously engaged.

During the Gettysburg campaign the regiment under went more than the usual hardships of that dusty and torrid period.

On the 27th of June it marched thirty-seven miles, six on the 28th, and on the 29th thirty-two miles, making seventy-five in three days,-a remarkable exploit when it is considered that every soldier carried a rifle, bayonet, full cartridge-boxes, belts, blanket, haversack with three days’ rations, and canteen, and that the marching in column in a cloud of dust is far more fatiguing than walking alone.

The Seventh arrived at Gettysburg on the 2d of July, and immediately went into battle on Cemetery Hill.

In this exposed position it remained until the close of the action, meeting and repelling some of the fiercest attacks of the enemy.

So much had the regiment been depleted by its previous conflicts that only fourteen officers and one hundred and fifty-one men went into this fight.

Of this small number twenty-one were killed (including the commander, Lieutenant-Col. Steele) and forty-four wounded, the total casualties being nearly half of the whole number engaged.

Shortly after the Gettysburg victory the regiment was ordered to New York City to assist in preserving order during the enforcement of the draft.

Returning to Virginia, it was engaged in skirmishing, marching, etc., until December 7th, when it went into winter-quarters at Barry’s Hill.

Here one hundred and fifty-three men re-enlisted as veterans, and the regiment was sent home to recruit.

After thirty days’ furlough it returned to Barry’s Hill.

It remained there until the grand advance of the army took place, during the early days of May, 1864.

From that time until the collapse of the Rebellion was rendered certain by the surrender at Appomattox, the Seventh was ever found in the fore-front of battle.

In the campaign from May to November, 1864, it had lost forty-one men killed, one hundred and thirty-one wounded, thirty-six taken prisoners, and thirty reported as missing in action, some of whom were killed.

After the review at Washington, D. C., the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., where it arrived June 23d.

It was mustered out of service at Jeffersonville, Ind., July 5th, and reached Jackson, Michigan, two days later, where it was paid off and disbanded.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE SEVENTH INFANTRY.

Company H.

Thomas Cromp, discharged by order, July 7, 1865.

Company I.

Captain Bezaleel W. Lovell, com. Aug. 22, 1861; res. Aug. 30, 1862.

Captain Elhanan C. Phetteplace, com. Sept. 2, 1862; 1st Lieutenant, Aug. 22, 1861; res. May 11, 1863.

Captain Samuel C. Ilodgman, comr. June 22, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Sept. 2, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, Aug. 25, 1862; res. March 1, 1864.

Corp. Irving Rose, enlisted Aug. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 6, 1862.

Musician P. B. Haman, enlisted Aug. 22, 1861; discharged April 10, 1863.

John B. Ashley, died of wounds at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 2, 1862.

Orman Armstrong, discharged for disability, May 12, 1864.

Joshua Boorum, discharged for disability, April 14, 1863.

John Chapman, discharged for disability. Henry Cromp, discharged by order, July 28, 1865.

Lucius M. Cady, died at Savage’s Station, June 30, 1862.

Wallace Evans, discharged July 23, 1862. Augustus M. Fonts, discharged for disability.

Andrew J. Forber, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Alonzo Fonts, died of disease at Bolivar, Md., about Dec. 1, 1862.

Joseph A. Kidder, died of disease at Camp Benton, Md., Dec. 29, 1861.

Caleb Kelly, discharged for disability, Sept. 2, 1862.

John H. McClelland, discharged for disability, June 30, 1862.

Thomas McLeod, discharged for disability, July 9, 1862. Philander Mead, mustered out July 5, 1865.

James Norton, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Charles H. Palmer, died of disease at Fort Monroe, May 3, 1862.

Nathaniel S. Pangburn, discharged for disability, March 4, 1863. Xylar Sweet, discharged Nov. 15, 1862.

Charles Scoby, veteran, enlisted Dec. 18, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

James M. Travis, died of wounds at Frederick, Md., Oct. 10, 1862.

Henry M. Taylor, discharged May 30, 1862.

Henry L. Valentine, discharged for disability.

Amos W. Warner, discharged for disability.

Charles 0. Wade, discharged for disability, Aug. 5, 1862.

EIGHTH, NINTH, AND TWELFTH INFANTRY.

Formation and Departure of the Eighth Infantry-Takes Part in the Expedition to South Carolina-Its Services and Battles there-Its Casualties-To Kentucky and Mississippi-Back to Kentucky Through Cumberland Gap to East Tennessee-Siege of Knoxville -Re-enlistment-Off to Virginia-Services in the Campaign of 1864-Brilliant closing Services-Muster out-Members from Barry County-From Allegan County-The Ninth Infantry recruited, mustered in, and ordered to Kentucky-Winter-Quarters there Services in Tennessee-Six Companies attacked at Murfreesboro by Forrest’s Division of Cavalry-Suffers Heavy Loss, and is compelled to surrender-Prisoners exchanged-Regiment detailed as Provost-Guard-Re-enlistment- Continuation of Guard Duty through the War-Marches with Sherman’s Army to Atlanta Services at Chattanooga and Nashville-Mustered out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members-The Twelfth Infantry -Mustered in and hurried to the Front-Pittsburg Landing Battle of Metamora-A Detachment defends a Block-House Services in Mississippi-In Arkansas-Close of its Services-Barry County Members-Allegan County Members.

EIGHTH INFANTRY.

This regiment rendezvoused at Detroit.

It was mustered into the service Sept. 23, 1861, and on the 27th of the same month, having on its rolls the names of nine hundred and fifteen officers and enlisted men, it set out for the front, led by the gallant Col. William M. Fenton, of Flint.

At Annapolis, Md., on the 19th of October, 1861, it embarked as part of the expedition which under Gen. T. W. Sherman was to operate against the enemy along the South Atlantic coast.

From this time until the termination of the Antietam campaign the regiment was very actively engaged, participating in nine battles, occurring in four different States, viz.: Hilton Head, S. C.. Nov. 7, 1861; Port Royal Ferry, S. C., Jan. 1, 1862; Fort Pulaski, Ga., April 14, 1862; Wilmington Island, Ga., April 16, 1862; James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862; Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29 and 30, 1862; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, 1862; South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862; and Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Its casualties at Wilmington Island were fourteen killed and thirty wounded; at James Island, thirteen killed, ninety-seven wounded, thirty-five missing, and thirty-five taken prisoners.

The alterations from the time of its enlistment to Nov. 1, 1862, showed the following astonishing results:

Number of men discharged, two hundred and sixty;

died of disease, fifty-five;

killed in battle or died of wounds received in action, eighty-nine;

wounded in action, two hundred and forty-three;

deserted, ten;

taken prisoner – One hundred of these were discharged because of their enlistment in the regular army.

joined by enlistment, two hundred and seventy-three;

officers resigned, twenty-one.

In March, 1863, it proceeded with the Ninth Army Corps to Kentucky, and in June following to Vicksburg, Miss.; thence in August it proceeded, via Cairo, Cincinnati, and Nicholasville, to Crab Orchard, Ky., and on the 10th of September it marched, via Cumberland Gap, to Knoxville, Tenn., where, with the Ninth Army Corps, under Gen. Burnside, it participated in the stirring scenes there enacted during the fall of 1863.

During the siege of Knoxville by the rebels under Longstreet the Eighth occupied the front line of works, and assisted to repel the fierce assault on Fort Sanders, Nov. 29, 1863.

The regiment during this period endured many hardships and privations from want of sufficient food and clothing.

The enemy were finally compelled to retire, and were pursued by the Eighth as far as Rutledge.

The regiment then re-enlisted as veteran volunteers, and on the 8th of January commenced its march across the mountains via Cumberland Gap. Nicholasville, Ky., was reached January 19th; a march of two hundred miles, through icy passes and over rough mountain-roads, having been performed in ten days.

Arriving home, a large number of recruits was obtained, and on the 9th of March, 1864, the regiment left its rendezvous at Flint, and again proceeded to join the Ninth Army Corps in Virginia.

Thenceforth its history was identified with that of the Army of the Potomac.

In the battle of the Wilderness it lost ninety-nine men, killed, wounded, and missing; at Spottsylvania, forty-nine; at Bethesda Church, fifty-two; at Petersburg, June 17th and 18th, forty-nine men.

At the Crater, Weldon Railroad, Ream’s Station, Poplar Grove Church, Pegram Farm, Boydton Road, and Hatcher’s Run, it was also engaged, losing numerously in killed, wounded, and missing.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, it had lost in killed, or died of wounds received in action, eighty-six men; died of disease, forty; wounded in action, two hundred and eighty-seven; missing in action, twenty-nine; taken prisoners, thirty-seven; while it had gained by reenlistment of veterans two hundred and ninety-nine, and by the joining of recruits, five hundred and forty-two.

In the final campaign in Virginia the Eighth bore a distinguished part.

It assisted to repulse the enemy when he assaulted Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865, and on the 2d of April was engaged in the attack on his position at Fort Mahon, when it carried the works in its front, and was the first regiment to place its colors on that rebel stronghold.

It occupied Petersburg, April 3d, and soon after marched to ‘City Point, whence it embarked on transports to Alexandria, Va.

It was mustered out of service at’ Delaney House, D. C., July 30, 1865, and, arriving in Detroit, Michigan, Aug. 3, 1865, was paid in full and disbanded.

MEMBERS OF THE EIGHTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp. Stwd. John Michael, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 30, 1861; discharged at end of ser, vice, Sept. 23, 1864.

Company B.

Sergeant Saml. Stowell, enlisted Aug. 26, 1861; discharged for disability, March 23, 1863.

James H. Black, discharged to enlisted in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862.

John C. Black, veteran, enlisted Dec. 29, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

David C. Lee, discharged to enlisted in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862.

Company F.

1st Lieutenant Travers Philips, Hastings; cor. Aug. 29, 1861; res. June 11, 1862. 2d Lieutenant

Jacob Maus, Hastings; com. Aug. 29, 1861; res. Jan. 9, 1862. 1st Lieutenant

Austin D. Bates, Irving; enlisted Jan. 9, 1862; sergeant; res. Oct. 23, 1862.

Sergeant Wm. A. Thomas, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Sergeant Jas. F. Mead, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; promoted 2d Lieutenant June 6, 1864; mustered out at end of service, Sept. 23, 1864.

Sergeant Chas. H. Swartout, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Co. G. Sergeant Chas. Snyder, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; promoted 2d Lieutenant; mustered out Sergeant, July 30, 1865.

Sergeant John M. Bessmer, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 30, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 31, 1863.

Corp. Augustus I. Newton, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 9, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Corp. Edgar A. Nye, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; died in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864.

Corp. Wm. H. H. Powers, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 2, 1861; veteran; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Corp. John H. Wolfe, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; discharged at end of service, Sept. 23, 1864.

Musician Wilbur F. Dickinson, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 8, 1865.

Wagoner Robert D. Gates, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; discharged by order, May 3, 1863.

Saml. Belsom, discharged for disability, Dec. 27, 1862.

Alonzo H. Bennett, discharged for disability, Feb. 13, 1863.

Julius Brazee, discharged at end of service, May 15, 1865.

Win. 0. Barrett, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Wm. C. Barrett, Died of disease at Washington, D. C., August, 1864.

Dorrance E. Burdick, veteran, enlisted Dec. 29, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Sidney D. Cobb, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

Emmett Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862.

Harlan Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Geo. Cross, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Alonzo B. Duffy, discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Alvan B. Durham, veteran, died of disease at Washington, D. C., May 4, 1865.

John G. Dowd, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

William Desmond, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Edward H. Easton, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Henry Grebel, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

William H. Geiger, discharged fQr disability, March 27, 1862.

Abraham Guntrip, discharged Jan. 8, 1863.

Joseph Garnish, died of wounds at Washington, D. C., June 30, 1864.

Oliver H. Greenfield, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, July 6, 1865.

William LI. Holden, veteran, eul. Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Henry W. Hawes, discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Edward Johnson, discharged for disability, Sept. 27, 1861.

Elijah Kibbee, discharged by order, Aug. 15, 1865.

Herman Knickerbocker, died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

George W. Kightliner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; died on picket duty before Petersburg, Va., Dec. 9, 1864.

George Lusk, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

James Y. McLellan, died of wounds, June 25, 1862.

John F. Maile, discharged for promotion, Aug. 11, 1864.

Daniel McKenzie, discharged at end of service, March 27, 1865.

John L. Maile, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Jan. 20, 1865.

Duncan McBain, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Daniel Pierce, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 12, 1865.

John F. Phillips, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Nov. 23, 1861.

James S. Perry, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

James I. Fullmer, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862. George W. Peck, discharged for disability.

Close R. Palmer, discharged for disability. Charles M. Runyan, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Gurden Clark Rathbun, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

William Stokes, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Nov. 27, 1861.

Benjamin Sirebury, discharged for disability.

Henry Sliter, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Hiram Seeley, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Edward G. Stoffe, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Richard C. Smith, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; died of disease in Michigan, Feb. 2, 1864.

John B. Tatro, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Dec. 6, 1861.

William S. Turrell, died of wounds at Fredericksburg, Va., June 18, 1864.

Harmon Wanderlish, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

Luther B. Wilcox, died at Spottsylvania, Va., May 9, 1864.

Myron H. Wells, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

William R. Wheeler, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

George Wellman, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

John W. Waggoner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 12, 1865.

Company G.

1st Lieutenant Chas. H. Swartout, Prairieville; enlisted Oct. 18, 1864; promoted Captain Co. K, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 30, 1865.

13 I William Carpenter, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Daidimus M. Darling, mustered out July 30, 1865.

John English, mustered out July 30, 1865.

John Lewis, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Company L

Edgar A. Clark, discharged by order, July 6, 1861.

Edgar H. Clark, discharged by order, Aug. 9, 1865.

Alonzo Gilbert, discharged by order, Aug. 9, 1865.

Elijah P. Guiger, discharged by order Aug. 9, 1865.

Pelingal D. Wright, discharged for disability, Feb. 4, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE EIGHTH INFANTRY.

Company D.

Quincy C. Lamoreaux, died of disease at home, April 25, 1865.

Company G.

Wm. Coleman, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Nathaniel Davis, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Robt. Patterson, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Thos. Welch, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Chas. Wilson, killed on picket before Petersburg, Feb. 18, 1865.

NINTH INFANTRY.

This regiment, so well known in the old Army of the Cumberland, was recruited during the summer and fall of 1861, its rendezvous being at Fort Wayne, near Detroit.

It was mustered into the United States service for three years Oct. 15, 1861, and ten days later proceeded to the seat of war in Kentucky, being the first regiment from Michigan to enter upon active service in the field, west of the Alleghanies.

It reached Jeffersonville, Ind., on the 27th, and the following day embarked for Salt River, Ky.

Soon after, it constructed a defensive work on Muldraugh’s Hill, a point on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, where it remained during’ the winter of 1861-62.

During its stay at that place the men of the Ninth were terribly afflicted with measles and other diseases, and as many as four hundred were on the sick-list at one time.

The regiment remained at its winter cantonment until February, 1862.

Immediately after the capture of Fort Donelson it was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., and after a few weeks to Murfreesboro, Tenn., where it was on garrison duty nearly all the time until July 13, 1862.

During that period, however, it formed part of Gen. Negley’s command, which marched as far south as the Tennessee River, opposite Chattanooga, and then returned to Murfreesboro.

Subsequently four companies were detached and stationed at Tullahoma, Tenn.

On the 13th of July, at four o’clock in the morning, the six companies stationed at Murfreeibboro were attacked by three thousand rebel Cavalry under Gen. Forrest.

The Third Minnesota Infantry, with a battery, was encamped two miles northwest of the town.

The first attack on the camp of five companies-one company was at the courthouse-was repulsed.

Gen. Forrest then attacked the single company in the court-house.

Col. Parkhurst sent to the commander of the Minnesota regiment for aid, which the latter, perhaps for good reasons, declined to give.

The one company in the court-house held the foe at bay two hours, but was obliged to surrender.

Forrest then returned to attack the camp.

The men had meanwhile thrown up some slight defenses, behind which they fought vigorously until past noon, having just one hundred officers and men (out of less than three hundred) killed and wounded.

Finding themselves outnumbered ten to one, and receiving no assistance, they finally yielded to the inevitable, and surrendered.

The enlisted men were paroled at McMinnville, but the officers were not released until several months later.

In the latter part of December, 1862 (the prisoners taken at Murfreesboro having been exchanged and returned to duty) the regiment was detailed as provost-guard of the Fourteenth Corps, with Col. (afterwards General) Parkhurst as provost-marshal.

Gen. Thomas remarked, when he made the detail, that he had fully acquainted himself with the conduct of the regiment in the defense of Murfreesboro, and that he needed just such a force for provost-guard.

The Ninth acted in that capacity throughout the remainder of the war.

Its services at the battles of Stone River and Chickamauga in stopping runaways and maintaining order were arduous in the extreme, and were warmly complimented by Gen. Thomas.

When that gallant officer assumed command of the Army of the Cumberland, after Chickamauga, Col. Parkhurst was made provost-marshalgeneral of the department, and the Ninth became the provost-guard of that army.

In December, 1863, two hundred and twenty-nine of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and returned to Michigan on furlough.

In the latter part of February, 1864, they again appeared at Chattanooga, with their numbers increased to about five hundred men.

The regiment was again ordered to act as provost-guard of the Army of the Cumberland, and during the summer and autumn participated in all the movements of that army in Georgia and Tennessee.

It entered Atlanta on its evacuation by the enemy, and was there engaged in provost duty until that city was abandoned by the Union forces, when it returned to Chattanooga.

It was largely recruited during the season, and, notwithstanding the muster out of non-veterans whose terms had expired, had eight hundred and ninety-seven enlisted men on the 1st of November, 1864.

It remained in Chattanooga until the 27th of March, 1865, when it was moved to Nashville.

There it stayed on duty at headquarters and as guard at the military prison until the 15th of September, when it was mustered out of service.

The following day it set out for Michigan, arriving at Jackson on the 19th, and on the 26th day of September, 1865, the Ninth Michigan Infantry was paid off and disbanded.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company E.

John C. Henry, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Loren Hill, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Geo. H. Kirkland, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Richard C. Kent, died of disease at Nashville, July 2, 1865.

Company H.

Mason F. Rose, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 25, 1865.

Samuel A. Raplee, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Hiram Saxton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Asahel Sprague, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Jas. W. Schemerhorn, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company I.

Christian Sutter, discharged by order, Jan. 7, 1865.

Eli Shuck, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company K.

John E. Kenyon, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Win. L. Torry, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Edwin O. Fenny, mustered out June 8, 1865.

John Weigand, mustered out July 4, 1865.

Company B.

Jas. W. Bennett, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Nicholas Barton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Wm. Corey, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Horace Cook, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Saml. Coleman, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Patrick Colton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Martin J. Darling, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Miles Woodmansee, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company C.

Albert Emmons, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Samuel Fisk, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Lorenzo Lawrence, died of disease at Nashville, July 2, 1865.

Company D.

Wm. D. Green, mustered out June 20, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company A.

William W. Ashley, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company B.

Orrin J. Buck, mustered out June 20, 1865.

John H. Crispel, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 19, 1865.

Company E.

Sidney M. Constantine, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

George Gordon, discharged by order, Sept. 27, 1865.

Levi Kingsbury, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 7, 1865.

Company G.

Samuel A. Owen, discharged by order, June 20, 1865.

Company H.

Sheil Pulsifer, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Orrin Potter, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company L

Watson W. Wait, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company K.

John Tagle, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

TWELFTH INFANTRY.

The Twelfth Regiment of Michigan Infantry was mustered into the United States service at Niles, March 5, 1862, and on the 18th of the same month proceeded to St. Louis, Mo.

From there it was hurried forward to the Tennessee River, and reached Pittsburg Landing in time to take part in the battles fought there on the 6th and 7th of April.

It was also engaged in the battle of Metamora. on the Hatchie River, Oct. 5, 1862.

From the time of its organization to Nov. 1, 1862, it had lost forty-seven men killed, or died of wounds received in action, ninety-two wounded in action, one hundred and six died of disease, and one hundred and six men taken prisoners at Shiloh.

On the 24th of December, 1862, while one hundred and fifteen of the regiment were occupying a block-house at Middleburg, Tenn., they were attacked by a force of the enemy’s Cavalry three thousand strong.

A severe engagement ensued, ending in the complete repulse of the enemy, with a loss to him of nine killed and eleven wounded, left on the field.

Gen. Grant in subsequent orders warmly congratulated the men on account of this heroic defense.

Early in June, 1863, the regiment was ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., and during the siege was stationed on Haynes’ and Snyder’s Bluffs. After the surrender of Vicksburg it was ordered into Arkansas, where the remainder of its service was performed.

It re-enlisted as a veteran regiment at Little Rock, in November, 1863, when it returned to Niles on furlough.

It again took the field -its ranks swelled by numerous recruits-in March, 1864;

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

I returning to Arkansas, where various duties were well performed until Feb. 15, 1866, when it was mustered out of the service at Little Rock.

It arrived at Jackson, Michigan, February 27th, where its members received their final pay and their discharge-papers, on the 6th of March, 1866.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE TWELFTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff.

Asst. Surg. Almon A. Thompson, Vermontville; com. Sept. 24, 1862; res. Jan. 28, 1863; asst. surg. in 11th Cavalry., Dec. 23, 1863; mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Company A.

Alfred L. Clyborne, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

Henry Casselman, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

Charles E. Ferguson, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

John Heath, discharged for disability, Sept. 23, 1865.

Jay Proctor, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., Jan. 7, 1865.

Company C.

Duncan McDonald, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company E.

Perry Brown, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., April 6, 1865.

William Brown, discharged by order, May 27, 1865.

Jesse Callihan, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

George L. Chandler, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Elijah J. Hale, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Charles C. Jenson, discharged by order, Sept. 14, 1865.

Company G.

Joel G. Brown, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Hamilton Brown, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Merritt Everett, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Warren Everett, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Alfred Feighner, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 28, 1864.

John Rinehart, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., Aug. 14, 1864.

Ansel Towle, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Aaron Wright, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 17, 1863.

John Walker, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 3, 1864.

Company I.

John Hartwell, discharged by order, Aug. 22, 1865.

Solomon Seward, discharged by order, Sept. 30, 1865.

Company K.

Hiram Johnson, died of disease at Washington, Ark., July 11, 1865.

MEMBERS OF THE TWELFTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company B.

Albert Critz, died of disease at Camden, Ark., Sept. 24, 1865.

Edward P. Coots, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company E.

Frederick Hardy, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Jacob Snyder, discharged by order, Sept. 15. 1865.

Company F.

Sergeant Columbus Blake, Gun Plains; enlisted Dec. 10, 1861; died of disease at Pittsburgh, Pa.

Stephen Eldred, discharged September, 1862.

Lawrence B. Green, discl. by order, May 20, 1865.

Stephen M. Hamblen, discharged at end of service, Sept. 9, 1865.

Andrew J. Munger, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

David S. Reynold, discharged Sept. 1, 1862.

Thomas H. Stubbarts, veteran, enlisted Feb. 24, 1864; discharged for disability, Jan. 19, 1865.

Company G.

Benjamirl Alexander, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

Isaiah Rathbone, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company H.

Milton Burnip, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Sept. 15, 1864.

Alfred Dolittle, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Joseph Pattengill, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Samuel F. Stainbrook, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Large Representation from These Counties in the Thirteenth-It joins Buell and marches to Pittsburg Landing-Siege of Corinth-Returns with Buell to Kentucky, and again advances to Tennessee Battle of Stone River-Great Bravery and Heavy Loss-Hard Marching-Battle of Chickamauga-Ordered to serve as Engineers -Re-enlistment-Services near Chattanooga-In Northern Alabama-It joins Sherman at Atlanta-The March to the Sea-The Method of the March-Through the Carolinas-Manner of Procedure-The Battle of Bentonville-A Hard Fight-Col. Eaton killed -Carlin’s First Brigade holds its Ground-Repulsing the Enemy -Capturing a Large Force-Heavy Loss-Subsequent Services Muster out-Officers and Men from Allegan County-From Barry County.

The regiment above named, recruited during the fall of 1861, was mustered into the United States service for three years at Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jan. 17, 1862.

Among its officers and enlisted men the counties of Allegan and Barry were largely represented; the former by more than three hundred men,-its greatest representation in any separate command during the war.

It contained, too, a larger number of the sons of Barry County than any other regiment, excepting the Sixth Cavalry.

Commanded by Col. Michael Shoemaker, the regiment left Kalamazoo for the seat of war in Kentucky, Feb. 12, 1862, with nine hundred and twenty-five officers and men, to which number seventy-four were added by enlistment prior to July, 1862.

The Thirteenth joined Gen. Buell’s forces, and with him marched through Kentucky and Tennessee, via Bowling Green and Nashville, to Pittsburg Landing, which place it reached, after a forced march, near the close of the second day’s battle, too late to take part in the conflict.

From that time until the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard, the Thirteenth was engaged in the arduous picket and pick-and-shovel duties performed by Gen. Halleck’s army during the siege.

It then moved with Gen. Buell’s forces into Northern Alabama, and was the last of the command to leave that locality when the general fell back towards Louisville.

It shared all the hardships of that long march across the States of Tennessee and Kentucky, and soon after reaching Louisville, in October, 1862, retraced its weary steps in pursuit of its old enemy, the rebel Gen. Bragg.

It aided in chasing him and his motley forces out of Kentucky, but was not present at any heavy engagement.

It suffered severely from disease, however; the deaths from this cause during the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, numbering seventy-one, while the number discharged for disability during the same time was one hundred and twenty.

After a short stay at Silver Springs, Tenn., the regiment advanced and aided in driving the enemy from Lebanon.

Proceeding to Nashville, it was on duty in that vicinity until the 26th of December, when it marched with Gen. Rosecrans’ army towards Murfreesboro.

On the 29th it was deployed as skirmishers, and lost several in killed and wounded.

On the 31st of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, the regiment was hotly engaged in the battle of Stone River, having twenty-five killed, sixty-two wounded, and eight missing out of two hundred and twenty-four who entered the conflict.

On the 31st of December it recaptured by a bayonet charge two Union guns which had fallen into the hands of the enemy.

After the victory at Stone River the Thirteenth was engaged in building fortifications at Murfreesboro, and in scouting through the adjoining parts of Tennessee, until the 24th of June, 1863, when it advanced with Gen. Rosecrans against Bragg.

After various marches and countermarches in rear of the retreating forces of the latter general, the regiment, with its division, moved from Hillsboro’, Tenn., to cross the Cumberland Mountains.

By a four days’ march, over mountain ranges rising three thousand feet above the valleys, along roads so steep that the artillery and ambulances, and the baggage, supply and ammunition wagons often had to be hauled up by hand, the division reached the Sequatchie Valley.

It then crossed the Tennessee River at Shell Mound, and, marching upon Chattanooga, the Thirteenth was one of the first regiments to occupy that place.

On the 19th and 20th days of September, 1863, the regiment was in the midst of the hotly contested field of Chickamauga, where, although the Union troops, being outnumbered, were forced to retire from the field, the rebel loss far exceeded their own.

The Thirteenth went into this battle with two hundred and seventeen officers and men, and of that number lost twenty-five killed, fifty-seven wounded, and twenty-five missing, some of whom were probably killed.

The total number of those killed or mortally wounded in action during the year ending Nov. 1, 1863, was fifty-one, while there were ninety-two others wounded, sixty-six who died of disease, and one hundred and sixty-two who were discharged for disability.

On the 5th of November the Thirteenth, together with the Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Michigan Infantry and the Eighteenth Ohio Infantry, was organized into a brigade of engineers and assigned to duty at Chattanooga, being attached to the headquarters of the Department of the Cumberland.

It was present at the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain, but was not seriously engaged.

During the months of December, 1863, and January, 1864, it was stationed on the Chickamauga, engaged in picket duty and in, cutting logs for building warehouses at Chattanooga.

The Thirteenth re-enlisted as a veteran organization January 17, 1864, and on the 5th of February started home, arriving at Kalamazoo on the 12th.

After the usual veteran furlough the regiment returned to the front on the 26th of March, with its numbers increased by over four hundred new recruits.

Chattanooga was again reached April 20, 1864, and for five months from that time the regiment was stationed at Lookout Mountain, engaged in the construction of military hospitals and guarding the sick and wounded sent back from Sherman’s army.

It was then relieved from engineer duty and assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.

After a severe march through Northern Alabama, in pursuit of Forrest’s and Roddy’s rebel Cavalry, the regiment joined its brigade at Rome, Ga., on the 1st of November.

As the Fourteenth and other corps retraced their steps towards Atlanta, the towns on the route, bridges, telegraph lines, and railroads were all destroyed.

And when the corps marched into Atlanta, on the afternoon of November 15th, the city was already in flames, no more to be made a rebel stronghold.

On the following morning Gen. Sherman’s army set out on the celebrated “march to the sea” with one day’s rations in the haversacks and none in the supply-trains.

This renowned but comparatively easy achievement was accomplished by sixty thousand men, veterans, all of them, and the flower of the whole Western army, who swept in a resistless mass through Georgia, brushing contemptuously aside the few feeble detachments of militia and conscripts which endeavored to oppose them, without delaying for a moment their own mighty and majestic advance.

Having reached Savannah on the 10th of December, 1864, the regiment was on duty in the trenches before that city until the 21st of the same month, when Hardee’s rebel forces evacuated the place.

On the 17th of January, 1865, The force under the immediate command of Gen. Sherman in his march through Georgia and the Carolinas was composed of the Fifteenth and S nnh and Seventeeth Army Corps, or ” Army of the Tennessee,” under Gen. Howard, as the right wing, and the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps, or “Army of Georgia,” under Gen. Slocum, as the left wing, while Kilpatrick’s division of Cavalry guarded the front, flanks, and rear.

The Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps formed the major portion of the Army of the Cumberland during the Atlanta campaign of 1864, but at the beginning of Gen. Sherman’s ” march to the sea” the name of Army of Georgia was adopted, to distinguish Gen. Slocum’s command from the troops commanded by Gen. Thomas, who still remained in command of the Army and Department of the Cumberland, with headquarters at Nashville, Tenn.

These four army corps already mentioned were composed of three divisions each, except the Fifteenth, which had four divisions, and each corps, having its own artillery, ammunition, ambulance, pontoon and supply trains, was a separate and well-equipped army in itself.

When no enemy appeared the corps moved on parallel roads from ten to fifteen miles distant from each other.

In case fighting was apprehended, the two corps forming a wing were massed upon one road.

The Fourteenth Corps, commanded by Gen. Jeff; C. Davis, with Kilpatrick’s Cavalry, was usually to be found on the extreme left flank of the armies.

Its First, Second, and Third Divisions were commanded respectively by Gens. Carlin, J. D. Morgan, and Baird, and their movements were made in the following order: Carlin, with the First Division, would take the advance for three days; from two to five miles in rear of him was Morgan, with the Second; while in the rear was Baird, encumbered and struggling to bring forward over swamps, creeks, and rivers the corps trains of six hundred wagons, to each of which was attached six mules, guided with single rein by a profane Northern Jehu, who did not seem to enjoy his position unless covered with mud from spur to visor.

On the morning of the fourth day Carlin would fall in in the rear, taking Baird’s position, Baird would move in the centre, while Morgan took the advance, and thus they alternated at the beginning of each fourth day. Meantime, foraging-parties of from fifty to sixty men, detailed daily from each regiment, scoured the country in front and on the flanks for provisions.

Indeed, so anxious were these foragers to ” strike a fresh plantation” before those of other commands that they usually left camp as early as two o’clock A.M., and throughout the day kept in advance of the main column of troops by a distance of from five to ten miles, very frequently being found in advance of Kilpatrick’s Cavalry.

Whether on foot, on mules, or mounted on Southern thoroughbreds, jolting along in a loaded plantation cart, or riding into camp seated in a sumptuous barouche, the foragers of the Fourteenth Corps cared little for Wheeler’s, Butler’s, or I1impton’s rebel Cavalry, and when attacked by them, readily organized their skirmish line and reserve, without officers, and, advancing, cleared their way.

Thus did Sherman’s armies bowl “down to the sea,” and after the proud and defiant city of Savannah was within their grasp the same scenes were re-enacted in the march northwards through the Carolinas.

The regiment advanced with the Army of Georgia up the right bank of the Savannah River to Sisters’ Ferry, where, after much labor and delay, it crossed into South Carolina.

Thence it proceeded, via Barnwell Court-House, Williston, and Lexington, to near Columbia, S. C.; there it crossed the Saluda River, and, moving up the west bank of the Catawba, crossed the latter river at Rocky Mount, where rains, mud, and swollen streams again hindered the Fourteenth Corps for more than a week.

After making the passage of the Catawba, the command was hurried forward by forced marches to Cheraw, where, on the south bank of Great Pedee, the main forces were overtaken. From there to Fayetteville, N. C., skirmishing with the enemy’s Cavalry was a daily occurrence.

The enemy under Hardee was driven out of the latter place and pursued to Averysboro’, N. C., where, on the 16th of March, a sharp engagement ensued; the enemy being driven from the field, losing heavily in killed and wounded, besides many prisoners,among the latter being Col. Rhett and his famous regiment of young South Carolinians.

The Union forces operating in this field were those of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps, commanded by Gen. Slocum; the Army of the Tennessee, or right wing, being some twenty-five or thirty miles to the eastward, moving on Goldsboro’.

One division of the Fourteenth Corps and of the Twentieth were guarding their respective corps-trains, leaving but four small divisions-at the most not more than twenty thousand men, and one third of those shoeless-to engage such numbers as might oppose them.

From Averysboro’ the Fourteenth Corps took the advance, Morgan’s Second Division leading, and Carlin’s First coming next.

Baird was guarding the train, while the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps were in the rear of Carlin.

During the 17th and 18th of March, Morgan’s skirmishers had several encounters with the enemy, but the latter rapidly retired whenever his columns were seen advancing, until late in the afternoon of the 18th, when the Confederates disputed his further progress with artillery, supported by infantry and Cavalry.

Morgan’s First Brigade, composed of the Tenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, Sixteenth and Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, and Seventeenth New York Infantry, being in the advance, immediately formed line of battle and moved forward, when the enemy again retired.

The regiments of this brigade stacked arms on their color-lines and encamped for the night.

Gen. Sherman, with his staff and escort, also established his headquarters in the midst of this brigade the same evening.

Early on the morning of the 19th the general commanding set out to join the right wing, and Carlin’s First Division of the Fourteenth Corps moved to the front, to take the advance for the three succeeding days.

By this time Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, one of the best officers in the Confederate service, had collected all the available rebel troops in Georgia, North and South Carolina, and was prepared with near forty thousand men to make one desperate effort to stop Sherman’s advance toward Richmond, or at least to defeat his left wing.

He accordingly took up a strong position near the little village of Bentonville, which gave its name to the battle which followed.

His presence was unknown to the Union troops in his front, and when Carlin’s troops moved out on the morning of the 19th, they did so with buoyant spirits and the long, swinging stride so characteristic of this army.

Johnston’s army and line of earthworks were scarcely five miles distant from the place where Morgan encamped on the night of the 18th.

Therefore, Carlin had hardly given room for Morgan to place his command on the road when his (Carlin’s) advance struck the enemy, and at once became hotly engaged.

Morgan’s troops hurried forward on the double-quick and took position, by orders of Gen. Davis, on Carlin’s right, while the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps came up with all possible speed and went into line on his left.

At the beginning of the battle the First Division advanced with confident steps to what they expected would be but a repetition of their former easy victories, and at one time the Thirteenth Michigan gained a position within six rods of the enemy’s intrenchments, but the storm of lead was too severe to be withstood.

The brave Col. Willard G. Eaton, of Otsego, was shot dead at the head of his men, and at length the whole division was compelled to fall back to the shelter of a low acclivity within easy musket-range of the enemy’s works.

The battle raged with wavering fortunes all the rest of the day.

Johnston, in the hopes of destroying before reinforcements could come up a force much less than his own, forced the fight, but the men who here represented the Union arms were the surviving heroes of Donelson, Shiloh, Island No. 10, Corinth, Perrysville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, besides the score of battles fought during the Atlanta campaign; while the eastern troops of the Twentieth Corps had breasted the leaden storm on the Peninsula, at Chantilly, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg before joining the Army of the Cumberland.

They were men who had been out two months from Savannah, receiving during that time no mails, letters, or tidings from home, and they did not propose to be balked in their onward march now, or to assist in filling rebel prison-pens, and the oft-repeated assaults of the enemy were met by a withering fire and counter-charges which sent them hurrying to the shelter of the woods.

While Carlin’s division and the Twentieth Corps were so warmly engaged on the open ground, Morgan was equally busy in the pines on the right, and his First Brigade, under Gen. Vandever, composed of the Michigan, Illinois, and New York Regiments previously mentioned, had the best fortune of any of the troops in the battle of that day.

This brigade was stationed on the extreme right, and its right flank was guarded by an impenetrable swamp.

During the intervals between the charges of the enemy, Vandever’s brigade was enabled to erect log breastworks, the trees being felled and cut into the required lengths with hatchets, of which nearly every man carried one in his waist-belt.

Late in the afternoon, during a desperate charge on Morgan’s left, one of his brigades gave way, and a column of the rebels occupied low, swampy ground.

Their position was screened by a dense pine forest, and was approached by the Union forces over cleared fields.

The enemy passed through the gap.

Wheeling to the left, they moved down in rear of Vandever’s brigade, making it necessary for the Union troops to occupy the front side of their own works, from before which their immediate opponents had happily retired.

Here a short sharp fight of a few moments’ duration was ended by Vandever’s men leaping forward in a charge, and compelling the surrender of several hundred rebels.

In this battle the Thirteenth Michigan Infantry lost one hundred and ten officers and men, killed, wounded, and captured.

During the long night which succeeded, Gen. Sherman was marching the Army of the Tennessee to the reinforcement of the almost overwhelmed, but not defeated, Army of Georgia.

He arrived at daylight of the 20th, and a day or so later Johnston was driven from the field.

After his surrender the Thirteenth proceeded with its command to Washington, D. C., and participated in the grand review of Gen. Sherman’s army, May 24, 1864; left that city on the 9th of June, reaching Louisville, Ky., on the 15th of the latter month.

It was mustered out of service at Louisville, July 25th, and on the 27th of July, 1865, arrived at Jackson, Michigan, where it was paid off and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY WHO SERVED IN THE THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff.

Col. Willard G. Eaton, Otsego; com. Feb. 23, 1865; Major, May 26, 1863;

Captain Co. I, Oct. 20, 1862; 1st Lieutenant Co. I, Oct. 3, 1861; killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Lieutenant-Col. P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. May 12, 1865; Major, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865. (See Co. A.)

Adj. Alanson B. Case, Otsego; com. Jan. 20, 1863; mustered out at end of service Jan. 16, 1865. Non- Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major Alanson B. Case, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 17, 1861; promoted to 2d lieuit.

Co. B.

Sergeant Major Clark D. Fox, Otsego; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. I.

Q.-M. Sergeant Kilburn W. Mansfield, Otsego; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. A, July 4, 1862.

Com. Sergeant John Kirby, Allegan; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. A, April 25, 1865.

Company A.

Captain P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. Feb. 28, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, July 13, 1862; promoted to Major, April 25, 1865. (See Field and Staff.)

1st Lieutenant Kilburn W. Mansfield, Otsego; com. Feb. 28, 1863; 2d Lieutenant, July 4, 1862; promoted to Captain

Co. I. 2d Lieutenant John Kirby, Allegan; com. April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Carlton Barton, discharged for disability, April 30, 1865.

Edgar Barton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Clark B. Brewster, discharged by order, Sept. 8, 1865.

Henry Carmody, died of disease in New York City, Jan. 12, 1865.

Edwin Chamberlain, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John E. Case, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Delevan, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Russell Dyer, died of disease in Allegan, Oct. 1, 1862.

Abial Emmons, discharged for disability, June 25, 1862.

William Ernmons, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Philander J. Edson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Myron C. Finch, discharged by order, July 14, 1865.

Henry Gillespie, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph W. Hershaw, mustered out July 20, 1865.

Edward Howe, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Martin Harter, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Amasa Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Chauncey Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Kipp, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James H. Lewis, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Clark H. Lyman, mustered out Aug. 4, 1865.

Alvin W. Morley, discharged by order, May 20, 1865.

Henry Merchant, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Amos C. Root, died of disease on government steamer, May 7, 1865.

Jacob Schweikert, discharged by order, June 7, 1865.

Alexander W. Sprague, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Abel Stearns, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel Shepard, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Calvin Underwood, discharged for disability, May 16, 1862.

Job Underwood, died of disease at Louisville, July 6, 1862.

George B. Van Arsdale, died of disease at Pittsburgh, May 30, 1865.

I Walter Wood, discharged for disability, Sept. 17, 1862.

Milton B. Williams, discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Company B.

Captain George B. Force, Gun Plains; com. Sept. 23, 1861; res. May 31, 1862.

Captain Dewitt C. Kenyon, Ganges; com. March 19, 1864; let Lieutenant, Jan. 31, 1863; mustered out July 25, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Jacob G. Fry, Ganges; com. May 31, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, Oct. 3, 1861; res. for disability, Jari. 31, 1863.

1st Lieutenant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; com. May 12, 1865; 2d Lieutenant, Aug. 26, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865. 2d Lieutenant

Alanson B. Case, Otsego; com. May 31, 1862; promoted to 1set Lieutenant and adj. (See Field and Staff.)

2d Lieutenant Howell H. Trask, Gun Plains; com. Jan. 20, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant; res. as 2d Lieutenant

2d Lieutenant Leonard E. Perry, Gun Plains; corn, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Sergeant Spencer H. Banks, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 9, 1861; died at Corinth, Miss., June 12, 1862.

Sergeant Howell IH. Trask, Ganges; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Sergeant Dewitt C. Kenyon, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 10, 1861; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Sergeant William 0. Allen, Ganges; enl, Oct. 2, 1861; missing in action at Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863.

Sergeant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 1, 1861; veteran, Feb. 11, 1864; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. G.

Corp. Joseph Miller, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 4, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. William H1. Sherman, Gun Plains; enlisted Oct. 1, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, March 16, 1862.

Musician Edward Breen, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 17, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Musician William Martin, Ganges; enlisted Dec. 10, 1861; discharged for disability, May 27, 1862.

Elias Anway, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Edson Amidon, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Briggs, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Noah Briggs, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Linus Bathrick, discharged for disability, July 19, 1862.

William Burns, discharged Aug. 8, 1862.

Lewis Bell, discharged at end of service, March 22, 1865.

Horace S. Beach, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William H. Barnes, discharged by order, June 9, 1865.

William II. Briggs, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 21, 1864.

James W. Billings, transferred to Signal Corps, Jan. 13, 1864.

Win. B. Chase, discharged for disability, April 28, 1862.

Henry C. Curtis, discharged for disability, Jan. 15, 1864.

Geo. Curtis, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

John Curtis, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Warren Cushman, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

John Crow, mustered out July 25, 1865.

L. Y. Cady, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Cheney, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Claffy, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Orson W. Davis, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Luzerne Durand, discharged by order, July 11, 1865.

Freeman II. Day, died of disease at Lookout Mountain, June 30, 1861.

James Eggleston, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Herman P. Fisher, discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Austin Foot, died of disease at Shiloh, Tenn.

Freeland Gray, discharged for disability, June 22, 1864.

Wm. Gould, veteran; enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wallace Goodsell, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Thos. A. Hubbard, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frank Hapgood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jas. Huddlestone, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Elijah Howard, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 17, 1864.

Geo. Hamilton, discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Pembroke Hazen, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Morris A. James, mustered out July 25, 1865. John Knowlton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Daniel Lee, died ot wounds received in action, Dec. 24, 1863.

Cyrille Le Due, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Frank May, discharged for disability, May 21, 1863.

Sylvester Munger, discharged for disability, April 2, 1863.

Wirt J. Morris, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1863.

Chas E. McCarty, discharged for disability, May 22, 1862.

Geo. A. Miller, discharged for disability, May 20, 1862.

Wm. B. Miller, died of disease at Bowling Green, March 14, 1862.

Adam Mil er, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Elliott McRae, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Robert Meldrum, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Geo. H. Newcomb, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Ruloff P. Ockford, discharged for disability, July 9, 1862.

Henry B. Oliver, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Lemuel W. Osborn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edson M. Porter, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John D. Patterson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Stephen G. Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edward Penfold, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Penfold, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 12, 1863.

Milton Pratt, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 15, 1865.

James Pierce, died Qf disease in New York Harbor, April 8, 1865.

Geo. W. Russell, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863.

Irwin L. Ross, discharged for disability, June 2, 1863.

Wm. H. Ross, discharged at end of service, Jan. 18, 1865.

Leroy Root, mustered out July 25, 1865. Melvin Reed, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Seringer, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel E. Stillson, veteran, enlisted Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Albertus Simons, discharged by order, July 19, 1865.

Jos. Sinclair, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Orletus C. Thayer, discharged at end of service, April 28, 1865.

Ormenus Thayer, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Chas. T. Wilson, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Geo. F. Warner, veteran, enlisted Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wm. White, mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Woodbeck, mustered out July 25, 1863.

Company C.

Sergeant Albert G. Wetmore, Allegan; veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Co. F.

Jos. W. Buttrick, died of disease, Jan. 15, 1864.

Lewis M. Bennett, discharged at end of service, Jan. 20, 1865.

Geo. Cook, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Geo. Delabarre, discharged for disability, Oct. 21, 1865.

Leander Fox, killed in action in North Carolina, March 19, 1865.

Alden C. Hand, killed in action at Stone River.

Abram Hofmeister, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Isaac Itofmeister, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Hofmeister, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Saml. Mosier, mustered out July 25, 1865,

Isaac E. Morse, died of disease at Kalamnizoo, Feb. 15, 1862.

Chas. W. Morse, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Francis Murray, discharged by order, Jan. 14, 1864.

Andrew McGaw, discharged for disability, June 2, 1862.

Eliphalet Porter, discharged for disability, April 10, 1862.

Walter Pullman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Burtis Rutgers, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Sweezy, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Staring, discharged by order, June 2, 1865.

J. H. Tanner, died of disease at Corinth, Miss., June 7, 1862.

Salem True, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Chas. Tyler, mustered out July 25, 1865. Geo. Tyler, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Nathan G. Wilson, died of disease at Nashville, Sept. 19, 1862.

Warren W. Wilcox, veteran, entl. Jan. 18, 1861; died of disease at Jackson, Michigan, April 24, 1864.

Samuel Winger, discharged for disability, Nov. 7, 1862.

John Wynn, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joel Yerton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company D.

Lee J. Bishop, discharged for disability, May 1, 1862.

Chas. Butterfield, discharged Aug. 1, 1865.

Harvey D. Culver, discharged for disability, March 27, 1863.

Win. Sloan, discharged July 5, 1862.

Company E.

Chauncey E. Blossom, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel Caruthers, died of disease, Dec. 12, 1863.

Peter Lahman, mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Lowe, discharged May 15, 1865.

Jabez McClelland, discharged for disability, July 7, 1865.

Joseph Misner, mustered out June 26, 1865.

Bela G. Moulton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Philander Palmer, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Ebenezer E. Ross, died of disease at Washington, Oct. 26, 1862.

Alfred W. Sliter, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1862.

Thos. J. Shellman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Caleb Van Vrain, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., May 30, 1865.

James Wood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company F.

2d Lieutenant Albert G. Wetmore, Allegan, May 26, 1864; promoted 1st Lieutenant July 5, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Cisnee, mustered out May 15, 1865.

Wm. H. Drake, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Company G.

Captain George M. Rowe, Saugatuck; com. March 9, 1865; 1st Lieutenant Feb. 13, 1863; com. Major July 6, 1865, but not mustered; mustered out as Captain July 25, 1865.

Sergeant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company B.

Corp. Fredk. Severance, enlisted Nov. 18, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 15, 1862.

Wagoner Win. H. Meade, enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; discharged May 30, 1863.

John S. Black, discharged for disability, July 10, 1862.

Wm. A. Babbitt, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edwin F. Case, died of wounds, Sept. 24, 1863.

David Cornelius, died of disease in Indiana, Jan. 22, 1865.

Edward Germond, died in Andersonville prison, May 16, 1864.

Henry Hinds, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Nov. 26, 1863.

Chillon Runnels, died of disease, Jan. 15, 1864.

Wm. Starr, died of disease. Feb. 15, 1861.

Byron Teal, discharged for disability, Oct. 20, 1862.

Jeptha Waterman, discharged for disability, July 10, 1862.

Randall C. Waterman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company H.

David Barrington, discharged by order, July 18, 1865.

Wm. H. Cronk, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Elisha W. Call, discharged for disability, Jan. 3, 1863.

Albert M. Dustin, mustered out July 25, 1865. Isaac Fisher, mustered out July 29, 1865.

Henry Germond, discl. at end of service, Jan. 17, 1865.

Seth Loveridge, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James Orr, discharged by order, May 27, 1865.

John M. Pinney, discharged for disability.

Wm. H. Rumsey, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

James Shattuck, discharged for disability, July 13, 1862.

Orville Whitlock, discli. for disability, Dec. 22, 1862.

Company L

Captain Henry C. Stoughlton, Otsego; com. Oct. 3, 1861; res. Oct. 20, 1862.

Captain Willard G. Eaton, Otsego; com. Oct. 20, 1862; let Lieutenant Oct. 3, 1861; promoted to Major May 26, 1863.

Captain Clark D. Fox, Otsego; com. June 13, 1863; 1st Lieutenant Oct. 20, 1862; Sergeant Major; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863.

Captain K. W. Mansfield, Otsego; cornm. March 19, 1864; 1st Lieutenant Feb. 28, 1863; mustered out July 25, 1865.

2d Lieutenant P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. Oct. 3, 1861; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. A, July 13, 1862.

2d Lieutenant Geo. M. Rowe, Saugatuck; com. July 13, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. G, July 13, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Geo. Nelson, Otsego; com. June 13, 1863; wounded, and discharged June 1, 1864.

2d Lieutenant John H. Stephens, com. April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Sergeant Isaiah Beard, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1862.

Sergeant Clark D. Fox, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 16, 1861; appointed Sergeant-Major

Sergeant K. W. Mansfield, Otsego; promoted to 2d Lieutenant,

Co. A.

Sergeant Geo. M. Rowe, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. I.

Sergeant Geo. Nelson, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 21, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. I.

Sergeant John W. Travis, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; died of disease at Nashville, April 20, 1862.

Sergeant John H. Stephens, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 26, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Corp. Amos. Dunning, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; died of disease in Alabama.

Corp. Hugh W. Dixon, Manlius; enlisted Oct. 26, 1861; transferred to Co. A.

Corp. G. H. Slotman, Overisel; ertl. Nov. 12, 1861; discharged at end of service, May 22, 1865.

Corp. Edward M. Bissel, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps; discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Corp. Edward Stowe, Manlius; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps, Aug. 1, 1863.

Corp. Jacob M. Chapman, Manlius; enlisted Jan. 9, 1862; died at St. Louis, May 25, 1862.

Musician Clark C. Bailey, Fillmore; enlisted Dec. 3, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Musician Herbert Day, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wagoner John A. McClaire, Saugatuck; enlisted Dec. 16, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cyrus E. Ames, shot in a quarrel, Sept. 20, 1863.

Samuel Agan, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjamin T. Binn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles Barry, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles L. Bard, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjanmin B. Brush, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Boswell R. Burlinghame, died of disease at Otsego, Michigan

Isaac Brundage, died of disease at New Albany, Ind.

Erritt Brockman, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862.

Oscar Bissell, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 3, 1863.

Martin S. Brown, died of disease at Salina, Michigan, April 17, 1863.

William C. Brundage, discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1862.

Peter H. Billings, discharged for disability, Nov. 5, 1862.

Edward Bissell, discharged by order, Aug. 26, 1863.

Leander Ballard, discharged for disability, Dec. 5, 1863.

Henry L. Beach, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. T

homas Cooper, mustered out Jlly 25, 1865.

Jan. Dannenborg, died of disease, April 28, 1862.

William W. Dormer, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

James K. Dole, discharged for disability, Oct. 4, 1862.

William Dusenbury, discharged for disability, Nov. 15, 1862.

Charles 0. Edwards, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 1, 1863,

Daniel Eaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Miles B. Eaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles Francisco, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William E. Fields, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James L. Fairbanks, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frederick R. Fuller, died of disease at Louisville, Oct. 1, 1862.

Charles Garlock, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Henry Holt, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

David Hammond, discharged for disability, June 1, 1863.

John Hackhouse, discharged for disability, May 4, 1864.

Charles Hogle, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jacob Hazen, mulst. out July 25, 1865.

John Inman, mustered out July 18, 1865.

John P. Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George N. Joslyn, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William Joslyn, discharged for disability, Aug. 1, 1863.

James C. Jones, discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1863.

O. P. Kingsbury, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn.

Martin Kramer, died of dise:se at Lookout Mountain, Aug. 2, 1864.

John Kramer, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Knight, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Smith Larkin, discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Jasper Lusk, discharged for disability, Nov. 11, 1862.

Jacob Mooney, died of disease at Danville, Va., May 14, 1862.

William McKee, died of disease, April 16, 1862.

George C. Miner, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 4, 1863.

William Miner, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Andrew J. Myers, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George A. Myers, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Masterson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John McQueen, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; died in action at Bentonville, March 19, 1865.

Robert Nelson, veteran, enlisted Jan.18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Newton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Hezekiah B. Niles, discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Stephen Pratt, discharged for disability. Sylvanus S. Palmer, died of disease, May 15, 1862.

Philander Palmer, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

John W. Purdy, died of wounds, April 22, 1865.

Thomas L. Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George E. Reynolds, died of disease, July 13, 1862.

Alonzo Rouse, died of wounds, Sept. 26, 1863.

Stephen Rowe, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Peter Rauf, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Allen Smith, discharged for disability, Nov. 11, 1862.

Ward P. Smith, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

James Smith, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William Simmons, veteran, eil. Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Simmonds, discharged by order, July 14, 1865.

Perry Slaw, died of disease, May 22, 1862.

Harvey H. Sqnlier, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 31, 1864.

Norton Schermerhorn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John H. Slotman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wm. A. Upson, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Burd Vanderhoop, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

John R. Ward, discharged by order, Aug. 14, 1865.

Danl. Warne, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Wilson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Eldridge Wilson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Levi Wilson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Enos Warner, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Geo. W. Wise, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Itha Xocum, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company K.

Frank A. Beardsley, discharged by order,June 8, 1865.

Win. Gibson, died of disease at David’s Island, New York Harbor, June 28, 1865.

Robert Nelson, discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

1st Lieutenant and Q.-M. Charles H. Ruggles, Prairieville; com. March 19, 1864; 2d Lieutenant; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Q.M. Sergeant Daniel B. Hosmer, Castleton; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. D, Sept. 17, 1862.

Com. Sergeant Fitz Allen Blackman, Prairieville; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company A.

2d Lieutenant Charles H. Ruggles, Prairieville; con, Feb. 28, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and quartermaster.

Sergeant Thos. B. Dunn, Prairieville; enlisted Dec. 25, 1861; died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., July 6, 1863.

Sergeant Nathaniel P. Bunnell, Barry; enlisted Dec. 18, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Wm. L. Gunton, Thornapple; enlisted Dec. 13, 1861; discharged July 25, 1862.

Corp. Dyer Russell, Maple Grove; enlisted Dec. 14, 1861; died of disease at Allegan, Oct. 1, 1862.

Corp. Wm. J. Storms, Prairieville; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; absent sick at muster out.

Musician Anson G. Philips, Prairieville; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Robert Allen, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Noah J. Bowker, discharged for disability, April 30, 1861.

Aaron Borie, discharged July 4, 1862. Jacob Bennett, died of disease at Iuka, Ala., June 11, 1862.

James Brew, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

James Cook, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Lyman A. Cross, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 29, 1862.

Horace Castle, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Oct. 21, 1862.

Elnathan H. Case, discharged for disability, Aug. 16, 1862.

Benjamin T. Cobb, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

William Campbell, discharged for disability, Aug. 18, 1862.

Marcine B. Chamberlain, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Edward C. Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 21, 1862.

Warren Easton, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Horace J. Easton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Levi Gilespie, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Joshua P. Iart, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 30, 1862.

William S. Harris, died of disease, Dec. 31, 1862.

Harvey A. Havens, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

Benjamin L. Harper, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John P. Hart, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jay R. Lathrop, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 31, 1862.

Theodore V. Linderman, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Samuel Lightner, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James B. Miller, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

George Nickols, died of disease near Corinth, Miss., May 26, 1862.

Samuel A. Owen, discharged for disability, May 13, 1862.

David A. Randall, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

Ebenezer Rathbone, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1862.

Ira Smith, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Aaron D. Staley, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Samuel S. Tyler, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 20, 1862.

Geo. W. Tuttle, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

George S. Tuft, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

George W. Wilber, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cornelius S. Wbitcomb, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frederick W. Williams, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Company B.

Sergeant Calvin Hill, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 2, 1861; discharged Sept. 8, 1862.

Corp. Geo. W. Knickerbocker, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Leander B. Pryor, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Irwin L. Ross, Trowbridge; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; discharged July 24, 1862.

Corp. Lewis Slater, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; discharged Feb. 11, 1863.

Rollo Bishop, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 9, 1863.

Charles Bishop, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1861; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Littlejohn Baker, veteran, enlisted Feb. 13, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John D. Bishop, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Rockwell D. Corwin, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Case, died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., April 26, 1862.

Andrew J. Case, discharged at end of service, March 24, 1865.

John B. Crandall, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

William F. Edgitt, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Thomas A. Hubbard, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Richard Hecox, died of disease at Prairieville, Michigan, Jan. 18, 1862.

John C. Henry, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 18, 1863.

Newton Hubbard, discharged for disability, May 23, 1862.

Henry W. Knickerbocker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Alva J. Morehouse, died of disease at Illinois, Nov. 18, 1862.

Squire M. Nichols, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Edward Pryor, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 5, 1862.

Orville J, Pryor, died of disease at Detroit, Michigan, Feb. 17, 1865.

Robert E. Pryor, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Leonard E. Perry, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Leander B. Pryor, discharged for disability, March 7, 1863.

Orwin Potter, discharged for disability, Feb. 22, 1862.

Johnt W. Rodgers, discli. by order, June 8, 1865.

Charles H. Rodgers, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Orvis Stater, discharged at end of service, March 14, 1865.

Winton Smith, discharged May 27, 1862.

Henry Smith, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

William B. Williams, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Joseph J. Wrist, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Harrison C. Wrist, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

John Withey, discharged for disability, Feb. 1, 1863.

Francis Withey, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William Withey, killed in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Francis Young, died of disease at Kalamuazoo, Michigan, Feb. 14, 1862.

Company C.

Milo Bunce, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Isaac Burget, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James H. Durkee, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Franklin A. Durfee, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William O. Hurd, discharged by order, May 26, 1865.

Jacob Heaton, discharged by order, June 22, 1865.

George Hindmarch, died of disease at Gallatin, Dec. 19, 1862.

Horace E. Ludlow, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

John W. Pryor, died of disease, June 26, 1865.

Stephen V. Wheaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company D.

Captain Daniel B. Hosmer, Castleton; enlisted June 19, 1863; 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 17, 1862; Sergeant; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863.

Robert E. Ferguson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Company E.

George H. Durkee, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cyrus A. Morse, discharged May 15, 1865.

William McConley, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Henry P. Ralston, discharged by order, Jan. 16, 1865.

Company F.

Dewitt C. Dye, discharged Feb. 24, 1863.

Company G.

Calvin P. Angell, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Lyman C. Angell, died of disease, Dec. 2, 1864.

Richard Blucher, died of disease at Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 27, 1862.

Thomas Besinger, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

William H. Mead, discharged for disability, May 30, 1863.

Justice Mudge, died of disease at Milledgeville, Ga., Dec. 4, 1864.

George A. Willard, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 4, 1863.

Company H.

Corp. Geo. P. Coon, Orangeville; enlisted Dec. 20, 1861; discharged April 8, 1863.

Celo C. Colley, discharged for disability, Aug. 7, 1865.

Jehiel Chalker, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Joln Daggett, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 12, 1862.

George H. Ford, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864.

William H. Gilbert, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Jesse McVane, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjamin Smith, discharged at end of service, April 7, 1865.

James H. Smith, veteran, eul. January, 1864.

Company I.

Benjamin Jones, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1864.

Company K.

George W. Boen, died of disease at Savannal, Ga., Feb. 2, 1865.

Wallace Coryden, discharged by order, June 9, 1865.

William P. Sidman, discharged by order, May 6, 1865.

Jacob Young, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 7, 1865.

FOURTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, AND NINETEENTH INFANTRY.

The Fourteenth goes to Northern Mississippi-Brigaded for the War -Arduous Service in Tennessee-The Long Combat from Dallas to Atlanta-The March to the Sea-Through the Carolinas-Muster out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members-The Gallant Seventeenth-Company D, from Allegan and Barry-Off to the War-Attacking the Enemy-Brilliant Success-Heavy Loss-Battle of Antietam-Through the Winter in Virginia-Under Grant in Mississippi-Back to Kentucky-With Burnside to East Tennessee -The Campaign of the Wilderness-Hard Fight at Spottsylvania -Engineer Duty-Subsequent Services-Muster out-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County-Organization and Departure of the Nineteenth Infantry-On Duty in Kentucky -Transferred to Army of the Cumberland-Ordered to Franklin, Tenn.-The Brigade on a Reconnoissance-Attacked by Seven Brigades of Cavalry-A Long and Desperate Fight-The Enemy again and again repulsed-Ammunition exhausted-New Rebel Forces appear-Unionists compelled to surrender-Exchanged and Reorganized-Services in Tennessee-Captures a Battery at Resaca -Its Colonel killed-Averysboro and Bentonville-The CloseAllegan County Officers and Men-

Members from Barry County.

FOURTEENTH INFANTRY.

THE Fourteenth Infantry, which represented many portions of the State, was mustered into service at Ypsilanti, Feb. 13, 1862, and left for the seat of war in Northern Mississippi on the 17th of April following.

At Hamburg Landing, Miss., it was assigned to Gen. Pope’s Army of the Mississippi, and joined a brigade made up of the Tenth, Sixteenth, and Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, and the Tenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, of which it was composed during the remainder of the war, except that the Tenth Illinois gave place, in July, 1864, to the Seventeenth New York.

After the retreat of Beauregard from Corinth the brigade was employed in various duties in Northern Alabama and Mississippi until September, 1862, when, with Gen. J. M. Palmer’s division, it marched to Nashville, Tenn., and assisted to hold that place while Buell was advancing toward Louisville, Ky.

After Gen. Rosecrans assumed command of the Department of the Cumberland, and marched his forces from Kentucky to the relief of Nashville, Palmer’s division was transferred from the Army of the Mississippi to the Army of the Cumberland, and thereafter the regiments composing it operated in the Department of the Cumberland.

The Fourteenth performed arduous service until the close of the war.

It served as mounted infantry in Tennessee from September; 1863, until the spring of 1864, when it re-enlisted, and after the usual veteran furlough rejoined its brigade at Dallas, Ga., June 4, 1864.

It then participated in all the movements of the Army of the Cumberland until the fall of Atlanta.

On the 16th of November, with the brigade, it moved southward from Atlanta on the march “through Georgia,” assisted in the capture of Savannah, and thence, in January, 1865, with its command,-viz., First Brigade, Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, proceeded northward through the Carolinas.

At Averysboro’ and Bentonville, N. C., the brigade particularly distinguished itself. (See history of Thirteenth Infantry.)

After the surrender of Johnston the command marched to Washington, D. C., vid Raleigh and Richmond.

It passed in review at the National capital, May 14th, and on the 13th of June proceeded, via the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, to Parkersburg, W. Va.; going thence by steamer to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out of the service on the 18th of July, 1865.

It arrived at Jackson, Michigan, on the 21st, and on the 29th of the same month was paid off and disbanded.

MEMBERS OF THE FOURTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company A.

M. D. Hulenberg, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Eli P. Spaulding, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company B.

Nathaniel C. Austin, mustered out July 18, 1865.

James Conlan, discharged for wounds, June 5, 1865.

Moses Green, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Judson Kitchen, mustered out July 18, 1865.

John McCreery, mustered out July_8, 1865.

Company D.

Erastus N. Bates, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Ashel S. Carr, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Nicholas Mateen, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company F.

Sylvester Auway, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Geo. H. Leavitt, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Chas. H. White, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company G.

Fred. Hoffer, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Lambert Van Valkenberg, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

Company I.

Jerry Monroe, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Company B.

Harvey H. Austin, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Company D.

Thomas B. Luce, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Michael Roush, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Nelson Vanevery, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Charles W. H. Cassady, mustered out July 18, 1865. William S. Sibbs, must out July 18, 1865.

David Roush, mustered out July 18, 1865.

SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY.

This gallant command, celebrated as the “Stonewall” regiment of Gen. Wilcox’s division of the Ninth Army Corps, was organized at Detroit Barracks, in the summer of 1862, by State Inspector-General James E. Pittman.

Its original commanding officer, Col. William H. Withington, was commissioned Aug. 11, 1862, and on the 21st of the same month the regiment was mustered into the United States service for three years.

Company D embraced a large majority of the members of the regiment from Allegan and Barry Counties. Under the command of Col. Withington, the regiment left its rendezvous on the 27th of August, 1862, and proceeded directly to Washington.

Scarcely had it arrived at that place when it was assigned to Gen. Wilcox’s division, and in less than three weeks from the time of leaving Michigan its members were gallantly battling for their country at South Mountain.

On the evening of the 13th of September the regiment marched from Frederick City, Md.,-where it had bivouacked the night before with the rest of the Ninth Army Corps,-over the National turnpike in the direction of South Mountain, and about midnight rested for a few hours not far from Middletown.

Before daybreak of the 14th Middletown was passed; the base of the mountain being reached about nine o’clock A.M.

The enemy was found in force on each side of a gap, holding each crest of the mountain, and strongly posted behind stone fences and other available shelter, with his batteries in commanding positions enfilading the main road.

The regiment was then ordered to advance up the Sharpsburg road.

This movement was executed in common by the whole of Wilcox’s division, which proceeded far up towards the crest of the mountain and moved to the support of a section of Cook’s battery, which had been sent up to open on the enemy’s guns on the right of the gap.

The division was about to deploy, when the rebels suddenly opened at two hundred yards with a battery, throwing shot and shell, killing several in the regiment, and driving back the battery; the cannoniers of which, with their horses and limbers, rushed back through the ranks of the infantry, causing a temporary panic among some of the troops, that might have resulted in the loss of the guns had the enemy taken advantage of it.

The Seventeenth promptly changed front under a heavy fire, and moved out with the Seventy-Ninth New York to protect the battery, lying in line of battle until nearly four P.M., exposed to a severe fire from Drayton’s brigade of South Carolina infantry, posted in its immediate front.

Being unable to reply to this fire, and having become impatient and anxious to advance, the order to charge upon the enemy was received with enthusiastic cheers.

The regiment, being on the extreme right of Wilcox’s division, moved rapidly forward through an open field upon the enemy’s position, under a terrific storm of lead and iron from the stone fences in front and the batteries on the right; then, with cheer after cheer, sent up in defiant answer to the peculiar rebel yell, the Seventeenth gallantly advanced to within easy musket-range without firing a shot.

It then opened a murderous fire upon the enemy, and, steadily advancing the extreme right of the regiment, it swung round, obtaining an enfilading fire upon the rebels intrenched behind the stone walls.

Unable to withstand this destructive fire, the enemy broke in confusion, and the left of the regiment charged over the walls with shouts of triumph, pursuing the fleeing remnants of Drayton’s command over the crest and far down the mountain slope, gaining and holding the key-point of the battle-field.

The splendid valor and extraordinary coolness of the raw recruits of the Seventeenth in this engagement gave the regiment much celebrity, and this conflict has since been mentioned in history as one of the most brilliant achievements of the war.

The regiment suffered severely at South Mountain, having twenty-seven officers and men killed and one hundred and fourteen wounded.

Three days later, at Antietam, it was again hotly engaged, sustaining a loss of eighteen killed and eighty-seven wounded.

After following Lee’s defeated army through Northern Virginia, and camping for a while at Falmouth, the regiment crossed the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, but did not participate in the battle of that place.

It remained in the Army of the Potomac through the winter, but in the spring was ordered to Kentucky.

After a short stay in that State, it proceeded with the Ninth Army Corps to Mississippi, and joined Gen. Grant.

It was stationed at Haynes’ Bluff and Milldale, and was slightly engaged before Jackson on the 10th of June.

It soon returned to Kentucky, and moved thence with Burnside’s army into East Tennessee.

It took part in numerous movements and counter-movements for which the forces in East Tennessee became famous, and on the 16th of November was acting as the rear-guard of the army, which was falling back towards Knoxville.

While it was crossing Turkey Creek, near Campbell’s Station, the enemy attacked in force, and a sharp engagement followed.

The Seventeenth, with its brigade, steadily covered the rear of the army, having twenty-six officers and men killed and wounded during the fight.

That night the whole Union force moved into Knoxville, and from then until the retreat of the enemy, on the 4th of December, the regiment was busily engaged in the defense of that place, suffering greatly from want of rations, but gallantly performing its duty.

After the defeat of the Confederates, the marching up and down the Tennessee Valley was resumed, and was kept up, with some intervals of rest, throughout the winter.

On the 20th of March, 1864, the regiment set out with the Ninth Corps from Knoxville, and marched over the Cumberland Mountains to Nicholasville, Ky., whence it moved at once to Maryland. With the same corps the Seventeenth passed through the great campaign of 1864.

It was sharply engaged in the Wilderness on the 6th of May, having forty-six men killed and wounded.

At Spottsylvania, on the 12th of May, the regiment charged gallantly on the rebel works, but was surrounded by a superior force in the dense woods, and had twenty-three killed, seventy-three wounded, and ninety-three taken prisoners, out of two hundred and twenty-five engaged.

So small a squad remained for duty that on the 16th of May it was detailed for engineer service, though still retaining its regimental number.

It served throughout the winter of 1864-65 either in this capacity or as provost-guard.

During the Confederate attack on Fort Steadman, however (March 25, 1865), the Seventeenth advanced as skirmishers, drove back the enemy’s skirmishers, and captured sixty-five prisoners.

After the capture of Petersburg and the surrender of Lee the regiment moved north to Washington, set out for Michigan on the 4th of June, 1865, reached Detroit on the 7th, and was forthwith paid off and discharged at the latter place.

MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Surg. Abram R. Calkins, Allegan; com. June 26, 1862; res. Oct. 14, 1862.

Company D.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. White, Wayland; com. June 17, 1862; res. March 20, 1863.

Corp. Chas. Parsons, Wayland; enlisted July 31, 1862; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., April 25, 1853.

Corp. Peter J. Murphy, Wayland; enlisted July 31, 1862; mustered out June 3, 1865.

Orville Slade, Wayland; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; killed in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Daniel Ball, discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1863.

Calvin Ball, discharged for disability, April 28, 1863.

Chas. L. Burrell, promoted in U. S. C. T., Nov. 3, 1863.

Myron Burrell, tralns. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864.

Wm. M. Coleman, discharged for disability, Oct. 25, 1864.

Cornelius Devenwater, discharged for disability, Jan. 4, 1863.

Richard Dennis, died at Weverton, Md., Nov. 4, 1862.

Luther E. Ellis, discharged for disability, Jan. 15, 1863.

Joseph G. Fenner, discharged for disability, Jan. 11, 1863.

Saml. Potter, died of wounds near Jackson, Miss., Oct. 28, 1862.

Wm. Parker, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Stephen Springer, mustered out June 3, 1865. E

dward H. Schofield, discharged for disability, Dec. 7, 1862.

John Truax, discharged by order, May 10, 1865.

Henry Tomlinson, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Benj. Ward, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Martin White, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Sergeant Philo M. Lonsbury, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; absent sick at muster out.

Musician Jas. C. Leggett, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 3, 1865.

Herbert W. Lonsbury, Allegan; killed in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864.

Company I.

Hiram Bushnell, died of wounds.

Samuel Buchanan, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Alfred Cook, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Oliver P. Carmen, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Levi B. Davis, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Jas. Hibberdine, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Geo. Kitchen, discharged for disability, Nov. 3, 1862.

David V. Lily, (lied in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Frederick Leonard, discharged for disability, Jan. 1, 1863.

James V. Orton, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Samuel Parker, died of disease at Covington, Ky., April 9, 1865.

Daniel Polk, discharged by order, May 12, 1865.

Penter Ross, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Nahum Snow, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Alvin H. Stillson, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Simon Starring, mustered out June 3, 1865.

M. V. B. Smith, died of disease at Memphis, June 24, 1863.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY.

Company D.

2d Lieutenant David L. Morthland, Barry; mustered out as Sergeant, June 3, 1865.

Sergeant Wallace H. Scoville, Johnston; discharged for disability, Feb. 25, 1863.

Musician James Goodman, Hastings; discharged by order, Sept. 16, 1862.

Andrew E. Breese, discharged for disability.

David Brotherton, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Jalo W. Convin, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Charles W. Convin, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Zenas S. Clark, died of disease at Newport News, Va., March 17, 1865.

Charles D. Cowles, discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1865.

Charles Dickinson, discharged for disability, Oct. 25, 1864

Hector M. Dodge, mustered out June 3, 1865.

David Eldridge, died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1865.

W. S. Hinckley, discharged for disability, April 10, 1863. D

aniel Hoffman, discb. for disability, Jan. 6, 1863.

William H. Hoffman, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Nov. 28, 1862.

Martin Moore, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Herman W. Manford, transferred to navy.

John P. Manning, mustered out June 3, 1865.

A. Palmatier, killed in action at South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862.

Nathan F. Powers, died of disease at Big Spring Hospital, Oct. 28, 1862.

Harlan A. Poor, killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

William W. Seebore, discharged for wounds received, Sept. 14, 1862.

Charles Shoemaker, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Company H.

William H. Godsmark, discharged Dec. 31, 1862.

Jerome M. Lampman, discharged for disability, May 17, 1864.

Martin Mallet, discli. for disability, Jan. 4, 1865.

Isaac Vantyle, mustered out July 3, 1865.

NINETEENTH INFANTRY.

The Nineteenth Regiment of infantry was recruited during the summer of 1862 from the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren, and Allegan, Company B including within its ranks a large majority of those from the latter county.

The regimental rendezvous was at Dowagiac, Cass Co., where the regiment was mustered into the United States service on the 25th of August, 1862.

On the 14th of September following, under the command of Col. Henry C. Gilbert, the Nineteenth proceeded to Cincinnati, Ohio, thence to Nicholasville, Ky., and later, towards the close of the year, to Danville, Ky.

It was first assigned to duty with the Fourth Brigade, First Division, Army of the Ohio, which brigade, on the formation of the Department and Army of the Cumberland, was transferred to that army as part of the Reserve Corps.

The regiment moved from Danville early in February, 1863, and reached Nashville on the 7th, proceeding thence to Franklin, Tenn.

Immediately after, Col. Coburn’s brigade, consisting of the Nineteenth Michigan, Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana, and the Twenty-Second Wisconsin Regiments of infantry, numbering fifteen hundred and eighty-seven men, strengthened by two hundred men of the One Hundred and Twenty-Fourth Ohio Infantry, with detachments of three regiments of Cavalry, about six hundred strong, and a full battery of artillery, moved out from Franklin on a reconnaissance in force.

After a march of about four miles the enemy’s outposts were encountered, but they retired before the Union skirmishers, and the brigade bivouacked there for the night.

Resuming the march on the following day, the Union column found the enemy in force and strongly posted, at Thompson’s Station, nine miles from Franklin.

At the point where the railroad crosses the turnpike the rebels opened fire on the forces of Col. Coburn, who immediately formed his men, and ordered a section of the battery to occupy a bill on the left of the road, sending the Nineteenth Michigan and the Twenty-Second Wisconsin to support it.

The Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana, with the other guns of the battery, took position on a hill at the right.

The enemy had two batteries posted on a range of hills three-fourths of a mile in front and south of the position occupied by Coburn’s troops.

The Indiana regiments made a demonstration on the left of the enemy, to draw him out or charge his batteries, as circumstances might dictate.

This movement was made under a most galling fire from the enemy’s batteries, and when the position was reached two entire brigades of dismounted rebel Cavalry were disclosed strongly posted behind stone walls and other defenses.

As it was found impossible to advance farther under the severe and incessant fire, these regiments were ordered to return to their former position on the hill, supported by a squadron of Cavalry; but for some unexplained reason the Cavalry failed to occupy the supporting position, as intended.

No sooner had the two regiments commenced to fall back than they were pursued by two rebel regiments, firing rapid volleys into the retiring Union force, which was at the same time under fire from the enemy’s artillery.

But as soon as they reached the hill the Indianans turned upon their rebel pursuers and drove them back on the run; killing Col. Earle, of Arkansas.

The enemy rallied, charged desperately, and was again handsomely repulsed; but it soon became evident that Col. Coburn’s command had here encountered the entire Cavalry force of Bragg’s army, eighteen thousand strong, consisting of brigades commanded respectively by Gens. Forrest, Wheeler, French, Armstrong, Jackson, Crosby, and Martin, all under the command of Gen. Van Dorn.

The enemy, under Forrest, then advanced on the position occupied by the Nineteenth Michigan and its companion regiment, the Twenty-Second Wisconsin.

At the time the attack was made the section of artillery posted with these regiments hurriedly left its position, and at the same time three companies of the Wisconsin regiment, with their lieutenant-colonel (Bloodgood), abandoned the field without orders, moving off by the left flank, and joining the retreating Union Cavalry and artillery.

The Nineteenth Michigan and the remainder of the Twenty-Second Wisconsin, however, bravely poured in their fire, and held their assailants at bay fully twenty minutes. Forrest, checked in his advance, made a circuit to the east with his whole force, beyond the ground occupied by Col. Coburn, with the intention of turning his (Coburn’s) left flank.

The Nineteenth and Twenty-Second were then moved to the west side of the turnpike, leaving the Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana to protect the southern acclivity of the hill.

The four regiments had scarcely formed in line behind the crest when Armstrong’s rebel brigade charged from the east and the Texans from the south.

The battle now became terrific.

Three times the enemy charged gallantly up the hill, and thrice was he forced back with severe loss.

In one of these charges the colors of the Fourth Mississippi were captured by the Nineteenth Michigan.

The fighting became still more desperate.

The enemy, having gained possession of the hill on the east of the road, was sweeping the Northern ranks with canister, and, bravely as the Union troops fought, it soon became evident that the struggle was hopeless.

Their ammunition was nearly exhausted, and Forrest, who had already cut them off from Franklin, was advancing on their rear. Col. Coburn faced his command to the north to repel this new danger, and thus Forrest was held in check until the Union men had expended their last round of ammunition.

Then the brave band fixed bayonets, determined to charge through the enemy’s lines and escape; but just then it was discovered that still another line lay in reserve, and still another battery opened on them from an unexpected quarter.

Escape was now hopeless, and to avoid a further and useless loss of life the command surrendered. Col. Gilbert had had his horse shot under him in the early part of the fight, and throughout all the fierce engagement had borne himself most gallantly.

When he offered his sword to the Confederate commander the latter declined to receive it, with the remark that “so brave an officer, commanding so gallant a regiment, deserves to retain his arms.”

A part of the Nineteenth had escaped capture at Thompson’s Station.

This small body, with those who had been left in camp at Franklin, were sent to Brentwood, organized with the remaining fragments of the brigade, and placed under command of an officer of another regiment.

This force was surrendered to the rebel general Forrest on the 25th of March, 1863, without the firing of a gun.

The enlisted men were soon paroled and sent North; the commissioned officers were exchanged on the 25th of May following.

The regiment was reorganized at Camp Chase, Ohio, and on the 8th of June, 1863, left Columbus to engage once more in service at the front.

It reached Nashville on the 11th, and from that time was employed in ordinary camp and picket duty until July, when it formed a part of Rosecrans’ column advancing on Tullahoma.

The regiment was ordered back to Murfreesboro on the 23d of July, to do garrison duty in the fortifications at that point and along Stone River, where Company D was captured on the 5th of October by a rebel Cavalry force, under Gen. Wheeler.

After having been plundered, the men were released on parole.

About the last of October the Nineteenth was ordered to McMinnville, Tenn., where it remained engaged in the construction of fortifications and similar duty until the 21st of April, 1864, when it was ordered to join its division and march with the strong columns of Sherman into Georgia.

It reached Lookout Valley on the 30th, and moved forward with the army on the 3rd of May, being then in the Twentieth Army Corps.

Moving by way of Buzzard Roost and Snake Creek Gap to Resaca, it was, of five hundred and twelve officers and men who went into action, one hundred and thirteen were killed and wounded.

With its brigade, desperately engaged in the battle at that place on the 15th; on which occasion it gallantly charged and captured a battery of the enemy, afterwards holding the position against all efforts to retake it.

It was in that charge that Col. Gilbert received the wound from which he died at Chattanooga, on the 24th of May.

The total loss of the Nineteenth in killed and wounded was eighty-one.

The regiment was also engaged at Cassville, Ga., on the 19th of May, at New Hope Church on the 25th, at Golgotha on the 15th of June, and at Culp’s Farm on the 22d of June; having in these engagements eighty-three officers and men killed and wounded.

Joining in the pursuit of the enemy after his evacuation of the position and works at Kenesaw Mountain, the Nineteenth, then under command of Major John J. Baker, crossed the Chattahoochee and took part in the battle of Peach-Tree Creek, on the 20th of July, in which its loss was thirty-nine killed, among the latter being its commander, Major Baker.

During the remainder of the siege of Atlanta the regiment was constantly on duty, much of the time under artillery-fire; its loss during that time being eight killed and wounded.

In the early days of November, 1864, the Nineteenth was quartered in the city of Atlanta, and on the 15th of that month moved with its brigade (the Second of the Third Division, Twentieth Corps) on the storied march to Savannah; taking an active part in the siege of that city, until its evacuation on the 21st of December.

It remained near Savannah until Jan. 1, 1865, when, with the companion regiments of its command, it moved across the Savannah River into South Carolina.

It crossed the Pedee River at Cheraw on the 2d of February, arrived at Fayetteville March 11th, assisted to destroy the arsenal and other public buildings at that place, and moved thence toward Raleigh.

On the 16th the enemy was found in heavy force at Averysboro’.

Here the Second Brigade was ordered to assault the works, and carried them with great gallantry, capturing the guns and a large number of prisoners, the loss of the Nineteenth being nineteen in killed and wounded.

During the battle of Bentonville, on the 19th of March, the regiment stood in line of battle, but was not engaged.

From Bentonville the regiment moved to Goldsboro’, arriving there on the 24th of March, and then marched to Raleigh.

Here it remained until the war was virtually closed by the surrender of Johnston’s army.

Then, with its corps, it faced northward and marched through Virginia to Alexandria, where it arrived on the 18th of May.

Six days later it marched with the bronzed and battered veteran’s of Sherman’s army, on the 24th of May, through the streets of the national capital.

From that time it remained in camp near Washington till June 10th, when it was mustered out of the service and ordered to Michigan.

Covered with honor, the men of the Nineteenth returned to Jackson, and were there paid off and discharged, on or about the 15th of June, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY OFFICERS AND MEN.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Q.M.-Sergeant George L. Clark, Allegan; enlisted June 1, 1863; promoted in U. S. C.T. June 20, 1864.

Company A.

Captain Joel H. Smith, Allegan; com. July 28, 1862; res. July 11, 1864.

Herman F. Dibble, died in action at Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864.

Company B.

Captain Samuel M. Hubbard, Otsego; com. June 24, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, May 1, 1863;

2d Lieutenant, Aug. 11, 1862; wounded in action May 28, 1864; hon. discharged Nov. 30, 1864.

1st Lieutenant William T. Darrow, Allegan; com. July 28, 1862; res. Feb. 6, 1863.

1st Lieutenant John W. Duel, Allegan; com. May 8, 1865; mustered out June 10, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Augustus Lily, Allegan; com. May 1, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant May 15, 1864; discharged 2d Lieutenant, April 9, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Robert Mabbs, Allegan; mustered out as Sergeant, June 10, 1865.

Sergeant Jeremiah Dugan, Martin; enlisted Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sergeant Phineas A. Hager, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died of wounds, Aug. 8, 1864.

Sergeant George L. Clark, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; appointed q.m-Sergeant, June 1, 1863. Sergeant Julius E. Bigsby, Heath; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Sergeant John W. Duel, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Corp. Robert A. Patterson, Martin; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. David R. Anderson, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1864.

Corp. Pascal A. Pullman, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; died in action in Georgia, July 20, 1864.

Corp. George L. Baird, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1864.

Corp. David 0. Brown, Martin; enlisted Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. Joseph W. Ely, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. John J. Young, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Musician Benjamin F. Chapin; Cheshire; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; absent sick.

Musician James J. Bachelder, Martin; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Musician Martin R. Parkhurst, Heath; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

John Ailes, mustered out June 10, 1865. Emerson Allen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Judson L. Austin, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Pascal L. Austin, died in action at Thompson’s Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863.

William Anderson, discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1865.

James Billings, discharged for disability, March, 1863.

Harvey Bell, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Ilenry L. Blakeslee, died in action at Thompson’s Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863.

John H. Brinkman, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 26, 1863.

Ansel T. Baird, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward A. Baird, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Milo H. Barker, mustered out June 10, 1865.

David Bellinger, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Horace C. Beverly, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Alplieus G. Bradley, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry W. Brown, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Sidney Brundage, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Carlos Baker, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Todorus Botren, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Guilford D. Case, died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., Dec. 27, 1862.

Frederick Campbell, died in action at Altoona, Ga., May 25, 1864.

Timothy Dygert, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Henry W. Durand, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Albert French, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Edwin Griffin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jacob Gunsaul, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jerome Green, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 3, 1863.

Leander S. Goff, died in prison at Richmond, Va., March 3, 1863. J

ohn H. Howard, died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, November, 1862.

John Hogle, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Charles H. llogeboom, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Martin M. Jones, died of wounds at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1864.

Isaac M. Kinney, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Feb. 10, 1863.

Joel R. Kuper, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March, 1863.

Stephen Knapp, discharged for disability, March 27, 1865.

Thomas R. Kincaid, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Egbert Kluffman, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Neil Livingston, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Garrett Lohies, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Alfred Leonard, died of disease at Nashville, March, 1863.

W. Merchant, died of disease at Annapolis, March, 1863.

James McIntee, died of wounds at Columbia, Tenn., April 20, 1863.

Donald McLeod, discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1864.

William Manchester, transferred to 10th Inf.

James H. Martin, mustered out June 15, 1865.

George A. Martin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Lawrence Montague, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Eldridge Morris, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Thomas McCormick, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Carlton Norton, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry Noble, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Francis C. Newton, transferred to 10th Inf.

John B. Nelson, died of disease at McMinnville, Tenn., March 20, 1864.

Stephen Ostrander, mustered out June 22, 1865.

Harvey Pullman, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Erastus Purdy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Charles H. Prentiss, mustered out June 3, 1865.

George W. Platt, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Elisha Platt, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Comstock H. Platt, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1865.

Newton S. Peabody, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Feb. 1, 1863.

Vernon A. Rose, died of disease in Indiana, June 18, 1864.

John Rutgers, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Peter Starring, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Stephen Sampson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Benjamin Stephens, mustered out June 10, 1865.

S. B. Stephens, died of disease in Indiana, Feb. 13, 1863.

Charles Southworth, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1864.

John Southwell, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Solomon Springer, discharged for disability, Feb. 4, 1863.

Andrew Schoener, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Joseph A. Trutsch, mustered out May 24, 1865.

Charles L. Vahen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Norman Wilson, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 20, 1862.

William Watson, died of disease in Michigan, July 18, 1863.

Cyrus B. Wheeler, died of wounds, Aug. 3, 1864.

Henry W. Wilcox, transferred to Mississippi marines.

Company F.

Musician Charles W. Owen, Martin; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company G.

Eli B. Baker, transferred to 10th Inf.

Benjamin Brown, transferred to 10th Inf.

William C. McLeod, transferred to 10th Inf.

Company K.

A. J. Myers, discharged for disability, March 31, 1863.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company E.

William Henry, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

George Ii. Martin, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Hiram Rodgers, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 21, 1864.

George H. Snyder, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

John W. Snyder, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Henry Smith, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Walter Searles, mustered out July 15, 1865.

Company F.

William H. Allen, died July 20, 1864.

Mylon Angel, mustered out June 10, 186.5.

David N. Griffith, mustered out June 1(0, 1865.

John B. Nichols, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Thomas Pennock, discharged for disability, July 1, 1863.

Austin Smith, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 1, 1863.

David Searles, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

James Searles, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Otis P. Taller, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company G.

Alonzo P. Beaman, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

George H. Clark, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Company K.

William Harvey, mustered out June 10, 1865.

TWENTY-FIRST, TWENTY-EIGHTH, AND THIRTIETH INFANTRY.

The Big District which sent out the Twenty-First Infantry-Company C from Barry County-The Regiment joins Buell-Battle of Perryville-Battle of Stone River-Death of Captain Fitzgerald – Gallantry of Sheridan’s Division-

The Advance through Tennessee -Battle of Chickamauga-Subsequent Service in Company with the Thirteenth Infantry-Battle of Bentonville-Officers and Soldiers from Barry County-The Twenty-Eighth Infantry goes to the Front in 1864-Battle of Nashville-Ordered to North Carolina, Fight at Wise’s Forks-Subsequent Services-Muster out-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County-Thirtieth Infantry raised to protect Frontier-Its Services-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County.

TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY.

This regiment, which so nobly distinguished itself on several hard-fought fields during the war for the Union, was recruited in the summer of 1862 from the Fourth Congressional District.

The unit was a very large one, comprising the counties of Barry, Ionia, Montcalm, Kent, Ottawa, Muskegon, Oceana, Newaygo, Mecosta, Mason, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Leelenaw, Manitou, Oceola, Emmet, Mackinac, Delta, and Cheboygan.

Ionia was the place of rendezvous, and, until the regiment was organized.

J. B. Welch, Esq., was the commandant of the camp. Company C, which was led into the field by the brave Captain Leonard O. Fitzgerald, of Hastings and was Barry’s representation in the Twenty-First.

The regiment was mustered into the United States service Sept. 4, 1862, and eight days later.

The 21st consisted of one thousand and eight officers and enlisted men, commanded by Col. Ambrose A. Stevens, left Ionia, with orders to report at Cincinnati.

It was immediately pushed forward to join Gen. Buell’s forces in Kentucky, and on the 8th of October, as part of Gen. Sheridan’s division, was engaged in the battle of Perryville, where it suffered a loss of twenty-seven men killed, wounded, and missing.

With other troops of Gen. Rosecrans’ command it then marched forward to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived Nov. 10, 1862.

On the 26th of December, as part of Gen. Sill’s brigade, of Sheridan’s division, it moved forward with Gen. Rosecrans’ army to attack Bragg, then lying in front of Murfreesboro.

In the great battle of three days’ duration which ensued on the banks of Stone River, during the last day of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, the Twenty-First covered itself with glory; suffering a loss, however, of one hundred and thirty-nine brave men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Among those who relinquished their command on that field and joined the battalions gone before was Captain Fitzgerald, of Company C, who was mortally wounded on the 31st of December, and died at Nashville on the 8th of January following.

In the terrific engagement fought on the morning of December 31st, which was commenced by Cheatham’s, Cleburn’s, and McGown’s rebel divisions of Hardee’s corps, which fell unexpectedly on McCook, who commanded the right wing of the national forces, first Johnson’s and then Davis’ division was driven back in inextricable disorder.

Their defeat was almost simultaneous with the attack, and upon Sheridan’s division of McCook’s corps-composed of Sill’s, Roberts’, and Shaefer’s brigades-devolved the task of checking the impetuous onset of the victorious foe.

This single division, outflanked and surrounded by panic-stricken fugitives, must give battle to three divisions of a triumphant and exultant enemy, and must at least hold them in check until the general in command could make dispositions to meet the terrible emergency.

Most nobly did Gen. Sheridan and his division fulfill their task.

Four times they repulsed the rebel host.

Surrounded, outflanked, outnumbered, in danger of utter destruction, and pressed back into the cedar thickets in their rear, they fought on till one-fourth of their number lay bleeding and dying upon the field,-till two out of three of their brigade commanders were killed,-till every gun and cartridge-box was empty, and then they retired slowly, steadily, and in good order.

As they passed Gen. Rosecrans, while deliberately falling back to make way for reinforcements, Gen. Sheridan was heard to say to his commanding general, with touching pathos, ” Here is all that is left of us, general.”

His men were even then clamoring for ammunition, and an hour later were again in line of battle.

His division consisted of six thousand four hundred and ninety-five men.

They lost in that fearful conflict among the cedars seventeen hundred in killed, wounded, and missing, including seventy officers, two of whom were brigadiers, and the only remaining brigadier fell before nightfall.

After the defeat of Bragg’s army at Stone River, the Twenty-First remained in the vicinity of Murfreesboro, employed on picket duty and as guard for forage-trains, until June 24th, when, commanded by Col. William B. McCreery, it advanced with Rosecrans on Tullahoma.

During July it was located at Cowan and Anderson, stations on the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.

Subsequently it occupied Bridgeport, Ala., under Gen. Lytle, who succeeded to the command of the brigade after the death of Gen. Sill at Stone River.

On the 2d of September the command crossed the Tennessee River, and advanced with the corps of Major-Gen. McCook to Trenton, Ga., whence it crossed the mountains to Alpine, thence made a forced march between mountain ranges towards Chattanooga, and on the 19th of September the regiment was formed in line of battle at Chickamauga.

During the succeeding day the Twenty-First, with other regiments of Sheridan’s division, stubbornly contested the rebel advance on the field of Chickamauga, but with its shattered corps was finally compelled to fall back to Chattanooga, after sustaining a loss of one hundred and seven officers and men in killed, wounded, and missing.

Of the thirty-five missing, twenty-one were known to be wounded.

Among the wounded and captured was Col. McCreery, while Lieutenant-Col. Morris B. Wells was left dead on the field.

Gen. Lytle, the brigade commander, was also killed.

On the 5th of November this regiment, the Thirteenth and Twenty-Second Michigan Infantry, and the Eighteenth Ohio Infantry were organized as an engineer brigade, and from that time until Sherman’s victorious armies marched into the national capital, in May, 1865, the field-services of the Thirteenth and Twenty-First Michigan Infantry were performed side by side, both regiments performing engineer duty for a period of five months, and both being assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, early in November, 1864. (See history of the Thirteenth Infantry.)

At Bentonville, N. C., on the 19th of March, 1865, the regiment was heavily engaged, losing six commissioned officers and eighty-six enlisted men killed and wounded, out of two hundred and thirty present in action.

The Twenty-First participated in the grand review at Washington, D. C., May 24, 1865.

It was there mustered out of service June 8th, arrived at Detroit, Michigan, on the 13th, and on the 22d of the same month was paid and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

Chaplain Theo. Pillsbury, Hastings; com. Aug. 29, 1862; res. Dec. 15, 1862.

Com. Sergeant Horatio G. Steadman, Thornapple; enlisted Nov. 1, 1864; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Company A.

George Adgate, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Richard Benjamin, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Albert W. Dillenbeck, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Newell Hotchkiss, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Wallace Lovewell, discharged for disability, May 30, 1863.

John Rowleader, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

Company B.

Captain L. C. Fitzgerald, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; killed in action at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Perry Chance, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; res. Jan. 17, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Marion C. Russell, Hastings; con. July 30, 1862; res. Feb. 25, 1863.

2d Lieutenant James Houghtalin, Hastings; com. Jan. 17, 1863; res. June 11, 1864.

Sergeant Henry H. Striker, Baltimore; enlisted July 21, 1862; died at Danville, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862.

Sergeant Wm. H. H. Powers, Hastings; enl. July 21, 1862; discharged for disability, May 1, 1863.

Sergeant Jas. Houghtalin, enlisted July 21, 1862; promoted to 2d lieut.

Sergeant Geo. Miller, Hastings; enlisted July 26, 1862; died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 25, 1863.

Sergeant Ilor. G. Steadman, Thornapple; enlisted July 13, 1862; promoted to com. Sergeant, Nov. 1, 1864

Corp. Jas. H. Smith, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 5, 1862; died of disease, May 6, 1863.

Corp. Chas. Miller, Castleton; enlisted July 26, 1862; discharged for disability, March 31, 1863.

Corp. Jas. H. Foote, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 28, 1863.

Corp. John H. Mills, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Corp. Justus Mudge, Castleton; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; discharged by order, Oct. 2, 1862.

Corp. Wallace W. Stillson, Hastings; enlisted July 26, 1862; mustered out May 31, 1865.

Musician Robt. D. Searles, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, April 23, 1863.

Musician Leslie T. Mosely, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Wagoner Chas. Loomis, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 8, 1863.

Edson Andrus, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863.

W. H. Bennett, died of disease.

Tracy Baldwin, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 8, 1862.

Alfred Baldwin, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 30, 1864.

Daniel D. Brown, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Henry C. Bronson, discharged for disability, March 11, 1863.

Nathaniel Barbour, discharged to enlisted in marine service, March 11, 1863.

George Brown, missing at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 20, 1863.

Americus Barnum, mustered out July 5, 1865.

John Bolton, mustered out June 8, 1865.

David C. Bussell, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863; mustered out Aug. 2, 1865.

James R. Chase, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Alexander T. Cramer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Harrison Carpenter, discharged for disability, Nov. 8, 1862.

William J. Crablb, died of wounds at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1863.

Andrew M. Cure, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 19, 1863.

Henry Demund, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Vinal Dean, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863.

Philander Durkee, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

Asa B. Durkee, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Silas Foster, mustered out June 8, 1865.

John Fisher, discharged for disability, Aug. 11, 1863.

Benjamin L. Francisco, discharged for disability, Nov. 18, 1862.

Leon Fry, discharged to enlisted in marine service, Jan. 3, 1863.

David W. Fry, killed in action at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 30, 1863.

Augustus M. Fontes, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 29, 1865.

James Gibson, died of disease at New York Harbor, April 25, 1865.

Eli Gleason, missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Alfred Gibbs, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James B. Holis, mustered out June 27, 1865.

John H. Hall, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Hoel P. Hosier, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Frederick W. Harris, mustered out July 3, 1865.

Schuyler Heath, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 13, 1865.

Myron Heath, died of disease at Andersonville prison, July 31, 1864.

David D. Hall, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 26, 1863.

Thomas J. Hallock, died of disease at Crab Orchard, Ky.

Lester M. Jones, died of wounds, Jan. 2, 1863.

David Jordan, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Nelson Kilmer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Peter Kilmer, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

John A. Kelly, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 23, 1863.

Edgar C. Leonard, discharged for disability, April 27, 1863.

Francis Mead, discharged for disability, Oct. 12, 1863.

James Moulton, discharged for disability, April 7, 1863.

Francis W. Maynard, discharged for disability, June 18, 1863.

Alexander McArthur, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1862.

Eber C. Moffitt, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1862.

John Mead, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1862.

Byron H. Melroy, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 19, 1863.

Leonard Mauch, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Lewis Massacar, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Robert Mitchell, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

James D. Miller, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865.

William Miller, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Nelson J. Millard, mustered out July 7, 1865.

John Osborn, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Joseph Osborn, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Henry G. Orwing, discharged for disability, Feb. 10, 1863.

Adam Pratt, discharged for disability, July 7, 1863.

Henry D. Pierce, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Calvin H. Palmer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Allen Roush, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Thomas W. Roush, must out June 8, 1865.

George M. Reed, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Frederick Rickle, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1863.

Horatio N. Sackett, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862.

Daniel P. Sixberry, died of disease, March 3, 1865.

John Smith, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 16, 1863.

John F. Swaine, missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Silas W. Steelman, discharged for disability, July 22, 1863.

George P. Sweet, discharged for disability, Oct. 16, 1863.

W. H. S. Smoke, mustered out June 12, 1865.

James H. Sawdy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

John C. Spencer, mustered out June 26, 1865.

John Strouse, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Anthony Thompson, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Byron W. Tomlinson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Ansel S. Thrasher, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 6, 1862.

Elisha Tracy, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863.

William Varney, mustered out June 8, 1865.

George Varney, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Michael Vanderhoof, mustered out July 5, 1865.

William B. Warner, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James Williams, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Isaac B. Wooley, mustered out May 30, 1865.

Company D.

Joseph Kilmer, died of disease at Bardstown, N. Y.

Jacob Young, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Selden E. Turner, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; res. Jan. 13, 1863.

Musician George Croninger, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Feb. 15, 1861.

William E. McConnell, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Benjamin R. Ogden, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Samuel F. Rosencrans, died of disease at Stone River, Tenn., March, 1862.

Company I.

1st Lieutenant Herman Hunt, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; died of disease, Dec. 16, 1862.

Robert M. Gamble, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James M. Hale, discharged by order, April 15, 1863.

Charles D. Kellogg, died of disease at Lancaster, Pa., Feb. 3, 1862.

MEMBERS OF THE TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company C.

Almon D. Bisbee, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Reuben Fisher, died of disease in New York Harbor.

Frederick Leonard, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Feb. 12, 1865.

Company E.

William H. French, mustered out May 26, 1865.

TWENTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY.

This regiment was recruited during the summer and early autumn of 1864, and finally completed its organization by the consolidation of several partially-formed companies intended for the Twenty-Ninth Infantry.

It left Kalamazoo, under the command of Lieutenant-Col. Delos Phillips, October 26th, and arrived in Louisville, Ky., on the 29th.

On the 10th of November it was ordered to Camp Nelson to guard a wagon-train from that point to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived on the 5th of December.

The advance of Hood’s rebel army on Nashville soon brought the regiment to face the realities of war, and, under the command of Col. William W. Wheeler, it participated in the defense of that city by Gen. Thomas, from the 12th to the 16th of December, 1864, fully establishing its reputation as a gallant command, and reaching the uniform high standard of Michigan troops.

After the battle of Nashville the regiment was attached to the Twenty-Third Army Corps, which was sent to the Atlantic seaboard to constitute a part of the force concentrating in the vicinity of Wilmington, N. C., to cooperate with Gen. Sherman’s army on its approach to the coast.

The regiment was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division (Ruger’s), and arrived at Morehead City Feb. 24, 1865, and on the 2d of March marched with its division towards Kinston, joining Gen. Cox.

Meeting the enemy at Wise’s Forks, the Twenty-Eighth, commanded by Col. Wheeler, took an active part in the battles of the 8th, 9th, and 10th of March at that point.

On the 8th the regiment was engaged in heavy skirmishing during the entire day and night.

On the succeeding day the enemy pressed Cox’s lines strongly without making an assault, and at the same time attempted to turn his right, but failed on account of a prompt reinforcement, of which the Twenty-Eighth formed a part.

On the morning of the 10th the rebels made a fierce and determined charge upon the left, breaking the lines, but were finally repulsed.

The Second Brigade charged the rebels on the double-quick, driving them back, and taking over three hundred prisoners, among whom were several field-officers.

About two P.M. the enemy made a heavy and desperate onset on the left and centre of Gen. Cox’s lines, but again most signally failed by reason of reinforcements coming up so promptly from the right.

The Second Brigade, among the first to arrive, fought most gallantly for about two hours, when the enemy retired from the field, leaving his dead and wounded and a large number of prisoners.

In this spirited engagement the regiment lost seven men killed and thirteen wounded.

Continuing the march, the regiment reached Kinston on the 14th, and Goldsboro’ on the 21st.

It was then placed on guard duty along the line of the Atlanta and North Carolina Railroad.

On the 9th of April it marched again to Goldsboro’, and on the 13th arrived in Raleigh.

After the cessation of hostilities it was on duty at Goldsboro’, Raleigh, Charlotte, Lincolnton, Wilmington, and Newbern, N. C., until June 5, 1866, when it was mustered out of service.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Adj. Hiram R. Ellis, Saugatuck; com. Sept. 10, 1861; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Non-commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major John M. G. Mavers, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 20, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company D.

E. A. Lindley, died by suicide, March 6, 1865.

Henry C. Meeker, died of disease at Alexandria, Feb. 11, 1865.

Company E.

Captain Samuel S. Thomas, Allegan; com. Aug. 15, 1864; res. May 15, 1865. Sergeant

Jeremiah Walter, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 25, 1864; discharged Nov. 1, 1865.

Corp. Wm. A. Lisco, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 31, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Corp. George Cady, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 23, 1864; discharged by order, June 18, 1865.

George W. Cummings, mustered out June 5, 1866.

William Eggleston, discharged for wounds, Aug. 17, 1865.

William French, discharged for wounds, June 16, 1865.

FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS.

John Hamilton, discharged by order, Sept. 3, 1865.

Jacob Killam, mustered out Nov. 17, 1865.

Lyman Lamoreaux, mustered out June 5, 1866.

John Moore, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Ashley R. Nichols, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Alva L. Pierce, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Herman H. Palmer, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Frederick Porter, nust. out June 5, 1866.

James B. Paul, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Peter Sergeant, discharged for disability, April 26, 1865.

Aaron Van Patten, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Allen N. Wait, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Ira Woodstock, died of disease at Alexandria, February, 1865.

Company H.

James G. Lindsley, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 19, 1865.

Company I

Sergeant Charles W. Hoskins, Hopkins; enlisted Sept. 12, 1864; discharged by order, April 7, 1865.

Corp. Lewis H. Fountain, Hopkins; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Henry Bryant, mustered out Oct. 24, 1865.

Company K.

1st Lieutenant Jeremiah B. Haney, Leighton; com. Oct. 18, 1864; res. Nov. 8, 1865.

2d Lieutenant William Duryea, Lee; com. Oct. 18, 1864; res. July 6, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company B.

Sergeant Isaac J. Brooks, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 2, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1863.

Corp. Charles J. Hanley, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; died of disease at Nashville, Jan. 8, 1865.

Emanuel Briggs, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 14, 1865.

Levi Briggs, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Nov. 12, 1864.

Charles Edwards, discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1865.

Isaac Green, mustered out April 4, 1865.

William S. Hyde, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

S. T. Lazarus, mustered out June 5, 1866.

C. R. Palmer, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

Ephraim Trimm, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 13, 1865.

John E. Wilcox, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

Company C.

Theodore Steinkram, mustered out June 5, 1866.

George W. Howell, mustered out June 5, 1866.

F. Havens, discharged at end of service, April 12, 1866.

Company D.

Dallas Downs, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company E.

John Sell, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company K.

David Pott, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., July 10, 1865.

THIRTIETH INFANTRY.

On account of the numerous attempts made by the enemy in Canada to organize plundering raids against our northern border, authority was given by the War Department to the Governor of Michigan, in the autumn of 1864, to raise a regiment of infantry for one year’s service, especially designed to guard the Michigan frontier.

Its formation, under the name of the Thirtieth Michigan Infantry, was begun at Jackson in November, 1864, and was completed at Detroit on the 9th of January, 1865.

To this regiment Allegan and Barry Counties furnished between sixty and seventy men, who were scattered among various companies.

When the organization was completed, the companies were detached and stationed at different points along the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers,-at Fort Gratiot, St. Clair, Wyandotte, Jackson, Fenton, Detroit, and Detroit Barracks.

But the speedy collapse of the Rebellion put an end to Canadian raids, and the regiment, although the men were ready for service, had no active duty to perform.

It remained on duty until the 30th of June, 1865, and was then mustered out.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Non-commissioned Staff.

Principal Musician Chas. Barton, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 21, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company A.

Corp. Oliver Westfall, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Henry H. Saunders, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Addison Childs, Otsego; enlisted Dec. 5, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Thos. Baxter, Wm. F. Cole, Clas. Davey, Thos. Jackson,

Samuel G. Mills, Win. G. Stearns, Michael Shaughnessy,

Harvey Sutton, John Shea, Ebenezer Warren, Chas. W. Wood, Wm. E. Yale,

Merrick Zautz, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company B.

Arnson A. Culver, Daniel Wasker, Doctor M. Wasker, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company C.

Mathew J. Allegan, Chas. K. Bowlin, Melvin Eastwood, Harvey McDonald, Jesse Van Camp, Sr., Jesse Van Camp, Jr., L. Van Camp, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company E.

Wm. Curry,

Birney Hathaway, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company F.

Wm. J. Durand, Wm. W. Freese, John McEwen, Edward Norman, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company G.

Leander Fuller, Milford Roosa, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company H.

Sergeant Saml. P. Spaulding, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 19, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Sergeant James R. Londray, Gun Plain; enlisted Nov. 26, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. E. M. T.Silliman, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 19, 1861; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Jacob Hildebrand, Martin; enlisted Dec. 28, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Wm. A. Bratt, Frederick Bless, Franklin Burlingame, Thos. Carroll, Ralph B. Clark, Nelson Degraff, Marshall H. Ensign, Frederick Green, Gregory Navarre, Sylvester D. Randall, Sylvanus H. Randall, Orlando Ryan, Chas. Williams, Patrick Walch, all mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company K.

Sergeant James Shippie, Overisel; enlisted Dec. 24, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865. Wm. P. Hunter, Chas. Maxon, Andrew J. Parsons, mustered out June 30, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company F.

William P. Fifield, Theodore A. Healey, Silas N. Miller, John H. Rook, Asa D. Rook, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company I.

1st Lieutenant Geo. M. Brooks, Orangeville; com. Jan. 9, 1865; mustered out June 30, 1865.

FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS.

Organization of the Regiment-Departure for the Front-Service by Detachments-Building Bridges, etc.-Difficulties regarding Pay -Fight at Lavergne-The Regiment defeats Wheeler’s and Wharton’s Brigades-Service in the Summer of 1863-Placed on a Footing with Regular Engineers-Building Bridges in the Winter -Erecting Block-Houses-Importance of the Engineers’ Services -Close of Original Term-The March through Georgia-Through the Carolinas-A Detachment left in Tennessee-It rejoins the Regiment-Closing Services-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members.

THIS regiment, every company of which contained men from Allegan and Barry Counties, was organized under the.law of Aug. 3, 1861, authorizing the President to receive into service five hundred thousand volunteers.

Its original members rendezvoused at Marshall during the months of August and September, 1861, remaining there in camp of instruction, busily preparing for their duties in the field, until the 17th of December, 1861.

It was then, with an aggregate force of one thousand and thirty-two men and officers, commanded by Col. William P. Innes, transferred by rail to Louisville, Ky., joining there the army commanded by Major-Gen. Buell.

From this time it began a series of varied services, principally by detachments.

One of these detachments, then under Gen. O. M. Mitchell, was the first Union force to enter Bowling Green, Ky., after its evacuation by the enemy, and another was at the battle of Chaplain Hills.

During the spring and summer of 1862 the regiment was mostly employed in the repair or reopening of the railroads between Nashville and Chattanooga, Nashville and Columbia, Corinth and Decatur, Huntsville and Stevenson, and Memphis and Corinth, and twice assisted in reopening the road between Louisville and Nashville.

In the month of June, 1862, alone, it built seven bridges on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, each from eighty-four to three hundred and forty feet in length-in the aggregate nearly three thousand feet-and from twelve to sixty feet in height.

After the battle of Pittsburg Landing it was engaged at that point eight weeks in the construction of steamboat-landings, etc., with only one day’s rest.

Serious difficulties existed in the regiment during the first months of its service, owing to a misunderstanding as to the pay the men were to receive, it having been found after their organization that there was no law by which they could receive the pay expected.

This trouble was finally remedied by an act of Congress, which act also proposed to increase the regiment’s strength from ten to twelve companies of one hundred and fifty men each, forming three battalions, each commanded by a major.

Half the men, as artificers, drew seventeen dollars per month, and the others thirteen dollars per month.

On the 1st of November, 1862, the regiment was encamped at Edgefield, Tenn., when the alterations and casualties to that date aggregated as follows:

Died of disease, seventy-five;

died of wounds received in action, two;

killed in action, one;

wounded in action, seventeen;

discharged, one hundred and twenty-four;

taken prisoners, fifteen;

deserted, twenty;

recruits received, sixty-seven.

Until June 29, 1863, the regiment was stationed at Edgefield and Mill Creek, near Nashville, at Lavergne, Murfreesboro, and Smyrna, and at a point near Nashville on the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad.

During this time the regiment built nine bridges, besides a number of magazines and buildings for commissary, quartermaster, and ordnance stores, and also repaired and re-laid a large amount of railroad track.

At Lavergne, Tenn., on the 1st of January, 1863, it was attacked by the rebel Gens. Wheeler and Wharton, who, with a force of over three thousand Cavalry and two pieces of artillery, were compelled to retire with loss, the loss of the regiment in this action being but one man killed and six wounded.

On the 29th of June, 1863, the regiment moved south from Murfreesboro and during the two succeeding months was engaged repairing and opening the railroad from Murfreesboro, Tenn., to Bridgeport, Ala.

Of five bridges completed in July, the one over Elk River was four hundred and sixty feet in length; that over Duck River, three hundred and fifty feet long.

During September and October detached companies were employed in building an immense bridge over the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Ala., constructing commissary buildings at Stevenson, Ala., and building and repairing bridges, etc., on the lines of the Nashville and Chattanooga and the Nashville and Northwestern Railroads; the headquarters of the regiment being at Elk River Bridge, Tenn.

By an act of Congress passed in 1862, regiments and independent companies which had been ” mustered into the service of the United States as volunteer engineers, pioneers, or sappers and miners” were ” recognized and accepted as volunteer engineers, on the same footing, in all respects, in regard to their organization, pay, and emoluments, as the corps of engineers of the regular army of the United States.”

The standard of organization thus established allowed the regiment twelve companies of one hundred and fifty enlisted men each, viz., two musicians, ten sergeants, ten corporals, sixty-four artificers, and sixty-four privates.

The alterations and casualties for the year, to Nov. 1, 1863, were:

Died in action or of wounds, six;

died of disease, fifty-eight;

discharged for disability, one hundred and eighty-nine;

discharged for other causes, fourteen;

deserted, twenty-seven;

officers resigned, ten;

joined as recruits, three hundred and seventy-two;

aggregate strength, nine hundred and sixty-five.

In the months of November and December, 1863, and January and February, 1864, the regiment was engaged in building trestle-work and bridges on the line of the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad, and in the construction of store houses and other buildings at Chattanooga, Tenn., and Bridgeport, Ala., for the quartermaster, ordnance, and other departments of the army.

At the same time one battalion was engaged at Chattanooga in refitting saw-mills, where it continued during the months of March, April, and May, employed in running saw-mills, getting out railroad-ties, building hospital accommodations, and working on the defenses.

Detachments from the other battalions were engaged erecting block-houses on the lines of the Tennessee and Alabama, the Nashville and Chattanooga, and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads.

Two companies were at Bridgeport, Ala., building artillery block-houses.

Two companies were at Stevenson, Ala., completing its defenses, while another battalion was stationed on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, building block-houses at various points between Decatur and Stevenson.

The major portion of the regiment was finally concentrated upon the line of the Atlantic and Western Railroad during the summer months of 1864, where it built and repaired railroads, block-houses, etc.

The task allotted to this regiment during the fierce campaign of Sherman’s army, in 1864, was one of great magnitude, and most nobly did its members fulfill their duty.

But for such men as composed the Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, and the rapidity with which they repaired the railroad right up to the enemy’s skirmish-line, the more than one hundred thousand Union soldiers in front would many times have gone to sleep without their usual rations of “hard tack, sow belly, and coffee.”

As Johnston’s army fell back from one chosen position to another before the fierce attacks and flank movements of Sherman’s veterans, the railroad was invariably destroyed by the enemy, and in a manner, too, that would seem to require days to repair it.

Imagine, then, the surprise and chagrin of the “Johnnies,” when, in the course of a very few hours, a locomotive bearing the legend “United States”,

At the close of the Atlanta campaign, headquarters of the regiment were established in the latter city.

The alterations and casualties for the year were reported as follows:

Died of disease, one hundred and twelve; transferred thirty-six; discharged for disability, etc., fifty; re-enlisted as veterans, one hundred and forty-eight.

On the 31st of October, 1864, the original term of the regiment expired, and such officers as desired to leave the service were mustered out, as were also the enlisted men whose terms had expired.

The re-enlisted veterans, together with the recruits who had joined the regiment, enabled it to maintain its organization entire and nearly its full strength.

From the 1st to the 15th of November, 1864, the regiment, with the exception of Companies L and M, was stationed at Atlanta, Ga., being employed in constructing defenses, destroying rebel works, depots, rolling-mills, foundries, gas-works, and other rebel property, and in tearing up and rendering useless the various railroad-tracks in the vicinity.

After the complete destruction of Atlanta, the regiment set out on the morning of November 16, with the Fourteenth Army Corps, as part of the engineer force of Gen. Sherman’s army; going to Sandersville, Ga., and thence with the Twentieth Army Corps, to Horse Creek, where it received orders to join the Seventeenth Army Corps, with which it continued on to Savannah, Ga., reaching there Dec. 10, 1864.

During this march the regiment was required to keep pace with the movements of the army, traveling over twenty miles a day, and meanwhile was engaged tearing up railroad-tracks, twisting rails, destroying bridges, repairing and making roads, building and repairing wagon-bridges, etc.

On the 10th and 11th of December the regiment built a dam across the Ogechee Canal under the fire of rebel batteries.

From that time until after the evacuation of Savannah by the enemy, the regiment was constantly at work tearing up railroad-track and destroying the rails of the several railroads leading out of the city, and in constructing long stretches of corduroy-road for the passage of army-trains.

On the 23d of December it moved into the city, and five days later commenced work on the fortifications laid out by direction of Gen. Sherman.

These works, constructed by and under the supervision of this regiment, were over two miles in length, and included several strong battery-positions and lunettes.

The regiment was again put in motion on the 3d of January, 1865; marching to Pooler Station, converting the railroad into a wagon-road, and then returning to Savannah.

It embarked on board transports for Beaufort, S. C., January 26, 1865, and on the 31st started with the victorious Military Railroad,” driven by a greasy Northern mechanic, would dash up in their very midst, as it were, saluting them with several toots, and then a prolonged shrill whistle.

The salute, however, as well as the cheers from the “Yanks,” usually, and very quickly, too, received a response in the shape of shells from a rebel battery.

Afternoon and night of Nov. 15, 1864. army on its march to Goldsboro’, N. C.

It moved with the Fifteenth Army Corps to Banbury, S. C., thence with the Twentieth Army Corps to Columbia, S. C., thence with the Seventeenth Corps to Fayetteville, N. C., and thence with the Twentieth Army Corys to Goldsboro’, N. C., where it arrived March 23, 1865.

It is estimated that during this campaign, besides making and repairing a great distance of corduroy-road, the regiment destroyed and twisted the rails of thirty miles of railroad-track and built eight or ten important bridges and crossings.

At Edisto the bridge was constructed under fire from the enemy’s sharpshooters.

At Hughes Creek and at Little and Big Lynch Creeks the bridges and approaches were built at night.

At the last-named stream the men worked in water waist-deep.

A foot-crossing was made there in one night, nearly a mile in length, and the next day the space was corduroyed for the heavy army-trains and artillery to pass over.

The regiment destroyed factories and rebel army supplies at Columbia, rebel ordnance and stores at Cheraw, and the old United States arsenal at Fayetteville, N. C., etc.

Companies L and M, which had been detached from the regiment early in the summer of 1864 and placed upon the defenses at Stevenson, Ala., having completed those works, which consisted of a system of eight block-houses, were retained in the Army of the Cumberland.

They assisted to fortify and defend the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad for some weeks, and on the 28th of November, 1864, were moved to Elk River Bridge.

For some time after that, when not interrupted by Hood’s rebel army, they were engaged in building block-houses between that bridge and Murfreesboro, Tenn.

During the most of the month of December a portion of the Engineers and Mechanics was engaged in completing and repairing Fort Rosecrans, Murfreesboro, Tenn., while the rebels, under Hood, were investing Nashville.

A detachment, consisting of Company L of this regiment, with several companies of an Illinois regiment which had been sent out to bring through from Stevenson, Ala., a railroad-train of supplies, was captured Dec. 15, 1864, after several hours’ hard fighting.

On the 1st of March, 1865, Companies L and M left Murfreesboro, Tenn., to rejoin their regiment, and proceeding by rail, via Louisville, Indianapolis, Crestline, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia, to New York, they then took steamer to Beaufort, N. C., thence by rail to Newbern, and finally joined their comrades at Goldsboro’, N. C., March 25, 1865. Gen. Sherman’s army began its last campaign April 10, 1865.

By breaking camp at Goldsboro’ and moving rapidly to the northward, Johnston’s fleeing forces were pursued to, through, and beyond Raleigh.

The Engineers and Mechanics marched with the Twentieth Army Corps, but proceeded no farther than Raleigh, where they remained until after Johnston’s’ surrender on the 30th April the regiment moved out on its homeward march with the Seventeenth Army Corps.

It crossed the Roanoke River at Monroe, and, passing through the cities of Petersburg, Richmond, and Alexandria, Va., arrived at Washington, D. C.  April 26, 1865.

During the latter part of May, 1865, it participated in the grand review of two hundred thousand veteran soldiery held at the nation’s capital, May 23 and 24, 1865, and then went into camp near Georgetown, D. C.

Early in June the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., thence to Nashville, Tenn., where it was employed upon the defenses until September 22d, when it was mustered out of the United States service.

It arrived at the designated rendezvous, Jackson, Michigan, September 25th, and on the 1st day of. October, 1865, was paid off and disbanded.

The battles and skirmishes which by general orders it was entitled to have inscribed upon its colors were those of Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862; Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862; Lavergne, Tenn., Jan. 1, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 6, 1863; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to Sept. 2, 1864; Savannah, Ga., Dec. 11 to 23, 1864; Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company A.

Charles R. Averill, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Edward Averill, discharged by order, July 18, 1865.

Cvrus E. Babbitt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Hiram Bisby, died of disease at Willets’ Point, N. Y., May 14, 1865.

Theodore Crapey, discharged by order June 6, 1865.

William Degoit, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

David Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Henry Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Samuel Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

0. L. Gleason, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Cyrus E. Goodspeed, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

George H. Goodspeed, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 9, 1865.

Russell H. Jones, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Hugh Johnson, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Riley Miller, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Jefferson Reed, died of disease at Goldsboro’, N. C., March 28, 1865.

William M. Shepherd, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

J. M. Sterling, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Mathias Van Tassell, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company B.

Philip Bovee, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Walter Curtis, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 8, 1865.

Lyman M. Henderson, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 4, 1865.

Myron Heffron, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Elisha Poland, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

George R. Roach, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Myron Sullivan, disch by order, June 6, 1865.

Michael Strayer, discharged by order, May 22, 1865.

William E. Ticknor, died of disease in Indiana, May 17, 1864.

Company C.

Augustus P. Howe, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

William H. Wallace, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company D.

Corp. George H. Fausler, died of disease in Kentucky, Feb. 7, 1863.

David F. Ayers, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Theodore M. Ayers, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Richard Boyle, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Jan. 26, 1865.

Leaider Brewer, discharged for disability, Dec. 11, 1865.

Andrew E. Bates, veteran, enlisted Jan. 3, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Joseph Douglass, discharged for disability, Jan. 18, 1863.

William Everhardt, died of disease at Nashville, March 28, 1863.

Moses H. Fausler, died of disease at Nashville, May 3, 1862.

Samuel Hunter, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

John C. Hirspool, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Leonard T. Kinner, died of disease, March 11, 1862.

Henry Leslie, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Hezekiah Mason, disch by order, June 6, 1865.

Lyman Mathews, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Leroy Root, discharged for disability, July 8, 1862.

Andrew J. Ross, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John Parsons, discharged for disability, March 9, 1863.

Edgar A. Thompson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 3, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Witherell, discharged for disability, June 20, 1865.

Company E.

1st Lieutenant John W. Spoor, Allegan; com. Nov. 3, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, Jan. 1, 1864; Sergeant; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Philip J. Coon, Wayland; enlisted Sept. 11, 1861; discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Amasa B. Carpenter, died of disease, Feb. 25, 1863.

Marshall Darrow, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Francis M. Filkins, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

James Goodspeed, died of disease at Alexandria, May 8, 1865.

Cyrus E. Hollister, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Lucius F. Hill, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Minot Hoyt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Isaac N. Hoyt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Charles W. King, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Curtis Murray, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Chester D. Walchl, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company F.

Ambrose Mudge, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Jacob W. Ridgely, died of disease in Tennessee, March 11, 1865.

Company G.

Gilbert Eagle, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Henry H. Jennings, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Albert H. Lillie, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William Osman, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Frank F. Russell, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Henry Starring, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Charles Stratton, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Osmer Eaton, Otsego; cornm. Jan. 1, 1864; discharged at end of service, Oct. 26, 1864.

Albert Brundage, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

David Fargo, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Perly Mann, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

George Robbins, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Parker Truax, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Aaron Wing, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Company L

Ephraim Prindle, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

James B. Yeamans, discharged by order, June 29, 1865.

Company K.

Clement C. Bement, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 10, 1864.

John Dean, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Ira S. Harriman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John B. King, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Francis P. Williams, discharged for disability, June 18, 1862.

Robert Williams, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company L.

Sergeant Cornelius Engles, Otsego; enlisted Jan. 1, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Augustus Dean, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William Heydenberg, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Sanford Scott, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company M.

John W. Leoply, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William F, Leoply, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company A.

William Scott, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

Company B.

Charles Dowse, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 24, 1862.

William C. Goodyear, discharged for disability, Dec. 19, 1863.

Company C.

Sergeant Zophar Sidmore, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, April 17, 1863.

Sergeant Andrew J. Beers, Irving; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 1, 1864; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. L.

Corp. Joseph L. Hewett, Irving; enlisted Sept. 17, 1861; discharged by order, July 14, 1863.

Musician Jonathan R. Russell, Thornapple; enlisted Oct. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 2, 1862.

George H. Brownson, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1863.

Nathaniel Birdsall, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William H. Bayless, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Eliphalet R. Cartwright, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

James Curtis, discharged for disability, Sept. 9, 1862.

Benona A. Cotant, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 15, 1863.

James Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James W. Cutler, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Oliver Cheeney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Darmat, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Frederick A. Fuller, discharged at Nashville, Tenn.

James M. Flanigan. veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Alson Gray, discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Oliyer P. Hewitt, discharged for disability, March 7, 1862.

William Hazen, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Abner Hall, died of disease-at Nashville, Tenn., March 29, 1864.

Solomon Hardenburgh, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 15, 1864.

T homas Haney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865. H

iram Jones, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Horatio Morgridge, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John MeOmber, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 15, 1864.

Orson Myers, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 17, 1864.

Daniel S. Mead, died of disease at Hastings, Michigan, Feb. 5, 1864.

Liberty Marble, discharged for disability, March 3, 1863.

William Morgan, discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1863.

John H. McLellan, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Theodore R. Mattison, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Francis Nye, veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George W. Osborn, discharged for disability, July 25, 1862.

William Roberts, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Walter Robinson, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

Mathias Reiser, died of wounds at Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 25, 1863.

David H. Sanford, discharged for disability, April 30, 1862.

Samuel Sweet, discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1862.

Norman Seaver, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Ezra Sweet, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Charles W. Sheldon, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Edwin B. Sidmore, veteran, enlisted Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Abel Shepard, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles 11. Stone, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Washington Topping, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jefferson Turner, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Alonzo Van Horn, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William D. Vaughan, discharged for disability, July 28, 1862.

William Vester, discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1863.

John Vredenburgh, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Watson E. Woodruff, discharged for disability, June 3, 1863.

Amos W. Warner, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

James C. Woodruff, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

John Weisert, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Oscar H. Young, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company D.

James H. Gault, died of disease at Ypsilanti, Michigan, May 25, 1862.

Matthew A. Patrick, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1865.

Roswell Webster, discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Company F.

Samuel Gibbs, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Robert Holliday, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Johnson, discharged by order, Aug. 4, 1865.

Albert B. Sayles, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company G.

Edwin M. Bowman, died of disease at Town Creek, Ga., Nov. 24, 1864.

Lewis C. Bugby, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 16, 1865.

Andrew E. Breese, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Stephen E. Crandall, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Haugh, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Wilson F. Hart, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Southern Monroe, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Levi Palmatier, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company H.

Stephen Downs, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Lewis Ives, discharged for disability, April 26, 1862.

Company K.

John Jacobs, veteran, enlisted Dec. 31, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. H. Miller, discharged for disability, Feb. 18, 1863.

John Vandermere, died of disease at New York Harbor, May 4, 1865.

Company L.

Andrew J. Beers, 1st Lieutenant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CAVALRY.

The First Cavalry goes to Virginia in October, 1861-Winters in Maryland-Its Battles in 1862-Assigned to the “Michigan Brigade”-Defeats Hampton’s Legion-The New Battalion-Loss in the Wilderness-At Trevillian-At Front Royal, Winchester, and Cedar Creek-In at the Death of the Rebellion-Ordered to the Rocky Mountains-Disbanded in March, 1866-Allegan County Soldiers-Barry County Soldiers-The Second Cavalry goes to St. Louis-Operates on the Mississippi-Services around Corinth Philip H. Sheridan its Colonel-Ordered to Kentucky-A March to East Tennessee-Then to Middle Tennessee-A Fight with Forrest -More Fighting in Middle and East Tennessee-Re-enlistment Resisting Hood’s Advance in the Fall of 1864-Closing Services Officers and Soldiers from Barry County-From Allegan County Allegan County’s Representation in the Third Cavalry-Operations on the Mississippi and around Corinth-A Gallant Achievement Battle of Iuka-Fights in the Winter of 1862-63-Fighting Guerrillas in 1863-Description of that Kind of Warfare-Re-enlistment -Subsequent Services-Ordered to Texas-Mustered out-Officers and Men from Allegan County-Soldiers from Barry County.

FIRST CAVALRY.

The First Regiment of Michigan Cavalry was organized during the summer of 1861, and left its rendezvous at Detroit for the seat of war in Virginia, under the command of Col. T. F. Brodhead, on the 29th of September of the same year.

Among its original members were several from Allegan County, and before the close of the war some fifty men had joined its ranks from the counties of Barry and Allegan.

The regiment passed the winter of 1861-62 in camp near Frederick, Md., and in the following spring entered upon active service on the Upper Potomac, in the Shenandoah Valley, and near the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge.

It was in battle at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862; at Middletown, Va., March 15th; at Strasburg, March 27th; at Harrisonburg, April 22d; at Winchester again, May 24th; at Orange Court-House, July 16th; at Cedar Mountain, August 9th; and at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862.

In the last-named battle Col. Brodhead was mortally wounded, and the regiment lost twenty men killed and wounded, seven prisoners, and one hundred and six missing.

To Nov. 1, 1862, ten others had died of wounds received in action, and sixty of disease.

After passing another winter near Frederick, Md., the regiment again entered the field, and during the early part of 1863 performed picket duty along the line of Union defenses extending from Edward’s Ferry to the mouth of the Occoquan.

On the 27th June it moved northward in the Gettysburg campaign, and for fifteen days it was almost constantly engaged in conflicts with the enemy.

The First formed part of the celebrated “Michigan Cavalry Brigade,” of which Gen. Custer was so long the commander, and which contributed very largely to the renown of that distinguished Cavalry leader.

At Gettysburg, on the 3d of July, 1863, the First met and charged Hampton’s Legion, consisting of three regiments of rebel Cavalry, and defeated it in six minutes, having eleven officers and eighty men killed and wounded out of three hundred who went into the action.

In September, 1863, the War Department authorized the consolidation of the twelve companies into eight and the raising of a new battalion of four companies.

These were speedily raised, and the new battalion was mustered into service at Mount Clemens, in December, 1863.

This battalion went to Camp Stoneman, near Washington, in December, 1863, and remained there until the spring of 1864.

Meanwhile, the two old battalions re-enlisted, came home on veteran furlough, and joined the new levies at Camp Stoneman.

The three battalions went to the front together, and in the latter part of March, 1864, joined Gen. Sheridan’s Cavalry corps at Culpeper, Va., being still a part of the “Michigan Cavalry Brigade.”

The regiment had ten men killed and twenty wounded in the battle of the Wilderness.

It was engaged at Hanovertown, on the 27th of May, and at Hawes’ Shop on the 28th, where fifteen of its members were killed and wounded, and at Old Church on the 30th, where fifteen were killed and wounded.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with other Cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought, dismounted, in advance of the infantry; having eighteen men killed and wounded.

It shared the fortunes of the brigade throughout the summer; having fifty-one men killed and wounded at Trevillian Station (where six commissioned officers were killed), eleven killed and wounded at Front Royal in the Shenandoah Valley, thirty-two at Manchester, and twenty-seven at Cedar Creek.

During the six months closing on the 1st of November, 1864, the regiment had eighty-two men killed or mortally wounded in action, and one hundred and two less seriously wounded, while only thirty-three died of disease.

After being in quarters with the brigade near Winchester through the winter, the First went with it in Sheridan’s great raid in March, 1865, and was warmly engaged in the closing scenes of the Rebellion.

After this the regiment moved into the edge of North Carolina, then returned to Washington, and immediately after the review of the Army of the Potomac, on the 23d of May, 1865, was sent by rail and steamer to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., whence it was ordered across the Plains.

There was much dissatisfaction, but most of the regiment set out on the march; reaching Camp Collins, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, on the 26th of July.

Its headquarters remained there until about the 1st of November, when it was moved to Fort Bridger.

There it was consolidated with those men of the Sixth and Seventh Michigan Cavalry who had the longest time to serve; forming an organization known as the First Michigan Veteran Cavalry.

Company K was distributed among several other companies.

After the consolidation eight companies were sent to Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, while four remained at Fort Bridger.

The regiment garrisoned those two stations until the 10th of March, 1866, when it was mustered out, paid off, and disbanded.

The men were given their choice,-to be disbanded in Utah then, or to remain till June and then be marched to Fort Leavenworth, without horses or tents.

All but about seventy made the former choice.

The commutation paid them in lieu of transportation, however, was not enough to carry them home, and, on representation of the injustice to Congress, that body voted three hundred and twenty-five dollars to each member of the regiment, minus the amount already paid as commutation money.

This gave each member about two hundred and ten dollars extra, which was duly paid them by the government.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Company A.

John Rutan, (lied of disease at Alexandria, Va., June 10, 1862.

Company B.

Robert W. Martin, mustered out May 14, 1866.

Amos Ruland, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company C.

Miles Wright, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company E.

George Brown, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Aretus E. Black, mustered out March 10, 1866.

James H. Birkhead, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Henry L. Monteith, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Florence Sullivan, mustered out Dec. 5. 1865.

Company F.

Hiram O. Miller, mustered out March 25, 1866.

Company G.

Darius J. Cushman, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Darwin E. White, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company H.

Thomas Hoagland, mustered out.

Origen Hamilton, mustered out.

Company I.

2d Lieutenant Orrin M. Bartlett, Gun Plain; cor. March 7, 1865; killed in action at Five Forks, Va., April 1, 1865.

1st Sergeant Nahum Gilbert, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, July 14, 1863.

Corp. Charles W. Belcher, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; missing in action at Brandy Station, Oct. 11, 1863.

Corp. Otis A. Cackler, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 7, 1862.

MusicianThomas Jeffs, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; veteran, Dec. 21, 1863; transferred to Co. L; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Saddler William J. Monteith, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; veteran, Dec. 21, 1863; transferred to Co. L; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Company K.

Franklin J. Church, mustered out.

Company L.

Jefferson Brown, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

William Brown, mustered out by order, June 7, 1865.

Horace Dunning, discharged by order, Sept. 12, 1864.

Isaac Furgeson, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Nelson Russ, mustered out Nov. 14, 1865.

Friend Reed, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Thomas Schlayer, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

David C. Smith, discharged at end of service, Aug. 22, 1865.

Company M.

Barzillai Houston, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Johnson Mellott, mustered out July 24, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company D.

Andrew L. Barnum, died in action at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.

Company E.

William D. Mathews, must out March 2, 1865.

Rollin C. Norton, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company F.

Grant H. Van Voorhies, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Company G.

William M. Davis, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company K.

Alfred Train, mustered out March 25, 1866.

Company L.

Clinton J. Williamson, died of disease at Fort Kearney, July 23, 1865.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CAVALRY.

SECOND CAVALRY.

Allegan and Barry Counties were both represented by good men in the Second Cavalry.

The companies comprising this fine regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids early in the fall of 1861.

On the 28th of November, 1861, the Second proceeded to St. Louis, Mo., where it was encamped at Benton Barracks until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined the forces organizing under Gen. John Pope to operate against New Madrid and Island No. 10.

After the capture of those rebel strongholds the regiment proceeded with Pope’s ” Army of the Mississippi,” via the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Hamburg Landing, Tenn.

It was engaged in the battle of Farmington, Miss, May 5, 1862, and in the subsequent siege of Corinth during the remainder of that month.

It pressed closely upon Beauregard’s retreating columns when they fled south from Corinth, and fought them at Boonville, Blackland, and Baldwin, Miss.

Thereafter, throughout the summer of 1862, the regiment was actively employed on various duties in Northern Mississippi and Western Tennessee.

Its colonel was then Philip H. Sheridan, now lieutenant-general, who had recently been detailed fiom duty as a captain in the regular army to receive the colonelcy lately vacated by the promotion of Gen. Gordon Granger.

Col. Sheridan commanded a brigade, consisting of the Second Michigan, Second Iowa, and Seventh Kansas Cavalry, and at its head made numerous excursions through the country around Corinth, to keep down guerrillas and learn the movements of the enemy.

Early in the autumn, however, Col. Sheridan was made a brigadier-general of volunteers and transferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and about the same time the Second Cavalry was sent to Kentucky.

In December, 1862, and January, 1863, it was engaged in a movement into East Tennessee, the men being in the saddle twenty-two days and taking part in several sharp skirmishes.

Soon afterward it moved into Middle Tennessee, and for several months its headquarters were at or near Murfreesboro, while it was almost constantly engaged in scouts and raids through that region.

On the 25th of March, 1863, it had a sharp encounter with a large rebel force under Gen. N. B. Forrest, killing and wounding many and capturing fifty-two prisoners.

The Second had seven men killed and wounded.

On the 4th of June it had another brisk skirmish between Franklin and Triune, Tenn., five of its men being killed and wounded.

When the army advanced from Murfreesboro in June, 1863, the Second accompanied it in the Cavalry division, driving the enemy from Shelbyville, Middletown, and other points.

In the autumn it was engaged in scouting around Chattanooga, at one time being part of a force which chased Gen. Wheeler’s Cavalry one hundred and ninety-one miles in six days (October 3d to 8th, inclusive).

In November it marched into East Tennessee, and on the 24th of December it participated in an attack on a large force of the enemy at Dandridge, Tenn., having ten men killed and wounded.

On the 26th of January, 1864, the Second with other forces attacked a brigade of rebel Cavalry on Pigeon River, capturing three pieces of artillery and seventy-five prisoners, and having eleven of its own men wounded.

Three hundred and twenty-eight of the men re-enlisted as veterans, and in April went home on veteran furlough.

The rest of the regiment accompanied Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, having several sharp skirmishes with the enemy, but being ordered back from Lost Mountain to Franklin, Tenn., where it was rejoined by the veterans in July.

During the summer and autumn the Second was busily engaged in marching through Middle Tennessee, fighting with the horsemen of Forrest and other rebel generals.

On the 5th of November, 1864, the regiment was attacked at Shoal Creek, Ala., by a large Confederate force (a part of Hood’s army, then advancing against Nashville), and was forced back with heavy loss.

It steadily fell back, skirmishing almost constantly with the enemy, and at Franklin, on the 30th of November, it resisted his advance all day, having eighteen officers and men killed and wounded.

After Hood’s defeat before Nashville, the Second pressed hard on his rear, and at Richland Creek, on the 24th of December, charged repeatedly, driving the foe sixteen miles, and having seven men killed and wounded.

After Hood’s final retreat from the State the regiment remained mostly in Middle Tennessee until March 11, 1865, when it set out on a long raid through Northern Alabama to Tuscaloosa, and thence through Talladega to Macon, Ga., where it arrived on the 1st day of May, 1865.

After remaining in Georgia on garrison duty until the 17th of August, the regiment was mustered out and sent home, arriving at Jackson on the 25th of August, 1865, where it was paid off and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Marshall J. Dickenson, Vermontville; c, m. July 31, 1865, but not mustered; Major Sept. 13, 1863; Captain Co. B, May 17, 1862; 2d Lieutenant Sept. 2, 1861; mustered out as major, Aug. 17, 1865.

Company B.

Captain Marshall J. Dickenson. (See Field and Staff.)

Captain Isaac Griswold, Vermontville; com. Jan. 31, 1865, but not mustered; 1st Lieutenant Oct. 1, 1864; mustered out as 1st Lieutenant Aug. 17, 1865.

Company C.

Captain Martin L. Squier, Vermontville*; com. Oct. 22, 1864; 1st Lieutenant March 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant April 15, 1863; sergeant; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Musician Augustus Atkins, died of disease in Iowa, July 26, 1862.

James W. Hotchkiss, discharged for disability, Sept. 11, 1862.

James R. Shadden, mustered out July 26, 1865.

Herman E. Wood, discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Company F.

Philip Arthur, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Lorenzo Livingston, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Charles I. McMurray, discharged for disability.

Julius Otto, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Company G.

James Heaton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864.

Company H.

Henry Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company L

Franklin Austin, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Myron S. Cook, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Highland Honeywell, discharged at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864.

George Henshaw, discharged at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864.

Richard Hoffenden, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Frank M. Osgood, discharged by order, May 23, 1865.

Samuel N. Woodman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864.

Company L.

John Lamaure, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE SECOND CAVALRY.

Company I

Corp. Alonzo Mapes, Martin; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; sick in hospital.

Corp. Joseph Lindsley, Otsego; enlisted Sept. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, July 31, 1862.

Albert Brewer, discharged for disability, March 22, 1862.

John C. Bugbee, died of disease at Benton Barracks, Feb. 13, 1862.

Leonard Camhout, discharged for disability, July 31, 1862.

William Fessenden, died of disease at Stevenson, Ala., Nov. 22, 1863.

Elick Elickson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Seward Harrington, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Stillman Shepherd, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

THIRD CAVALRY.

This regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids in the summer of 1861, and was there mustered into the United States service, November 1st of the same year.

Company A, which proceeded to the front under the command of Captain Gilbert Moyers, was an Allegan County company, and the same county was also represented in every other company of the Third.

Barry had but few men in the regiment, and they were scattered among Companies E, K, L, and M. Under the command of Lieut Col. Robert H. G. Minty, previously major of the Second Michigan Cavalry, the regiment left its rendezvous Nov. 28, 1861, and proceeded to Benton Barracks, Mo., where Col. John K. Mizner soon after assumed command.

It remained at St. Louis until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined Gen. John Pope’s “Army of the Mississippi,” and actively participated in the operations which resulted in the capture of the rebel strongholds Island No. 10 and New Madrid.

With Gen. Pope’s army it then proceeded, via the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Pittsburg Landing, where it arrived soon after the battle of Shiloh, and took an active part in the advance of Gen. Halleck’s army upon Corinth, Miss.

Immediately after the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard the Third was ordered to Booneville, Miss., to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy.

While in the performance of this duty a small detachment of the regiment was sent out in advance, under Captain Botham.

It ran on to a rebel force of all arms, drove them from their position, halted, and bivouacked for the night.

The following morning, while eating breakfast, a Union scout discovered the enemy in the vicinity.

The men left their breakfast half eaten, mounted, and hurried forward.

They soon found a small body of rebel Cavalry, who fled before them.

The Union horsemen advanced at a rapid pace, and soon came upon an entire regiment of rebel Cavalry drawn up to dispute their further progress.

There was no time for consideration.

If the little command had then retreated, it would have been attacked and crushed by the elated Confederates.

Captain Botham knew it was essential for Cavalry to get the advantage of its own momentum in a combat, and accordingly shouted the order to charge.

The detachment dashed forward at the top of its speed, burst through the Confederate lines, and then turned and charged back.

The enemy was so demoralized by these movements that no attempt was made to follow.

How many of the foe were killed and wounded was not known, but it was certain that at least eleven were dismounted, for eleven of their horses accompanied the Union force on its returning charge.

After retreating a short distance, Captain Botham halted and sent a dispatch to camp.

About four o’clock in the afternoon he was relieved by the Second Michigan Cavalry, under the command of Col. Philip H. Sheridan.

The latter drove back the enemy four or five miles, and then rejoined the main army.

The regiment was actively engaged in the usual Cavalry duty of picketing and scouting throughout the whole season.

Through the month of August it was at Tuscumbia and Russellville, Ala. On the approach of Price’s rebel Cavalry it returned to the vicinity of Corinth. At Iuka, Miss., on the 19th of September, 1862, while in command of Captain L. G. Wilcox,-Col. Mizner being chief of Cavalry,-the regiment was actively engaged, and was specially mentioned in Gen. Rosecrans’ report of that battle.

When Price and his defeated rebel army retired from the field the Third hung on his flanks and rear for many miles; becoming several times hotly engaged, and causing him repeatedly to form line of battle to check the Union advance.

At the close of the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, the regiment had lost one hundred and four men who died of disease, seven killed in action, forty-five wounded in action, and fifty-nine taken prisoners.

Its battles and skirmishes to that date were New Madrid, Mo., March 13, 1862; siege of Island No. 10, Mo., March 14th to April 7th; Farmington, Miss., May 5th; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10th to 31st; Spangler’s Mills, Miss., July 26th; Bay Springs, Miss., September 10th; Iuka, Miss., September 19th; Corinth, Miss., October 3d and 4th; and Hatchie, Miss., October 6th.

It advanced with Gen. Grant’s army into Mississippi in November and December, 1862, and engaged the enemy at Holly Springs, November 7th; at Hudsonville, November 14th, where it captured an entire rebel company; at Lumkin’s Mill, November 29th; and at Oxford, December 2d; and shared in the defeat of the Union Cavalry at Coffeeville, December 5th.

The following winter it was on active duty in North Mississippi and West Tennessee.

During the year 1863 the Third Cavalry was principally engaged in the arduous service of driving out the numerous bands of guerrillas which infested Western Tennessee and Northern Mississippi, and repelling the incursions of Confederate forces from other quarters; its camp being most of the time at Corinth, Miss.

There were few very severe battles in this kind of warfare, and few opportunities for winning martial glory amid the shock of charging squadrons, but it tested to the utmost the endurance, the fortitude, and the patriotism of the hardy sons of the West.

Day and night, in sun and rain, the Cavalry was kept in motion.

Often, when all the camp lay locked in the deep slumbers of two o’clock in the morning, the silence would suddenly be broken by the stirring sounds of the bugle, and a moment later the officers would be heard going from tent to tent, arousing the half-awakened men with the orders, “Turn out here, Company B.” “Turn out, Company F.” ” Get ready to march with three days’ rations.”

“Lively now; lively, I say.”

Then would follow a hurried drawing of rations, the filling of haversacks and saddle-bags with coffee, pork, and ” hard tack,” and perhaps the cooking of a hasty meal for immediate consumption.

Presently the bugles would sound ‘ Boot and Saddle,” the horses would be speedily equipped, mounted, and ridden into line, the voices of a dozen captains would be heard in succession commanding “Fours Right-Column Right-March!” and away into the darkness would go the Third Michigan, or the Seventh Kansas, or the Third Iowa, or any two of them, or all of them, as the occasion might seem to require.

Nobody would know where they were going except the field-officers, and very frequently they didn’t; but all sorts of rumors would pass rapidly among the boys: “Forrest is coming to attack the camp ” “Roddy is out here ten miles;” ” Chalmers is raising the devil over at Holly Springs,” etc.

A ride would follow, perhaps lasting two or three hours, perhaps extending through three or four days and half as many nights, and sometimes embracing a period of one, two, or three weeks, during which the bold riders were generally compelled to live upon the country they traversed.

In that half-cleared country there was seldom an opportunity for the dashing charge which one naturally associates with the idea of Cavalry service; but whenever they met the foe, which was quite frequently, both sides dismounted, and a lively skirmish with carbines against shot-guns ensued, which lasted until one party or the other retreated.

The retreating party was usually, though not always, the rebels, for notwithstanding the best Confederate troops, after the battle of Corinth, in October, 1862, were taken away to other sections, leaving only undisciplined bands of what was called ” shot-gun Cavalry” in Northern Mississippi and Western Tennessee, the ” chivalry” fought well.

In such tasks the Third Michigan Cavalry was engaged throughout 1863, taking part in sharp fights (and generally defeating the enemy) at Clifton on the 20th of February; at Panola, Miss., on the 20th of July; at Byhalia, Miss., on the 12th of October; at Wyatt’s Ford, Miss., on the 13th of October.

At Grenada, Miss., also, on the 14th of August, the Third led the Union advance, and, after a vigorous fight, drove back the enemy, captured the town, and destroyed more than sixty locomotives and four hundred cars, gathered there by the Confederate authorities.

In the latter part of January, 1864, the regiment being then in winter-quarters at Lagrange, Tenn., three-fourths of the men re-enlisted, and the command became the Third Michigan Veteran Cavalry.

After the men had enjoyed their veteran furlough the command went to St. Louis in March, 1864, and in the latter part of May proceeded, dismounted, to Little Rock, Ark.

It was not mounted until the 1st of August, when it resumed the work of chasing guerrillas, scouting for information, etc., with an experience similar to that already described.

From November, 1864, to February, 1865, the Third was in garrison at Brownsville Station, on the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad, where the men built such a fine16 I appearing set of quarters and stables that the place was commonly called Michigan City, instead of Brownsville Station.

In March, 1865, the regiment, as a part of the First Brigade, First Division, Seventh Army Corps, proceeded to New Orleans, and in April continued its course to Mobile.

After the capture of that place the Third was on outpost duty in that vicinity until the 8th day of May, when it marched across the country to Baton Rouge, La.

In June it set out for Texas by the way of Shreveport, and on the 2d of August arrived at San Antonio, in that State.

Its headquarters remained at San Antonio until the 15th of February, 1866, while successive detachments were scouting the country, protecting the frontier against Mexicans and Indians.

In February, 1866, the regiment was dismounted, mustered out, and sent home; being paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan, on the 15th of March, 1866, after a service of four years and a half unsurpassed as to hardship and fidelity by that of any other regiment in the army.

It is claimed to have captured during the time over two thousand five hundred prisoners, besides those taken in co-operation with other regiments.

OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Gilbert Moyers, Allegan; com. Aug. 13, 1862; Major, Feb. 27, 1862; res. Dec. 2, 1864. (See Co. A.)

Major James G. Butler, Allegan; com. July 4, 1865; Captain, Sept. 7, 1864; 1st Lieutenant and q.m., Sept. 15, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, May 25, 1862; com. Sergeant, Sept. 2, 1862; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company A.

Captain Gilbert Moyers, Allegan; com. Aug. 28, 1861; promoted to Major, Feb. 27, 1862. (See Field and Staff.)

Captain Thomas Dean, Allegan; com. Oct. 26, 1864; 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1863; 2d lieut., Oct. 1, 1862; enlisted Sept. 1, 1861; res. Oct. 17, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Horace H. Pope, Allegan; com. Aug. 28, 1861; transferred 1st Lieutenant to Co. I, Feb. 27, 1862. 1st Lieutenant

Isaac Wilson, Saugatuck; com. Feb. 27, 1862; 2d Lieutenant Sept. 7, 1861; promoted to Captain Co. K, Oct. 1, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Nathan V. Btuck, Allegan; com. Oct. 26, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 13, 1864; res. June 2, 1865.

1st Sergeant Frank W. Mix, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 1, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. G, March 26, 1862.

Q.M.-Sergeant George R. Stone, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 6, 1861; discharged by order, Jan. 15, 1863, for promoted in 4th Cavalry.

Sergeant Nelson 0. Moon, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862.

Sergeant Robert W. Helmer, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; discharged for promoted June 27, 1863.

Corp. Martin C. Garver, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; died in Tennessee of accidental wounds.

Corp. Nathan V. Buck, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864, Sergeant; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Corp. William W. Pullen, Allegan; enl Sept. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, July 14, 1862.

Corp. Stephen Odell, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 9, 1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864; Sergeant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Corp. William Lawrie, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, July 24, 1863.

Musician Osteen G. Pike, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; discharged for disability, June 14, 1862.

Farrier Solomon Stanton, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Wagoner William Fisher, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; discharged for disability, Nov. 10, 1862.

Joseph Agan, died of disease in Tennessee.

Samuel Andrews, mustered out Aug. 25, 1865.

James Alger, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864: mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George D. Bronson, died of disease in Arkansas, March * 1862.

William Bignall, died of disease in Arkansas, Nov. 23, 1864.

Charles Billings, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Lewis Blaisdell, discharged by order, June 2, 1865.

Edgar Blaisdell, mustered out June 7, 1865.

Lorenzo Brown, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Elijah Brown, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Morris Burr, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George Bowman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Benjamin F. Briggs, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Reuben D. Barker, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Daniel Collins, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George Cody, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Joshua Cornwell, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1862.

Lucius T. Cobb, discharged for disability, Jan. 23, 1863.

John Cummins, discharged for disability, March 28, 1864.

William A. Cheney, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Ralph Cass, died of disease at Cairo, Ill., July 20, 1864.

William Colon, died of disease at Austin, Texas, July 29, 1865.

Warren K. Carman, died of disease at San Antonio, Texas, Oct. 4, 1865.

Andrew Cochrane, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

James K. Dale, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Seymour Dye, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Horatio E. Emery, veteran, enlisted Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Frederick Edwards, died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 25, 1862.

A. H. Esterbrook, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Albert Fenn, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Theo. Flitcraft, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Joseph Gray, mustered out June 7, 1865.

John Garrison, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Hiram N. Goodell, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Kneeland Graves, died of wounds, April 25, 1863.

Horace P. Haight, died of disease, March 2, 1862.

Washington Howe, died of disease on steamer, June 15, 1865.

Wesley E. Howe, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Jacob Herringer, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Henry Hoak, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Charles H. Jones, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Morris Kent, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Theo. Kleeman, discharged for disability, Nov. 9, 1862.

Bertrand Loomis, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., March 27, 1864.

Isaac Laws, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., July 15, 1864.

Oliver Martin, died of disease at Monterey, Michigan, Sept. 12, 1864.

William H. McCormick, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

William McMillan, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Christopher Martin, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William E. Martin, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John Mocklencute, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged for promotion, March 21, 1865.

Morgan Maybee, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged for promotion, June 5, 1865.

Thomas McQueeny, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Martin Millis, discharged for disability, Feb. 16, 1865.

Bernard McKerney, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 6, 1863.

John Pangburn, died of disease, Sept. 24, 1862.

Alonzo Prentiss, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, July 6, 1864.

Edward Phelan, discharged for disability, March 28, 1864.

George Pierce, discharged for disability, Dec. 24, 1862.

Benjamin C. Palmer, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 18C4.

Benjamin F. Parker, veteran, eul. Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1865.

John Priest, veteran, enlisted Feb. 27, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Charles F. Peck, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Washington Pound, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John Piersons, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Freeman Ross, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Martin V. Reed, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Lyman Reed, discharged for disability, Aug. 26, 1862.

Miles Reed, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1862.

William Rull, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1862.

Charles Ruber, died of wounds at Memphis, Feb. 15, 1864.

Stephen D. Stone, discharged for disability, Oct. 12, 1862.

Edward Slocum, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Seely Squires, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged by order, Oct. 22, 1865.

John Stone, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William L. Stannard, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John H. Sage, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866. Henry Starring, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Edmund Starring, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., April 13, 1864.

Thomas J. Stilson, died of disease at Cairo, Ill., Aug. 8, 1864.

Charles Tiefenthal, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Frederic Wiseman, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Seth H. Winn, discharged for disability, Nov. 10, 1862. /

Ralph Winn, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David White, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; 2d Lieutenant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Alonzo Wilcox, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Emmett Ward, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Edward Warren,mustered out Feb. 12, 1866. Albert Wilson, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Joshua C. Young, died of disease at New Madrid, Mo., March 8, 1862.

Company B.

2d Lieutenant David White, Saugatuck; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company C.

1st Lieutenant Frank W. Mix, Saugatuck; comm. May 25, 1862; promoted to Captain in 4th Cavalry. Aug. 13, 1862. (See Co. G.)

Company D.

Chas. Hartwell, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Jas. G. Butler, com. May 25, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and q.m., Sept. 15, 1862.

Chas. H. Allen, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Wm. Ballinger, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Almon J. Boyles, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Aug. 2, 1864.

Mortimer Culver, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Columbus Greenman, discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Wm. Orr, discharged by order, Jan. 8, 1865.

John H. Rhodes, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Solomon Staunton, mustered out Sept. 23, 1865.

Company F.

Captain Jas. G. Butler, com. Sept. 7, 1864; promoted to Major, July 4, 1865.

Dennis Considine, mustered out Feb. 12,18t6.

Clias. Deval, discharged for disability, Nov. 1, 1864.

Spencer Deval, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Aug. 16, 1864.

Clias. Gleason, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John L. Simpkins, discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Company G.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. Campion, Allegan; com. Nov. 17, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

2d Lieutenant Frank W. Mix, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. C, May 25, 1862.

Company H.

James Burnham, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Ephraim Gleason, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Adolphus Haire, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, July 24, 1864.

John Muunger, mustered out Sept. 23, 1865.

Geo. G. Manning, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Harmon Vosburgh, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company I.

Captain Horace H. Pope, com. June 11, 1862; 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 27, 1862; resigned Nov. 7, 1864.

John Frank, discharged for disability, Sept. 18, 1862.

Israel McCall, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864.

Company K.

Captain Isaac Wilson, Saugatuck; com. Oct. 1, 1863; honorably discharged June 6, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Chas. W. Tenny, Allegan; com. Nov. 8, 1865; 2d Lieutenant, Jan. 2, 1865; sergeant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Stephen M. Finch, died of disease at Chicago, Dec. 18, 1864.

Company L.

Nelson Beer, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Thos. C. McGinley, mustered out Aug. 11, 1865.

Company M.

Ezra D. Barlow, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David Barney, mustered out May 25, 1865.

Robert Buchan, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Henry Earl, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David Fox, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Albro Gardner, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

James Jones, died of disease in Arkansas, Aug. 29, 1864.

Myron Lighthieart, discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1865.

Silas B. Pike, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Samuel Reed, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William Shoemaker, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Absalom Walker, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company E.

Francis A. Benson, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., June 28, 1864.

William F. Benson, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company K.

James Ward, veteran, enlisted Jan. 20, 1864; mustered out June 2, 1865.

Company L.

William Ransom, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company M.

Leonidas Wright, died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 2, 1862.

FOURTH CAVALRY.

The Regiment recruited by Col. Minty-Company L, under Captain Pritchard, from Allegan-Other Allegan and Barry Men-Fighting Qualities of the Fourth-It moves to Kentucky in September, 1862 -Chasing John Morgan-Capture of Franklin, Tenn.-Battle of Stone River-Expedition to Harpeth Shoals-Charging and routing a Confederate Brigade-The Battle of Shelbyville-Col. Minty’s Report-In Advance of Rosecrans’ Army-The Battle in Lookout Valley-Seven thousand Infantry and Cavalry fought all Day by Minty’s Brigade-Full Report by Col. Minty-Covering the Retreat from Chickamauga-Fighting Wheeler’s Cavalry-All but One Hundred and Twenty-Eight Horses worn out by Service-The Regiment remounted at Nashville-Forward to Atlanta-Fight at Tanner’s Bridge-Gallant Service near Kingston-Continuous fighting Brilliant Conflict at Lattimore’s Mill-Repulsing an Overwhelming Force-A Rebel Correspondent praises Yankee Valor-Minty’s Reports-Advancing and Fighting-In the Trenches as Infantry Mounted and off under Kilpatrick-Defeating the Rebel Horse at Fairburn-March to Lovejoy’s-Surrounded by Confederates of all Arms-Cutting out-Minty’s Brigade on the Advance-A Splendid Charge-The Cincinnati Commercial’s Report-In Pursuit of Hood -Routing the Enemy at Rome-A Corporal’s Gallant Defense of a Block-House-The Regiment remounted at Louisville-Once more to the Front-Wilson’s Great Raid through Alabama-Dangers of the March-Arriving at Selma-Its Strong Defenses-The Fierce Attack-Splendid Success-Forward into Georgia-Capture of Macon-Pursuit of Jefferson Davis-Surprising his Camp-Particulars of his Capture-A Stalwart Mother-in-law-” Don’t shoot him” An Unfortunate Rencontre-A Lucky Scamp-A Special Escort to Washington-The Regiment disbanded-Officers and Soldiers from Allegan County-From Barry County.

THE Fourth Michigan Cavalry, which gained such renown in the Department of the Cumberland during the war for the Union, was recruited and organized during the summer of 1862 by Col. Robert H. G. Minty, previously lieutenant-colonel of the Third Cavalry.

It rendezvoused at Detroit, and was there mustered into the United States service, Aug. 29, 1862.

Of its twelve companies, of one hundred men each, Company L, which took the field under the command of Captain Benjamin D. Pritchard, was recruited almost entirely from Allegan County, while the same county was also represented in the field and staff, non-commissioned staff, and Companies A, C, D, E, F, and G. Barry’s representation of less than thirty men was distributed among eight companies.

During its whole term of service it proved a most reliable and gallant regiment.

It was justly proud of its fighting reputation, and accomplished an unusual amount of duty.

In fact, the fighting of the Fourth seems to have been so uniformly vigorous and effective that much difficulty is found in particularizing those engagements in which it was most distinguished.

On the 26th of September, 1862, the regiment left Detroit for the seat of war in Kentucky, receiving its arms at Jeffersonville, Ind.

It at once crossed the Ohio River, and was soon engaged with the redoubtable guerrilla Gen. John H. Morgan.

It was in the advance on the attack on Morgan at Stanford, Ky., Oct. 14, 1862, and pursued him as far as Crab Orchard.

It also led in the attack on Lebanon, Ky., on the 9th of November, five hundred and forty-three of its men pushing in Morgan’s pickets at a gallop, entering the town two miles in advance of the infantry, and driving out the guerrilla leader with seven hundred and sixty followers.

After a short stay at Nashville the regiment marched, on the 13th of December, to Franklin, Tenn., drove out the rebels, thirteen hundred strong, killed, wounded, and captured a number of them, and also captured their colors.

On the 26th of December it moved in advance of the army towards Murfreesboro, and began the fighting at Lavergne.

At Stone River, on the 31st, it charged the enemy three times, each time driving a brigade of rebel Cavalry from the field, and having ten of its own men killed and wounded.

The Fourth was the first regiment to enter Murfreesboro on the morning of Jan. 5, 1863, and from the 9th to the 19th of the same month it was engaged in an important Cavalry expedition to Harpeth Shoals, by which Wheeler’s, Forrest’s, and Wharton’s mounted rebels were driven beyond Harpeth River.

In this movement the men suffered terribly from lack of supplies, cold weather, and constantly wet garments.

During the month of February the regiment was constantly on the move, and captured one hundred and forty-five prisoners, including two colonels and fourteen other commissioned officers.

Numerous other expeditions were made from Murfreesboro during the spring of 1863, in all of which more or less prisoners were taken and stores destroyed.

On the 22nd of May following, the regiment, with two companies of United States Cavalry, charged into the camp of the Eighth Confederate, First Alabama, and Second Georgia Cavalry, at Middleton, Tenn., and after a sharp engagement routed them, taking fifty-five prisoners and destroying their camp.

The colors of the First Alabama were captured by the Fourth Michigan, and are now in the office of the State adjutant-general.

At Shelbyville, Tenn., on the 27th of June, 1863, the success attending the brigade commanded by Col. Minty was mainly accomplished by the brilliant and tenacious fighting of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, then commanded by Major Frank W. Mix. Col. Minty, in his report of this battle, says: – Gen. Benjamin D. Pritchard was born in Nelson, Portage Co., Ohio, in 1835.

He received an academical course of instruction in the public schools, and at the Western Reserve College, in his native State, where he continued to reside until 1856, when he became a resident of Allegan, Michigan

Engaging in the study of law, he completed his course in the law department of the University of Michigan in 1860, and soon after formed a law-partnership with Hon. William B. Williams, late member of Congress, and now commissioner of railroads.

He recruited Company L of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry in the summer of 1862, and was commissioned its captain August 13th of the same year.

From that time until the close of the war he performed most gallant and efficient service, which is described at length in the accompanying history of his regiment.

He was brevetted a brigadier-general of United States Volunteers, to rank from May 10, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services in the capture of Jeff Davis, and was mustered out of service with his regiment July 1, 1865.

He again resumed his law-practice with Mr. Williams, and in 1866 was elected, on the Republican ticket, commissioner of the land-office of the State, and was re-elected in 1868.

In 1878 he was elected State treasurer by the Republicans, over Alex. McFarlan, Democrat, and Herman Goeschel, National. Gen. Pritchard is still a resident of Allegan, and, besides attending to his professional duties, is president of the First National Bank of that village.

At Shelbyville I found myself, with a force of fifteen hundred men, in front of formidable breastworks, with an abatis of over one fourth of a mile in width in front of them, behind which Gens. Wheeler and Martin had an opposing force of four thousand men and three pieces of artillery.

I detached the Fourth Michigan, in command of Major Mix, well to the right, with orders to force their way through the abatis, and assault the works, and if successful to turn to the left and sweep up the entrenchments, promising that so soon as I heard their rifles speaking I would make the direct assault on the Murfreesboro and Shelbyville pike.

They did their work so well that as I entered the works on the main road they joined me from the right, having carried the works and taken prisoners from six different regiments.

The fruits of that day’s work were the whole of the enemy’s artillery and six hundred prisoners, while over two’hundred dead bodies were afterwards taken out of Duck River, into which I had driven Wheeler and his entire command.”

After two or three minor skirmishes the regiment entered Chattanooga, Tenn., on the 11th of September, 1863.

On the 13th, Col. Minty’s command-viz., the Fourth United States, Fourth Michigan, and Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry regiments, and one section of the Chicago Board of Trade battery-marched from Chattanooga and reported to Major-Gen. Crittenden, commanding the Twenty-First Army Corps, at Gordon’s Mills.

The brigade was ordered to cross Mission Ridge into Lookout Valley on the 14th, and on the three succeeding days was employed in learning the enemy’s whereabouts.

On the 18th it was warmly engaged with a large force of the enemy’s infantry, the combat being thus described in Col. Minty’s report:

“At six A.M. of September 18th I sent one hundred of the Fourth United States Cavalry towards Leet’s, and one hundred from the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania towards Ringgold.

At about seven A.M. couriers arrived from both scouts, with information that the enemy was advancing in force.

I immediately strengthened my pickets on the Lafayette road, and moved forward with the Fourth Michigan and one battalion of the Fourth Regulars and the section of artillery, and took up a position on the eastern slope of Pea Vine Ridge, and dispatched couriers to Major-Gen.

Granger, at Rossville; Col. Wilder, at Alexander’s Bridge; Gen. Wood, at Gordon’s Mill; and Gen. Crittenden, at Crawfish Springs.

The enemy’s infantry in force, with about two hundred Cavalry, advanced steadily, driving my skirmish-line back to my position on the side of the ridge.

The head of a column getting into good range, I opened on them with the artillery, when they immediately deployed and advanced a strong skirmish-line.

At this moment I observed a heavy column of dust moving from the direction of Graysville towards Dyer’s Ford.

“I sent a courier to Col. Wilder, asking him to send a force to hold the ford and cover my left, and sent my train across the creek.

As the force from Graysville advanced I fell back until I arrived on the ground I had occupied in the morning.

Here Col. Miller, with two regiments and two mountain howitzers, reported to me from Col. Wilder’s brigade.

I directed Col. Miller to take possession of the ford, and again advanced and drove the rebel skirmish-line over the ridge and back on their line of battle in the valley, where a force was in position which I estimated at seven thousand men, thirteen sets of regimental colors being visible.

“The rebel line advanced, and I was steadily driven back across the ridge.

My only means of crossing the creek was Reed’s bridge, a narrow, frail structure, which was covered with loose boards and fence-rails, and a bad ford about three hundred yards higher up.

I masked my artillery behind some shrubs near the ford, leaving one battalion of the Fourth United States to support it, and ordered the remainder of that regiment to cross the bridge, holding the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania in line to cover the movement. ”

Before the first squadron had time to cross, the head of a rebel column carrying their arms at ‘right shoulder shift,’ and moving at the double-quick, as steadily as if at drill, came through the gap not five hundred yards from the bridge.

The artillery opening on them from an unsuspected quarter evidently took them by surprise, and _.. 4.

I immediately checked their advance, again causing them to deploy immediately checked their advance, again causing them to deploy.

The Fourth Michigan followed the Fourth United States, and the Seventh Pennsylvania the Fourth Michigan, one squadron of the Fourth United States, under Lieutenant Davis, most gallantly covering the crossing of the Seventh Pennsylvania.

One squadron of the Fourth Michigan, under Lieutenant J. H. Simpson, on picket on the Harrison road, was cut off by the rapid advance of the enemy.

They made a gallant resistance, and eventually swam the creek without the loss of a man.

The artillery crossed the ford in safety, and I placed it in position to dispute the crossing of the bridge, from which Lieutenant

Davis’ men had thrown most of the loose planking.

“Here I was soon hotly engaged, and was holding the rebels in check, when I received a note from the officer in charge of my wagon-train (which I had sent back to Gordon’s Mill), stating, ‘ Col. Wilder has fallen back from Alexander’s Bridge; he is retreating towards Gordon’s Mill, and the enemy is crossing the river in force at all points.’

I sent an order to Col. Miller to join me without delay, and on his arrival I fell back to Gordon’s Mill, skirmishing with the enemy, who followed me closely.

“With less than one thousand men, the old ‘ First Brigade’ had disputed the advance of seven thousand from seven o’clock in the morning until five o’clock in the evening, and during that time fell back only five miles.

“On arriving at Gordon’s Mill my men were dismounted, and with Col. Wilder’s brigade of mounted infantry, and a brigade from Gen. Van Cleve’s division, repulsed a heavy attack about eight o’clock P.M.

We lay in position all night within hearing of the enemy, and were without fires, although the night was bitterly cold.

At break of day Gen. Palmer’s division relieved us.

I then moved to the rear and procured forage for our horses and rations for the men, who had been entirely without since the previous morning.”

During the 18th the regiment lost fourteen men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Among the wounded was Captain Pritchard, then in command of a battalion.

The next day it fired the first shots in the disastrous battle of Chickamauga, and subsequently protected the left and rear of Rosecrans’ army and the trains moving to Chattanooga.

On the 20th, while assisting to hold the enemy in check until the shattered Union forces could retire from the field, Minty’s brigade attacked and defeated Scott’s rebel brigade of Cavalry and mounted infantry, driving it back across the creek.

The regiment bivouacked on the ground it had held, but the next day was compelled to share in the general retreat.

On the 30th of September it was driven by Wheeler’s rebel Cavalry near Cotton’s Ferry, on the Tennessee; but from the 1st to the 3d of October the tables were turned, and the Fourth had the pleasure of following its late pursuers with ardor and success.

By the 1st of November, 1863, the service of the regiment had been so severe that only three hundred of the men were mounted.

This battalion was actively engaged on picket and scout duty in Southeastern Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Alabama throughout the winter; the number of mounted men being reduced by the latter part of March, 1864, to one hundred and twenty-eight.

Meanwhile, the dismounted men had been employed in various duties in the same locality, and also in Middle Tennessee.

The regiment, except the one hundred and twenty-eight mounted men, set out for Nashville on the 28th of March, 1864, where, under the supervision of Captain Pritchard, the men received new horses and equipments, and were armed with Spencer carbines.

On the 14th of April, under the command of Major F. W. Mix, the regiment joined the Second Cavalry Division at Columbia, Tenn.

Thence it advanced with eight hundred and seventy-eight men into Captain Pritchard led the advance battalion in this assault.

In Georgia, where the Cavalry began its arduous and dangerous labors in co-operation with Gen. Sherman’s army, which was then advancing on Atlanta.

On the 15th of May the command attacked the enemy’s Cavalry at Tanner’s Bridge, nine miles from Rome, Ga., routing and pursuing them seven miles, when, meeting a superior force with artillery, it retired; this regiment having lost in the affair ten wounded and missing.

From Woodland, on the 18th, seven companies, under Captain Pritchard, were sent toward Kingston on a reconnoissance.

Meeting the enemy’s Cavalry, the detachment drove them several miles, until at length it was stopped by the rebel infantry.

The opposing horsemen then threw themselves on the flanks and rear of the Michigan men, but the latter drew their sabres and cut their way out, with a loss of twenty-four in killed, wounded, and missing.

Crossing the Allatoona Mountains and Etowah River, Col. Minty’s command moved on to Dallas, where it was warmly engaged, and captured many prisoners.

It also participated in all the flank movements which forced Gen. Johnston’s rebel army back from one stronghold to another, resulting in the engagements at New Hope Church and Big Shanty.

On the 9th of June the regiment assisted in driving the enemy’s Cavalry, supported by infantry, to the base of Kenesaw Mountain, capturing a number of prisoners, and on the 12th again encountered the enemy at McAfee’s Cross-Roads, where a line of rebel entrenchments was carried.

Skirmishing with the enemy’s Cavalry was daily continued until the 20th of June, 1864, on which day, at Lattimore’s Mill, on Noonday Creek, two battalions of the Fourth performed one of the most brilliant feats of the war.

A small detachment of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry had crossed the creek, and, becoming hotly engaged with a superior force of the enemy, Captain Pritchard, with two battalions of the Fourth Michigan, was ordered across to its support.

This force had scarcely reached the position assigned it when a whole rebel division, eight times their own number, swept down upon the Pennsylvania and Michigan men, with the evident purpose of driving them back across the creek.

They did not, however, propose to go immediately, so, dismounting and availing themselves of the protection afforded by the inequalities of the ground, they met their assailants with terrific and continuous volleys from their Spencer carbines.

Again and again did the rebels bear down upon them, making desperate efforts to destroy the little force of Unionists, but being as often repulsed.

At length, after holding their ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for more than two hours, they retired slowly and in good order at the command of Col. Minty.

The following extract from a letter published in the Memphis Appeal, at Atlanta, Ga., June 25, 1864, gives the rebel version of this fight, and shows very plainly the gallantry of Minty’s brigade and the immense preponderance of the rebel force: “On the 20th instant two divisions, Kelly’s and Martin’s, and one brigade, Williams’, of our Cavalry, went round to the left flank and ‘The Memphis Appeal was published at half a dozen different places, to which it was successively driven by the victorious Unionists. rear of Sherman’s army, it was said to capture a brigade of Yankee Cavalry situated at McAfee’s.

We succeeded in getting to the right place, where the enemy, Minty’s brigade, was vigorously attacked by Williams’ and a portion of Anderson’s brigade.

After a sharp conflict the enemy was driven from the field, Ilannon’s brigade having come up and attacked them on the flank.

The Yankees fought desperately and fell back slowly, with what loss we are unable to ascertain, as they carried off their wounded and most of their dead.

To one who was an eye-witness, but not an adept in the ‘art of war,’ it seemed very strange that the whole Yankee force was not surrounded and captured.

Dibrell’s brigade was drawn up a few hundred yards from and in full view of the battle-ground, with Martin’s whole division immediately in the rear.

This is one of the best fighting brigades the Yankees have, and to have captured or routed it would have added a bright feather to the plume of the successful hero accomplishing the feat.

After he (Minty) had been driven from his first position, Martin’s whole division was brought up, and lost several men of Allen’s brigade.

Brig.-Gen. Allen had his horse shot.

The Eighth Confederate and Fifth Georgia of Anderson’s brigade lost several killed and wounded.

Williams’ Kentucky brigade also lost several good soldiers.”

Col. Minty, in his report, after quoting this statement, added:

“According to the above, there was the following rebel force in the field: Kelly’s and Martin’s divisions, consisting of the brigades of Anderson, six regiments; Hannon’s, five regiments; Allen’s, five regiments; and Johnson’s, five regiments; and the independent brigades of Williams and Dibrell, composed of five regiments each; say in all, thirty-one regiments, of which the Fifth Georgia numbered over eight hundred.

The entire force I had engaged was, of the Seventh Pennsylvania one hundred and seventy men, and of the Fourth Michigan two hundred and eighty-three; in all, four hundred and fifty-three.

These few men held their ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for over two hours, and when I ordered them to fall back, they retired slowly, in good order.

I beg to call the attention of the general commanding to the heavy loss sustained by this small force.

In a loss of over twelve per cent., the very small proportion reported missing shows how steadily and stubbornly they fought.”

In a note appended to this report, Col. Minty said: “My loss in this engagement was two officers and sixty-five men.

The Marietta (Ga.) papers acknowledge a loss of ninety-four killed and three hundred and fifty-one wounded.

Two battalions of the Fourth Michigan repulsed three sabre charges made by the Eighth Confederate and Fifth Georgia, numbering over one thousand men, and one battalion led by Captain Hathaway repulsed a charge made by Williams’ Kentucky brigade by a counter-charge.”

Of the two hundred and eighty three officers and men of the Fourth engaged at Lattimore’s mill, thirty-seven were killed and wounded, and three were reported missing, Lieutenant T. W. Sutton being among the killed.

Having crossed the Chattahoochee River, the regiment, under the command of Major F. W. Mix, participated in a constant succession of raids and fights until the 1st of August, 1864, during which many miles of railroad-track and many bridges were destroyed, thus impeding the operations of the enemy and facilitating those of Gen. Sherman, who had steadily advanced to the front of Atlanta.

From the 1st to the 14th of August it was employed as infantry, occupying a portion of the trenches before the besieged city. Col. Minty’s brigade then received orders to report to Gen. Kilpatrick.

At one o’clock on the morning of the 18th the command broke camp, and quietly moved out to the rendezvous of the expedition at Sandtown, arriving there at six A.M.

The movement was commenced under cover of darkness, to prevent, if possible, any information being obtained by the enemy, yet a rebel letter captured on the 20th, dated at Atlanta on the 18th, gave the number of Minty’s command and the destination of the raiders.

Gen. Kilpatrick’s force consisted of the Third Cavalry Division, commanded by himself in person, and Minty’s and Long’s brigades of the Second Cavalry Division, in all some five thousand men, with two sections of the Chicago Board of Trade Battery.

On the evening of the 19th the combined forces moved out toward the West Point Railroad, which was reached near Fairburn, where the first rebel assault was made.

Ross’ and Ferguson’s brigades of rebel Cavalry struck the Union column on the left flank with so much force as to cut the Seventh Pennsylvania in two, but it was immediately reinforced by the Fourth Michigan, when a vigorous and irresistible attack was made on the enemy, driving him from the ground in great disorder.

The rebels were pursued to Flint River, and finally into the town of Jonesboro’, two thirds of the town being destroyed by fire.

While this was being done the rebel Cavalry was reinforced by a brigade of infantry.

Kilpatrick’s main object being to destroy the railroad rather than to whip the enemy, except when necessary in the execution of his purpose, he left Jonesboro’ and marched directly toward Lovejoy’s Station, on the Macon road.

At a point one and one-half miles from the station the command began destroying the railroad.

In the mean time the enemy was hurrying forward heavy bodies of troops by rail from Atlanta and Macon, and ere much time had elapsed Kilpatrick was surrounded by from eighteen to twenty thousand rebel troops of all arms, commanded by Gens. Cleburn, Reynolds, Jackson, Armstrong, Ferguson, and Ross.

The position of Gen. Kilpatrick’s force and the overpowering numbers opposing him rendered his condition most critical, leaving him to choose between surrender and the imminent prospect of destruction in the effort to extricate himself.

He chose the latter alternative, and Minty’s brigade was instantly formed in a line of regimental columns to lead the charge.

The Seventh Pennsylvania was on the right, the Fourth Michigan in the centre, and the Fourth United States on the left, with Long’s brigade in the rear, and the Third Division, under Kilpatrick, on the left of the road.

The advancing enemy was immediately charged upon by Minty’s men, who, with drawn sabres, burst through the ranks of the rebels like a whirlwind, chasing them off the field, opening the way for the safe passage of other commands and the accomplishment of the objects of the expedition.

A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial described this charge of Minty’s brigade as follows:

“While the various regiments were being maneuvered into position to meet the onslaught of the rebels, who were sweeping down upon them, the men had time to comprehend the danger that surrounded them,-rebels to the right of them, rebels to the left of them, rebels in rear of them, rebels in front of them; surrounded, there was no salvation but to cut their way out.

Visions of Libby prison, Andersonville, and starvation flitted through their imagination, and they saw that the deadly conflict could not be avoided.

Placing himself at the head of his brigade, the gallant and fearless Minty drew his sabre, and his voice rang out clear and loud: ‘Attention, column! Forward, regulate by the centre regiment, trot, March!-gallop, march!’ and away the brigade went with a yell that echoed away across the valleys.

“The ground from which the start was made, and over which they charged, was a plantation of about two square miles, thickly strewn with patches of woods, deep water-cuts, fences, ditches, and morasses.

At the word away went the bold dragoons at the height of their speed.

Fences were jumped, and ditches were no impediment.

The rattle of the sabres mingled with that of the mess-kettles and frying-pans that jingled at the side of the pack-mule brigade, which was madly urged forward by the frightened darkies who straddled the animals.

Charging for their lives and yelling like devils, Minty and his troopers encountered the rebels behind a hastily constructed barricade of rails.

Pressing their rowels deep into their horses’ flanks, and raising their sabres aloft, on, on, on, nearer and nearer to the rebels they plunged.

The terror-stricken enemy could not withstand the thunderous wave of men and horse that threatened to engulf them.

They broke and ran just as Minty and his men were urging their horses for the decisive blow.

In an instant all was confusion.

The yells of the horsemen were drowned in the clashing of steel and the groans of the dying.

On pressed Minty in pursuit, his men’s sabres striking right and left, and cutting down everything in their path.

The rebel horsemen were seen to reel and pitch headlong to the earth, while their frightened steeds rushed pell-mell over their bodies.

Many of the rebels defended themselves with almost superhuman strength; but it was all in vain.

The charge of Federal steel was irresistible.

The heads and limbs of some of the rebels were actually severed from their bodies.

It was, all admit, one of the finest charges of the war.

The individual instances of heroism were many.

Hardly a man flinched, and when the brigade came out more than half the sabres were stained with human blood.”

The command reached Lithonia on the 21st; having made a circuit around Atlanta and the rebel armies, and having been in the saddle, and almost constantly engaged, since early in the morning of the 18th.

After the fall of Atlanta the regiment moved northward, and on the 4th of October, 1864, joined its division-the Second-at Marietta, Ga., with which it started in pursuit of Hood’s rebel army, then on its way into Middle Tennessee; having had numerous skirmishes with its rear-guard.

One of the sharpest of these encounters occurred near Rome, Ga., on the 13th of October.

A body of Union troops was occupying Rome, and a force of mounted rebels undertook to drive it out.

While a brisk skirmish was going on, Minty’s brigade crossed the Oostenaula River and made a sabre charge on the flank of the Confederates.

The latter fled in the utmost confusion.

The Unionists rode over a rebel battery, captured it in an instant, and then pursued the enemy several miles, capturing many prisoners, and sabring those who resisted.

The Fourth Michigan alone took one hundred and twenty-eight prisoners, which was about the number of the mounted men in the regiment; nearly all the horses having been worn out by the severity of the service.

The regiment, in pursuit of Hood’s forces, then re-crossed the Oostenaula and marched, vid Rome, Kingston, Adairsville, Resaca, Summersville, and Galesville, Ala., to Little River, where, on the 20th, it engaged Wheeler’s Cavalry; forcing the enemy to retire.

Meanwhile the dismounted men, whose horses had been killed and worn out by the arduous service of the past six months, were sent to the rear from time to time, and employed in garrisoning block-houses on the line of the Nashville and Huntsville Railroad.

On the 17th of September, 1864, Corp. Charles M. Bickford and seventeen men of the regiment, stationed in a block-house, were attacked by Wheeler’s rebel Cavalry, a force of several thousand, with artillery, but, although the assailants shelled the blockhouse for over five hours, they could not compel the gallant little squad to surrender, and finally retired, after having eight men killed and sixty wounded.

The corporal was promoted to be a commissioned officer, and the names of his men were honorably mentioned in general orders.

After the fight at Little River, before mentioned, the mounted men of the regiment, then numbering but about one hundred, transferred their horses to the Third Brigade, and proceeded to Louisville, Ky.

The dismounted men also concentrated at the same point.

They remained there until the latter part of December, 1864, being in the mean time remounted and furnished with new Spencer seven-shot carbines.

On the 28th of December, commanded by Lieutenant-Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard, the Fourth again moved southward, with twenty-six officers and six hundred and ninety-six enlisted men.

It proceeded by way of Nashville to Gravelly Springs, Ala., where it remained until the 12th of March, 1865.

Here its members suffered severely for want of rations, and were obliged to live on parched corn for several days.

On the latter day the regiment broke camp, and set out on Gen. Wilson’s great Cavalry movement through Alabama and Georgia.

Four divisions of Cavalry stretched in an almost interminable line as the command made its way southward over mountains, rivers, creeks, and swamps, building miles of corduroy-roads, etc.

It crossed the Black Warrior River on the 29th of March by swimming the horses, losing one man and from thirty to forty horses.

During the night the Locust was crossed in the same manner, and on the 31st Shades Creek and the Cahawba River was crossed by passing the accompanying battery over the railroad bridge, which was temporarily floored with ties; five or six horses and mules being killed by falling nearly a hundred feet from the bridge to the river.

The enemy’s Cavalry under Forrest was encountered and defeated at Mulberry Creek on the 1st of April, and on the 2d, Minty’s brigade, being in the advance, started at four A.M. on the direct road to Selma; arriving in front of that place at two o’clock P.M.

This, the chief city of Central Alabama, was surrounded by two lines of bastioned entrenchments.

The works were found to be stronger and more perfect than those at Atlanta; consisting of an inner line of redans and redoubts, mounted with 12-pounder howitzers and 20-pounder Parrots.

The main and outer line, which extended entirely around the city from river to river, consisted of twenty-five redoubts or bastions connected by curtains, the parapet being about twelve feet high and surrounded by a ditch and well-built palisade, in front of which was swampy ground, partially covered with abatis.

These works were defended by Gen. Forrest with a force estimated at nine thousand.

The Second Division, in which was the Fourth Michigan, was ordered to assault the works on the Summerville road, and the Fourth Division those on the Plantersville road.

About the time the assault was to take place, the rebel Gen. Chalmers attacked the rear of the Second Division.

Three regiments were detached to oppose him; the remainder, including the Fourth Michigan, swept forward to the assault.

Besides the men holding the horses, the force resisting Chalmers, and other detachments, there were about fifteen hundred men of the Second Division in the assaulting column.

These moved forward under a terrific fire from the breastworks, which was followed by a swift succession of volleys from the Spencer carbines of the Unionists steadily aimed at the top of the parapet.

Col. Long, the division commander, was shot in the head at the beginning of the assault, and Col. Minty,* of the Fourth Michigan, assuming command, led the division against the works.

Increasing their pace, the Unionists dashed forward with resounding cheers, swarmed into the ditch and over the breastworks, killed, captured, or drove away the rebels almost in an instant, and took possession of the enemy’s main line in twenty minutes after the first advance.

Three hundred and twenty-four out of the fifteen hundred assailants were killed and wounded in this brief period.

The inner line of works was also taken by the Second Division by the time the Fourth Division arrived at the outer line.

The result of the whole operation was the capture of one hundred pieces of artillery, two thousand eight hundred prisoners, and an immense amount of ammunition and stores.

On the 7th of April the command moved eastward; passing through Montgomery and Columbus into Georgia.

A portion of Minty’s brigade,-the Fourth Michigan and Third Ohio, commanded by Lieutenant-Col. Pritchard, marched all the night of the 17th of April to save the double bridges over the Flint River, reaching them early in the morning of the 18th, when a gallant sabre charge was made by one battalion of the Fourth Michigan, which carried the bridges and captured every man of the rebel force left to destroy them.

The Second Division, which was in the advance, after a rapid march of twenty-seven miles on the 20th of April, was met some twelve or fifteen miles from Macon, Ga., by a rebel officer with a flag of truce, who informed Col. Minty that an armistice had been stipulated between the contending armies, and requested him not to enter Macon. Col. Minty immediately reported the matter to Gen. Wilson, and awaited orders.

The general replied that he had no notification of any armistice existing and that he should not stay out of Macon; and ordered Col. Minty to move forward.

Thereupon Col. Minty said to the rebel officer, ‘ I will give you five minutes start (taking out his watch) in returning to Macon, and you had better make good use of it.”

The officer and his escort set out on the gallop.

Col. Minty sat on his horse, watch in hand, until the five minutes had elapsed, when he returned the watch and gave the order:

” Forward! Gallop, March!”

The division dashed forward, in thundering column, toward Macon.

Over hill and down dale it pursued its headlong course.

The flag-bearers were run down and passed; some small detachments stationed along the road were swept away like chaff, and at six p.M. the division dashed forward.

It is reported that Col. Minty was the first man to get inside the enemy’s works alive.

In this charge the Fourth United States and Third Ohio were at first repulsed, but the Fourth Michigan, under Lt.-Col. Pritchard, pressed steadily onward, and were the first to leap over the works.

On into Macon, where it received the unconditional surrender of Gen. Howell Cobb and about two thousand men, with sixty-two pieces of artillery.

Being there officially notified of the surrender of the rebel armies under Lee and Johnston, Gen. Wilson stayed the farther advance of his corps.

Gen. Cobb was highly indignant at the unceremonious manner in which the Union officers possessed themselves of Macon, and gave it as his opinion that when the matter was referred to the proper headquarters the Union troops would be ordered to withdraw.

On the other hand, Gen. Wilson replied in most emphatic language that when his troops left the city, under such circumstances, there would not remain one brick upon another.

On the 7th of May the Fourth Michigan, four hundred and forty strong, under Lieutenant-Col. Pritchard, left Macon for the purpose of capturing Jefferson Davis and his party, who were known to be making their way toward the coast.

Having struck the trail of the fugitives at Abbeville on the 9th of May, Col. Pritchard selected one hundred and fifty-three of his best-mounted officers and men, and moved rapidly by a circuitous route to intercept them.

At Irwinsville, at one o’clock in the morning of the 10th of May, the colonel learned that a train, which probably belonged to Davis, was encamped a mile and a half distant.

Moving out into the vicinity of the camp, he sent Lieutenant Purinton, with twenty-five men, to wait on the other side of it.

At daybreak Col. Pritchard and his men advanced silently, and without being observed, to within a few rods of the camp, then dashed forward and secured the whole camp before the astonished inmates could grasp their weapons, or even fairly arouse themselves from their slumbers.

A chain of mounted guards was immediately placed around the camp, and dismounted sentries were stationed at the tents and wagons.

While this was going on, Corporal George M. Munger, of Company C, and Private Andrew Bee, of Company L, observed two persons in women’s dress moving rapidly away from one of the tents.

“That ought to be attended to,” said one of the soldiers.

Yes,” replied the other; and Munger immediately rode around in front of the two persons and ordered a “Halt!”

“This is my mother-in-law,” said one of them; “she is going after some water; can’t you let her pass?”

Her companion, a tall person, much bent, wrapped in a woman’s “water-proof,” with a shawl over the head and a pail in one hand, remained silent.

“No, you can’t pass,” replied Munger.

At that moment other soldiers rode up, and the hitherto silent personage, seeing that further disguise was useless, straightened up, dropped the pail, threw off the water-proof and shawl, and disclosed a tall, thin, sharp-faced, sour-looking man, with gray hair, gray whiskers under his chin, and one blind eye.

No one at first seemed to recognize in this forlorn fugitive the renowned chief of the defunct Confederacy.

Mrs. Davis, however (for she was his companion), had her wifely fears aroused by the grim faces and clanking arms around her, and threw her arms around her husband’s neck, exclaiming, “Don’t shoot him! Don’t shoot him!”

“ I’ll Let them shoot,” said Davis, “if they choose; I may as well die here as anywhere.”

But no one was inclined to be his executioner, and the squad, with the two prisoners, moved back toward the tents.

Mrs. Davis, when questioned, admitted that her companion was the ex-President of the Confederacy.

Meanwhile Col. Pritchard had taken the greater part of the force and gone to the assistance of Lieutenant Purinton, in whose front heavy firing was heard.

It proved to come from a most unfortunate rencontre with a detachment of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, which was also in pursuit of Davis, and the advance-guard of which began firing on Purinton’s men before ascertaining who they were.

After this error was discovered (which was not until several men had been killed and wounded), Col. Pritchard returned to camp and discovered that, besides Davis, his wife, and four children, his command had also captured two of his aides de-camp, his private secretary, several other Confederate officers, thirteen private servants, waiting-maids, etc., making a total of about thirty persons.

As he rode up, Col. Pritchard was accosted by Davis, who asked if he was the officer in command.

The colonel said he was, and asked how he should address his interlocutor. “Call me what or whoever you please,” said the rebel chieftain.

“Then I shall call you Davis,” replied Pritchard.

After a moment’s hesitation the former admitted that that was his name.

He then suddenly drew himself up with great dignity and exclaimed, “I suppose you consider it bravery to charge a train of defenseless women and children; but it is theft; it is vandalism.”

Without stopping to inquire whether the distinguished prisoner considered himself a woman or a child, the colonel set out with his command for Macon, joining the rest of the regiment on the way.

The lucky man of the expedition was one Michael Lynch, (A worthless, quarrelsome, unprincipled fellow.) and deserter from the Confederate army, who had enlisted in the Fourth Michigan.

He secured a pair of saddle-bags containing five thousand dollars in Confederate gold.

Although vigilant search was made for it by the officers, he managed to conceal it, got out of camp with it, and buried it.

He was strongly suspected from various circumstances of being the person who had it, and the acting adjutant-general of the brigade endeavored to persuade him to give it up, saying it would certainly be found, and then he would lose it, but if he would give it up he (the officer) would use his influence to have it, or a part of it, given back to him.

“Well now, captain,” said Lynch, with great apparent frankness, “I haven’t got that money, but if had it I shouldn’t be green enough to give it up.”

“Why, what could you do with it?” queried the officer.

“What could I do with it?” replied Lynch; “why, I would bury it, and after I was discharged I would come back and dig it up.

But then I haven’t got it.”

And this was precisely what he had done, and what after his discharge he did do.

From Macon, Col. Pritchard, with twenty-five officers and men, was ordered to Washington, as a special escort for Davis and his party.

While this party went to Washington (giving Mr. Davis into the custody of the commandant at Fortress Monroe), the rest of the regiment returned, by way of Atlanta and Chattanooga, to Nashville, where it was mustered out and paid off on the 1st of July, 1865.

It reached Detroit on the 10th of the same month.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Those marked with an asterisk were present at the capture of Davis.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Benj. D. Pritchard,* Allegan; com. Nov. 26, 1864; bvt. brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. May 10, 1865, “for faithful and meritorious services in the capture of Jeff. Davis;” mustered out. with regiment, July 1, 1865.

Major Frank W. Mix, Allegan; com. Feb. 18, 1863; Captain Aug. 13, 1862; 1st Lieutenant 3d Cavalry., May 25, 1862; res. Nov. 24, 1864.

1st Lieutenant and Q.-M. Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. March 18, 1863; promoted Captain Co. A, Aug. 25, 1864.

1st Lieutenant and Q.M. Perry J. Davis,* Allegan; com. Aug. 23, 1864; bvt. Captain U. S. Vols. May 10, 1865, “for meritorious services in the capture of Jeff. Davis;” mustered out July 1, 1865.

Noncommissioned Staff.

Com.-Sergeant Harlan P. Dunning, Allegan; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Principal Musician John B. Champion, Allegan; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company A.

Captain Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. Aug. 25, 1864; 1st Lieutenant and q.m. March 18, 1863; mustered out July 1, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Thos. J. Parker, Allegan; com. Feb. 18, 1863; 2d Lieutenant Co. L, Aug. 1, 1862; res. Dec. 21, 1864.

Madison Bipler, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

Gilbert Haight, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Marion Hicks, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 12, 1864.

Daniel Hendrick, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 4, 1864.

John Nero, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company C.

Peter Semyn, died of disease at Nashville, July 21, 1865.

Andrew I. Shepherd, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company D.

2d Lieutenant Chas. W. Fisk, Allegan; com. Dec. 6, 1863; Sergeant Co. L; promoted 1st Lieutenant Co. H, Aug. 1, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company E.

Geo. W. Banks, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

Sherman Egan, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company F.

Captain John H. Simpson, Allegan; com. Dec. 10, 1864; 1st. lieutenant Aug. 23, 1863; 2d Lieutenant March 31, 1863; Sergeant Co. L; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company G.

Timothy C. Green, mustered out. Hiram Comstock, died of disease at Chattanooga, June 13, 1864.

Company L.

Captain Benj. D. Pritchard, Allegan; com. July 25, 1862; promoted Lieutenant-col. Nov. 26, 1864.

1st Lieutenant Isaac Lamoreaux, Allegan; com. Aug. 4, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. March 1, 1863; apt. Q.M., March 18, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Thos. J. Parker, Allegan; com. Aug. 1, 1862; promoted 1st Lieutenant, Co. A. 2d Lieutenant

Samuel F. Murphy, Allegan; com. Jan. 18, 1865; mustered out July 1, 1865.

1st Sergeant John F. Beebe, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Q.M. Sergeant John H. Simpson, Allegan; enlisted July 26, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company F.

Com.-Sergeant Orson D. Dunham, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, March 18, 1863.

Sergeant Chas. W. Fisk, Allegan; enlisted July 31, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company B.

Sergeant Hiram B. Hudson, Allegan; enlisted July 21, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sergeant Francis L. Hickock, Allegan; enlisted July 28, 1862; discharged by order, June 7, 1865.

Sergeant Silas F. Stauber, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; discharged for promotion, May 22, 1864.

Sergeant Samuel F. Murphy, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862q promoted 2d Lieutenant

Sergeant Chas. Carter, Allegan; enlisted July 30, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 1864.

Corp. Samuel S. Baldwin, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; discharged Feb. 16, 1863.

Corp. Horatio N. Price, Allegan; enlisted July 21, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, March 5, 1863.

Corp. Alex. Hurd, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; Wagoner; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Corp. Elijah Wilcox, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, Feb. 20, 1863. 17

Corp. Chas. L. Knight, Allegan; enlisted July 26, 1862; sergeant; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Corp. Alvah C. Fisk, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 2, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Farrier Wm. Pulcipher, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; died at Bowling Green, Ky.

Farrier Jesse S. Penfield, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Saddler Wilts H. Williams, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Teamster Jonathan Brewer, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863.

Wagoner Jos. Hofmaster, Allegan; enlisted July 25, 1862; quartermaster-sergeant; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Allen Ash, mustered out July 1, 1865′

Jacob I. Bailey, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Bentley, discharged by order, June 19, 1865.

Wm. H. Baker, discharged for disability, Oct. 19, 1863.

Bradley M. Bates, discharged for disability, June 5, 1863.

Henry C. Braman, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

David Beck, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Miles Bidwell, died of disease at Allegan, Feb. 2, 1865.

Alonzo C. Burnham, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Andrew Bee, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Elijah Cummins, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Benj. K. Colt,* Sergeant, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edward R. Crawford, died of disease in Michigan, Jan. 28, 1863.

David V. Davidson, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Dec. 1, 1862.

Herbert H. Davidson, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., March 5, 1863.

John C. Everts, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863.

Henry C. Edgerton, discharged by order, May, 1865.

Andrew T. Foote, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 10, 1863.

Alexander Fry, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

Leander J. Fields, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1862.

Jas. M. Flowers, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Chas. H. Gurney, discharged Dec. 10, 1862.

Lewis C. Goodrich, discharged for disability, March 11, 1863.

Martin J. Guyot, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1862.

Abner B. Hughes, died of disease at New Albany, Ind., June 13, 1863.

Edwin C. Hughes, died in action at Sumumerville, Ala., April 2, 1862.

David H. Hall, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1863.

Jas. Holdsworth, discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

John Harrington, mustered out July 1, 1865.

David H. Haines, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Hiram B. Hudson, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Otis L. HIalton, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Keyser, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Jacob Keyser, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., Feb. 14, 1863.

Walton Kibbey, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 7, 1863.

Gordon N. Kenyon, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edgar Lindsley, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John W. Lindsley, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edward Lane,* mustered out July 18, 1865.

John McLoughrey, died in action at Stone River, Dec. 29, 1862.

Chas. C. Marsh,* corp., mustered out July 1, 1865.

Alonzo Miller, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Win. Mann,* mustered out July 1, 1865.

E. L. G. Myers, discharged by order, July 27, 1865.

Albert Miller, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863.

Geo. W. Moore, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Francis Merchant, died of disease.

Geo. F. Nichols, died of disease at Nashville, July 10, 1863.

Jos. Naregang, died of disease at Murfreesboro, April 27, 1863.

Geo. Noggle, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Win. M. Oliver, corp., mustered out July 1, 1865.

Peter Passenger, mustered out July 1, 1865.

David D. Parkhurst, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Charles Pettit, died of disease in Kentucky, Nov. 3, 1862.

Horatio N. Price, died of disease at Murfreesboro, March 5, 1863.

Edward W. Pardee, died of disease at Nashville.

Edward Reed, mustered out July 1, 1865.

William G. Rowe, mustered out July 1, 1865. J

oseph Richie, discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1863.

Jonathan D. Squires, discharged for disability, Oct. 19, 1863.

Charles F. Smith, died of disease in Ohio, Feb. 1, 1863.

Edward F. Safford, died of disease at Nashville, June 15, 1863.

Leland H. Shaw, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Ferdinand Sebright, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Gilbert Stone, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Henry Smith, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Joseph Stewart, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Isaac C. Seely, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Charles F. Tubah, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Ira Tuttle, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

Salem True, discharged for disability.

E. S. Finley, discharged for disability, July 18, 1863.

Frederick Woodham, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Wilson, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Daniel Willis, mustered out July 1, 1865.

William West, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sylvester Wedge, mustered out July 1, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE FOURTH CAVALRY.

Company A.

Levitt D. Faulkerson, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company C.

Simon Cooper, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

John D. Rockwood, died of disease.

Company D.

Watson S. Williams, mustered out. Aug. 15, 1865.

Company H.

Lucius Bates, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Milo D. Cooper, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Horace Freeman, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 4, 1863.

John W. Holmes, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Madison A. Hoose, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Ira Leach, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1862.

Newell Nichols, discharged for disability, Feb. 22, 1863.

Owen A. Nichols, discharged for disability, July 14, 1863.

J. P. Reynolds, transferred to Yet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Chester Savacool, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company I.

Hiram Lamb, discharged Feb. 8, 1865.

Company K.

Byron R. Purdy, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Herman C. Purdy, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Company L.

Ira D. Brooks, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Benjamin F. Carpenter,* mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Albert D. Carpenter, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Rooney G. Flowers, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company M.

Samuel H. Hubbard, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company I, of the Fifth, from Allegan County-The Regiment assigned to the Michigan Brigade in the Spring of 1863-Battles in the Summer of 1863-Casualties-Winter-Quarters in 1863-64-Kilpatrick’s Raid to Richmond-Col. Dahlgren’s Expedition-Back to North Virginia-Reorganization of Sheridan’s Command-Battle of the Wilderness-Sheridan’s Raid to Richmond-The Dash into Beaver Dam-Battle with Stuart at Yellow Tavern-Stuart routed and slain-Before Richmond-Battle on the Chickahominy-Especial Gallantry of the Michigan Brigade-Return to the Army of the Potomac-Fight at Hawes’ Shop-Old Church Tavern and Cold Harbor-Battle of Trevillian Station-Brilliant Victory-Fight at Louisa Court-House-In the Shenandoah Valley, Middletown, Front Royal, etc.-Victories at Opequan and Winchester-Casualties during the Year-Winter-Quarters-Sheridan’s Great Raid to the Army of the Potomac-Dealing the Death-Blow to Rebellion-Ordered West-Men with Two Years to serve transferred-Regiment mustered out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members -The Allegan and Barry Representation in the Sixth Cavalry-Its Battles and Casualties in 1863-Kilpatrick’s Richmond Raid-The Wilderness-Beaver Dam, Meadow Bridge, and Ilawes’ Shop-Trevillian Station-The Shenandoah Campaign-The Great Ride to Richmond-Closing Scenes-Ordered to the Rocky MountainsPowder River Expedition-A Guard “corralled”-The Regiment mustered out-Barry County Soldiers-Allegan County SoldiersFormation and Departure of the Sixth Cavalry-Assigned to the Michigan Brigade-Its Battles in 1863 —Its Battles in 1864-The Brilliant Close in 1865 —Its Frontier Service-The Muster out-The Barry County Members-The Allegan County Members.

FIFTH CAVALRY. COMPANY I, of this regiment, was wholly an Allegan County organization.

It was recruited by ex-Congressman, This celebrated body was composed of the First, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Cavalry.

It was organized in the fore-part of 1863^ and I William B. Williams, of Allegan, in the summer of 1862, and under his command proceeded to Detroit, Michigan, the regimental rendezvous, in August of the same year.

The regiment was first commanded by Col. J. T. Copeland, and was mustered into the United States service Aug. 30, 1862.

It was subjected to a long delay in procuring arms and equipments; a spirit of discontent prevailed in consequence, and numerous desertions occurred.

The regiment finally left the State for Washington on the 4th of December, 1862, only partly armed, but otherwise fully equipped and well mounted.

Down to that date it had carried on its rolls the names of one thousand three hundred and five officers and enlisted men.

Upon its arrival at the seat of war it was assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, otherwise known as the Michigan Cavalry brigade. (See note at beginning of chapter.)

It was engaged with the enemy at Hanover, Va., June 30, 1863; at Hunterstown, Pa., July 2d; Gettysburg, Pa., July 3d, where it was hotly engaged, charging the enemy repeatedly and losing heavily.

It was also in conflicts of more or less importance at Monterey, Md., July 4th; Cavalryetown, Md., July 5th; Smithtown, Boonsboro’, Hagerstown, and Williamsport, Md., July 6th; Hagerstown and Williamsport, Md., July 10th; Falling Waters, Md., July 14th; Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19th; Kelly’s Ford, Va., September 13th; Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14th; Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th; White’s Ford, September 21st; Jack’s Shop, Va., September 26th; James City, Va., October 12th; Brandy Station, Va., October 13th; Buckland’s Mills, Va., October 19th; Stevensburg, Va., November 19th; and Morton’s Ford, Va., Nov. 26, 1863.

Sixty-four men were killed and wounded during the year 1863, besides one hundred and twenty-one reported missing in action, many of whom were killed.

Other reports of alterations and casualties show that from the time the regiment was organized until the close of 1863 forty men died of disease, sixty-eight were discharged for disability, twenty-one by sentence of general court-martial, fifteen by order, two for promotion, one hundred and seventy-seven deserted, twenty officers resigned, one officer was dismissed, and the total number of recruits received was thirteen.

During the winter of 1863-6-1 the Fifth had its quarters at Stevensburg, Va., and was employed mostly on picket duty along the Rapidan.

In the latter part of February, 1864, it took part in the raid made by the Cavalry under Kilpatrick to the outer defenses of Richmond.

The main body of the regiment T. continued in service as a brigade until the close of the war; being commanded successively by Gens. Kilpatrick and Custer, and gaining, whether rightly or wrongly, the highest reputation of any Cavalry brigade in the service.

As three of the regiments of which the brigade was composed follow each other consecutively, and as all of them contained a considerable representation from Allegan and Barry Counties, we have grouped them together under the general title given above.

As there are numerous matters, however, which concern the regiments separately, we have furnished separate sketches of these bodies; giving the fullest description of the operations of the brigade in the history of the Fifth Regiment, which had the largest representation from these counties.

The fifth crossed the Rapidan, marched thence, via Spottsylvania and Beaver Dan Station to Hungary Station, and moved down the Brook turnpike to within five miles of the city of Richmond.

Being attacked on the 2d of March by a superior force of the enemy, the Union Cavalry was compelled to fall back on Gen. Butler’s forces, stationed at New Kent Court-House.

A detachment of the regiment had also accompanied the forces commanded by the gallant Col. Ulric Dahlgren.

They moved down the James River to within five miles of the rebel capital.

The detachment of the Fifth, being in front, charged the enemy’s works and captured his first line of fortifications.

Following up its advantage, Dahlgren’s command pushed back the enemy from one line to another, until a point was reached within two miles of the city, when it was found impossible to advance farther with so small a force.

Meanwhile the rebels were gathering from all points, and in the endeavor to extricate itself from its perilous position the detachment of the Fifth became separated in the night, which was rainy and very dark, from the main portion of Dahlgren’s command.

On the following day this detachment cut its way through a strong rebel force posted at Old Church, and succeeded in rejoining the regiment near White House Landing.

At Yorktown, Va., on the 11th of March, the regiment embarked on board transports for Alexandria, whence it marched to Stevensburg, arriving there on the 18th of April, 1864.

Here a reorganization of the Cavalry forces, under Gen. Sheridan’s command, took place, and the Michigan Cavalry Brigade was thenceforth known as the First Brigade of the First Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.

On the 5th of May the brigade, commanded by the fiery Custer, again crossed the Rapidan, and soon became engaged in the great battle of the Wilderness; fighting mounted, the first three days, against the forces led by the renowned rebel Cavalry leader, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.

On the 9th of May the Cavalry corps set out, under Gen. Sheridan, on his great raid toward Richmond.

Three divisions, numbering full twelve thousand men, turned their horses’ heads to the southward; the blue-coated column, as it marched by fours, extending eleven miles along the road, from front to rear.

On the route they overtook a large body of Union soldiers, who had been taken prisoners at Spottsylvania, released them, and captured the rebel guard.

Toward evening, the same day, the Michigan brigade, followed closely by the rest of the column, dashed into the rebel depot at Beaver Dam Station, scattering, almost in an instant, the force stationed for its defense.

All night long the men were busy destroying the immense amount of rebel supplies accumulated at Beaver Dam, worth millions of dollars, consisting of three long railroad trains, with locomotives, stores of goods of various kinds, and one hundred loaded army-wagons, the flames of which rose in lurid columns through the darkness amid the cheers of the exultant soldiers.

At daybreak the next morning the command moved forward, and after tearing up the railroad-track at Negro Foot Station it reached “Yellow Tavern,” ten miles from Richmond, on the 11th of May.

There Gen. Stuart had assembled a large force of rebel Cavalry and a severe battle ensued.

The Fifth Cavalry fought dismounted, and charged’ the enemy’s position under a heavy fire; routing him after a most stubborn resistance.

The rebels lost heavily in this engagement, including their commanding officer, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, who was mortally wounded by a private of this regiment.

Having brushed aside all the forces opposed to it, the Union column pursued its way “on to Richmond” unmolested.

The next day the command arrived within a mile and a half of Richmond, but found fortifications in front on which Cavalry could make no impression.

Gen. Sheridan then turned his course toward the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge.

The rebels had destroyed the bridge, and a large force of them disputed his further progress.

The approaches to the stream led through a swamp, along which not more than four men could ride abreast, and a well posted battery on the opposite side cut down the head of the Union column, completely checking its advance.

The leading brigade vainly endeavored to force a passage.

The next one likewise failed. Gen. Sheridan then sent for Custer and his Michigan brigade, which at once hastened to the front.

There the youthful general dismounted the Fifth and Sixth Michigan, and sent them forward into the swamp as flanking-parties, while with drawn sabres the First and Seventh Michigan breathlessly awaited the order to charge.

The dismounted men drove the enemy from their first position, advanced through water waist-deep to the railroad-bridge, crossed it on the ties, and then plied their Spencer rifles on the rebel cannoniers with such effect that the latter were obliged to turn their guns on these assailants to prevent being entirely enfiladed.

The moment they did so Custer gave the order to “Charge,” and the two mounted regiments, with brandished sabres and ringing cheers, dashed forward at the top of their horses’ speed.

The rebels had barely time to limber their guns and retreat; leaving the road again open for the advance of the whole corps.

The command then proceeded, via Malvern Hill, Hanover Court-House, White House, Ayelitt’s and Concord Church, to Chesterfield Station, where it joined the main Army of the Potomac.

On the 28th of May the regiment was hotly engaged near Hawes’ Shop, where it aided in driving the enemy from their position after a desperate hand-to-hand fight.

The loss of the regiment in this action was very severe.

Moving to Old Church Tavern on the 30th, it was engaged with its brigade in the routing of Young’s rebel Cavalry.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with other Cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought dismounted in advance of the infantry, and, although losing heavily, succeeded in capturing many prisoners.

The Michigan brigade soon after set out under Gen. Sheridan to join Gen. Hunter, who was moving from the Shenandoah Valley to Lynchburg.

On the 11th of June the command met at Trevillian Station a large force of the enemy, both infantry and Cavalry.

During that day and the next there ensued one of the severest Cavalry fights of the war, the Union Cavalry mostly fighting dismounted.

The Michigan brigade did most of the fighting the first day, and lost heavily.

The brigade battery was three times captured by the enemy, and as many times recaptured by the determined efforts of the Michigan men.

The rebels were finally driven from the field and pursued several miles; six hundred prisoners, fifteen hundred horses, one stand of colors, six caissons, forty ambulances, and fifty wagons being captured by the victorious Unionists.

Moving subsequently in the direction of Louisa Courthouse, the regiment encountered a column of the enemy, but cut its way through with considerable loss in prisoners. Gen. Hunter failed to make the passage of the mountains.

Gen. Sheridan, in consequence, then marched his troops to White House Landing, and soon after joined the Army of the Potomac, south of Petersburg.

After serving on picket and scout duty in front of Richmond and Petersburg during the month of July, 1864, the Michigan brigade was taken on transports to Washington, D. C., early in August, and thence marched to the Shenandoah Valley.

Here it followed Custer in many a desperate charge, fully sustaining its old renown.

At Middletown the Fifth Cavalry was attacked by a strong force of the enemy, but repulsed them, capturing sixty-five prisoners.

Again, on the 19th of August, while a squadron of the regiment were scouting to the front, they were attacked by a greatly superior force of the enemy under the guerrilla leader Moseby, and being overpowered were driven into camp with a loss of sixteen men killed.

It was also engaged at:

 

  • Front Royal. August 16th;
  • Leetown, August 25th;
  • at Shepardstown, August 25th;
  • Smithfield, August 28th;
  • Berryville, September 3d;
  • Opequan Creek, September 19th, where the Michigan brigade utterly routed the enemy’s Cavalry and broke their infantry lines, capturing two battle-flags and four hundred prisoners; Winchester, September 19th; Luray, September 24th;

 

Woodstock, October 9th; and Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864, where Custer’s command charged the enemy’s main line; driving it back in confusion and capturing a large number of prisoners.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had seventy-six men killed, one hundred and seventeen wounded in action, fourteen missing in action, one hundred and ninety-four taken prisoners, two hundred and nine recruits joined the regiment, while but thirty-three men died of disease and but two desertions were reported.

The Michigan brigade went into winter-quarters near Winchester, Va., in December, 1864, and remained until the latter part of February, 1865.

On the 27th it broke camp, and with the Cavalry corps commanded by Gen. Sheridan started on a long and rapid march up the Shenandoah Valley, past Staunton, over the mountains, and down the James River to the Army of the Potomac.

The command met with but little opposition, dispersed all forces opposed to it, destroyed much property on the line of the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, locks, mills, and aqueducts on the James River Canal, and on the 19th of March joined the forces assembled to give the last blow to Lee’s rebel army.

On the 30th and 31st days of March and 1st of April, 1865, the Michigan brigade was warmly engaged at Five Forks.

During these three days of battle it was in the advance, and on the extreme left of the Union armies, fighting dismounted,-and finally succeeded, with the rest of Sheridan’s corps, in capturing the enemy’s line of defense, and several thousand prisoners.

From this time until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, April 9, 1865, it was constantly engaged with the enemy, and, being in the advance, the flag of truce to negotiate the surrender was sent through its lines.

After the surrender of Lee this regiment moved with the Cavalry corps to Petersburg, Va.

Soon afterward it made an incursion, with other forces, into North Carolina; thence it marched to Washington, D. C., participated in the review of the Army of the Potomac, May 23, 1865, and immediately thereafter, with the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, was ordered to the Western frontier.

The Fifth was sent by rail and steamboat to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., where the men having two years or more to serve were transferred to the First and Seventh Michigan Cavalry Regiments.

On the 22d of June the regiment, as an organization, was mustered out of service.

It arrived in Detroit, Michigan, July 1, 1865, and was there paid off and disbanded.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company I.

Captain Win. B. Williams, Allegan; com. Sept. 3, 1862; resigned June 11, 1863.

Captain Geo. N. Dutcher, Saugatuck; com. June 13, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, Nov. 2, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Geo. W. Lonsbury, Allegan; com. July 15, 1864: 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 1, 1863 (previously sergeant); promoted to Captain Co. M, Nov. 10, 1864; bvt. Major, March 13, 1865, “for gallant and meritorious services during the war;” mustered out June 22, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Geo. N. Gardner, Saugatuck; enlisted April 14, 1865; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Q.-M. Sergeant L. L. Crosby, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 12, 1862; transferred to Signal Corps, April, 1864.

Com. Sergeant Hannibal Hart, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 18, 1862; discharged for wounds, June 14, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. C. Weeks, Allegan; enlisted July 22, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Hiram R. Ellis, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 19, 1862; discharged for promotion, Aug. 29, 1864.

Sergeant Geo. W. Earl, Gun Plains; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Martin Baldwin, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Wm. A. Piper, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; discharged for disability, Dec. 12, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. White, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. L, May 2, 1865.

Sergeant Geo. H. Smith, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Sergeant Irving Batchelor, Gun Plains; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Corp. David P. Taylor, Ganges; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; died of accidental wounds, March 27, 1863.

Corp. Austin A. Andrews, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Corp. Herman Garvelink, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; killed in action at Hawes’ Shop, May 28, 1864.

Corp. Louis Hirner, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; killed in action at Yellow Tavern, May 11, 1864.

Farrier Mortimer Andrews, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Farrier Geo. Masson, Gun Plain; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

Saddler Jacob E. Miner, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; absent sick at City Point, Va.

Teamster John Cook, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 16, 1863.

Wagoner Dewitt C. Sanford, Gun Plain; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Feb. 13, 1863.

Samuel Atkins, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Oriss Buchanan, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Caleb Bennett, discharged by order, July 12, 1865.

E. J. Burlingame, missing in action at Richmond, March 1, 1864.

Hendrick Cook, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

George Canouse, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

Elliott Chase, died of disease at Detroit, Oct. 19, 1862.

Lawrence L. Crosby, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April, 1861.

James Collins, died in Andersonville prison-pen, July 9, 1864.

David Cummings, died a prisoner of war, of disease, Aug. 15, 1864.

Daniel C. Collier, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Samuel Clark, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Gabriel Cole, (Medal of Honor) mustered out June 23, 1865.

Robert Dyer, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Russell Dyer, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

Seth Dyer, discharged by order, July 17, 1865.

James Dyer, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

George Drury, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

William Drury, missing in action, Oct. 1(, 1864.

Benjamin S. Dalrymple, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Abner Emmons, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Orliter P. Eaton, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Lafayette Fox, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Cornelius Gavin, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Vernon Groucher, mustered out June 23, 1865.

William Goodman, died of disease, a prisoner of war, July 24, 1864.

George H. Hicks, died in action at Smithfield, Va., Aug. 29, 1864.

Hannibal Hart, discharged by order, Jan. 14, 1864.

George Hodgetts, transferred to 7th Michigan Cavalry.

John Will, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Morgan B. Hawks, mustered out June 23, 1865.

James Kitchen, discharged at end of service, Aug. 20, 1865.

Morgan D. Lane, transferred to Signal Corps, April 23, 1864,

William McWilliams, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864.

H. W. Mann, (lied in action at Shepardstown, Va., Aug. 25, 1864.

Gottlieb Miller, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 1, 1864.

Charles E. Moses, died of disease, a prisoner of war, Sept. 29, 1865.

John E. Murphy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

George E. Munn, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Orlando C. Masson, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

Franklin Miller, mustered out June 23, 1865.

William Neuhof, discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

M. A. Powell, discharged by order, Feb. 2, 1865.

George Pullman, died of disease, a prisoner of war, April 12, 1864.

Giles A. Piper, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Albert Rynick, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Raphael Ross, trans to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1861.

Caspar Robb, discharged by order, July 11, 1865.

Jacob Rinehart, discharged by order, July 12, 1865.

Joseph Slagel, discharged by order, Dec. 24, 1863.

Samuel Shaver, mustered out June 23, 1865.

David H. Seaman, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

George Shuport, mustered out June 23, 1865.

George Shepard, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 1, 1864.

Marcus C. Thompson, Died of disease, a prisoner of war, Sept. 4, 1864.

George W. Thompson, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Henry Warner, discharged for wounds.

Homer Watson, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Henry Zoneman, mustered out June 23, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY.

William H. Cook, Co. L, of this regiment, was from Barry County. He was last reported as missing in action at Trevillian Station, Va., June 11, 1864.

SIXTH CAVALRY.

Allegan County had but few members in the Sixth Cavalry, but Barry was represented in all its companies except I; Company K being almost exclusively from that county.

The regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids.

Its ranks were rapidly filled, and it was mustered into the United States service, under the command of Col. George Gray, on the 13th of October, 1862.

Mounted and equipped, but not armed, carrying on its rolls the names of one thousand two hundred and twenty-nine officers and men, it left the regimental rendezvous on the 10th of December following, and proceeded to the seat of war in Virginia.

It was soon assigned to the Second Brigade of the Third Division of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac (the Michigan Cavalry Brigade), of which a somewhat extended notice has been given in the sketch of the preceding regiment, to which the reader is referred for details.

Before the beginning of its first campaign Company K, by reason of discharges and resignations, had lost all its original commissioned officers except Lieutenant Pendill.

The regiment fought at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 1863; at Hunterstown and Gettysburg, Pa., and Monterey, Cavalryetown, Smithtown, Boonsboro’, Hagerstown, Williamsport, 7 and Falling Waters, Md., in July of the same year; at Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19, 1863; at Kelly’s Ford, Culpeper Court-House, Raccoon Ford, White’s Ford, and Jack’s Shop, Va., in September, 1863; at James City, Brandy Station, and Buckland’s Mills, Va., in October, 1863; and at Stevensburg and Morton’s Ford, Va., in November of the same year.

At Gettysburg and Falling Waters it particularly distinguished itself.

Its principal casualties from the time it entered the service until Nov. 1, 1863, were reported as thirty-six killed in action, seventy-five missing in action, and forty-five who died of disease.

During the winter of 1863-64 it was quartered at Stevensburg, Va.

In the latter part of February it started for Richmond, forming part of Gen. Kilpatrick’s raiding force.

It participated in all the hard riding, skirmishing, etc., attendant upon that unsuccessful expedition, and, with others of the command, succeeded in joining the Union forces at New Kent Court-House.

Thence it moved down the Peninsula, proceeded on transports to Alexandria, and then marched to its former camp at Stevensburg.

On the 18th of April the Michigan brigade was transferred to the First Cavalry Division, and thereafter until the close of the war was known as the First Brigade of the First Division Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.

Companies I and M, which had been operating in the Shenandoah Valley during the year 1863, rejoined the regiment on the 3d of May, 1864, and on the 6th of that month the Michigan brigade was in the midst of the terrible battles going on in the Wilderness.

As victors, it emerged into the open country on the 8th of May, and on the morning of the 9th started with Sheridan’s corps on a raid to the rear of the rebel armies, the brigade leading this splendid body of twelve thousand veteran Cavalrymen.

The Sixth assisted in destroying the immense rebel depot of supplies at Beaver Dam Station, fought in the thickest of the battle at Yellow Tavern, and gained imperishable honor at the crossing of the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge.*

Again, at Hawes’ Shop, on the 28th of May, 1864, the regiment took part in a decisive charge on the enemy’s lines.

After a severe conflict the rebels were forced to retire, leaving their dead and wounded on the field.

The Sixth lost heavily in this engagement.

Of its members present, one-fourth were either killed or wounded in less than ten minutes.

Engaging in the raid of Sheridan’s forces towards Gordonsville, the regiment, on the 11th of June, participated in the battle of Trevillian Station, charging the enemy repeatedly, and capturing many prisoners, most of whom, however, were recaptured.

From the time it crossed the Rapidan, on the 5th of May, until it passed the James, on the 28th of June, the regiment lost twenty-nine men killed, sixty wounded, and sixty-four missing.

Early in August the Michigan brigade, with others of Sheridan’s command, was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley, where it took an active part in all the skirmishes, battles, marches, and counter-marches that occurred during this part of the Shenandoah campaign.

The actions in which the Sixth participated in the valley may be summarily catalogued as those of Front Royal, Leetown, Smithfield, Opequan Creek, Winchester, Luray, Port Republic, Mount Crawford, Fisher’s Hill, Woodstock, and Cedar -Creek.

In December, 1864, it went into winter quarters near Winchester.

Its total list of killed to November 1st amounted to fifty-five, while forty-four of its members had died of disease.

During the last days of February, 1865, the regiment began its final Virginia campaign.

After a long and eventful march under Sheridan, during which it helped to defeat the rebel Gen. Rosser at Louisa Court-House, to break up the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and to destroy the locks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, it reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, and immediately took part in the succession of brilliant triumphs which ended at Appomattox Court-House on the 9th of April, 1865.

After the surrender, the rebel Gen. Pickett, who was taken prisoner in one of these engagements, spoke of a charge made by this regiment which he witnessed as being the “bravest he had ever seen.”

After participating in the grand review held at Washington, D. C., May 23, 1865, the Michigan brigade was ordered, vid the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers, to Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

At that point the Sixth received orders to cross the Plains.

These orders produced much dissatisfaction among its members, as they, with all other volunteers, had supposed that with the collapse of the Rebellion their services would no longer be required.

Remembering, however, their noble record as a regiment, adhering firmly to the high degree of discipline and faithful observance of orders which had ever distinguished them, its members marched forward by way of Fort Kearney and Julesburg to Fort Laramie.

At the latter point the regiment was divided into detachments by order of Gen. Connor.

One was to form a part of the “left column, Powder River expedition,” one was to remain at Fort Laramie, while another was to escort a train to the Black Hills.

The Powder River detachment, on reaching that stream, found that the Indians, of whom it had been sent in pursuit, had managed to escape.

The troops then built the fort since known as Fort Reno.

On this expedition Captain O. F. Cole, of Company G, lost his life; having needlessly ridden a long distance from the column, he was surprised by Indians and shot to death with arrows.

From Fort Reno a small detachment was sent out as a train-guard to Virginia City, Montana.

Meeting a large war party of Arapahoe Indians, the guard was “corralled” that is, surrounded and stopped-by them for twelve days.

‘Gen. Connor was finally apprised of their condition, when reinforcements were sent to their relief.

Sergeant Hall, of Company L, and Private Evans, of Company F, were the brave men who succeeded in conveying the intelligence to Gen. Connor.

They traversed a distance of fifty miles through a wild and to them unknown country, swarming with hostile savages, and thereby saved the detachment.

On the 17th of September, in pursuance of orders issued by Major-Gen. Dodge, the men of the Sixth whose term of service did not expire before Feb. 1, 1866, were consolidated with the First Michigan Cavalry, and the rest of the regiment was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

It was there mustered out of service Nov. 24, 1865, and on the 30th of the same month it arrived at Jackson, Michigan, where its members received final pay and discharge-papers.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Field and Staff.

Q.-M. W. H. Jewell, Assyria; com. Dec. 11, 1864; mustered out Nov. 7, 1865. (See Co. K.)

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp. Steward Benj. R. Rose, Carlton; enlisted Nov. 1, 1863; discharged by order from Co. K, May 3, 1865.

Company A.

Andrew L. Barnum, died in action at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.

Company B.

Peter Dunham, discharged by order, Dec. 4, 1865.

Myndert Yemans, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company C.

Thomas Cowell, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1864.

Andrew J. Fisher, discharged at end of service, Feb. 17, 1866.

Simson D. Inman, mustered out Feb. 17, 1866.

George M. Jenkins, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1864.

Company D.

John P. Mallin, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Andrew Rogers, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Company E.

Wilson Perkins, died in action at Beaver Pond Mills, Va., April 4, 1865.

Joseph Snith, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Company F.

Robert McNee, transferred to Yet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863.

Asa Smith, mustered out.

Company G.

Daniel Bowerman, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Orrin Clark, mustered out Feb. 10, 1866.

George W. Cline, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

James V. Judd, discharged Oct. 1, 1863.

Company H.

Hiram F. Lawrence, mustered out Feb. 17, 1866.

Thomas Mayo, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Oct. 9, 1864.

Oliver S. Reed, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company K.

1st Lieutenant Peter Cramer, Woodland; com. Aug. 26, 1862; res. Feb. 18, 1863. 2d Lieutenant

Lewis H. Jordon, Irving; com. Sept. 25, 1862; discharged March 6, 1863. 2d Lieutenant

Cortez P. Pendill, Prairieville; com. March 16, 1863; enlisted as 1st Sergeant, Aug. 26, 1862; res. for disability, Sept. 16, 1S64.

Q.-M. Sergeant Chas. W. Taylor, Maple Grove; enlisted Aug. 26, 1862; discharged.

Com. Sergeant H. C. Hendershott, Irving; enlisted Oct. 11, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. H. Jewell, Assyria; enlisted Sept. 2, 1862; promoted to regimental quartermaster.

Sergeant Lorenzo D. Cobb, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company  L.

Sergeant Parley H. Rice, Hope; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Sergeant John C. Dillon, Maple Grove; enlisted Aug. 29, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 28, 1865.

Sergeant Selden E. Norton, Castleton; enlisted Aug. 26, 1862; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Jas. K. Francisco, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 2, 1862; died of wounds, Sept. 26, 1864.

Corp. Mathew Baird, Hope; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Corp. John L. Williams, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out July 7, 1865.

Corp. Clifton G. Barnum, Carlton; enlisted Aug. 27, 1862; died of disease at Fairfax, Va., April 18, 1863.

Corp. Henry C. Rice, Hope; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Corp. Presley W. Haskinson, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Corp. Milo 0. West, Hope; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; died of disease, Aug. 24, 1864.

Musician John J. Cobb, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Musician Myron Paul, Thornapple; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Farrier Aaron J. Walker, Irving; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Farrier Jeremiah Baribaugh, Castleton; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Teamster Anson Cary, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 18, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 186:3.

Teamster Samuel Barton, Irving; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Wagoner David R. Trego, Irving; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 3, 1864.

Jacob Alverson, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Clifren Bowerman, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

W. H. Brown, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

David Brown, died of disease, Jan. 8, 1864.

Munson Buck, missing in action at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 1863.

John Beach, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Amos Beach, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Stephen P. Barnum, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

William E. Bolton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

George H. Brownell, died of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa.

Frederick Bergman, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Josiah L. Campbell, discharged for disability, Jan. 2, 1863.

Myron Chamberlain, discharged for disability, Sept. 6, 1863.

Norman E. Clark, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Emerson Cartwright, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Austin W. Clark, mustered out Nov. 19, 1865.

Marquis A. Dowd, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John A. Dennis, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

George W. Dart, discharged for disability, Feb. 11, 1863.

Edward Dacons, died of disease, Jan. 13, 1865.

Amos J. Eggleston, discharged for disability, Sept. 30, 1863.

Joseph Fishburn, died of disease at his home, Nov. 11, 1864.

William Gordon, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

Adam Hart, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

Benjamin lHeath, discharged for disability.

Frederick Hart, discharged for disability, May 15, 1865.

James H. Hunt, mustered out June 12, 1865.

John Irwin, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Van Rensselaer Jones, discharged for disability, July 21, 1863.

Lyman C. Jayquays,* mustered out June 30, 1866.

Ira Kelsey, died at Newby’s Cross-Roads, Va., July 24, 1863.

Dewitt C. Kenyon, mustered out June 29, 1865.

Jeremiah Killmer, mustered out Nov 24, 1865.

Jefferson Kelley, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Jacob Kabler, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Franklin R. Lewis, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Samuel Murdock, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Hiram McCartney, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., March 29, 1864.

Justin W. Miles, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Edwin Meads, discharged for wounds, April 6, 1864.

John A. Miller, discharged for wounds, Oct. 5, 1864.

Archibald Murdock, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct.12, 1865.

Mark Norris, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Mason Norton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Levi Presley, mustered out March 26, 1866.

George M. Payne, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Samuel Presley, discharged for disability.

Jonathan Smith, died at Newby’s Cross-Roads, Va., July 24, 1863.

Albert H. Sidman, discharged for disability.

Justice Smith, reported missing in action, but returned.

Stephen A. Stanley, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Robert W. Slhriner, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Russell K. Stanton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Justin A. Smith, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Eber A. Stanley, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Elisha Skillman, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

James A. Vandechoten, mustered out June 13, 1865.

L. F. Vester, died of disease at Baltimore, Md., Sept. 22, 1864.

David Way, Jr., died of disease.

Orville Wheeler, died of disease in Michigan, Nov. 28, 1864.

Joel 0. Wheeler, discharged for disability, Jan. 2, 1863.

Lycurgus J. Wheeler, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 3, 1864.

William R. Wheeler, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Oscar White, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Henry A. Ward, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company L.

2d Lieutenant Lorenzo D. Cobb, Yankee Springs; com. Dec. 10, 1864; mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

Martin Babcock, mustered out Aug. 12, 1865.

Jeremiah Crandall, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Alfred Fraine, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.; mustered out March 25, 1866.

Charles Furness, mustered out July 6, 1865.

Calvin C. Norton, transferred to 1st Michigan Cay., Nov. 17, 1865.

Charles Terry, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company M.

Sergeant Silas M. Smith, Irving; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; must out Nov. 24, 1865.

J. Q. A. Briggs, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry… ‘ Or Jaques.

I. Johnson N. Bowen, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Deloss D. Bassett, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Alfred Flanders, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Daniel Hewitt, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John Klock, died of disease at tarper’s Ferry, Va., Aug. 1, 1864.

William C. Kelly, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 15, 1864.

Robert McNee, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

1st. Lieutenant and Adj. Elliott M. Norton, Wayland; com. Jan. 4, 1865; 2d Lieutenant Co. H, Jan. 1, 1864; transferred to Vet. Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865; mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company A.

Merritt C. Mosher, missing in action at Todd’s Tavern, Va., May 6, 1864.

Company B.

Sergeant E. M. Norton. (See Field and Staff.)

Edwin E. Whitney, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company I.

Peter J. Alden, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John Madison, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company K.

Versal P. Fales, must out June 2, 1865.

Justus German, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Henry F. Haney, mustered out Oct. 24, 1865.

Origen Hamilton, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Elisha Inman, supposed killed by guerrillas.

Wells T. Latourette, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

SEVENTH CAVALRY.

This regiment numbered among its members sixty officers and men from Barry County, and less than a dozen from the county of Allegan, these being scattered among all its companies, except G and L.

The rendezvous was at Grand Rapids, where the regiment was organized during the fall of 1862 and the ensuing winter.

Two battalions left Grand Rapids for the seat of war in Virginia, Feb. 20, 1863, and were joined by the third battalion in May following, Col. William D. Mann being in command of the regiment.

The Seventh was assigned to the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, so often mentioned already, and until the close of the war participated in all its glory and renown.

It took part in minor actions at Thoroughfare Gap, Va., May 21, 1863; at Greenwich, Va., May 30th, and at Hanover, Pa., on the 30th of June.

On the 3d of July at Gettysburg it was very hotly engaged, charging the enemy repeatedly, and having fifty-seven of its men killed and wounded, besides twelve missing and twelve taken prisoners.

It was also engaged at Smithtown, Md. July 6th; at Boonsboro’, Md., July 6th and 8th; at Hagerstown, Md., July 6th and 10th; at Falling Waters, Md., July 14th; at Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19th; at Kelly’s Ford, Va., September 13th; at Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14th; at Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th; Brandy Station, Va., October 13th, and others.

Ninety-two men were killed and wounded in action, forty-six were reported missing in action, many of whom were killed, and down to Nov. 1, 1863, the date of making that report, fifty of its numbers had died of disease.

During the winter of 1863-64 the Seventh was mostly employed on picket duty in front of the Army of the Potomac, but resumed more active service on the 28th of February, 1864, when it marched with its brigade on the “Kilpatrick raid.”

Arriving before Richmond on the 31st of February, it was placed on picket the following night.

Here it was attacked by a superior force of the enemy, and, being unsupported, was driven back.

Forty-four men were reported missing, among whom was the commander of the regiment, Lieutenant-Col. A. C. Litchfield, The command soon marched to Yorktown, whence it proceeded by transports to Alexandria, Va.

Having crossed the Rapidan with the Army of the Potomac on the 5th of May, the regiment set out on the 9th in Gen. Sheridan’s movement against the enemy’s communications.

On the 11th it was in the battle of Yellow Tavern; charging the enemy’s Cavalry and driving it from the field, and having eighteen of its own men killed and wounded.

The operations of the Michigan Cavalry Brigade on that raid have been mentioned in the sketch of the Fifth Cavalry, previously given, and the Seventh took its full share in them all.

After rejoining the army it attacked the rebel Cavalry on the 27th of May, charging and driving one of their brigades several miles, and capturing forty-one men.

The next day it was in a fight at Hawes’ Shop, where fourteen of its men were killed and wounded.

It also took part in the attack on the enemy’s works at Cold Harbor on the 30th of May, fighting dismounted in advance of the infantry.

With the rest of the Michigan brigade and other regiments, it then moved, under Gen. Sheridan, towards Gordonsville, and on the 11th and 12th of June had a hard Cavalry fight at Trevillian Station, losing twenty-nine killed and wounded during the conflict.

On the first day of the fight a small squad of the Seventh recaptured from a large force of the rebels a piece of artillery which had been taken from a Union battery.

The command then returned to the main army, and on the 31st of July the Michigan brigade set out for Washington and the Shenandoah Valley.

On the 16th of August the Seventh Cavalry was in the battle of Crooked Run, where it had twelve men killed and wounded, and where, according to the official report, “one battalion charged a brigade of rebel Cavalry, routing them and capturing nearly a hundred prisoners.”

On the 25th of August it was engaged near Shepherdstown, with slight loss.

On the 29th, its division being attacked by infantry in force, it covered the retreat to Smithfield, having fourteen killed and wounded.

On the 19th of September the regiment was warmly engaged in the battle of Opequan Creek.

It charged across that stream, drove the enemy from the bank, advanced and aided in driving him at headlong speed through the town of Winchester.

Twenty-three officers and men were killed and wounded in the Seventh; among the mortally wounded being its commander, Lieutenant-Col. Melvin Brewer.

Five days later the regiment was in another combat at Luray, driving the enemy back in great confusion, and capturing sixty prisoners.

On the 9th of October the Seventh took part with its corps in routing the rebel Cavalry under Gen. Rosser.

Ten days later, at Cedar Creek, while the regiment was on picket, the enemy, by a sudden attack, broke through the line of the Union infantry and struck it in the rear.

It made good its retreat, however, without serious loss.

When Sheridan galloped up from Winchester and retrieved the fortunes of the day, the Seventh Michigan Cavalry took an active part in the conflict, and in the final charge which drove the foe in confusion from the field it captured about one hundred prisoners.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had had no less than one hundred and fifty-nine officers and men killed and wounded, a very heavy loss for a Cavalry regiment.

The Seventh remained in camp near Winchester most of the time until the 27th of February, 1865, when it moved up the Shenandoah Valley, with its corps, to take part in Gen. Sheridan’s celebrated march to the James River.

On the 8th of March the regiment aided in routing a portion of Rosser’s Cavalry near Louisa Court-House, and capturing the town.

After destroying a large part of the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and the locks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, the command reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, and was soon, with, the Cavalry corps, established on the left of the Army of the Potomac.

The Seventh took an active part in the battle of Five Forks, and was engaged with the enemy almost till the moment of Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.

After a short stay in North Carolina the Michigan brigade returned to Washington, and thence proceeded to Fort Leavenworth, whence it was ordered to cross the Plains and operate against the hostile Indians.

There was much bitterness felt by the men at this extension of their service to another field from what was originally intended.

Nevertheless, they crossed the Plains to the Rocky Mountains, and were employed until November in guarding the overland stage-route from the Indians.

About the 1st of November the regiment transferred two hundred and fifty men, whose term extended beyond March 1, 1866, to the First Michigan; the remainder of the regiment returning to Fort Leavenworth, and being there mustered out of the service.

It was paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan, on the 25th of December, 1866.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Field and Staff.

Surg. Wm. Upjohn, Hastings; com. Nov. 1, 1863; mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

1st Lieutenant and Com’y James W. Bentley, Hastings; com. Oct. 15, 1862; mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Hosp. Steward George A. Smith, Hastings; appointed Nov. 14; 1862; discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Company A.

Henry Allen, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Marshall Billinger, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

James Barber, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Charles Cook, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Edgar A. Clark, died of disease at Little Blue, Neb., July 5, 1865.

Edward H. Harvey, discharged by order, Dec. 22, 1864.

Alexander McNeal, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Edgar Nye, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Company B.

Alfred Dyvis, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company C.

James Thomas, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Company D.

James F. Saddler, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Company E.

James Dawson, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Charles E. Hyde, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 7, 1863.

Jacob D. Hendrick, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 2, 1866.

Company F.

Sergeant Harmon Smith, Prairieville; promoted 2d Lieutenant Dec. 12, 1865; mustered out as Sergeant Dec. 15, 1865.

James Blanchard, died of disease in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 15, 1864.

Charles 11. Bergnman, mustered out March 10, 1866.

John L. Chandler, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Eugene Cooper, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

R. Cone, died of disease at Jackson, Michigan, May 18, 1864.

Daniel Eldridge, mustered out March 10, 1866.

James Henry, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Isaac 0. Howe, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Nov. 17, 1864.

Charles J. Jenner, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Robert A. Kelly, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Thomas H. McLeod, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Alexander F. McIntosh, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

John M. Peck, died of disease.

Peleg T. Phelps, died of disease at York, Pa., Aug. 27, 1864.

O. F. Ralph, died in action at Falling Waters, Md., July 14, 1863.

Norman Ruggles, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1863.

Joseph F. Trenchard, discharged for disability, June 24, 1865.

Joy S. Terry, discharged for disability, Oct. 13, 1863.

Peter Wilbert, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1863.

George L. Wilcox, mustered out July 11, 1865.

Job J. Williams died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 25, 1863.

Company H.

W. C. Bush, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Edwin Bissell, mustered out June 2, 1865.

Perry G. Fisher, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Byron Fisher, mustered out June 24, 1865.

Robinson Norwood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Milton F. Nottingham, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Loski 0. Peck, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. March 10, 1866.

William Shean, died of disease at Brandy Station, Va., March 10, 1864.

Irvin Teneyck, missing in action at Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 19, 1864.

Company I.

Robert Strong, discharged April 24, 1863.

Company K.

Q.M.-Sergeant Fitch M. Searles, Orangeville; enlisted Dec. 27, 1862; mustered out Jan. 26, 1865.

Corp. William W. Bitgood, Orangeville; discharged for disability, Aug. 3, 1863.

Blacksmith Jesse G. Sprague, Hastings; transferred to Inv. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Jsmes Campbell, missing in action at Boonsboro’, Md., July 8, 1863.

Oliver Chalker, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Frederick Hahn, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Edward Leslie, mustered out July 12, 1865.

Colburn Osgood, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Hugh Smith, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

John L. Young, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Company M.

Erastus Havens, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

MEN FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY, Michigan in the Seventh Cavalry.

D. Eldridge, discharged for disability, Nov. 6, 1863.

Company F.

Irving Jambs, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company H.

Samuel B. Delaney, mustered out March 20, 1866.

George R. McHenry, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Sidney R. Prentiss, died of disease at Baltimore, Sept. 24, 1864.

Company I.

William H. Kirshner, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Nelson J. Kendall, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

 

Company K.

Joseph Staley, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company M.

John Will, transferred to lbt Michigan Cavalry.

EIGHTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY, Etc.

Organization of the Eighth

Company F from Allegan County-Officers from the Two Counties-Service in Kentucky —Routing Morgan at Buffington’s Island —Hard Marching-Services in East Tennessee-Back to Kentucky on Foot-Remounted-Joins Sherman at Kennesaw-Services in the Atlanta Campaign-Surrounded, but breaks out-Afterwards surprised and routed-Those who escaped sent to Nashville-Fighting Hood-The End-Officers and Soldiers from Allegan County —From Barry County-The Tenth Cavalry-On Duty in Kentucky and Tennessee-Engagement at Carter’s Station-At Butt’s Gap —The Summer of 1864 –Routing and Killing Morgan-Expedition to Saltville, Va.-Expedition into North Carolina-Hard Marching and Fighting at Henry Court-House-Victory at Salisbury, N. C. —Barry County Soldiers-

Allegan County Soldiers in the Eight Cavalry.

This regiment, the rendezvous of which was at Mount Clemens, was recruited during the fall of 1862 and the winter following, but did not take the field until May, 1863, when, with one thousand one hundred and seventeen officers and men, it proceeded to Kentucky.

Allegan and Barry Counties were well represented in the Eighth; the former county furnishing almost all of Company F, which was recruited by Captain (afterwards Col.) Elisha Mix, of Manlius.

Asst.-Surg. Samuel D. Toby, of Ganges; Adjt. Homer Manvel, of Saugatuck;

Second Lieutenant Miles Horn, of Otsego;

Captain John E. Babbitt, of Allegan County; and First Lieutenant Adrian L. Cook, of Hastings, were also conspicuous officers of this regiment.

Martin Cook, of Allegan, was a hospital steward. From Covington, Ky., the regiment entered upon active service on the 1st of June, 1863, and between that time and August 10th, in that year, marched twelve hundred and forty-two miles, exclusive of over sixteen hundred miles marched by detachments of the regiment while scouting, etc.

It was first engaged with the enemy on the Triplet, Kentucky, and Salt Rivers, and at Lebanon, Ky.

When the rebel Gen. John H. Morgan made his celebrated raid through the States of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, the Eighth was one of the foremost in the chase, and, hanging closely on his flanks and rear, at length brought him to bay at Buffington Island, Ohio.

Here, on the 19th of July, 1863, it immediately attacked and routed his forces; capturing two hundred and seventeen prisoners, besides killing and wounding many others.

Twice during this pursuit of Morgan the regiment marched forty-eight hours, halting but twice on each occasion, and then only for a few minutes.

At another time the chase was kept up for twenty-four hours, without stopping to feed and rest but once.

From Buffington Island the regiment returned to Kentucky, where it fought and defeated Scott’s rebel Cavalry.

In August it advanced with the Union forces into East Tennessee.

At Calhoun and Athens, Tenn., on the 26th and 27th of September, the brigade to which it was attached was attacked and defeated by a rebel force of some ten thousand men, commanded by Forrest and Wheeler.

The Unionists retreated to Loudon; the Eighth having suffered a loss of forty-three men, killed and wounded, besides several missing.

Until the early part of February, 1864, the regiment was very actively engaged marching and skirmishing up and down the valleys of the Tennessee and Holston Rivers.

It had also engaged in all the operations termed the “siege of Knoxville,” pursued Longstreet’s retreating army, and fought him at Bean’s Station, Dandridge, and Strawberry Plains.

On the 3d of February the regiment moved to Knoxville, transferred its horses to the quartermaster’s department, and thence marched on foot to Mount Sterling, Ky., a tedious tramp of more than two hundred miles over the Cumberland Mountains.

It was there remounted, and on the 28th of June joined Gen. Sherman’s army in front of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. On the march from Mount Sterling the regiment had scoured the country bordering the railroad; capturing one hundred and forty prisoners.

Forming part of Gen. Stoneman’s Cavalry force, it covered the right of Gen. Sherman’s infantry during the crossing of the Chattahoochee and the advance on Atlanta.

It participated in the Campbelltown and Macon raids in July, 1864, and a detachment of the Eighth succeeded in capturing and destroying three railroad-trains loaded with rebel stores.

In the latter raid, at Clinton, Ga., July 31st, the forces commanded by Gen. Stoneman were surrounded by a superior force of the enemy, and he ultimately surrendered, but prior to that time the Eighth, having obtained permission, charged through the enemy’s ranks and endeavored to reach the Union lines near Atlanta.

On the 3d of August, however, being heavily worn out with service, having been in the saddle with little or no rest or sleep for seven days and eight nights, it was surprised and routed by the enemy with heavy loss; losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, mostly taken prisoners.

The remainder of the regiment was employed on picket duty until the middle of September, 1864, when it was ordered to Nicholasville, Ky., and then back to Nashville, where it arrived on the 26th of October.

The Eighth was engaged through the month of November, skirmishing with the Cavalry advance of Hood’s army, being several times surrounded by the enemy, but always managing to cut its way out.

After Hood was defeated at Franklin and Nashville and driven out of Tennessee, this regiment had no service more severe than that of suppressing the guerrilla bands who still infested the country.

In July the Eleventh Cavalry was consolidated with the Eighth, the combined regiment retaining the latter name.

It was mustered out of the United States service at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1865, and was soon after paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Col. Elisha Mix, Manlius; com. Dec. 3, 1864; Lieutenant-colonel., April 16, 1864; Major, March 2, 1863; mustered out with regiment, Sept. 22, 1865. (See Co. F.)

Asst.-Surg. Samuel D. Toby, Ganges; com. July 20, 1864; mustered out July 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant and Adj. Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp.-Steward Martin Cook, Allegan; enlisted March 15, 1865; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company A.

Z. W. Hopkins, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Gordon B. Rust, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company B.

David M. Austin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

James Fuller, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Delos W. Hare, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles O. Hicks, missing in action in Tennessee, Nov. 23, 1864.

William Jones, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William Pratt, mustered out June 10, 1865.

James B. Rhodes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William 11. Rhodes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William II. Randall, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Truman Smith, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles C. Wallen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Edwin C. Wallen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Fernando Yemens, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company C.

Sylvester Farnsworth, mustered out June 6, 1865.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Miles Horn, Otsego; com. Jan. 1, 1863; died of disease at Kalamazoo, Sept. 8, 1865.

W. D. Austin, mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Frederick E. Grant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles H. Harper, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Joseph L. Payne, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Elisha E. Pratt, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Whitney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Hiram Winters, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company F.

Captain Elisha Mix, Manlius; com. Nov. 1, 1862. (See Field and Staff.)

1st Lieutenant John E. Babbitt, com. Nov. 1, 1862; promoted to Captain Co. I, Aug. 31, 1863.

Q.M.-Sergeant Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 28, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company H.

Sergeant John McDowell, Casco; enlisted Dec. 4, 1862; died in Andersonville prison, June 28, 1864.

Sergeant Miles Horn, Otsego; enlisted Jan. 1, 1863; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company E.

Sergeant Byron Teal, Cheshire; enlisted Nov. 22, 1862; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Richard A. Follett, Ganges; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862.

Corp. Timothy S. Cook, Casco; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862; transferred to navy, May 12, 1864.

Corp. James Buyce, Casco; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862; died of disease at Paris, Ky., April 12, 1864.

Corp. Stephen Fairbanks, Fillmore; enlisted Dec. 29, 1862; died of disease at Allegan, Jan. 21, 1865.

Teamster Elisha J. H. Walker, Ganges; mustered out June 19, 1865.

Teamster John Wilson, Otsego; discharged.

Farrier Charles E. Tompkins, Otsego; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Sol. J. Andrews, died of disease at Chattanooga, Aug. 8, 1864.

John Avery, discharged July 28, 1863.

Samuel Brown, discharged for disability, July 16, 1861.

W. Bidwell, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1864.

Charles D. Bristol, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

J. E. Brinkhart, died of disease in Iowa.

Walter Billings, discharged for disability, June 15, 1865.

Randall Billings, mustered out June 30, 1865.

John Blossom, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Bailey, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Buchanan, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jacob R. Boas, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jay F. Barker, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Cushman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jacob Corwin, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Charles Emmons, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Engles, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Seneca L. Everts, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Isaac Foster, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Michael Gilligan, discharged for disability, June 15, 1865.

Charles Hawkins, discharged.

William H. Howe, died of disease at Annapolis, March 23, 1865.

Juhn C. Haines, died of disease at Nashville, March 28, 1865.

Norman P. IIaines, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Lewis Huntley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Seth Hinds, mustered out May 25, 1865.

George E. Kinney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Kinney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John A. Kinney, killed on Mississippi River steamer (Sultana), April 27, 1865.

Edward Lindsley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865. J

oseph B. Morris, discharged by order, May 18, 1865.

Thomas J, Mills, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Matthew Orr, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Parrish, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles Powers, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Stephen Powers, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1863.

William Pryor, died of disease in Tennessee, Aug. 9, 1864.

Harold Sherman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Thompson, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug 23, 1864.

Reuben Thomas, discharged by order, July 3, 1865.

EIGHTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY,

John M. Weaver, discharged by order, July 30, 1864.

Nathaniel Wellman, discharged for disability, May 27, 1865.

John J. Willerton, missing in action on raid to Macon, Ga., Aug. 4, 1864.

James Wasson, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; com. Nov. 20, 1864; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and adjt.

Charles W. Holmes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Samuel W. Kendall, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles J. Seigner, died of disease in Indiana, Jan. 28, 1865.

James Stanton, died of disease in Tennessee, March 25, 1865.

Richard Williams, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Company L

Captain John E. Babbitt, honorably discharged, Dec. 27, 1864.

James T. Bentley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James Bassett, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Collins, mustered out June 13, 1865.

Philo L. Edson, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Enoch Howe, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Timothy V. Haight, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

eorge W. Knapp, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Martin Munzer, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Marshall Meriker, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George W. Lawrence, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Theodore Larkins, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Jan. 22, 1865.

George E. Patten, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Reuben A. Putnam, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Orville J. Whitlock, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Sergeant Charles D. Gray, 2d Lieutenant; promoted April 25, 1865; not mustered; died of wounds at Pulaski, Tenn., April 30, 1865.

Warren Collins, died of disease at Annapolis, March 8, 1865.

Joseph Simmers, died in Andersonville prison-pen.

William Tudehope, discharged by order, May 31, 1865.

Samuel S. Thomas, discharged for promotion, Sept. 26, 1864.

Company L.

Isaac A. McCarthy, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James H. Smith, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company M.

Hiram Annis, mustered out May 17, 1865.

Benjamin Ross, died of disease at Chattanooga, June 28, 1864.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company A.

Russell E. Benedict, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 23, 1865.

Reuben W. Norton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company B.

Frank 0. Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company D.

William H. Eaton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company E.

Isaac Albrougli, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Berringer, discharged by order, Sept. 21, 1865.

Company G.

Levi Breese, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company I.

Eli Booth, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company K.

W. W. Crowfoot, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company L.

1st Lieutenant Adrian L. Cook, Hastings; com. Jan. 8, 1865; mustered out Sept. 22, ’65.

Marquis D. L. Crapo, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Dewitt 0. Dodge, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry C. Downs, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Nathan Eaton, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Silas Hewett, mustered out May 18, 1865.

Andrew Hathaway, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 26, 1861.

John Johnson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Simon Mathews, mustered out June 10, 1865.

George H. Robinson, discharged for disability, Feb. 24, 1865.

John Vredenburgh, mustered out June 10, 1865.

John W. Willard, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company M.

Sergeant Adrian L. Cook, Hastings; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Jacob K. Ennis, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

TENTH CAVALRY.

The Tenth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry was recruited during the fall of 1863, its rendezvous being at the city of Grand Rapids.

Among the many counties represented in the organization were those of Allegan and Barry, but neither had a full company in its ranks.

With a force of nine hundred and twelve officers and men, commanded by Col. Thaddeus Foote, the regiment left its rendezvous on the 1st of December, 1863, and proceeded to Lexington, Ky., whence it marched, on the 13th of that month, to Camp Nelson.

During most of the winter of 1863-64 it was on duty at Burnside Point, Knoxville, and Strawberry Plains, Tenn.

On the 24th of April it was ordered to Carter’s Station for the purpose of destroying the bridge over the Wautaga River, but failed in consequence of the enemy being in force and occupying an entrenched position.

In the engagement which ensued the Tenth lost eleven men killed and wounded and three missing.

On the 28th of May a detachment of one hundred and sixty men of the regiment, while engaged in a reconnaissance to Bull Gap and Greenville, encountered a superior force of the enemy, whom they put to rout; killing and wounding a large number, besides capturing thirty prisoners and a number of horses and mules.

During the summer of 1864 the regiment was actively engaged in various parts of East Tennessee, and with varying success fought the enemy at White Horn, Morristown, Bean’s Station, Rogersville, Kingsport, Cany Branch, New Market, Moseburg, Williams’ Ford, Dutch Bottom, Sevierville, Newport, Greenville, Mossy Creek, Bull Gap, Blue Spring, Strawberry Plains, Flat Creek Bridge, Sweet Water, Thornhill, Jonesboro’, and Carter’s Station.

On the 4th of September the regiment participated in the surprise and rout of Gen. John H. Morgan’s forces at Greenville, Tenn.

In this engagement Gen. Morgan was killed and his staff and a large number of his men captured.

To Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had lost in killed and wounded fifty-seven; missing in action, forty-four; by desertions, ninety-six; while the large number of one hundred and forty had died of disease.

In December the Tenth joined in the expedition to Saltville, Va., and assisted in destroying the salt-works at that point.

It also fought the enemy at Kingsport, Bristol, and Chucky Bend, Tenn.

Returning to Knoxville, its brigade soon after marched with Gen. Stoneman in his raid into North Carolina.

The regiment was engaged with the enemy at Brabson’s Mills, Tenn., and at Boonville, N. C. Moving rapidly, vid Wilkesboro’, and thence towards Salisbury, the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad was reached at Christiansburg, and one hundred miles of its line, together with the bridges, was destroyed.

This accomplished, the regiment made a rapid march to Henry Court-House, Va., traversing ninety-five miles in twenty-two hours.

At that point, on the 8th of April, 1865, it became engaged with a superior force of the enemy’s Cavalry and infantry, and was compelled to retire with a loss of eight killed and wounded, Lieutenant Kenyon being among the former.

On the 9th and 10th, while the regiment was employed destroying the railroad and bridge north of Salisbury, at Abbott’s Creek, the enemy was again encountered and defeated, after a three hours’ contest.

The regiment then proceeded along the upper waters of the Catawba; picking up bands of rebel Cavalry endeavoring to make their escape southward.

It was engaged in skirmishes with the enemy at Statesville, N. C., on the 14th, and at Newton, N. C., on the 17th of April, 1865.

Upon the surrender of Johnston the Tenth joined in the movements looking to the capture of Jeff. Davis.

It was soon after ordered to West Tennessee, where it served until Nov. 11, 1865, when it was mustered out at Memphis, Tenn.;

The Tenth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry reached Jackson, Michigan, for final pay and disbandment, November 15th of the same year.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Company B.

Ashfield Graham, died of disease at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 22, 1865.

Samuel Hall, mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

Minor Mead, mustered out Oct. 28, 1865.

Melvin Mead, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., April 5, 1865.

Moses H. Taylor, mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

J. B. Upperson, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company C.

William Vaughan, mustered out May 31, 1865.

Company D.

George W. Jay, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Albert A. Jay, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company F.

John C. Coleman, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Fisher, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Clinton A. Gregory, mustered out Oct. 4, 1865.

Myron H. Stephens, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Company G.

William Bundy, discharged by order, Aug. 30, 1865.

Lewis Landon, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Amos Leek, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Harvey G. Patrick, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

George T. Smith, mustered out Sept. 29, 1865.

Company H.

Hiram 0. Paine, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company I.

Samuel W. Sturdevant, mustered out Nov. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Joseph H. Adams, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward S. Bronson, mustered out June 30, 1865. G

eorge W. Bump, mustered out Sept. 6, 1865.

Myron Bruce, mustered out Nov. 23, 1865.

Wallace M. Bracket, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Cook, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Nelson W. Cook, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Chaffee, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Byron Johnson, mustered out Nov. 15, 1865.

Daniel Lewis, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Frederick F. McNair, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Melvin Mead, died of disease at Lenoir, Tenn., June 22, 1865.

Edgar D. Reid, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Albert Sponible, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Washington Sponible,n’ust. out Nov. 22, 1865.

Company L.

Thomas J. Curties, discharged for disability, Jan. 12, 1865.

Wm. Estess, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Walter M. Keagle, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Allen T. Rowley, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company M.

Frank Demond, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., July 20, 1865.

Richard Demond, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company E.

Captain Wm. H. Dunn, Ganges; com. Jan. 6, 1865; 1st Lieutenant, April 25, 1864;

2d Lieutenant Co. D, July 25, 1863; brevet Major, U. S. Vols., April 11, 1865, for gallantry in action at Abbot’s Creek, N. C.; mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

William A. Alien, discharged by order, Aug. 18, 1865.

George E. Dunn, discharged for disability, Aug. 24, 1865.

George Jones, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Charles H. Taylor, mustered out Oct. 9, 1865.

Company F.

Edwin Conrad, discharged by order, June 25, 1865.

Company I.

Edward Margason, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

William A. Palmer, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

John Stephens, discharged for disability, June 13, 1863.

Company L.

S. P. Howard, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Lester Multhop, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Peter Stacey, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

George Whittle, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

ELEVENTH CAVALRY.

This regiment was recruited at Kalamazoo during the summer and fall of 1863.

It was mustered into the service December 10th, and under the command of Col. Simeon B. Brown left its rendezvous for the field on the 17th of the same month; its rolls showing the names of nine hundred and twenty-one officers and enlisted men.

Company C was almost wholly from Barry County, while the same county was also represented in all the other companies except those of A, B, E, and I.

Six men from Allegan County were distributed among five different companies. (See roster.)

The Eleventh proceeded to Lexington, Ky., and, after receiving arms and equipments, was employed during the months of January and February, 1864, in scouting; having its headquarters at Lexington.

In April it moved to Louisa, Ky., and, with the Thirty-Ninth Kentucky Infantry, with which it was brigaded, was employed in protecting the eastern part of the State from rebel raids and incursions, which came in from Virginia, until the last of May, when it was sent on an expedition into West Virginia, under Gens. Burbridge and Hobson; but, hearing that the rebels, under Morgan, had invaded Kentucky, the division returned, and by forced marching overtook the enemy at Mount Sterling, Ky.

Here, on the 8th of June, the enemy was routed with severe loss.

On the 12th of the same month the rebels were again encountered at Cynthiana, and a second time defeated and dispersed.

From August 23d to September 17th it was stationed at Camp Burnside, on the Cumberland River, and was employed, with other troops, in protecting the southern part of Kentucky from threatened invasion by Gen. Wheeler’s Cavalry.

In the latter part of September it was engaged in a raid to Saltville, Va.

At Bowen’s Farm the regiment was warmly engaged, and also at Richland Gap and Rich Mountain, and was part of the assaulting force upon the enemy’s position at Saltville, which, defended by a superior force, was found too strong to be captured.

During the return march into Kentucky the Eleventh formed the rear-guard.

At Sandy Mountain it was nearly surrounded by the enemy, but succeeded, after a severe struggle, in rejoining the command.

During November it was constantly engaged in clearing the country of guerrillas, and had severe skirmishing at Hazel Green, McCormack’s Farm, Morristown, Mount Sterling, and other points.

It was at Crab Orchard and Cumberland Gap; marching from the latter place to Clinch River, where it had a sharp fight December 28th.

From the 1st to the 11th of December it was engaged in scouting and foraging about Bean’s Station, Morristown, Russellville, Whitesboro’, and Cobb’s Ford.

On the 11th of December it moved with Gen. Stoneman’s command into North Carolina, and on the 13th was at Bristol, where a number of prisoners and a large amount of stores were captured.

At Max Meadow Station the regiment destroyed a large arsenal.

It skirmished with the enemy’s Cavalry about Marion on the 17th, and the whole command had a severe fight with Breckenridge’s infantry, the enemy finally falling back.

The command then proceeded to Saltville, where the enemy’s extensive salt-works were destroyed.

After an arduous campaign the regiment finally returned to Lexington, Ky., where it arrived on the 2d of January, 1865, many of the men having lost their horses and coming in on foot.

During the campaign from November 17th to January 2d the regiment had marched an average of twenty-eight miles a day, not including scouting and foraging.

It was engaged in scouting the eastern portion of Kentucky until February 23d, when it was ordered to join Gen. Stoneman’s command at Knoxville, which it did on the 15th of March, moving by way of Louisville and Nashville.

It formed a part of the expedition under Stoneman into East Tennessee, North and South Carolina, and Georgia.

At Salisbury, N. C., where it arrived on the 12th of April, the command was engaged with a superior force of the enemy, and captured eighteen hundred prisoners and twenty-two guns, besides destroying a large amount of property, including the railway and telegraph lines.

From Salisbury it marched to Asheville, where, on the 26th of April, it captured two hundred prisoners and a large amount of property and munitions of war.

On the 1st of May it was at Anderson Court-House, S. C.*

On the 11th it captured the Cavalry escort of Jefferson Davis, near Washington, and on the 13th was on the Tugaloo and Savannah Rivers.

Returning from this great raid, the regiment reached Knoxville, Tenn., on the 3d of June, and encamped at Lenoir Station until the 24th, when it moved by rail to Pulaski, where, on the 20th of July, it was consolidated with the Eighth Michigan Cavalry.

It was mustered out of service at Nashville, Tenn., on the 22d of September.

Returned to Michigan on the 28th, and was paid and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND MEN FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company C.

1st Lieutenant Charles A. Bailey, Hastings; com. Oct. 23, 1863; discharged for disability, August (?).

2d Lieutenant Theron Mason, Hastings; com. Jan. 3, 1865; Sergeant, Sept. 2, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Com.-Sergeant Henry A. Lathrop, Castleton; enlisted Sept. 22, 1863; promoted in U. S. C. T.

Com.-Sergeant Harmon H. Munger, Hastings; transferred to 8th Cavalry. 7-7 1 ‘I

Sergeant David Todd, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 18, 1863; died of disease at Nashville, March 25, 1865.

Sergeant Augustus Taylor, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 14, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Sergeant Nelson Parker, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 28, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Isaac B. Monk, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 10, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Michael McFarlin, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 3, 1863; discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1865.

Corp. John W. Stillson, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 20, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Frederick Myers, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out March 1, 1865.

Farrier George Munger, Hastings; enlisted Oct. 18, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Farrier William D. Vaughn, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 16, 1863; must, out May 31, 1865.

Wagoner P. B. Homan, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 15, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

John W. Bronson, discharged by order, Aug. 4, 1865. J

oshua Boorom. mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William P. Boorom, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William F. Brown, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

E. W. Benjamin, mustered out May 19, 1865.

Moses E. Baylor, mustered out June 16, 1865.

N. J. Bronson, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Adrian Cook, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Levi Chase, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Marcus L. Cooley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Elbridge Carr, mustered out May 13, 1865.

George L. Crosby, mustered out May 16, 1865.

George W. Cassady, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Aug. 28, 1864.

Alfred Drake, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky.

Oscar F. Dunham, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Anson Fowle, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles Horton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Hayward, died of disease at Mt. Sterling, Ky., Feb. 16, 1865.

Seymour Harris, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Patrick McFarlin, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Edward H. McCormick, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Riley Munger, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Miller, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Maloy, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Marble, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 30, 1864.

Horace A. Orwig, mustered out May 16, 1865.

George W. Peck, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Amasa L. Quant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Israel Roush, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Benjamin F. Roush, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Peter L. Rorke, mustered out June 16, 1865.

James L. Reed, transferred to U. S. C. T.

James Swin, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Isaac Stanton, died of disease at Ashland, Ky., Jan. 20, 1865.

Frederick A. Spencer, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Peter D. Sage, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry D. Thompson, mustered out Aug. 31, 1865.

Company D.

W. H. Knickerbocker, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Company F.

Sergeant Lewis A. Raymond, Castleton; enlisted Sept. 16, 1863; discharged by order, May 26, 1865.

Sergeant Norman H. Latham, Baltimore; enlisted Sept. 9, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Michael Fisher, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 9, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Wagoner John Case, Johnstown; enlisted Oct. 5, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Alonzo R. Coe, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Russell B. Norton, transferred to 8th Michigan Inf.

John R. Snow, died of disease at Marion, Va., Dec. 15, 1864.

Philo Shaff, mustered out July 13, 1865.

Robert Strong, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James Strong, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Benjamin Tungate, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John Tungate, died of disease at Richmond, Va., May 10, 1865.

Company G.

Sergeant Albert S. Eno, Maple Grove; enlisted Oct. 5, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Co. B.

Cassius M. Gould, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Andrew J. Henrich, mustered out July 19, 1865.

Henry H. Mayo, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Reuben Norton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James P. Stokes, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company H.

G. 0. Clark, transferred to 8th Michigan Cavalry.

Philo R. Dunning, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Daniel Crump, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company L.

David R. Dutton, mustered out Sept. 18, 1865.

George Norwood, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Penock, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

 

At Anderson it was estimated that the command destroyed three million dollars’ worth of public property.

At this point also were found and brought away a great amount of Confederate paper money, and three of the plates (engraved in England) upon which bills were printed.

These last, together with a specimen gold coin (five dollars), struck by private enterprise, are the property of Gen. C. E. Smith, of Kalamazoo.

HISTORY OF ALLEGAN AND BARRY COUNTIES, MICHIGAN.

Company M.

E. H. Corwin, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Henry Howe, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company C.

Corp. Wm. Herbert, Gun Plains; enlisted Oct. 15, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company F.

Edgar F. Brundage, dlsch. for disability, May 1, 1865.

Company H.

Monroe Durkee, transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Alonzo Kenney, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

Company I.

Sergeant Win. Bartlett, Ganges; enlisted Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Company L.

Chas. E. Day, mustered out May 29, 1865.

MERRILL HORSE.

This was the name of a body of Cavalry recognized as a Missouri regiment, three companies of which, viz., H, I, and L, were raised in the State of Michigan, and to the close of the war retained their distinctive character as Michigan troops so far that their officers were commissioned by and their members credited to the latter State.

Companies H and I were recruited early in the autumn of 1861, and the latter company especially had a large representation from Barry County.

Company L was not organized until December, 1862.

The regiment to which these companies belonged served during the whole term of its service with the Western armies.

It engaged the enemy at Memphis, Moore’s Hill, and Kirksville, Mo., in 1862.

At Brownsville, Bayou Mecoe, Ashley’s Bayou, Little Rock, Benton, Princeton, Little Missouri River, Prairie Dehan, Camden, and Jenkins’ Ferry, Ark., in 1863-64.

At Franklin, Otterville, Independence, and Big Blue, Mo., in October, 1864.

In the latter part of 1864 the regiment was transferred to Nashville, Tenn.; thence by steamers it proceeded to Eastport, Miss., and on the 11th of February, 1865, it began a march, via Florence, Huntsville, Stevenson, and Bridgeport, Alabama, to Chattanooga, Tenn.

During the remainder of its term of service it was employed in Northern Georgia on scout duty.

In Georgia it encountered the enemy at Trenton Gap, Alpine, and Summerville.

Its service closed on the 21st of September, 1865, when it was mustered out at Nashville, Tenn.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company H.

1st Lieutenant Nathan J. Aiken; com. Aug. 26, 1861; resigned March 18, 1862.

Samuel Baird, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Sidney S. Fish, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Luther Holman, died of disease at Augusta, Michigan, July 15, 1864.

James Paul, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Isaac Snyder, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 21, 1865.

Company I.

2d Lieutenant Lucien B. Potter, Maple Grove; com. July 2, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. B.

Sergeant John M1 Gitchell, enlisted Aug. 26, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Sergeant Hubbard L. Baldwin, enlisted Aug. 27, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out July 25. 1865.

Sergeant John M. Brown, enlisted Aug. 23, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Corp. James E. Jones, enl Aug. 27, 1861; discharged for disability, May 30, 1862.

Corp. John M. White, enlisted Aug. 17, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863.

Corp. John D. Christley, enlisted Aug. 30, 1861.

Corp. Albert -H. Eaton, enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Farrier Sylvester D. White, enlisted Aug. 24, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 4, 1861.

Orsemis Britton, discharged at end of service, Sept. 15, 1864.

Henry Houghtalin, discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

Wesley Houghtalin, discharged for disability, May 9, 1862.

Theron Haynes, died of wounds received at Memphis, July 18, 1865.

Benjamin J. Hall, died of disease at Fayette, Mo., April 26, 1862.

Rufus B. Harrington, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Nathaniel Jeffries, discharged for disability, April 6, 1862.

Reuben Johnson, discharged for disability, Feb. 26, 1862.

John H. Johnson, discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Edwin Mills, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Henry S. Scoville, died of disease at Fayette, Mo., March 13, 1862.

George Scoville, died in action at Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862.

John H. Taylor, died in action at Moore’s Hill, July 28, 1862.

Moses B. Taylor, discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1861.

James Willson, died in action at Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862.

Charles Wilkinson, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 9, 1861.

Company L.

Sergt. James Telford, Johnstown; enlisted Nov. 29, 1862; died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 12, 1864.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company H.

William J. Hensell, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Company I.

Charles Ingraham, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Batteries unconnected with each other-Battery C largely from Allegan County-Its Services in Northern Mississippi-It joins Sherman-The Atlanta Campaign-Its Battles-Marching through Georgia-The Carolina Campaign-Muster out-

Soldiers of the First Light Artillery from Allegan County-From Barry County.

This regiment contained a comparatively large number of men from the counties of Allegan and Barry, but they were scattered through several of the batteries of which the regiment was composed, and the histories of these batteries are as unconnected with each other as are those of the same number of Cavalry or infantry regiments.

Therefore the First Light Artillery cannot be described as a whole; nor is it practicable, except in the case of Battery C, to give separate sketches of the several batteries, in each of which a few men only were found from these counties.

Battery C, however, drew about forty men from the two counties (all but one, we believe, from Allegan), and of that we will therefore give a slight sketch.

Its first official designation was the Third Michigan Battery, but it was most commonly known as ” Dees’ Battery.”

It had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids, and was recruited into service in connection with the Third Cavalry.

Commanded by Captain Alexander W. Dees, it left its rendezvous on the 17th of December, 1861, and joined the forces then assembling for operations against the enemy on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

It was engaged in the battle of Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862;

Siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; battle Iuka, Miss., Sept. 19, 1862;

Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3 to 4, 1862; and at Lumpkin’s Mills, Miss., Nov. 29, 1862, where it disabled two of the rebel guns, and with a Cavalry brigade forced the enemy into their earthworks at the Tallahatchie River.

It continued in service in Northern Mississippi and West Tennessee until the spring of 1864, when it joined Gen. Sherman’s army, then operating in Northern Georgia.

During the hotly-contested Atlanta campaign, Battery C successfully engaged the enemy at Resaca, May 14th; Dallas, May 27th;

Big Shanty, June 15th; Kenesaw Mountain, June 25th;

Nickajack Creek, July 1st; Decatur, July 20th; and the siege of Atlanta, July 22 to Aug. 25, 1864.

From Nov. 1-12, 1864, it was engaged in the pursuit of Hood’s rebel army into Northern Alabama.

On the 16th of the same month, with Gen. Sherman’s army, it began the march “through Georgia.”

Hardee’s rebel forces were encountered in front of Savannah on the 9th of December, and Battery C assisted in driving him inside his works.

On the 10th it engaged him all day, and on the 11th dismounted one of his guns and silenced others.

On the 4th of January, 1865, it embarked on a transport for Beaufort, N. C., and on the 16th was in camp at Pocotaligo.

Its Carolina campaign was commenced on the 29th of January, and on the 9th of February it was warmly engaged with the enemy at the crossing of the South Edisto River.

Columbia was reached on the 17th, and on the 4th of March, near Cheraw, the rebels were again encountered and defeated, and twenty-eight guns were taken from them.

The Cape Fear River was crossed at Fayetteville, N. C.

On the 13th of March the enemy was attacked and driven from his position.

The series of actions which culminated at Bentonville, N. C., March 19th and 20th, the advance to Goldsboro’, N. C., the pursuit of Johnston to and through Raleigh, his surrender, the march to Washington, D. C., via Richmond, Va., and the grand review at the nation’s capital, were events in which Battery C took an active part.

It arrived in Washington, D. C., May 23d, marched to Detroit, Michigan, June 13th, and was there mustered out of the service, June 22, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Battery A.

Albert Bragg, mustered out July 28, 1865.

John H. Hicks, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Battery B.

William C. Thayer, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery C.

2d Lieutenant Asa Estabrook, Allegan; com. Dec. 18, 1864; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Sergeant Martin V. Heath, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 11, 1861; discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Corp. James Sullivan, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 25, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Corp. Frank Fort, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 14, 1861; veteran, Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Saddler James Clark, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 14, 1861; veteran, Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Musician Benoni Collins, Allegan; enlisted Nov. 8, 1861; discharged for disability, July 11, 1862.

Fitch R. Barker, died of disease at St. Louis, March 11, 1862.

John S. Crary, discharged for disability, March 24, 1862.

Warren Collins, discharged for disability, March 4, 1862.

Volney Clark, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1862.

Luman Cooley, discharged for disability, Feb. 26, 1863.

Iarmon H. Cooley, discharged for disability, Sept. 1, 1862.

Benjamin B Carter, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Enos Clark, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

John S. Curtis, mustered out June 22, 1865.

Abel Dunton, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Elijah Evans, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Horace Eldred, mustered out June 22, 1865.

John Frank, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1862.

Angus Frazer, mustered out.

Herbert Howe, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

John H Iemmett, died of disease at Rome, Ga., Aug. 22, 1864.

Frank J. Higgins, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

Burroughs Ingham, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Chandler B. Jones, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1862.

Abram Morris, died of disease in Missouri, May 14, 1862.

Edward Nichols, died of disease in Indiana, May 19, 1862.

Solomon Ostrander, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

Henry D. Synes, died of disease at St. Louis, Jan. 18, 1862.

Elihu Smith, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Earl B. Tyler, discharged for disability, Jan. 11, 1862.

Absalom Walker, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1862.

Philip Valmy, discharged for disability, Aug. 11, 1862.

Battery F.

Daniel Burleson, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

Battery G.

Alpheus Mansfield, died of disease at Fort Gaines, Ala., Dec. 6, 1864.

Solomon Shoemaker, died of disease at Greenville, La., Aug. 22, 1861.

Jos. St. Clair, discharged at end of service, Feb. 12, 1865.

Battery H.

Wilson Rossman, mustered out July 22, 1865.

Battery K.

Geo. K. Lewis, discharged by order, May 17, 1865.

Battery L.

James French, died of disease at Coldwater, Michigan, April 26, 1863.

Wm. C. Thornton, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864.

FOURTEENTH BATTERY.

Sergeant Wm. E. Forbes, Gun Plain; enlisted Sept. 7, 1863; on detached service,

Corp. John Flynn, Gun Plain; enlisted Sept. 4, 1863; mustered out July 1, 1865.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY IN THE FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Battery A.

James McCalley, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 8, 1864.

Andrew J. Mattison, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Battery B.

Jesse C. Benjamin, discharged for wounds, June 3, 1865.

Franklin Campbell, mustered out June 3, 1865.

John Castle, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Augustus Ford, mustered out June 14, 1865.

David M. Hueston, discharged by order, June 29, 1865.

William Palmatier, died of disease at Rome, Ga., Aug. 20, 1864.

Henry L. Raymond, died of disease at Rome, Ga., July 27, 1864.

Chester S. Stoddard, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Ralph T. Stocking, mustered out June 14, 1865.

John Slamm, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery C.

Charles HI. Williams. mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery E.

1st Lieutenant Leonard Wightman, Hastings; com. March 16, 1864; 2d Lieutenant Oct. 1, 1862; (previously a corporal) bvt. Captain, June 20, 1865, “for meritorious services;” mustered out July 20, 1865.

John Burd, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

John Carpenter, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

George W. Cain, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Amos Greentiam, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Nathan Lucas, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Lucius L. Landon, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

James McNee, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

John McNee, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

Jacob Odell, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Elijah A. Shaw, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

George C. Smith, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Cornelius Senter, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

George D. Scoviile, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct. 18, 1864.

Rufus W. Vester, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Peter Wilbert, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Miles S. Young, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Battery G.

William Cranston, discharged for disability, May 13, 1865.

Dayton S. Peck, mustered out Aug. 6, 1865.

Battery I.

John I. Miller, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Battery K.

William Quick, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn.

Batteries L.

Sergeant Austin D. Johnson, Prairieville; enlisted March 16, 1863; mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Corp. George H. Brooks, Orangeville; enlisted March 16, 1863; discharged for promotion in 30th Inf.

Thomas McLane, mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Jesse Quick, discharged for disability, May 13, 1865.

Richard Shaw, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., July 14, 1865.

William Swartout, mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Thirteenth Battery.

Edwin P. Clark, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Zebulon Caswell, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Jeremiah Harper, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Peter Schrontz, died of disease at Fort Sumner, Md., Dec. 25, 1864.

Heman Train, died of disease at Fort Sumner, Md., Nov. 29, 1864.

SOLDIERS OF OTHER REGIMENTS.

Remarks on the scattering Soldiers of Allegan and Barry Counties Men in the First Infantry-In the Fifth Infantry-In the Tenth Infantry-In the Eleventh Infantry-In the Fifteenth Infantry-In the Sixteenth Infantry-In the Eighteenth Infantry-In the Twentieth Infantry-In the Twenty-Fourth Infantry-In the Twenty-Fifth Infantry-In the Twenty-Sixth Infantry-In the Twenty-Seventh Infantry-In the First Colored Infantry-In the First Sharpshooters-In the Forty-Fourth Illinois Infantry-In the Sixty-Sixth Illinois Infantry-In the Nineteenth Wisconsin Infantry-In the First United States Sharpshooters-

Miscellaneous.

BESIDES the commands whose histories have been thus briefly outlined, there were many others containing soldiers from Allegan and Barry Counties, soldiers whose records are equally as bright and honorable as those of any in the army, but of whom we cannot speak here, owing to the smallness of the number in each organization.

We gladly give, however, the following list of their names:

FIRST INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Dennis Cosier, Co. K; veteran, enlisted Feb. 17, 1864; discharged by order, July 6, 1865.

John Dorrance, Co. K; discharged June 1, 1863.

FROM BARRY.

Frederick Cook, Co. H; mustered out July 9, 1865.

FIFTH INFANTRY.

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Charles J. Jenner, Co. D; discharged at end of service, Dec. 17, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Daniel E. Bitdsell, Co. E, Hastings; com. Sept. 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, June 10, 1864; Sergeant; wounded Oct. 27, 1864; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1865.

John Gaff, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Edward Stevens, mustered out July 5, 1865.

George Shultz, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Milo Fisher, Co. F; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Joseph Foster, Co. I; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Mortimer Lowing, Co. I, mustered out May 31, 1865.

TENTH INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Eli Baker, Co. B; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Johnson Parsons, Co. C; mustered out. July 19, 1865.

Chas. F. Smith, Co. E; mustered out Aug. 3, 1865.

Thos. Hayner, Co. G; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Ethan Whitney, Co. I; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Francis H. Norton, Co. K; mustered out July 19, 1865.

FROM BARRY.

John W. Snyder, Co. A; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Charles A. Allen, Co. B; mustered out July 18, 1865.

Niel t. Alden, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 21, 1865.

William H. Muffley, Co. C; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Thomas McGuire, Co. G; died of disease at New Albany, Ind., Feb. 4, 1865.

ELEVENTH INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Corp. James Sprague, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

Joseph Annis, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

James Rose, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

Wm. II. Smith, Co. G; died of disease, Feb. 4, 1862.

Darius Sprague, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1865.

ELEVENTH INFANTRY (NEW).

FROM ALLEGAN.

Talbot Ballinger, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

Lewis C. Cady, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

James Lutz, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

David Stevenson, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

FIFTEENTH INFANTRY

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

George W. Colborne, Co. A; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., June 10, 1865.

Albert N. Russell, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Ezra H. Heath, Co. B; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Thomas Burt, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Ralph Parrish, Co. C; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Cortland Brownell, Co. D; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

John Haywood, Co. D; discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Charles W. Tyler, Co. D; discharged by order, June 16, 1865.

George Kitson, Co. E; mustered out July 18, 1865.

John H. Butler, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Sidney M. Bennett, Co. F; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

James Reeves, Co. F; discharged by order, July 26, 1865.

Peter Schneider, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Sylvanus Snell, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Gaylord Helmer, Co. H; discharged by order, May 31, 1865.

George W. Roe, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Austin G. Pike, Co. I; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Charles Butler, Co: K; discharged by order, July 15, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Asa S. Durham, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Mills W. Corning, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

James Curley, Co. D; discharged by order, Aug. 28, 1865.

George W. Shepard, Co. D; discharged by order, June 22, 1865.

James Racey, Co. E; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Henry Blodgett, Co. F; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Amphious Bliss, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Edwin C. Davis, Co. G; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Austin D. Bates, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Orison Lovewell, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Alfred S. Millard, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Elnathan Gilbert, Co. I; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

William F. M. Mitchell, Co. K; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Robert Rouse, Co. K; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Jacob Lugensland, Co. A; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John W. Brown, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Austin Corbett, Co. B; discharged by order, Aug. 26, 1865.

John Hoof, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Elias Leonard, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John McCreery, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

James R. Griswold, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Alexander Hayden, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

James O’Brien, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Richard Purdy, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John Thomas, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Harmon Campbell, Co. F; discharged by order, June 14, 1865.

Robert H. Gould, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Jerry Munro, Co. I; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Daniel Myers, Co. D; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Francis O. N. Leonard, Co. I; veteran, March 1, 1864.

Louis B. Barber, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

George Roth, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

 

EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN.

Benjamin M. Curtis, Co. C; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 21, 1862.

John A. Carpenter, Co. C; mustered out June 26, 1865.

SOLDIERS OF OTHER REGIMENTS.

TWENTIETH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Thomas H. Barker, Co. C; died of disease near Falmouth, Va., Jan. 10, 1863.

Willard S. Cook, Co. C; died of disease, Dec. 12, 1862.

Ira Messinger, Co. C; died of disease at Falmouth, Va., Dec. 28, 1862.

Samuel W. Onwig, Co. C; died of disease in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 8, 1864.

Oliver J. Stevenson, Co. C; mustered out May 30, 1865.

Captain George W. Bullis, Johnstown; Co. F, Nov. 28, 1863; 1st Lieutenant Co. I, July 29, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 10, 1864.

TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Mortimer W. Hunter, Co. F; died of disease at Richmond, Va., June 8, 1865.

Florence A. Hunter, Co. F; died of disease at Richmond, Va., June 8, 1865.

TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

William F. Henry, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., March 28, 1865.

Selden Sperry, Co. A; mustered out June 30, 1865.

William White, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., April 8, 1865.

Rollin Wood, Co. A; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Clark Bailey, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Newton Belden, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward Crew, Co. E; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., May 14, 1865.

Hollis Ward, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Gideon Chilson, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John G. Collins, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Orson J. Davis, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

George Doxey, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Henry De Roslyn, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Charles M. Failing, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Benjamin F. Lamoyne, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Samuel Piper, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Luther S. Pelham, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward Rogers, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Thomas Iddles, Co. H; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James W. Parker, Co. H; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., March 21, 1865.

James Blytheman, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James Daama, Co. I; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Cornelius Lockker, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Garrett N. Nieland, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Mathew Notier, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Jerome Mockma, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Frank S. Popplewell, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Everett Russell, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James Roe, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Joseph Sharpe, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John Scriven, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John F. Tidd, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Gardner A. Terry, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Lewis Mapes, Co. K; died of disease at Camp Butler, April 25, 1865.

FROM BARRY.

Detzel Bradford, mustered out June 21, 1865.

TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Moses Steeber, Co. H; mustered out June 24, 1865.

TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Jesse Jordan, Woodland; com. Dec. 23, 1863; discharged for wounds, Dec. 5, 1864.

Company I

Sergeant Jesse Jordan, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. H.

Corp. Adam J. Hagar, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865.

Corp. James G. Jordan, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865.

Judge B. Barnum, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Aaron J. Cupp, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Marcus G. Corsett, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Charles Dewey, died of disease, Jan. 11, 1864.

L. D. Edson, died of disease, Aug. 9, 1864.

Samuel E. Grant, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Hugh Kilpatrick, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Henry Miller, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Feb. 6, 1864.

Levi L. Paddock, died of disease at Elmira, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1864.

Jeremiah Riggs, died of disease at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 1, 1864. 19

Oscar E. Sheldon, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 23, 1863.

Joel St. Johns, discharged for disability, Aug. 14, 1863.

Milo Sheldon, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Samuel S. Straight, mustered out June 4, 1865.

George W. Tyler, discharged for disability, May 6, 1864.

William H. Wheeler, died at Farmville, Va., April 7, 1865.

Ransom Wolcott, mustered out June 4, 1865.

John Wilcox, Co. K; mustered out May 30, 1865.

TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY

FROM BARRY.

Henry B. Moon, Co. D; mustered out July 26, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Oscar E. Dunton, 2d Ind. Co. Sharpshooters; died in Andersonville prison-pen.

TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

J. A. Kenyon, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 6, 1865.

FIRST MICHIGAN (102D U. S.) COLORED INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Cairo Bolin, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Amos Cisco, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Amos Swanagan, Co. C; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN.

James Chambers, Co. F; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Albert Tolbert, Co. F; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Musician William Gilmore, Co. G, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 20, 1863; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Aquilla Corey, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

William J. Harris, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

David Silence, Co. I; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS

BARRY SOLDIERS.

Musician Charles M. Stephens, Co. A; enlisted April 18, 1863; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Amos W. Bowen, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Edward F. Cox, Co. A; died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Edgar F. Davidson, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., June 23, 1864.

Curtis A. Davidson, Co. A; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Elias Farwell, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 1, 1865, from Vet. Res. Corps.

Joseph Fisher, Co. A; discharged for disability.

John Fisher, Co. A; died of disease at Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jan. 28, 1863.

Benjamin F. Hinckley, Co. A; died of wounds at Washington, D. C., July 12, 1864.

Nathaniel Jeffreys, Co. A; discharged Nov. 22, 1864.

Darius A. Kent, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John Livingston, Co. A; died of disease near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Henry Stevens, Co. A; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Gilbert Wilber, Co. A; died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Robert Finch, Co. B; discharged for disability, Sept. 17, 1864.

Darius Fonts, Co. C; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John McGraw, Co. F; died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Oct. 26, 1861.

David E. Grant, Co. G; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., December, 1863.

Charles D. Beckford, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Herman McIntyre, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John R. Pitts, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Francis Marquette, Co. K; mustered out June 27, 1865.

ALLEGAN SOLDIERS.

Levi Porter, Co. C; died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 2, 1864.

Obadiah Gleason, Co. D; discharged for disability.

William Hawley, Co. C; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., Feb. 26, 1864.

FORTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Francis P. Backus, Prairieville, Co. H; died in Missouri, Dec. 16, 1861.

Edward Doyle, Yankee Springs, Co. H; died of wounds, April 6, 1862.

Sergeant Arthur Hamilton, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Corp. Benj. F. Norris, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

John Shelp, Prairieville, Co. H; discharged for disability, Jan. 12, 1863.

Thos. W. Travis, Prairieville, Co. H; mustered out May 26, 1865.

Philip Terry, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 4, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Chas. W. Bates, Allegan, Co. H; discharged for disability, Feb. 1, 1862.

James M. Conrad, Gun Plain, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; promoted to Sergeant

Lafayette Willis, Allegan, Co. H; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1862.

SIXTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY (WESTERN SHARPSHOOTERS)

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Andrew J. Herrick, Co. D; discharged for disability, April 25, 1862.

Samuel Russell, Co. D; discharged for disability, Oct. 23, 1863.

Michael Whalen, Co. D; mustered out July 7, 1865.

NINETEENTH WISCONSIN INFANTRY

FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Edward P. Adams, Wayland, Co. H; died of wounds at Fort Monroe, Va., Dec. 11, 1864.

FIRST REGIMENT UNITED STATES SHARPSHOOTERS.

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Leander P. Johnson, Co. K; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Edwin B. Parks, Co. K; discharged by order, Oct. 8, 1864.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Major David Cornwell, enlisted as a private in Co. K, Eighth Illinois Infantry, at Bloomington, Ill., April 25, 1861;

He served three months, and re-enlisted in the same company and regiment for three years.

Major David Cornwell was in the battles of Fort Donnellson and Pittsburg Landing.

He transferred to Bat. D, Second Illinois Light Artillery, serving as private and bugler.

In February, 1863, he commissioned 1st Lieutenant Fifth U. S. Artillery (colored).

Major Cornwell was wounded at Milliken’s Bend, La. and then promoted to Captain June 6, 1863, and com. Major in February, 1864.

He was then on staff till close of war and mustered out May 20, 1866.

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History of Early Alpena County, Michigan from 1903


David Dykins Oliver

PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

In order to show the progress and development of Alpena county, it will be necessary to go back to the earliest days of its settlement by white people, and to show the circumstances, conditions and influences by which they were surrounded at the time of such settlement, as these have much to do with their future prosperity and happiness, and determines in no small degree the character of their popular institutions.

And hence this work would be incomplete without referring to the History of the State of Michigan—at the time and since its admission into the Sisterhood of States.

An act was passed by Congress, on the loth day of June, 1836, for the admission of Michigan as one of the States of the Union; but with the then humiliating condition, that it would relinquish its claim to the southern boundary, (which was a narrow strip of land extending from Lake Michigan to Lake Erie, and claimed by Indiana and Ohio,) and accept instead thereof, the Upper Peninsula, which was then an unexplored region, and considered of no probable value.

In December, of the same year, a packed convention met and agreed to the conditions imposed by Congress; and Michigan was admitted as one of the States of the Union, on the 26th of January, 1837.

In the winter of the same year, Canada became involved in a quasi rebellion, and the country becoming too warm politically for the healthful exercise of the writer’s American proclivities, be resolves to quit the Queen’s Dominions, (as he was only a visitor,) and he crossed the dividing line, at Port Huron, into the State of Michigan, which was then undergoing some material changes, financially and politically.

Steven T. Mason was elected first Governor.

He was a young man, of more than ordinary ability,—had been Secretary and acting Governor of the Territory while in his minority; and now, with the young State, was merging into manhood and freedom, with many wants and ambitions to satisfy; and the young State and its young Governor, without experience, launched out into many extravagances, and committed many errors, which resulted in financial ruin to the State and its inhabitants.

There was some question at the time, as to who got the money; but there was no disputing the fact that the State got the experience.

At this time, (1876), when we have railroads and telegraph lines traversing the State in every direction, it is impossible for the present generation to fully comprehend the situation or feelings of the people of our State in those days.

Then there was no railway communication with the east; nor was there any convenient way of traveling by land between Detroit and Chicago.

A large portion of the State of Michigan, at this time, (1838,) was an immense forest, the most of which was unsurveyed, and but little known.

It was, therefore, not only desirable, but necessary, that the lands should be surveyed and explored; and that certain improvements should be carried into effect, in order to develop the resources of the country.

Uncle Sam was doing his part.

The public lands were being surveyed by Deputy United States Surveyors, who done the work under contracts, at a certain price per mile.

In the fall of 1838, the writer hired with Messrs. Alvin and Austin Burt, who had a contract for surveying lands on the Aubetsies River, in the northwestern part of the Southern Peninsula.

We started—fourteen in number, and four pack horses—from Washington, in Macomb county, and traveled west through the counties of Oakland, Shiawassee, Livingston, Ionia and Kent, to Grand Rapids.

Sometimes we traveled in a road, and other times in an Indian trail; and much of the way through wood and marsh, without trail or road.

The first night out, we camped where Fenton now is.

This was the first time that the writer had ever camped out in a tent, but not the last.

Here was a log house and a small clearing.

The next day we passed through Shiawassee county, near the village of Owosso, where there was a clearing in the oak woods, and a small cluster of buildings; but the people were in excellent spirits and good working order, for the survey of a railroad had been made through their town only a short time before, and they felt confident that it would be made in a very short time.

We struck another clearing near the Looking glass River, but clearings were “few and far between” on our line of march.

In passing through Livingston County, we were terrorized by snakes.

In the marshes and low lands we found in profusion a species of rattlesnake called the Mississauga, many of which we killed, and which kept us in constant dread.

On the plains we had some experience with the blue racer.

One day one of the advanced party saw a large snake of this kind, and gave chase, but the snake kept at a safe distance ahead of the man, running with his head high above the ground and small bushes.

Finding he could not overtake the snake, he gave up the chase and started to return, when, to his astonishment and terror, he found the snake returning also, and with a loud yell, he started on double quick to reach the rest of the party.

When, almost breathless, he came to a halt among us, there was his snakeship at a respectful distance, his head above the bushes, his tongue flashing derision at the whole party.

He looked immensely good natured, and as though he was king of snakes, and was out on a reconnoiter.

Capt. Darins Cole was one of the party and one of the packers, and who proposed to unpack one of the horses and surround and capture the snake, as it was a very large one, or run it down with the horse.

But his snakeship seemed to understand what was transpiring, as well as the ancient one in the Garden of Eden, and before we were ready to surround and take him in, he respectfully withdrew, and could not be found.

In Ionia County, we met Douglass Houghton, the then State Geologist.

He was on one of the early geological surveys.

He had an Indian for a packer, and his pack-horse was a coal black one, and his camp tins were new and bright and were hung on both sides of the animal, making a singular appearance, and rattling when he traveled, as though he belonged to a charivari party.

In due time we reached Lyons, which we found quite a lively little town in the woods, containing about five hundred inhabitants, who were hoping for and expecting a railroad in a very few years.

From this place to Grand Rapids we traveled in a very passable road for a wagon, and saw some settlements, placed at long intervals.

We halted at Grand Rapids a short time, to make some purchases and recruit our provisions, as this was the last village we would see for many months?

Grand Rapids, at this time, (1838,) had the appearance of a growing little village, with say fifteen hundred inhabitants.

It had water communication, by boats on the river, to Grand Haven.

It had a bank, a sawmill and two painted buildings, which were used as stores.

It was the center of considerable trade in general merchandise and peltry.

From this place to Aubetsies River, a little over one hundred miles north, was a howling wilderness, with only an Indian trader at the mouth of Muskegon River, a small sawmill at White river, and a Missionary Station at Manistee.

The writer has given a short sketch of this trip across the State, in order to show the condition at this time (1838) of that strip of country over which the palace cars of the Detroit & Milwaukee railway now (1876) travel, and conveying the traveling public with dispatch and comfort.

The travel west, at this time, was very large, and most of it was by steamboats, around the lakes.

Some of the boats were large and commodious, and although they would not compare in structure with those of the present day, yet they conveyed passengers with comfort, safety and dispatch.

Judge Campbell, in his excellent work, “Outlines of Political History of Michigan” says, in regard to improvements:

“The first State legislature was chiefly directed to the development of the resources of the country.

Roads were laid out in every direction, and placed under local supervision, so that the people most nearly interested might have means of preventing neglect and dishonesty.

Railroads were chartered whenever asked for.

The University and School lands were put in market on long time.

The State prepared, as soon as possible, to enter upon a general system of internal improvements, whereby all parts of its jurisdiction would be made readily acceptable and be brought within easy reach of market and business facilities.”

“One of the first and best schemes devised to further the development of the State resources, was the organization of a complete geological survey.

In February, 1837, an act was passed for the appointment of a State Geologist, to conduct such survey, and annual sums, increasing from $3,000 the first year, to $12,000 the fourth, were appropriated.

Doctor Douglass Houghton was selected to fill the office.”

“In addition to some smaller debts, it was determined to borrow five million of dollars to expend in various public works. It was expected that by the aid of this sum and such other donations as might be received from the United States, three trunk railroads could be built across the State, two canals made, several rivers improved so as to be navigable, some small railroads finished, and a ship-canal opened round the falls of the Ste. Marie river.

“A Board of Commissioners of Internal Improvements had already been appointed.

On the 20th of March, 1837, this Board was directed to survey three railroad routes across the peninsula.

The first was the Michigan Central, from Detroit to the mouth of St. Joseph River, in Berrien County.

The second was the Southern, to run from the mouth of the River Raisin, through Monroe, to New Buffalo.

The third was the Northern, to run from Palmer, or Port Huron, to Grand Rapids or Grand Haven.

A purchase was to be made of the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad, which had gone partly through Washtenaw County.

Five hundred and fifty thousand dollars were appropriated to these roads at once, four hundred thousand for the Central, one hundred thousand for the Southern, (both of which included private railroads to be purchased,) and fifty thousand for the Northern.

Twenty thousand was appropriated for surveys of a canal, or combined canal and railroad, from Mt. Clemens to the mouth of the Kalamazoo River, a canal from Saginaw River to Maple or Grand River, and river surveys on the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand Rivers, for slack water navigation.

Seventy-five thousand dollars more were to be expended on some of these and other works.”

When the geographical position of the State is studied, it will be seen that this scheme of improvements was not without merits, was within the range of possibilities and usefulness, and within the means of the State, had the five million loan been properly negotiated and expended.

The State, at the time of its admission, was out of debt; was entitled to five per cent from the sale of the public lands, which then amounted to $450,000, and it had received and was receiving large donations of land from the general Government; and these, with the five million loan, and the accumulating earnings of the improvements as they progressed, would have been ample for finishing the contemplated work; and this will more fully appear, when we take into consideration that railroads were not then as perfect and costly as at present.

Judge Campbell says in regard to them: “In a level country, well supplied with wood, the cost of building and ironing a railroad was very trifling, and its rolling stock was also cheap and scanty.

The original capital stock of the Detroit & St. Joseph Railroad Company, the corporation which began the Michigan Central railroad to Marshall, was recorded in 1846, as having been two millions of dollars.

In private hands it would probably have been less; and the capital stock of the $1,500,000, aided by the earnings properly managed, would have been adequate, according to the plans first devised, to build the road; although the subsequent improvement in track and stock would have made new arrangements necessary, if the road had been built as slowly as was then customary.

Twenty miles a year was, in those days, rapid railroad building.

The passenger cars were small vehicles, holding no more than from eighteen to twenty-four passengers, and not much, if any, heavier than the large stage coaches.

The iron was flat bar iron, from half to three-fourths of an inch thick, spiked on wooden sleepers which were lightly tied, and on tracks not perfectly graded or heavily ballasted.

The locomotives weighed from two to six or seven tons, and drew corresponding loads.”

The emigrants and settlers in Michigan were mostly from New England and the-State of New York; were intelligent and enterprising, and well calculated to advance the material interests of the State, and to build up strong communities.

They had unbounded confidence in the disposition and ability of the State to perfect its plans of improvements, and had not the remotest idea that there was a possibility of a failure.

They purchased lands in the midst of the forest, but on the lines of the proposed railroads and canals, and commenced to clear farms, erect mills and factories, and to build up towns and cities, with the hope and expectation that the day was not far in the future when they would hear the breathings and snorts of the iron horse.

Their wealth was more in the future than the present, and depended largely, if not wholly, upon the State completing its railroads and canals.

Another institution, which depended for its life and usefulness on the internal improvements, was unlimited banking.

It was a scheme calculated to help develop the resources of the State, but the foundation of its security rested in real estate, the value of which depended entirely upon the completion of the improvements promised by the State.

Judge Campbell, in speaking of the law, says: “In 1837, a general banking law was passed, which was supposed to contain better securities than any other similar scheme, and included the safety fund plan, in addition.

Any persons residing in a county of the State, including among them at least twelve freeholders, could organize banks of from $50,000 to $300,000 capital; and care was taken that at least one-third of the stock should always belong to county residents in good faith, and for their own use; and on executing the preliminaries and paying in thirty per cent in specie, they could proceed to business.

Ten per cent was payable on the stock every six months, until all the capital was paid in.

Before beginning banking business, bonds and mortgages, or personal bonds of resident freeholders, satisfactory to the County Treasurer and County Clerk, were to be filed with the Auditor General, to the full amount of the circulation and indebtedness.

Neither the circulation nor the loans and discounts were to exceed twice-and-a-half the amount of the capital stock.”

During the years 1837, ’38, ’39, hope and expectation were standing on tip-toe.

Surveying parties, employed by the State and United States, could be seen moving in every direction, and large districts of the State were surveyed and brought into market.

Large, anxious crowds assembled at the land sales, many of whom, for want of better accommodations, lived in tents during the time the sale lasted.

At these sales, large purchases were made, sometimes as high as thirty thousand acres a day, and the utmost activity was manifested in every part of the State, in regard to its general improvements, and everybody had his pockets filled with engravings which passed current for money.

But in 1840, a reverse came, like the shock of an earthquake; and but very few in the State escaped without injury.

When the people learned the true state of affairs, and that the State would go no further with its improvements, all business became at once paralyzed.

Real estate dropped to nominal values, while the banks that were secured by it became worthless.

No greater commercial calamity ever overtook the people of the State.

Those who were considered wealthy in money and property suddenly found they had but very little.

Their property was in the midst of a forest, without a hope of communication, and they could not work, for they had nothing to work with, as their money was worth less than their real estate.

The laborer could get nothing for his work, and what he had already earned was worth but little, if anything.

Many made their exit from the State, while others, like the Roman Senators, resolved to stay and die with their property, as they could not sell it, and afterwards their property made them rich, and thus it was some could not be poor when they would.

Others refused to be rich when they could.

In the spring of 1839, the surveys in the State of Michigan were continued.

Lewis Clason and Thomas Patterson, of Cincinnati, Ohio, had the sub-division of townships 27, 28, 29 and 30 north, and from range 4 east, to Lake Huron; and John Hodgson, Esq., of Detroit, Michigan, had the contract to run township lines north of the third correction line.

The writer hired with Mr. Clason, for eighteen dollars per month, to carry the chain, which was considered fair wages in those days.

The parties of Clason and Patterson left Pontiac, in Oakland County, Michigan, in the early part of April, 1839, some of them in a lumber wagon in advance, and the balance with the packhorses, brought up the rear.

We traveled with the wagon as far as Pine Run, as it was then called and this being the terminus of the wagon road, each one was compelled to “make his pack and play it alone.”

The road from Pine Run to Saginaw City was in progress of construction, under the system of internal improvements, and was one of continual variation, changing from dry land to low, wet swamp, and back to dry land, and from an Indian trail up through every stage of progress, to a good wagon road.

After much hard traveling, we reached Saginaw River, and were ferried across to Saginaw City.

Here was an isolated town of about seven hundred inhabitants, who were all very hopeful and sanguine in the future growth and prosperity of the place.

Their only communication with Bay City, or Lower Saginaw, as it was then known, and the outer world, was on the Saginaw River; in the summer by small boats and vessels, and in the winter by sleighs and dog trains on the ice.

They had a large public house, a bank, two or three sawmills, and as many stores.

The principal occupation of the people was fishing, hunting, lumbering, and trading with the Indians for furs, which were then very plentiful in the northern part of the Southern Peninsula.

Harvey Williams and a man by the name of McDonald were the principal Indian traders, who made yearly visits along the shore, to buy furs; and sometimes came as far north as Thunder Bay River.

From this place we went down the river to Lower Saginaw, now Bay City, where we found a half dozen or so of frame buildings, a warehouse, a dock, and a small steam sawmill, called the “McCormick Mill.”

We camped in a beautiful oak grove where the city of Wenona, where West Bay City is now located.

Here Mr. Clason chartered an open scow of about eighty tons burden, and the property of a man named Umpstead.

This was the largest craft to be chartered at that time, in Lower Saginaw.

It is remarkable to observe with what sagacity the early settlers made their locations.

There is scarcely a place that the writer has visited, not even the solitary log house situated in the midst of the forest that has not grown to be a place of considerable importance.

After staying at Bay City a few days, to let the ice move out of Saginaw Bay, we embarked on board this champion of the Saginaw’s, for Thunder Bay.

Mr. Clason and his party were landed at Au Sable River, and Mr. Patterson and his party continued their voyage to Devil River, in Thunder Bay, where they built a depot for the supplies.

The survey work was all finished in due time, and we all met at the depot, near the mouth of Devil river, to wash up, and to determine how to get home.

While we were thus engaged, Pete Wa Watum, an Indian from the Au Sable river, came along with a large birch canoe, and Mr. Clason hired him to take all of us to Thunder Bay Island, where we could take a boat for Detroit; excepting the packers and their horses, who would travel to Presque Isle, and take a steamboat there.

This was the writer’s first sailing in a birch canoe, and on the waters of Thunder Bay.

On Thunder Bay Island was a lighthouse, kept by Jessey Muncy, a very clever man, who lived there with a large family, and done some fishing with gill-nets.

Here we were treated very kindly by Mr. Muncy and family; and after feasting on whitefish for a few days, we were put on board of a schooner, which was bound for Detroit.

William Ives, Esq., who subsequently ran the first lines of survey for the United States in the Territory of Oregon, was second in the party and compass-man for Mr. Clason.

Messrs. Clason and Ives had the misfortune to have all their spare clothing stolen, so that when they came out of the woods they had no change of clothes.

The writer’s clothes, fortunately being in another place, escaped the hands of the thief, and so he was favored with a presentable suit, and enough to lend Mr. Clason, who was nearly of the writer’s size, to make him look respectable.

When dinner was ready, this being the first meal on board the schooner, Mr. Clason and the writer were notified for the first table, with officers, while Mr. Ives, who ranked much higher in employment than the writer, waited for the second table, with sailors and common hands, simply because he had the misfortune to have his clothes stolen.

The thief, perhaps, with the stolen clothes on, was seated at first table somewhere, and enjoying himself hugely, in the company and confidence of the wise and good.

This little episode taught the writer the fact, which he then noticed, and from which he never has been compelled to retreat, that people, as strangers, are judged by their fellows, more by the purity of the clothes they wear, than the purity of heart, character or employment.

This was the first Government survey made in Alpena County.

It was conceded by the whole survey party, that the entire tract that we had surveyed was worthless; that the Government would never realize enough from the sale of the lands to pay for the surveying.

Mr. Clason was so confident of this, that he said: “I live in Cincinnati, and am able to do what I agree, and I will give any of you a good, warranty deed of any township of land that we have surveyed, for your wages, and will bind myself to purchase the land of the Government for you, should the land ever become so valuable that the Government could sell it to other parties.

“Not one of the parties would accept Mr. Clason’s offer.

This is not the only report of the kind on record.

Judge Campbell, in his History of Michigan, has the following:”

The first necessity of the country was more people.

No lands had been surveyed before the war, except the old private claims.

In 1812, among other war legislation, an act was passed, setting aside two million of acres of land in Michigan, as bounty lands for soldiers.

As soon as the war was over, and circumstances permitted, Mr. Tiffin, the Surveyor General, sent agents to Michigan, to select a place for locating these lands.

Their report was such as to induce him to recommend the transfer of bounty locations to some other part of the United States.

They began on the boundary line between Ohio and Indiana, which was the western limit of the lands surrendered to the United States by the Indian treaty of 1807, and following it north for fifty miles, they described the country as an unbroken series of tamarack swamps, bogs and sand barrens, with not more than one acre in a hundred, and probably not one in a thousand, fit for cultivation.

Mr. Tiffin communicated this evil report to the Commissioner of the General Land Office, Josiah Meigs; and he and the Secretary of War, Mr. Crawford, secured the repeal of so much of the law as applied to Michigan.

They were stimulated by a second report of the surveyors, who found the country worse and worse as they proceeded.

In April, 1816, the law was changed, and lands were granted instead, in Illinois and Missouri.

This postponed settlement, but it saved Michigan from one of the most troublesome sources of litigation which has ever vexed any country.

It was in that way a benefit.

But the report of the surveyors is one of the unaccountable things of those days.

Surveyors are usually good judges of land, and not likely to be deceived by the water standing on the surface of the ground where the nature of the vegetation shows the soil cannot be marshy or sterile.”

In the spring of 1840, the Surveyor General gave contracts to survey about half of Alpena county, the whole of Presque Isle county, the most, if not all, of the county of Cheboygan, to John Hodgson, Sylvester Sibley, Henry Brevoort and Henry Mullet, all of whom, with their surveying parties, left Detroit soon after the opening of navigation in the spring, on the steamer Madison, for Presque Isle.

The writer was employed by John Hodgson, as an assistant surveyor or compass-man.

Hodgson had the sub-division of towns 31 and 32 north, and from range 4 east, to Lake Huron shore.

We all had a jolly time on the boat going up, and were all landed, with our supplies, at Presque Isle.

This was a wooding station for the steamboats going round the lakes, and the only inhabited spot at that time, between Mackinaw and Bay City.

It was also the first fishing station on Lake Huron shore, north of Saginaw Bay.

The fishermen used hooks, seines and gill-nets, and had considerable trade with the boats, in furnishing them with fresh fish.

After stopping a few days at Presque Isle, to make arrangements for leaving the supplies, and packing them to the work, which supplies were to be carried on the backs of men and horses, the several parties started for their work.

The writer, in making the survey near the mouth of the An-a-makee-zebe, or Thunder river, as it was called by the Indians, discovered the site of a house that had been burned, some square timber, and an excavation for a mill-race; and on enquiry since, was told that Mr. Donseman, from Mackinaw, with other parties from the State of New York, had, sometime prior, attempted to build a sawmill at that place, and were driven away from their purpose by the Indians.

In running the section line between sections 22 and 23, on approaching the river near the foot of Second Street, city of Alpena, we were discovered by some Indians, who were camped a little further down the river, and who were all drunk.

They consisted of the Thunder Bay band, excepting Sog-on-e-qua-do and his family, who were camped at the “Ox-Bow,” a peninsula made by a large bend in Thunder Bay river, and who gave us our dinner of boiled sturgeon the day before, which we all ate with a relish.

It was the first sturgeon the writer had ever eaten, and being very hungry, thought it very nice.

As soon as the Indians saw us, they began to gather themselves up as best they could, and approached us, having the old chief, Mich-e-ke-wis, or Spirit of the West Wind, at their head.

They all looked very sour, and did not return our salutations.

The old chief came very close to the writer, and said, in the Indian language: “White man no good. This place is all mine; you go away.”

The writer replied that the Great Chief at Washington had sent us to run lines and explore the country, and we did not like it, and as soon as we had done our work we would go away.

He, finding I could answer him in his own language, and noticing that the writer gave some orders to the men, which they obeyed, said to the writer; “Are you chief?” and being answered in the affirmative, he said, “You are welcome to do your work.”

Up to this time not a word had been spoken by any of the accompanying Indians; but when the old chief said “You are welcome to do your work,” their countenances changed, and they all said, “aw-ne-gwi-naw,” which is “certainly.”

Then each one took our hand and said, “bo-zoo.”

The old chief then said: “We have had a big drunk; we can give you nothing to eat or drink, for we have used up all the women left us to eat; but if you will go to the wig-warn, I will show you my regalia.”

We went with him, and he showed what the white man seldom gets a look at.

The old chief took from a trunk, a large broadcloth blanket, worked with beads and ribbons, a large otter skin tobacco bag, called a “koosh-kip-it-aw-gun,” and elaborately worked with beads and ribbons, a large peace-pipe, beaded leggings, cap and moccasins.

He had a splendid worsted sash, which was presented to him by the British Government, and beaded belts to wear round his leggings, to keep them in place, and some other things of minor importance.

For the writer this was a feast.

We borrowed the Indians’ only canoe, and crossed the river to camp, putting it out of their power to annoy us during the night.

In the morning, we used the Indians’ canoe to cross the river, and after establishing the corner of sections 23, 24, 26 and 27, in township 31 north, of range 8 east, and doing some meandering on the bay and river, we bid, as we supposed, a long adieu to the first experiences at the mouth of “Thunder River.”

The Thunder Bay baud of Indians then numbered about twenty-five, with Mich-e-ke-wis as council chief.

He had seen nearly, if not quite, one hundred winters; was admired by his people for the wisdom of his counsel, and had much influence over them, in favor of the British Government, whose friend he was, and continued to be as long as he lived.

He drove Mr. Douseman and his party away from the river, and showed the same disposition toward the writer, who probably saved himself and party some trouble, in being able to speak a little of the Indian language.

He was the father of a large family, some of whom were then in 1840, grown up men and women.

The names of his older sons were Wa-gamaw-ba, Ba-ga-nog-ga, and Nee-zhe-was-waw-ba.

If his record was right, he had seen one hundred and ten years, ere he went to his Father, in the beautiful “hunting grounds towards the setting sun.”

He once said to the writer, at Ossineke: “I remember when these pine trees here were very small.”

Some four or five years prior to his decease, which occurred about 1857, he called all his children and people together, and told them that he was nearly blind, and no longer of any value to his family or his people.

He then gave one of his sons, whom he had educated for his successor, his regalia, before described, and installed him in his office as council chief, and presiding over all their religious ceremonies.

He then distributed his goods among his children; and never after was he seen dressed in anything but a common Indian blanket.

He thus prepared himself to meet the “pale horse and rider,” worthy the admiration of those who, in a Christian point of view, think themselves much wiser and better, and who style him

“The poor Indian, whose untutored mind

Sees God in the clouds, and hears Him in the wind.”

Sog-on-e-qua-do, or Thunder Cloud, was a war chief.

He was an O-taw-waw.

He was not very well liked by his people, on account of his temperance proclivities; he was very much opposed to the Indians getting drunk, and he lectured them too severely to please them.

He was the only Indian the writer knew who could keep whiskey in his wig-wam and not get drunk.

He was brave and independent; none of his people ever wished to oppose him, or measure war clubs; nor did any avaricious trader ransack his shanty for furs, without his consent; and he could quiet an Indian drunken row in “double quick.”

He was honorable and scrupulously honest, as the following incident will show: In 1848, the writer cut and put up two stacks of wild hay, at Squaw Point.

Late in the fall, Sog-on-e-qua-do’s boys were playing near one of the stacks, and set it on fire, and it was consumed.

He immediately came to see the writer, at Ossineke, and enquired of him what the certain stack of hay was worth.

The writer, not knowing what his object was, mentioned the value of the hay to him.

Sogon-e-qua-do then said: “My boys, in their play, set it on fire and have burned it, and I have brought you these furs to pay you in part for it, and next spring I will bring you the balance.”

Being somewhat surprised at so beautiful an example of the Golden Rule, by a savage, the writer said to him, that, as he had been honest enough to come and inform him of the fact, and had offered to pay for the hay, he, the writer, would charge him only what the hay cost him to put it up; and that the furs he had brought would pay the amount.

He looked at the writer a moment, and then putting his hand on his breast, said: “I am a man; I will pay the balance in the spring.”

The winter passed and spring came, and so did Sog-on-e-qua-do with a bundle of nice furs, worth much more than the whole stack of hay, and threw them down, and insisted that the writer should take them for the balance on the hay.

Here is an act that challenges our admiration, and which is worthy to be placed on record as parallel with that instructive one related in the twenty-third chapter of Genesis, where Abraham bought the cemetery of Ephron, among the children of Heath.

He bought a lot in Alpena, and built a frame house on it.

He also built a small house at Squaw Point, where he lived much of his time, using a cook stove in his house, and cultivating a small piece of ground.

He died, believing in the traditions and religion of his fathers, and was buried after the manner of the Indians, except that the Rev. F. N. Barlow preached a funeral sermon, and he was laid in the cemetery of the whites.

Shortly after he was buried, his grave was desecrated by some unscrupulous thief, who took from the grave his gun and some other things that had been deposited in the grave with him, to use on his journey to the hunting ground beyond the setting sun.

He left one son, by the name of No-quash-cum, who lives on the same lands that his father occupied before him.

Ba-zhick-co-ba, or Put Down One, was a strong, athletic man, who supported himself and family entirely by hunting and fishing.

He was much in favor of the Canadian Government; despised the idea of living like a white man, and loved his “Scho-ta-waw-boo,”—fire soup—dearly.

Nain-a-go, or Ant, was a good hunter and a companion of Ba-zhick-co-ba in his trapping and hunting expeditions, and lived after his fashion.

These men and their families composed the Thunder Bay band of Indians.

After finishing up the survey work with Mr. Hodgson, the party went out to Presque Isle.

Here the writer hired with Sylvester Sibley, to help him finish up his surveys.

The improvements at Presque Isle were owned by Lemuel Crawford, of Cleveland, Ohio, and consisted of a dock, store, and frame dwelling, a log barn, and a few log shanties.

They were all built on Uncle Sam’s land, which had not yet been surveyed, and therefore it was thought advisable by those in command, that they should be on the best of terms with the surveyors.

As the survey of the harbor and its vicinity was assigned to the writer, he was treated with very kind regard by the proprietor and his people.

Here the writer made the acquaintance of Simeon M. Holden, William Cullings and Robert McMullen.

They were mechanical geniuses, and well calculated to live in and promote the growth of a new country.

Mr. McMullen had the greatest variety of talent, working when occasion required, in the blacksmith shop, the carpenter shop, the cooper shop, at boat building, and mill writing.

Mr. Holden subsequently moved to Thunder Bay Island, where he built the first frame dwelling in Alpena County, in 1846.

He was the first permanent settler in the county, his occupation being fishing with gill-nets.

After residing on the island a few years, he moved to where Harrisville is now located, where, in company with Crosier Davison, he built the first sawmill in Alcona county.

After working the mill a few years, he sold his interest in the property, and moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he was waylaid, murdered and robbed of five hundred dollars.

Messrs. Cullings and McMullen still survive, and reside in Alpena and Alcona counties.

It was late in the fall when the surveyors finished their work and returned to Presque Isle, on their way home.

It had been blowing a gale of wind for some time, so that no boats had gone up the lakes for a while, and only one or two was expected down that season.

Among the steamers expected down was the Madison, which brought the surveyors up, and which was a high pressure boat, the exhaust of which could be heard for fifteen miles away.

We were all very anxious to get this boat, for should we miss it, we might be compelled to travel on foot to Flint, if not to Pontiac, a distance of about two hundred miles.

A watch was set, day and night, to catch the first sound of the Madison’s exhaust and signal her in, and to make doubly sure of her calling.

After anxiously waiting for about a week, at 9 p. M. the watch yelled “Steamboat,” and for ten minutes every one shouted at the top of his voice, “Steamboat! Steamboat!”

Such a shout Presque Isle never heard before, and probably will never hear again.

The Madison came into the harbor, and we all boarded her for Detroit.

The Government lands in Alpena and adjoining counties were offered for sale by the United States, in 1843.

In the fall of the same year, the writer again visited Alpena County, accompanied by a man by the name of Youngs, whom the writer hired as a hunter and trapper, for the purpose of studying the nature and habits of animals, and obtaining their skulls as specimens of phrenology.

Youngs stayed in the woods until February, when he came out to Thunder Bay Island, leaving the writer alone in the forest, who stayed until May, and obtained many fine specimens, some of which he now has, of the otter, beaver, lynx, marten, raccoon, fisher, bear and mink.

These animals were then very plentiful, and easily taken.

The writer learned much in regard to the nature and habits of these animals, and unlearned very much that he had learned from books prior to his going into the woods.

Many who write works on Natural History, are not themselves acquainted with the animals or things they describe, for they have never interrogated or examined nature for themselves, but have taken their knowledge from the schools, and the repositories of dead men’s hearsay knowledge and speculation.

The writer’s inexperience in trapping did not afford him a very large quantity of furs, but what pleased and paid him for his trouble and privation, was the fact that he found, upon examination, and comparing the phrenological formation of the skulls of those animals he had studied, with their nature and habits, they harmonized beautifully, and in every respect with each other, and established in the mind of the writer, beyond a cavil, the fundamental principles of phrenology.

If any man, however skeptical he may be, but willing to know truth, will go with me into the forest, and there study the habits of the beaver and the fisher, and compare their skulls with their habits, and with each other, he can not hesitate one moment to acknowledge the principal truths claimed for that science which enables us to know ourselves.

In order to further prosecute his studies, and at the same time make a living, the writer prepared himself as well as he knew how, for the further study of animals, and trapping for their furs.

He hired a Frenchman, who pretended to understand trapping, but when the little schooner was ready to sail for Thunder Bay River, he refused to go.

The writer, supposing he would find someone on his way, that he could hire, continued his journey, without finding any one to hire, and was landed on the 18th day of September, 1844, at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, alone.

From that time to the 20th of May following, he saw not the face of a white man—for he had no glass—or heard the crack of any rifle but his own.

On coming down to the mouth of the river, in the spring, he found Washington Jay, his wife and daughter, and a man by the name of William Dagget, who had moved there late in the fall, from Thunder Bay Island, for the purpose of making some staves for fish barrels.

They built a log house, near Second and River streets, in Alpena, and cut timber and made some staves, on the present site of the city; but the most of their cutting was done near the great bend in the river, called the “Ox Bow.”

This was the second house built by white men on the present site of Alpena, and Mrs. Jay and her daughter Emma were, in all probability, the first white women that had ever visited the place; they certainly were the first to live here.

In September, 1844, Jonathan Burtch and Anson Eldred purchased two pieces of land at the mouth of Devil River, it being the first lands purchased of the United States in Alpena County, and the patents were issued in 1848.

In the fall and winter of the same year (1844) they erected a water-mill on Devil river, with two upright sash saws, and driven by two old fashioned “flutter wheels,” and cut with both saws, when run twenty-four hours, the large sum of eight thousand feet of lumber.

This was the first sawmill erected in Alpena county.

At this time mulley saws were more generally used, and were receiving many improvements; but large circular saws, for cutting lumber, were yet in the creation of genius.

The mill that cut two million feet of lumber was “A1” on the list, and those were “few and far between.”

Lumbermen did not then buy large tracts of timber lands, to lumber on, for they could cut all they wanted on Government lands, without being called “timber thieves,” or asked for pay for the timber.

This state of things continued until 1850, when Uncle Sam came down upon the lumbermen, like an avalanche, and threatened destruction to them all.

But a compromise was had, by which the lumbermen were to pay the costs made by the Government, and a promise “to do so no more.”

In 1845, Mr. Burtch located forty acres more at Devil River, and Mr. Eldred located two fractions on Thunder Bay River.

The writer sold his winter’s catch of furs, in Detroit, for two hundred eighty dollars in silver, by stipulation, and two hundred eighty dollars in paper money.

Furs being sold in foreign countries were about the only product that would command the specie at this time.

The writer then purchased a small stock of goods of B. G. Stimson, Theodore H. Eaton and Moore & Foot, of Detroit, Michigan, and took them to Thunder Bay Island, where he built the first store in Alpena County.

Thunder Bay Island had now grown to a large fishing station, numbering thirty-one fishing boats and one hundred and sixty persons.

Their catch of fish in 1846, was a little over twelve thousand barrels.

The people were mostly from Ohio and the Saginaws.

In the summer of 1847, the writer purchased the Devil River mill property of Jonathan Burtch, and moved there late in the fall of the same year.

The place was called by the Indians, “Shing-gaw-ba-waw-sin-eke-go-ba-wat.”

Shin-gawba was, as the Indians believe, the name of a Divine Chief, who lived a long time ago.

He told his people that, after his death, his spirit would come back to where these stones were placed, for the presents his people might deposit near them.

The Indians do verily believe that his spirit does come back to these stones, to receive the spirit of the things they present to him near these stones.

This belief has the coloring of Spiritualism.

Waw-sin-eke, signifies Image Stones.

Go-ba-wat, signifies to put down more things than one.

When the writer first visited Devil River, in 1839, he saw, near the mouth of the river, two large stones standing together.

One was a gneiss rock, with bands of quartz, and having the appearance of being worn into its present shape by the action of the water.

It weighed about three hundred pounds.

The other stone was about four feet long, and in shape like the trunk of a man’s body, minus head, legs and arms.

It had very much the appearance of being moulded from lake sand, and concreted with some substance having the appearance of bark.

It was hard on the outside, but soft and easily crumbled where excluded from the atmosphere.

At this time, near and around the stones, were large quantities of pipes, tobacco, beads, ear jewels, silver broaches, bell-buttons and other kinds of trinkets.

When the township was organized, the writer named it “Waw-sin-eke,” but, like many other Indian names, it was misspelled Os-sin-eke, the whole Indian name of the place being too long to retain.

A fisherman came to Devil River while the writer was absent, and, wanting some anchor stones for his nets, seized the Shin-gaw-ba stones and carried them to the bay, thus depriving the place of valuable relics and Shin-gaw-ba of his presents.

These stones are found through all the country of the Chippewas.

The Indians say, that a long time ago, some Iroquois captured two Chippewas, near Devil River, and put them and their image stones in a canoe, and started across the bay.

When they reached near the middle of the bay, they threw the stones into the water, when, suddenly the water boiled and spouted up, and capsized the canoe and drowned the Iroquois, while the Chippewa prisoners succeeded in saving their lives, retaining the canoe and reaching the place from whence they started.

When they went upon the land, they found, to their surprise, the stones had preceded them, and were standing in their places, as they did before they were moved.

Whether their story is true or false, the stones failed to capsize the fisherman when he threw them into the bay, or came out of the water since.

The river was called “Reviere Au Diable,” by the early mail carriers, who spoke the French language, and who sometimes in the fall and spring found much difficulty in traveling the large marsh between the river and the south point of Thunder Bay.

So the river was named after his Satanic Majesty, not because it was a bad river, but because it kept bad company.

LOCATION OF LANDS.

In 1849 and 1850, Robert Dunlap and E. Baily, of Chicago, Illinois, purchased of the United States, the lands round the mouth of Thunder Bay river.

In 1855, they sold these lands to John Oldfield, James K. Lockwood, John S. Minor and George N. Fletcher, for thirty dollars per acre; Oldfield owning a quarter interest, Lockwood and Minor a quarter interest, and Fletcher owning a half interest.

The following letter, handed the writer by G. N. Fletcher, Esq., indicates the first visit of the proprietors to Alpena, prior to making the “Baily purchase”:

Port Huron, Aug. 4th, 1855.

G. N. Fletcher, Esq.,

St. Clair.

Dear Sir:

I propose to take my vessel, the John Minor, and in company with my partner and other parties interested at Thunder Bay River, to make an exploring expedition to that place.

Ample time will be given to make all necessary observations at that place, at as moderate expense and with as much comfort as circumstances will permit.

Your company, together with any persons you would like to take with you, will be acceptable.

Please to advise me, by note, if you will or will not go, so that I may give you notice of our sailing, which we propose to make about the 1st Sept.

Very truly yours, (Signed,) J. K. LOCK WOOD.

David D. Oliver purchased some lands at Devil river, in 1851, and in August of the same year, W. L. P. Little, of East Saginaw, purchased a fraction or two, on the bay shore, which would be in the northeast fractional quarter of section 27, in town 31 north, of range 8 east, in his own name, as security for the purchase money; but the purchase was made for Walter Scott, for a fishery.

Scott moved his family to Thunder Bay River in the fall of the same year and tried the fishing, and found it a failure, on these lands.

Scott then, considering the lands of no value, failed to pay for them, and Little, as he thought, was left with a piece of poor property on his hands.

Scott traded with the Indians and looked up pine lands for Lewis & Graves, John Trowbridge & Bros., and some others, until September, 1856, when Messrs. Lockwood & Fletcher & Co., desirous of getting him away with his whiskey, before their men should come up to work, bought all his buildings, and some other things, for the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars.

Scott left Alpena in the spring of 1857.

Early in 1857, Mr. Little offered his property at Thunder Bay River, to the writer, for five hundred dollars, half down, and the balance in a year.

Although the writer was considered by some of his contemporaries as extravagant and “luna” in regard to the value of property in Alpena county, and its future growth, yet he was not controlled by the moon, or any other influences, enough to accept this Little property, which now comprises a large portion of the best residences in the city.

The writer think it will now be conceded by those who have noted the rapid development and growth of the city and economy, that his idea did not reach the reality by as much, as they thought him above it.

Subsequently Mr. Little came up in the price of his properly at Alpena, to fifteen handled dollars, and sold it to S. E. Hitchcock, who now resides upon a portion of it.

He subsequently made it an addition to the Tillage, now city, of Alpena.

The Union School house stands on a portion of this property.

In 1850, Congress passed an act, granting all the swamp land to the several States, but the United States Land Offices continued to the lands as before the grant was made, until the latter part of 1859.

In 1852, Congress passed an act, granting seven hundred and fifty thousand acres of land for the purpose of constructing a ship canal around the falls of the Sault Ste. Mario, and thereby connecting the commerce of the lower lake» with that of Lake Superior.

A company was duly organized to prosecute the work, known and styled the “Sault Ste., Marie Ship Canal Co.,” and in 1853, commenced selecting their lands.

Parties of “land lookers” were sent out by the company, into all parts of the State, and finding large bodies of good pine in Alpena county and vicinity, it led other parties, desirous of purchasing pine lands, to look in the same direction.

In 1853, George N. Fletcher employed Daniel Carter, Esq., to look up and locate some pine lands on the waters of Thunder Bay River.

Mr. Fletcher purchased the lands in the name of Thomas Campbell, of Boston, Mass., about eight thousand acres, up to 1857, in which he owned an interest, and he had been a purchaser and holder of pine lands in Alpena County ever since.

John Trowbridge & Bros. commenced locating pine lands in 1854 or ’55, and in two or three years had purchased about thirty thousand acres.

Frank H. Page and David D. Oliver located and purchased about two thousand acres. G. H. Lester purchased, near Turtle Lake, about nine hundred acres.

Lewis & Graves, of Detroit, purchased about three hundred acres; and Elisha Taylor, of Detroit, purchased about five hundred acres, near the rapids; and Capt. J. J. Maiden purchased a lot in section 27, town 31 north, of range 8 east.

This comprises most, if not all, the land holders and lands purchased in the county, prior to its organization, in 1857.

CHAPTER II.

TOPOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTY AND VICINITY.

Alpena county is bounded on the north by Presque Isle county, east by Thunder Bay, south by Alcona county, and on the west by Montmorency county, which, at present—1876—is attached to Alpena county for judicial purposes.

It includes townships 29, 30, 31 and 32 north, of ranges 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 east, taking in all of Thunder Bay and the islands. It has an area of about one thousand four hundred and forty square miles.

It contains approximately three hundred ninety-one thousand six hundred eighty acres of land.

The surface descends a little to the south and east, and is from gently rolling to rolling.

The timber is of great variety, and is no indication of the soil on which it grows.

Sometimes a rich argillo-calcareous loam is covered with white and black birch, aspen, balsam, tamarack, cedar and a few small sugar, hemlock, and Norway and white pine.

The principal timber is pine, hemlock, sugar, beech, cedar, balsam, white and black birch, black ash, elm lynn, poplar, spruce, etc.

The soil is mostly a rich loam, reposing on limestone rock, and containing all the elements necessary to make the agricultural capabilities of Alpena county compare favorably with any county in the State.

A few spots of arenaceous soil is met with, but it contains large quantities of carbonate of lime and magnesia. I

t also contains considerable ammonia, and it only requires a little addition of vegetable matter, and a sprinkling of salt, to make it very productive, so long as the ground does not suffer for want of rain.

The salt produces chemical action in the soil, and dissolves the silica.

On this kind of land, the seed should be put in with a drill or hoe, so that it will be covered the proper depth, and the land prepared by a roller, so as to enable the soil to hold the moisture, and in no case should the land be raised above a level.

Thunder Bay River enters Thunder Bay on the southwest quarter of section 23, in township 31 north, of range 8 east, and is the principal stream in the county.

The river, with its branches and their tributaries, take their rise in, or run through, the counties of Montmorency, Oscoda, Alcona, Presque Isle and Alpena, and drains and affords log-running facilities for thirty-nine townships.

The river is 197 feet wide where it divides the city, on First Street, but is much wider between this point and the mill dam.

With nine feet of water on the bar, and fourteen inside, it is navigable only three-fourths of a mile.

The river, from its mouth to the Broadwell Rapids, by its serpentine course, is about five miles; and the river rises thirteen feet.

It is from four to six rods wide.

Near the section line between 15 and 22, the river passes over a limestone ledge, now covered by water of the dam, nine feet four inches, which the writer believes to be identical with the limestone found at Sunken Lake.

From the foot of the rapids to Trowbridge-s dam is 231 chains, by the river, and the fall of the water from the summit level of the Trowbridge pond to the foot of the rapids is sixty-five feet; and the river is from eight to twenty rods wide.

At the time the writer made the survey, he noticed at one place an exceptional dip in the rock, a short distance above the Broadwell pond, where the dip of the rock was east, but was only three and one-half feet in forty rods.

The Trowbridge dam slacks the water up the river a short distance above the North Branch, and the perpendicular fall of water from this point to the bay is seventy-eight feet.

From the level of the Trowbridge pond to the head of Long Rapids, the rise cannot be less than seventy-eight feet more.

The river is rapid above this place, and runs over limestone ledges, in town 31 north, of range 4 east, town 30 north, of range 3 east, and has a rise of not less than fifty feet more, making a total fall of water from range one to Thunder Bay, of two hundred and sixty feet.

All the tributaries are rapid streams, showing no lack of drainage for the laud.

Devil River is a small stream, taking its rise in a small lake near Thunder Bay River, and runs south through Mud Lake, and empties into Thunder Bay, twelve miles south of Alpena.

It has a log-running capacity for about six miles.

Long Lake is a beautiful sheet of inland water, being in Alpena and Presque Isle counties.

It is eight miles long and from one to one and a half miles wide, surrounded by good farming lands, densely covered with hardwood.

The waters are well stocked with fish, the principal being pike, bass and sunfish.

The outlet of Long Lake, called by the writer “Crystal River,” from the clear, crystal appearance of the water, is a large stream in the spring, and dwindles to a small brook in the summer.

It runs nearly east from the outlet to Lake Huron, and on its way passes through two small lakes, mostly surrounded by high bluffs of limestone.

In one of these lakes is a subterranean passage for the water, of sufficient size to pass nearly the entire stream during the lowest stages of water in the summer.

The city of Alpena is located at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, which enters Thunder Bay near its head, in forty-fifth degree of north latitude, and eighty-three degrees and fifty minutes west longitude, in sections 22, 23 and 27, in town 31 north, of range 8 east, and is the county seat of Alpena county.

It is, by section line, twenty miles west.

and one hundred and ninety-two miles north of Detroit, and twenty miles east and ninety-six miles north of Bay City.

It is north from Ossineke twelve miles, and west from Thunder Bay Island twelve miles, and south from Presque Isle harbor about eighteen miles.

At the time the writer first visited the place now occupied by the city of Alpena, there was, on the east side of the river near the foot of Dock street, a narrow ridge of land extending east, along the bay shore, for about eighty rods.

Near the river, and extending to the bay, was a beautiful oak grove, containing about four acres, where the Indians camped, feasted, drank their “fire soup,” sang their war songs, danced their war, religious and festive dances, held their councils, and buried their dead and feasted their spirits.

North of this, and near the river, was a narrow ridge, crossed by a small stream, on its Way to Thunder Bay River, and covered with a thicket of white birch, aspen, cedar, and a sprinkling of Norway and white pine, and east of this was a dense cedar and tamarack swamp.

This ridge widened as it extended north, until it reached the vicinity of Walnut Street, where it was about forty rods wide, and covered with a belt of large timber, of hemlock and pine.

It thence extended north, into open Norway pine plains.

On this ridge was a deep-worn Indian trail, from the mouth of the river to the then rapids, near the section line between sections 15 and 22, in town 31 north, of range 8 east, and now covered by the mill pond, where the Indians fished for sturgeon, pike, pickerel and suckers, which were in abundance, and sometimes whitefish.

From this point were two trails, one extending north, through section 16, to Long Lake, and the other extending up the river.

On the west side of the river, also, was a small ridge.

A line, commencing near the foot of Second Street, and thence running to the corner of Chisholm Street and Washington Avenue, and from thence reaching the bay a little below Messrs. Campbell & Potter’s dock, would separate the ridge from the swamp.

All of that portion east and south of this line, and reaching to the bay, was a sandy ridge, covered with small pine, white birch and yellow oak; and all west of this line, for a mile or more, was a dense tamarack and cedar swamp, filled with water, and well stocked with batrachians, whose loud prate gave token of approaching spring.

By the united efforts of thousands, the timber has been removed, the swamp drained of its water, and the croakers, like the smoke of the Indian’s wig-wam, are growing less every year, and soon will be known as only a something of the past.

This swamp, so abhorrent a few years ago, has become valuable property, on which, in 1876, is standing beautiful residences, the abode of intelligence, peace and plenty.

From Second Street, north a few rods, was a small brook, winding its way to the river, and bounded by a cedar swamp about fifteen rods wide.

North of this swamp was a piece of high land, containing about thirty acres, which was well timbered with white pine and hemlock.

This ridge narrowed to a strip near the river, and extending north to the Norway and spruce pine plains.

On this ridge, also, was a deep and well-marked Indian trail, which had been tramped by moccasined feet for many centuries.

It led to the rapids, before mentioned, and thence to the big bend of the river, near Messrs. Campbell & Potter’s sawmill, where it became two, one leading up the river, and the other following the sandy ridge to Shin-gaw-ba-waw-sin-eke-go-ba-wot—now Ossineke.

These Indian trails were of much importance to the early surveyors, land-lookers and settlers, being the principal means of communication by land between various parts of the country.

These were called “paths” by the first explorers and settlers, and this is the reason for finding a “Pathmaster” in the list of the first officers of the township of Fremont.

GEOLOGICAL.

Geologists have represented the geological formation of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, as a slightly depressed basin, having its center in or near Jackson and Ingham counties.

As you travel any direction from this central point, you pass over the outcropping edge of various lithological strata, in a descending series, until you reach the granite formation; hence, Prof. N. H. -Winchell, in his notes on the geology of the Thunder Bay region, published in the Pioneer, in 1870, says: “As one goes toward the north from Saginaw Bay, along the shore of Lake Huron, he passes over the outcropping edges of rocks lower and lower in the geological series, until he reaches Lake Superior.

The same is known of the Michigan side of Lake Michigan, northward from Grand Rapids.”

The writer believes this to be true, only in part, and as confined to the shores of the lakes, but not true in regard to the interior of the State.

His travels and explorations in nearly all parts of the State, have led him to the conclusion that the interior of the northern portion of the Southern Peninsula has not been sufficiently explored by competent geologists, as to warrant them in coming to any definite conclusion concerning the geological structure of this region.

A little observation will teach us that all rivers, wherever they run over stratified rocks, do not run with the dip, but over the outcropping edges.

Whenever they run with the dip, they seldom show the rocks; the streams are mostly sluggish, and the rocks generally covered with alluvial deposit.

This being the case, the sources of rivers indicate the highest portion of country; and a little study of their courses and their descent, and the rocks over which they run, will give us an approximate idea of the geological structure of the district of country through which they run.

In referring to the rivers of the Lower Peninsula, we find the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, and Grand rivers rising in the interior of the southern part of the Southern Peninsula, and carrying the summit level east of the center of the State, and running west and northwest with a moderate descent, over the outcropping edges of rocks, dipping slightly toward the center, empty their waters into Lake Michigan.

The Shiawassee River, rising in the same vicinity, runs north and mingles with the waters of Saginaw River, while the Clinton, Huron and Raisin rivers take their rise on the same summit level, and pour their waters into St. Clair Lake and Detroit River.

After admitting that these rivers run over the outcropping edges of rocks dipping slightly toward the center of this geological basin, then allow the writer to invite the reader to go with him into Roscommon, Crawford and Otsego counties, where we will reach another summit level, which is estimated to be one thousand feet above the level of the lakes.

Here the Muskegon and Manistee, two large rivers, take their rise, and after running south and southwest, over ledges of rock dipping slightly to the northeast, discharge their waters into Lake Michigan.

The Cheboygan, Pigeon and Black rivers rise in Otsego county, run north over ledges of limestone, dipping south, and lose themselves in the lakes of the Cheboygan River.

The Thunder Bay and Au Sable rivers take their heads in small lakes in Otsego and Crawford counties, run east, with a rapid descent, over outcropping rocks, which dip to the west and northwest—with some local exceptional dip to the east, near Thunder Bay—pour their waters into Lake Huron.

The Tittabawassee River, commencing in and running near Roscommon County, runs south, and loses itself in Saginaw River.

The Boardman, Elk and Pine rivers, take their sources on or near the summit level, and run west, into Grand Traverse Bay and Lake Michigan.

Here we have another well-defined geological basin, which, to practical geologists, is very little known, and especially that portion comprising the counties of Alpena and Montmorency.

In 1859 and 1860, Prof. A. Winchell made some geological explorations in Alpena county and its vicinity, and subsequently it was visited by Prof. N. H. Winchell, but neither of them carried their explorations far enough to determine, in the faintest degree, the geological character of Alpena county; and they are not certain in regard to the super-position of the rocks, or the groups to which they belong.

But the most important fact, entirely overlooked by geologists, in regard the geological formation of the Lower Peninsula, is the depression between those two basins.

A line drawn from the mouth of Saginaw River to the mouth of the Muskegon River passes nearly in the bottom of a synclinal valley between the two places.

The Tittabawassee River running south from the northern basin and the Shiawassee River running north from the southern basin; these rivers, with their branches, and other streams, establish the important fact that there is a depression running entirely across the Southern Peninsula, near its center, and dividing it into two parts or basins.

This being a fact, we find the gypsum beds at Alabaster, and coal at Rifle River, to belong to the northern basin.

Prof. N. H. Winchell says, in one of his notes to the Alpena County Pioneer, published in 1870:

“There are various interesting problems, yet unsolved, connected with the geology of the Thunder Bay region.

The foregoing ‘notes’ have merely indicated the outlines of its prominent features.

These indications even, are too often based on conjecture, rather than actual observation.”

Although the explorations now made are indefinite and of no available benefit to the county, yet they afford important suggestions, and will assist materially in any further survey; and, therefore, the writer has copied from the reports, all that he deemed of any probable value.

In the groupings of the rocks in this region of the State, all the reports are vague and ambiguous, if not contradictory.

Prof. A. Winchell, in his report for 1859 and 1860, says: “The elevated limestone region, constituting the northern portion of the Peninsula, consists of the higher members of the Upper Helderburg Group, which gradually subsides toward the south, and in the southern part of Cheboygan county, as nearly as can be judged, sinks beneath the shaly limestones of the Hamilton Group.”

In the “Atlas of the State of Michigan,” Winchell calls these limestones the “Little Traverse Group,” and says:

“This is composed chiefly of the Hamilton Group proper, of the New York geologists; but as the lower limits of the Hamilton have not yet been clearly fixed upon in the State, we apply the above terms to a series of limestones outcropping in the vicinity of Little Traverse Bay and Thunder Bay, and constituting physically a single mass.

They have been the subject of considerable study.

In 1860, we made an official survey of the Little Traverse strata; in 1866, a special survey and report, and in 1869, the ground was again officially examined, and as the result of all our studies, we submit the following: generalized arrangement:

“IV. Chert Beds.

“III. Bluff vesicular magnesian limestone overlaid by characteristic crinoidal beds.

“II Bituminous shales and limestones, composed of (b) Acervularia beds above, and (a) Bryozoa beds below.

“I. Pale-bluff massive limestones. comprising (b) Cenostroma beds above, and Fish beds below.”

The total thickness was set down provisionally at 141 feet, which is probably too low.

This grouping will apparently hold good over extensive region.

On the Geological Map of Michigan, this group occupies the shore north from Little Traverse Bay to Thunder Bay, and round the bay as far as Ossineke.

Prof. N. H. Winchell says:

“The Hamilton limestones and shales, and the Huron shales, furnish the geological basis of the Thunder Bay region”; but he is somewhat puzzled in regard to the arrangement and super-position of the various strata, as will appear by his remarks, before quoted, and by the following to the Pioneer:

“It has been remarked that the natural dip of the strata is toward the center of the State, in all places.

This, however, is so slight as to be almost imperceptible to the eye; and hence, the natural beds generally appear horizontal, unless local causes have produced exceptional dip.”

Now, it has been found that rocks which underlie the Thunder Bay district are much affected by an exceptional dip.

Along the lake shore, and in the limits of Thunder Bay, the exceptional dip eastward is always found.

This is true as far north as Nine Mile Point, but it is not noticeable within Thunder Bay, and as far inland as Broadwell’s mill, dip toward the bay.

This downthrow of the rocks accounts for the occurrence of higher members in the Hamilton at the mouth of Thunder Bay River than at the “Big Rapids,” thirty miles west.

Prof. A. Winchell, in his report of 1859-,60, page 69, says: “On the east side of Thunder Bay Island, the rocks of the Helderberg group are seen overlain by a black bituminous limestone, abounding in Atrypareticularis, and numerous other Brachiopods allied to the types of this group, (Hamilton).

The locality furnishes, also, two or three species of trilobites, (a) Favosites, a large coral allied to Acervularia, and some small fish remains.

The same beds are again seen at Carter’s quarry, two or three miles above the mouth of Thunder Bay River, and here it contains the same fossils.

It is seen again on the south shore of Little Traverse Bay, replete with Brachiopods and Bryozoa, and is here eighteen feet thick.

The exact order of super-position of the rocks constituting the Hamilton group, has nowhere been observed.

The bluffs at Partridge Point, in Thunder Bay, are believed to come in next above the bituminous limestones of the localities just cited.

The rock here is, at bottom, a bluish, highly argillaceous limestone, with shaly interlaminations, the whole wonderfully stocked with the remains of Bryozoa, and not a few encrinital stans.

Above these beds, which are but five feet thick, occurs a mass of blue shale, six feet thick; still higher is a massive limestone, below filled with Bryozoa, encrinites and Brachiopods; above, little fossiliferous, the whole with interlaminations of clay.

At the upper rapids of Thunder Bay River, still a different but entirely detached section was observed, and it is yet impossible to collocate it with the others.

At the upper rapids—northeast quarter of southwest quarter of section 7, town 31 north, of range 8 east—on the south side of the river, limestone is seen in a bluff fifteen feet high, dipping east-southeast about five degrees.

At Squaw Point, on the main land, south of the island, near the residence of the old Indian Chief ZwannoQuaddo, the black slates are found in places, in a cliff ten feet high.

The exposed surfaces are very much discolored by oxide of iron.

On the opposite side of the State, the black shales are seen at the southeast extremity of Mucqua Lake, in Emmet county; on the north side of Pine Lake, section 3, town 33 north, of range 7 west; near the outlet of Grand Traverse Bay, section 3, town 32 north, of range 9 west, and a few miles south of there, and again near the head of Carp Lake, in Leelanau county.

The greatest observed thickness in this part of the State, is twenty feet.”

From the foregoing statement, we draw the very probable conclusion, that three distinct kinds of rock are found outcropping on and near the shores of Thunder Bay; that the carbonaceous limestones belong to the Helderberg or Little Traverse group; that the black bituminous limestones belong to the Hamilton group, and the black slates, seen at Squaw Point, belong to the Huron group.

That an exceptional dip of the rocks exists in many places in the vicinity of Thunder Bay, and that they are much disturbed and displaced.

The limestones termed the “Little Traverse Group,” compose the surface rock on and near the lake shore, from Little Traverse Bay, northward to Thunder Bay.

In Cheboygan County, they reach as far south as the small lakes of Cheboygan River.

In Presque Isle County, they probably reach as far west as the western extremity of Long Lake; and they cover most of that portion of Alpena County north of Thunder Bay.

These limestones lie nearly horizontal, as observed along the shore of Lake Huron, and measured from the level of the lake.

The high bluffs on the lake, at Crawford’s Quarry, are about sixty feet high, and the one opposite Middle Island is of about the same height.

The rock from here south gradually subsides, until it reaches Little Thunder Bay, where it forms an escarpment abutting on the bay, about thirty feet perpendicular.

They probably dip slightly toward the center of the northern basin, with some local exceptional dip in the vicinity of Thunder Bay; but the western limits of their disappearance, under higher formations, have not been determined.

These limestones are fine grained, highly crystallized and handsomely clouded, by the unequal distribution of the fossils and bituminous matter they contain.

They are susceptible of a high polish, and when the large corals—especially the Favose and Cyathophylloids, which are abundant—are cut and polished; they present a very beautiful and agate-like appearance.

Some years since a quarry was opened near Adams’ Point, by Mr. Crawford, and is now known as Crawford’s Quarry; and subsequently another quarry was opened nearly opposite Middle Island, by Mr. Litchenberg, and large hopes were entertained at the time, that samples would be found largo enough to place the Lake Huron marbles with the most esteemed varieties; but no such samples have yet been found, and it is extremely doubtful whether they ever will be, as the rock is very much shattered.

If the black bituminous limestones spoken of, belong to the Hamilton group, then this group of rocks in the Thunder Bay region is inconsiderable, not being in any known place more than six feet in thickness; and the same may be said of what is known of the Huron slates noticed at Squaw Point, whose aggregate thickness would probably exceed one hundred and twenty-five feet.

Townships 31, 32 and 33 north, of ranges 6, 7 and 8 east, are remarkable for the abnormal and broken condition of the rocks.

Ledges with large cracks and cavernous fissures, sink-holes or basins, in many of which streams of considerable size disappear, and exceptional dip in the rocks in various directions.

A ledge of limestone, fifty feet high, occurs in the south part of section 35, in town 33 north, of range 7 east, faced on the north by a small lake, whore can be seen large cracks and cavernous partings partly filled with detritus.

These openings in the rocks run with the strike, sometimes for one-fourth of a mile.

The dip could not be well ascertained.

North of the partings, the rocks were much broken up, but south of the partings they dip in some places, slightly to the southwest.

The strike bears southeast for about half a mile, in a well-defined cliff, and then becomes very much broken and irregular, and which is very distinctly marked on the section line between sections 1 and 2, in town 32 north, of range 7 east.

This ledge is traced in a northwest direction, into the northeast quarter of section 33, where it is about fifty feet high, and faced on the northeast by a long but narrow lake, apparently very deep.

Here, again, are large partings in the rocks, and cavernous chambers, similar to the former, but the rocks are more broken and irregular.

Here the dip appeared to the west, and the strike bending round the west side of the lake, had a trend southeast and north twenty degrees west.

In the northwest quarter of section 16, town 32 north, of range 7 east, occurs a similar ledge, about twenty feet high, and also faced on the northeast by a small lake.

Here are partings similar to those first mentioned.

In the northwest quarter of section 14, in town 32 north, of range 7 east, near the section line, is a very singular basin.

It is nearly round, two hundred feet or more in diameter, and about seventy feet deep.

It was tunnel-shaped for about forty feet, and then the rocks became perpendicular; reposing at the bottom in what appeared like a cavern, was a small lake of nice, clear water.

The writer did not examine the rocks, nor did he ascertain whether the water in the lake was in motion, or in repose.

In the southwest quarter of section 5, in the same town and range, is a stream eight feet wide, which approaches from the northwest, a cliff of limestone, about twenty feet high, and at the foot of this cliff is an irregular cavernous looking basin, about thirty feet deep, into which the stream descends and disappears at the bottom.

But the most remarkable basin in this vicinity is the one known as “Sunken Lake,” on the west side of section 32, in town 33 north, of range 6 east.

This is a wonderful and interesting locality, and affords a key, when placed in skillful hands, to unlock many, if not all, the geological mysteries attached to the Thunder Bay region.

When the writer visited this beautiful and interesting spot, in 1866, he was exploring for pine timber, and was not prepared, and did not examine anything critically or geologically.

All of his measurements and descriptions are only approximate, and are given to assist those who hereafter may desire to examine the several localities, from curiosity or for scientific purposes.

A few rods west of Sunken Lake, at this time, was a sink-hole of recent formation.

It was oval in form at the top, its major axis being about one hundred feet over, was perpendicular on its west side, and about seventy feet deep, with water at the bottom.

Commencing at the bottom and reaching up the side of the basin for thirty feet, was a coarse grained, buff colored, smooth, compact, argillaceous sandstone, and appeared to be the side of a fault in the sand rock.

Reposing upon this was about three feet of black slates, similar to those met with at Squaw Point; and resting upon these slates, and reaching to the surface, is a laminated limestone, from thirty to forty feet thick, well and variously stocked with fossils.

Near the west side of this “hole in the ground” the limestones commence to dip to the east, and plunge over the edge of the sandstone, at an angle of about sixty degrees, to the bottom of Sunken Lake, which is not less on the west side than seventy-five feet deep.

The rock continues under the lake as far as it could be traced.

Here is a very singular and extraordinary exceptional dip to the east; but what is still more singular, is, that the limestones are not cracked or broken, but lie over the precipice made by the faulted underlying rock, as though it had flowed over them in a soft state, and hardened on its passage, leaving a hollow space between them and the margin of the rock, forming a channel of a subterranean river.

The strike of these rocks was traced only about forty rods, bending to the east on the bottom sides of the lake, and forming the west half of Sunken Lake.

Between this downthrow and the more northern limestone is a valley filled with drift, composed of very coarse gravel, sand, clay, etc., with a few large boulders.

The North Branch of Thunder Bay river, which is thirty feet wide near Sunken Lake, and capable of floating saw-logs for twenty or more miles above the lake, in making its channel to Thunder Bay river, passes over a portion of this drift bed; and that portion of the drift between the channel of the river and the drift flanking the west side of the lake, being very porous, filled with water from the river, and was pressed with great force through the small cracks and seams in the limestones.

In time these holes through the rocks were made large enough to pass sand and small gravel, and then commenced the hollowing out of the lake.

The limestones becoming denuded, were split and crumbled by the frosts of winter, presented additional mouths to invite water from the river, until it quit its old bed, turned at right angles with its old channel, cut a new one for half a mile to the lake, and after making a few gyrations, sank beneath the rocks, to pass in subterranean darkness to the waters of Little Thunder Bay, where it is indefinitely ascertained that it emerges.

The apertures in the rocks are not yet large enough to admit the whole river in time of a freshet, and the surplus water returns to its old channel, affording the lumbermen a small chance to run their logs past this difficult place.

This subterranean stream, in all probability, follows the strike of the faulted sandstone, which we think bears about east-southeast from the lake.

At the same time the writer examined Sunken Lake, he discovered a very interesting sink-hole, or basin, somewhere about southeast from the lake, and thinks it was between sections 15 and 16, in town 31 north, of range 6 east.

It was situated in the midst of a heavy growth of sugar, beech and hemlock timber.

The hole was nearly round, and about two hundred feet in diameter.

The alluvium and drift was about fifty feet deep, and the cavern below was spacious enough to take this immense mass of matter and the large forest trees, and hide them in the chambers below; it had fallen entirely out of sight.

In sinking the first well in Alpena, the lithological structure was noted for 64.5 feet, and it is remarkable that after passing through the alluvinm and drift for 30 feet, and through only two feet of limestone, a quartz rock was reached, 18 feet thick, carrying copper, and perhaps gold.

If the records be true, the chances for gold would be better than for salt from the Saginaw basin.

Taking all these facts into consideration, we are drawn to the inevitable conclusion that the Saginaw salt group and the carboniferous limestones found in the lower basin, compose the nine hundred feet of rock piled up above the sandstones seen at Sunken Lake.

That the Saginaw salt lies in a valley between the two basins, and extending from Saginaw Bay to Muskegon.

That Alpena city and its immediate vicinity is on the outcropping edge of the northern geological basin, and below the Saginaw salt group; and that if salt is ever found here, it will be taken from the Onondaga salt group of rocks.

And now that roads have been made into the interior of the county, affording good facilities for reaching every part of it, that a few hundred dollars would be well expended by the county, in employing a competent geologist to make a proper survey of this most interesting portion of the Southern Peninsula.

ORGANIZATION.

At the time the public surveys were made in Alpena, Presque Isle and Cheboygan counties, all that part of the peninsula was known as the Thunder Bay region, and was attached to Mackinac County, for judicial purposes.

In 1854 or ’55, the land district was divided, and a Land Office was established at the village of Duncan City, in Cheboygan County.

Subsequently these land districts were sub-divided, with offices at Traverse City, East Saginaw, Ionia, and Detroit, Alpena County being in the Detroit district.

In 1840, boundaries were made, and names given to twenty-nine northern counties.

One of these counties was named after an ancient chief of the Thunder Bay band of Indians—”An-a-ma-kee,” or Thunder.

The name was changed to Alpena, in 1843, but for what reason, is not known to the writer, but he thinks the name a phonetic rendering of the word “Aw-pe-na,” which – means Partridge, in the Indian language.

The point of land between Squaw Bay and Alpena is known by the Indians as “Aw-pe-na-sing,” or Partridge Point, and the name of Alpena was probably taken from the name of this point, through the influence of the Hon. Henry Ashman, who was well acquainted with the Thunder Bay coast, spoke the Indian language, and was subsequently a member of the State Legislature, from Midland county.

In seems to be a word of recent coinage, as the writer can find no place on the globe of the same name.

The word should be spelled “Awpena,” to mean Partridge, and if rendered into English, as it is now spelled, would be, “not quite a Partridge.”

In speaking of Squaw Bay, reminds the writer of the origin of the name.

Places sometimes receive their names from trifling circumstances.

The writer named the bay “Squaw Bay,” from the following incident: In the winter of 1850 or 51.

Robert McMullen was traveling across the bay and when about the middle of it.

He discovered some one fishing through a hole in the ice; and on approaching near, he found it to be Na-o-tay-ke-zhiek-co-quay, the daughter of the old Chief Mich-e-ke-wis, who was then camped on Partridge Point .

The Indian maiden was fishing, with her head covered with a blanket, and when she heard approaching footsteps, she bounded to her feet, with a frightened look, and without waiting for any apology from Me, she started for the point, with the fleetness of the antelope.

When McMullen told the writer of his adventure, he said to him: “We will call that bay ‘Squaw Bay,’ and since that time it has been known by that name.

In 1853, Cheboygan County was organized, and Montmorency, Presque Isle, Alpena, Oscoda and Alcona counties were attached to Cheboygan County, for judicial and municipal purposes.

In the spring of 1855, the first assessment of taxes was made in Alpena County.

The assessor from Cheboygan came as far as Presque Isle, and returned, having assessed the whole territory, without seeing any of it, as many assessors have done since, and are now doing in most of the northern counties.

No tax was collected in Alpena County for this year.

In 1856, the second assessment, and the first collection of taxes, was made by Cheboygan county, and which tax so collected, amounted to a little over five hundred dollars.

After making the Bailey purchase, the proprietors deemed it advisable to have a county organization for the success and convenience of their enterprise; but it required considerable “cheek” to ask the State Legislature to organize a county where it was a dense wilderness, and where men had to be immigrated to hold the offices for conducting the first election, and where there was only one resident freeholder in the district sought to be organized.

It also required not a little courage, end liberality, to incur at such a time, the expense of organizing and running a new county, where their property would eventually have to pay a large proportion of the expense.

In order to make a fair showing before the State Legislature, the proprietors, in 1856, came to Thunder Bay river, bringing with them E. A. Breakenridge, a surveyor, to make a temporary survey of a village, to give it a name, and ascertain where the two squares were that they intended to offer to donate to the county, as a site for the county buildings, in the event of, and as an inducement for establishing the county seat at this place.

This was in the year of the Fremont campaign, and Messrs. Fletcher, Lockwood and Breakenridge, being “Fremont men,” and the Canada parties, Messrs.

Oldfield and Minor, having no prejudices; they had resolved to call the prospective village “Fremont.”

They had brought with them a Fremont flag, which they raised on a pole when naming the town.

Daniel Carter

Daniel Carter was one of the party, but being opposed to Fremont, he refused to help raise the pole, declaring that he “would not help raise a flag that he would not support.”

He moved his family to Thunder Bay River in November, 1856, and the same fall obtained signers to a petition for the organization of the county of Alpena.

In regard to this petition, Mr. Carter says, in a letter to G. N. Fletcher, under date of February 14th, 1857: “I got the petition, and went up and down the shore, and the folks were all glad to see it.

I got fifty-one names.

Mr. Harrison, owner of the mill at the Highlands, would not sign it.

He wants the county seat at his place, or be set in Saginaw district.”

In February, 1857, through the energy of the proprietors and the personal efforts of Hon. J. K. Lockwood, the Legislature passed the following act, organizing the county of Alpena:

An Act to Organize the County of Alpena, and to locate the County Seat thereof.

Sec. 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, that the county of Alpena shall be organized and the inhabitants there of entitled to all the rights and privileges to which, by law, the inhabitants of other organized counties of this State are entitled.

Sec. 2. The county seat of said county is hereby established at the village of Fremont, at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, in said county: Provided, That the proprietors of lands therein shall convey to said county, for the exclusive use thereof, for county buildings and county purposes, free of all charge, the following described lots, to wit: Two entire blocks, each twenty-four rods square, lying between Eighth and Ninth streets, and River and Lockwood streets, in the village of Fremont, as surveyed by E. A. Breakenridge, Esq., in the year (1856) eighteen hundred and fifty-six, on section twenty-two (22), in town thirty-one (31) north, of range eight (8) east, in said county.

Sec. 3. There shall be elected in said county of Alpena, on the first Tuesday of November, eighteen hundred and fiftyseven (1857), all the several county officers to which, by law, the said county is entitled; and said election shall, in all respects, be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law, for holding elections for county and State officers: Provided, That the county officers so to be elected, shall be qualified, and enter upon the duties of their respective offices, on the first (1) Monday of January, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight (1858), and whose term of office will expire at the time prescribed by the general law.

Sec. 4. The board of canvassers of said county, under this act, shall consist of the presiding inspectors of election from each township therein; and said inspectors shall meet at said village of Fremont, on the first Tuesday after the election, and organize, by appointing one of their number chairman, and another secretary of said board, and shall thereupon proceed to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers, as in other cases of election for county and State officers.

Sec. 5. The Sheriff and County Clerk, elected by the provisions of this act, shall designate a place in the village of Fremont for holding the Circuit Court in said county, and also suitable places for the several county offices, as near as practicable to the place designated for holding the Circuit Court; and they shall make and subscribe a certificate, in writing, describing the several places designated, which certificate shall be filed and preserved by the County Clerk; and thereafter the places thus designated shall be the places of holding the Circuit Court and the county offices, until the Board of Supervisors provide suitable accommodations for said court and county offices.

Sec. 6. The counties of Alcona, Oscoda, Montmorency, and that portion of the county of Presque Isle lying east of range 4 east, be and the same are attached to the county of Alpena, for judicial and municipal purposes.

Sec. 7. All acts, and parts of acts, contravening the provisions of this act, the same are hereby repealed.

Approved Feb. 7th, 1857.

Mr. Lockwood, finding that “the presiding inspectors of elections from each township therein,” referred to in the fourth section of the above act, had declared “non est inventus,” procured, ten day later in the session, the passage of an act, as an amendment to the fourth section of the first act, which is as follows:

Sec. 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, That this act shall stand in lieu of section four (4) of said act, and that Daniel Carter, Harvey Harwood and D. D. Oliver are hereby made and constituted a board of county canvassers, who shall act as inspectors of election; and said inspectors shall meet at the said village of Fremont, on the first Tuesday after the election, and appoint one of their number chairman, and another secretary of said board, and shall thereupon proceed to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers, as in other cases of election of county and State officers, and shall have the power to act as a Board of Supervisors in and for said county, for the organization of townships therein, and for other purposes, and to hold their office until there be three organized townships in said county, and until other supervisors are elected and qualified: And provided, that that the first Board of Supervisors of Alpena country hold their offices until three towns were organized in the county, and to fill any vacancy in the board, if one should occur.

After being duly notified of their appointment, and about the first of Jane, 1857, the members of the new Board of Supervisors for the county of Alpena, met for business, and organized by making Daniel Carter chairman, and. having no County clerk, D. D, Oliver was made secretary.

Mr. Harwood soon moved out of the county, and left the chairman and secretary to have it their own way.

They were both inexperienced in county business, and were at least one hundred miles from a precedent; without books, or anything to guide them in their new position; and not a man in the county that could legally administer an oath, and but one in the county who knew anything about township business, and his knowledge done them no good us as Board of Supervisors, and they had no townships organized; but something must be done by the Board of Supervisors, and they did it as well as they could.

The first and most important business before the board, was to settle with the neighboring Board of Supervisors of Cheboygan County, and get back a part, if they could, of the $500 tax which the county of Cheboygan had collected of Alpena County and its territory the preceding winter.

Carter and Oliver made two trips to Cheboygan, in a sail boat, at a large expense, to meet the supervisors there, who avoided them, and they failed to make a settlement.

Oliver then went to Lansing, and had a talk with the Auditor General, in regard to the matter, who told him if he would forward certain papers from Cheboygan, before the fourth day of July, 1857, he would charge back the tax to Cheboygan county, and credit Alpena county with the same.

Oliver then made another expensive trip to Cheboygan, procured the necessary papers, and sent them to Lansing; but heard nothing from the Auditor General, until he was threatened with publication, and then he received the following letter:

Auditor General’s Office,

Lansing, Nov. 13th, 1857.

D. D. Oliver, Esq.

Dear Sir:—I have just received your letter of the 11th inst. I am not conscious of any neglect in answering your letters. I received your letter of July 10th, with statement of the Board of Supervisors of Alpena county and certain transcripts from the records of Cheboygan County. I answered you at once, stating that I had not the power to help your county, referring you to Sec. 99 of the Tax Laws of 1848, as giving the Auditor such, and all the power he has to cancil the sale of lands. You wrote me again on the 21st August, which was attended to by repeating the answer made to yours of July 10th. I understand a letter was received, in my absence, a few days since, and which has been mislaid, but from what I learn of its contents, I could have answered only as heretofore, that I have not the power to do what you wanted me to do.

I am, very respectfully,

Signed,’ ‘WHITNEY JONES, Aud. Gen’l.

This letter from the Auditor General explains the inwardness of the whole matter, and closed up the tax business between Cheboygan and Alpena counties.

The next business before the Board of Supervisors, was the organization of the town of Fremont, but the board could not act without a petition, and as there was not freeholders enough to sign the petition, the organization of the township was tabled, to wait for the further growth of the place.

The next care of the board, was to provide suitable books for the county records, and to obtain the statutes from the Secretary of State, and other matters, as the following letter from the writer to G. N. Fletcher, Esq., will show:

Detroit, Nov. 18th, 1857.

G. N. Fletcher.

Dear Sir:—A small craft, chartered by Craig & Bro., left for Sugar Island, the night I arrived down. I told them you wished to send something up, but could not tell how much, or what it was. I shall leave for the upper country in a few days, and would like to meet you before I go. I learn by some persons from the shore, that the vessel arrived there safely, and that it brought but little, and took most of the folks away with her. I have written to the Governor, to appoint a Notary Public, and also written to the Secretary of State, for some books. I hope to get returns in two or .three days. What is to be done about the county books? If they go up this fall, they must go up soon. I think you had better come down and see what can be done, for I cannot get them. I am using my time and money in doing the county business, and that is all I feel able to do.

Yours respectfully,

Signed, D. D. OLIVER

To be a supervisor then, was to work without pay and pay your own expenses; and it wore the seat from many a pair of supervisor’s pants before the board became smooth enough to afford four dollars for six hours’ work, and step over to a full treasury and get your money.

In August of 1857, the schooner John Minor came into Thunder Bay river, bringing Mr. Addison F. Fletcher, who came in the interest of G. N. Fletcher, Esq., and who superintended the structure of a rough board store, which was located on Water street, at or near its junction with Second street, the schooner having brought the lumber for that purpose.

He –  A. F. F. – took an active part in the early affairs of the town and county, being the first clerk of both.

He assisted the writer in designing the seal of the Circuit Court, and suggested that, “If we have the river, we should have the pine trees.”

He, at one time, owned the best property and residence in the village of Alpena; but he never had much faith in the large growth of the place, and has, up to 1876, persisted in remaining a noun in the singular number.

In September, 1857, Mr. Joseph K. Miller came to Fremont, and with him came a number of settlers.

He was a man beyond the middle age; was well educated, and experienced in business.

He was a theologian of the severe school, and an inveterate hater of tobacco and whiskey.

He was from Boston, “The Hub of the World,” and having some fanciful notions of himself and the place he came from, he placed but little value in the people among whom he came to live.

He was very scrupulous in doing what he supposed to be right; but he differed with many of his neighbors in what was right.

It is evident that man has no standard of right and wrong, for what is right in one part of the world, is wrong in another part.

What is right in one nation, is wrong in another; what is right among one class of people, is wrong among another class; what is right in the manifestations of religion of one people, would be wrong in the manifestations of religion of another, and what would be right with one person, would be wrong with another.

Eight and wrong seem to be fictions, invented by parents, societies and nations, for their guide and government, and a person is said to be doing right when obeying those rules or laws, and doing wrong when violating them.

Right and wrong with the individual depends upon his phrenological make-up—his education and growth, and his surrounding influences.

These form the conscience which the individual is bound to and will obey.

In proof of the above remarks, the writer refers to the fifth chapter of Matthew, and the history of the political struggle between the northern and southern States, from 1860 to 1865.

Soon after Mr. Miller arrived in Fremont, he was appointed to fill the vacancy in the Board of Supervisors, made by the moving away of Harvey Harwood, Esq.; and now, the board, being full, was prepared to obey the organic law.

Without observing technicalities, the board proceeded to organize the township of Fremont.

This township was made to comprise the whole of Alpena County proper, and all the territory attached to it, for judicial and municipal purposes.

Mr. Miller, in a letter to George N. Fletcher, Esq., and dated at Fremont, Oct. 23d, 1857, says, in regard to the petition necessary to be presented to the Board of Supervisors:

“On examination of the statutes more minutely, I find it requires twelve freeholders to organize a township, as that number must petition the supervisors for organization.

We had one petition signed by sixteen electors, but there are only two freeholders among them all – Mr. Oliver and myself – so we must make ten of the others freeholders before the day of election, the first day of November.”

On the 4th day of November, 1857, as provided by the organic law, the first election took place in Alpena county, and the township officers entered upon the duties of their several offices as soon as they could be qualified, there being no person in the county who could legally administer the oath of office.

Mr. Miller says, in a letter to Mr. Fletcher, dated Nov. 4th, 1857: “We had our couty election to-day, and all passed off pleasantly and satisfactorily.

Addison, County Clerk; myself County Treasurer and Register of Deeds.

Our neighbors down the shore came up, and we had quite a respectable turn-out; one boatload from Messrs. Harris’ place, at the Highlands, and one from Black River.

If Addison has not left to return, tell him he must ascertain where he must go to be qualified for County Clerk, by taking the oath of office, and take it before coming up, as his services are wanted immediately.”

The official records of the election read as follows: “In pursuance of notice for the first township election, posted according to law, in the township of Fremont, in the county of Alpena, and State of Michigan, held on the fourth day of November, 1857: Present, David D. Oliver, Joseph K. Miller and Daniel Carter, the board of inspectors, appointed by the supervisors, to hold said election. Chose David D. Oliver, chairman of said board, and Joseph K. Miller, secretary, and appointed Addison Fletcher, clerk; also Isaac Wilson to officiate as constable for said election. Polls were opened, and the following persons were elected to the several township offices:

Supervisor—James S. Irwin.

Township Treasurer—Daniel Carter.

Township Clerk—Addison Fletcher. Highway Commissioners—Daniel Carter, David D. Oliver, James Thomas.

Justices of the Peace—Russell R. Woodruff, David D. Oliver, Lewis Atkins, Isaac Wilson.

School Inspectors—David D. Oliver, George B. Melville.

Constables—James Thomas, Robert Bowman, Willis Roe.

Pathmaster—William Sherman.

Signed, DAVID D. OLIVER, Chairman,

ADDISON FLETCHER, Clerk, –

J. K. MILLER, Secretary.

Isaac Wilson was from the Highlands, as the place was then known—now Harrisville; and Willis Roe was from Black River.

The following is a list of the county officers elected at the first election, held on the 4th day of November, 1857:

Sheriff—William R. Bowman.

County Clerk—A. F. Fletcher.

County Treasurer—J. K. Miller.

Register of Deeds—J. K. Miller.

County Surveyor—David D. Oliver.

Circuit Court Commissioner—David Plough.

Coroner—A. F. Fletcher.

It will be observed that in the list of township officers, the clerk is “Addison Fletcher,” and the clerk of the board of election has signed his name “Addison Fletcher,” while in the list of county officers his name is written “A. F. Fletcher.”

This discrepancy can be explained by saying the clerk of the board of election neglected to write his name in full.

At the general election, held on the 2nd day of November, 1858, the whole number of votes cast was thirty-five, and were all cast in favor of the general banking law.

The county officers were all re-elected; and party politics showed itself, only in the State ticket.

Moses Wisner, Republican, for Governor, received twenty votes, and Chas. E. Stewart, Democrat, for Governor, received fifteen votes; the balance of the State ticket run about the same, except for Representative in the State Legislature, and for that office, Daniel Carter, received twenty-one votes.

At the time Alpena County was organized, all the northern counties had been thrown into a Representative District, without any regard to their condition, location, or convenience.

The election returns for the district were to be made to Traverse City, in Grand Traverse County, that being the largest town in the district.

The people of Alpena County, finding it impracticable to make returns of election to Traverse City, in time to Joe used in the canvass, resolved to have the pleasure of voting for a Representative peculiarly their own, and so gave their first vote for Daniel Carter.

In 1860, Alpena having grown to some importance, resolved to send a Representative to the State Legislature, and request a seat for him in that body, not in opposition to the regular candidate for that office, who was a resident of Grand Traverse County, but conjointly with him, as the territory was ample for two districts, with divided interests.

Capt. A. E. Persons was nominated for this important and experimental position, and was elected, receiving nearly all the votes of Alpena County and its territory.

Captain Persons accepted the nomination and election, as complimentary, but was not a little surprised when requested by his constituents to go to Lansing.

He regarded the matter of going to Lansing but little better than a farce, and that, as a matter of course, he would be rejected.

But being assured and encouraged by his friends, who thought differently, and who agreed to fund his expenses, in case he was not seated, he made up his mind to “Try the thing on,” and prepared himself with his credentials; went to Lansing; presented himself at the bar of the House of Representatives; was administered the oath of office, and took his seat with as much freedom and matter of course as if he had been a regularly elected member from the oldest counties.

No questions were asked and he was addressed as “The member from Alpena.”

This affair, for boldness of conception and execution, has few if any precedents in the annals of legislation.

This gave importance and notoriety to Alpena, among her sister towns and brought tio her shore many seeking for labor, settlement, or speculation.

Captain Persons was a man of energy, with sound judgment, and kind and obliging manners.

He was a faithful friend to his Government daring the long struggle with rebellion, and by attending to the wants of his county, he gave pride and satisfaction to his friends and constituents.

Subsequently, the district was changed, and in 1867, was composed of the counties of Midland, Isabella, Iosco and Alpena and their territory.

The right of selecting a man for Representative from this new district was claimed by Alpena, and conceded by the other counties: and the Hon. James K. Lockwood was elected.

No better man could have been selected to take care of the scattered interests of this district, the combined population of which numbered about five thousand.

Ten years of experience had made him familiar with the wants of people living in new counties.

While he was a member of the Legislature, he did what he could for the scattered interests of his district, and gave general satisfaction.

He made a strong effort to secure the swamp lands to the exclusive use and benefit of the several counties in which they were located; but he was opposed by the southern districts, which had no swamp lands, and was defeated.

He was always a persistent guardian of the interests and well-being of Alpena, and ready at all times to encourage and assist in any and every enterprise that had for its object the improvement of the place.

When he now looks back over two decades, to the time he was lobbying for the organization of a county with only one resident freeholder in it, in contrast with the present city (1876) and county, with their organizations, improvements and wealth, he can feel a conscious pride that he was one of those who were instrumental in bringing around these grand results; and the writer thinks he sometimes whispers to himself, “Who thanks me for all this?

If I had done more for myself, and less for the county, I would be the better off for it.”

In 1874, the Hon. Worthy L. Churchill was elected a representative in the State Legislature, ostensibly from Alpena.

He was a young man, and mostly a stranger to the people of his district and their wants; had then but little interest in the growth of Alpena, and has the credit of being instrumental in defeating a bill for the appropriation of land to aid in the construction of a railroad from Alpena, and to connect with the Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw railway.

If this be true, the people of Alpena have reason to say to him, in spirit, as Balak said to Baalim, “I called thee to curse mine enemies, and behold, thou hast altogether blest them.”

The people becoming dissatisfied with the name of Fremont, petitioned the Legislature to change it to Alpena, and in February, 1859, it was so changed, by the following act:

An Act to change the name of the village of Fremont, in the comity of Alpena.

Sec. 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, that the name of the village of Fremont, in the county of Alpena, and State of Michigan, be and .the same is hereby changed to Alpena.

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately.

Approved February 29th, 1859.

The first township organized after Alpena, was Ossineke, in 1867.

Prior to this, Harrisville had been organized into a township, and subsequently was made the county seat of Alcona county.

The township of Corles was organized at the same time that Ossineke was, but lived only a brief period, and then returned to the embrace of Alpena.

The organic territory of Ossineke consisted of town 29 north, of ranges 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 east.

The first meeting was held at the boarding house of D. D. Oliver, on the first Monday in April, 1867, D. D. Oliver, George B. Melville and G. W. Hawkins being inspectors of election, and G. B. Melville to post notices.

The Board of Supervisors was now composed of Daniel Carter, of the county; Obed Smith, of Alpena; D. D. Oliver, of Ossineke, and L. R. Dorr, of Harrisville.

As soon as these towns were organized, Messrs. Carter and Oliver ceased to be county members of the Board of Supervisors, as by the law organizing the county of Alpena, their terms of office should expire as soon as three towns were organized in the county.

They bad been on the board together a full decade.

They differed in politics, Carter being a Democrat and Oliver a Republican; but they made it a standard principle never to allow party politics to interfere with the interests of the county.

They had always worked together in harmony, for the benefit of the Thunder Bay region, and especially Alpena; and now, when they retired from the Board of Supervisors, they did so with the consciousness of having performed the duties of their trust without fear or favor, and at all times to the best of their abilities.

They left no bonds for the county to provide for, except those given to the brave men who volunteered to help silence the thunders of a southern rebellion, and give freedom to three millions of slaves.

Their names are as follows: James J. Potter, Moses Bingham, Arthur Irwin, Denton Sellick, James Whalen, Frank Squires, John Kaufman, Solomon Evans, John Ellsworth, George Plude and John Dawson.

The township of Corles, having failed to keep up its organization, the Board of Supervisors was convened, on the 19th day of May, 1868, to take some action in regard to the matter.

James K. Lockwood, Ira Stout and David D. Oliver were appointed a committee to present the matter to Judge S. M. Green, for his advice.

The committee made its report to Judge Green, and the organization was restored to Corles.

At this session of the board, a resolution was passed, to purchase a piece of land at Harrisville, on which to erect buildings for a poor house and farm, at a cost of $5,000, to be raised by tax of SI,000 a year, until paid.

The board at this session was composed of Ira Stout, of Alpena; Lawrence R. Dorr, of Harrisville, and David D. Oliver, of Ossineke, Oliver having been elected Supervisor of that township.

Sometime in 1868, the township of Alcona was organized; and after the spring election of 1869, the Board of Supervisors was composed of the following gentlemen: James K. Lockwood, of Alpena; L. R. Dorr, of Harrisville; D. Stewart, of Corles; E. R. Haynes, of Alcona, and David D. Oliver, of Ossineke.

On the 20th of May, 1870, the Board of Supervisors was called together, for the purpose of organizing the township of Rogers, in Presque Isle County.

Heretofore Alpena had taken the lead of all the towns, in political matters; but now a shadow was stealing over it, calculated to injure, if not to crush it.

During the past winter, Alcona County had been organized, taking with it the unorganized county of Oscoda and the organized towns of Harrisville and Alcona; and the township of Corles having failed to keep up its organization, it left only two organized towns in the county of Alpena, the Supervisors of which were Charles W. Richardson, of Alpena Township, and George J. Robinson, of Ossineke.

The petition for the organization of the township of Rogers was signed by many of the best men in Alpena, they little dreaming that they were furnishing means for much annoyance, if not for their own destruction.

A remonstrance had been made, but Supervisor Robinson had it his own way, and wishing to befriend Mr. Molitor, organized the township.

Alpena, like the bird after which it was named—partridge—had now grown to good size, and had grown fat and plump, under the fostering care of its old guardians, was now watched by a number of Hawks, who were only waiting for its protectors to be absent, to pounce upon and gobble it up.

One of these Hawks had his nest at Rogers City, and another at Ossineke, and a third had a temporary nest in Alpena, but carried all his spoils to a more permanent one, in Canada.

After considerable maneuvering, the time came for the descent, when the bird dodged under a city charter, and was safe.

The Board of Supervisors again met on the 20th of September, 1870, and there were then present, Chas. W. Richardson, of Alpena; George J. Robinson, of Ossineke, and Albert Molitor, of Rogers City, and the Clerk.

At this session commenced a series of aggressions by the majority of the board, which was so continued that it compelled the people to seek relief in a city organization.

In a speech made by Hon. Seth L. Carpenter, at a caucus held in the Evergreen Hall, March 29th, 1871, where the people threw aside party politics to put in nomination the best men from both parties to fill the first offices of the new city, and at which caucus he, who was nominated for the first Mayor, said: “So far the organization of the city of Alpena has been a necessity, urged upon us by the aggressive majority of our Board of Supervisors, whom we charitably believe misrepresented the small minority of the inhabitants of the county.

But their aggressions have been of such a character as to drive our citizens en masse, without regard to party politics, to seek relief by a city organization.”

Among the aggressive acts of the Board of Supervisors, passed at this session, and subsequently, before the 20th of January, 1871, were resolutions giving the Sheriff the illegal salary of $1,000 per year; to the County Clerk the large salary of $1,200 per year; to the County Treasurer $1,000, and the Prosecuting Attorney $1,000 per year.

They detached large territory from Alpena, and attached the same to the townships of Ossineke and Rogers.

They considered favorably a petition of J. B. Tuttle and S. E. Hitchcock, for locating a site for a court house on lauds belonging to Hitchcock, and for raising money for building the same.

They also passed a resolution, making S. L. Carpenter, George J. Robinson and Albert Molitor a board of commissioners of immigration; and, also, “It shall be the duty of said board to encourage immigration, by such measures as they may, in their discretion, deem proper.”

Supervisor Robinson offered a resolution to purchase a tract of land at Ossineke, for the poor farm.

After these aggressions  had been continued for some time, the citizens of Alpena became alarmed, and held several meetings, to determine what course to pursue.

They finally held a meeting on the 8th day of February, 1871, “To take into consideration the propriety of having a city corporation.

At this meeting, William Jenney, Esq., was called to the chair, and P. M. Johnson was made secretary.

The meeting passed a resolution, requesting the Board of Supervisors “To take no action for the purpose of incorporating the village of Alpena.”

A committee was appointed by the chair, to draft a charter for the city, to be presented to the people of Alpena, for their consideration. Messrs. S. L. Carpenter, J. H. Stevens, J. A. Case, A. W. Comstock, D. McRae,

J. D. Holmes and A. Hopper were appointed such committee.

They were instructed to present such charter to the adjourned meeting.

“The deficiencies of our present township government’ were the cause which led to these proceedings.

Soon after the committee report was made, a petition was signed by one hundred and twenty-one citizens of Alpena, and forwarded to Lansing, asking the State Legislature for a city corporation.

A remonstrance was also sent, signed by forty-nine persons; and Mr. Bostwick and five others who signed the petition, also signed the remonstrance, saying, “They did not know the character of the petition when they signed it.”

An efficient corps of lobbyists accompanied the petition, and it was not long before the attention of the Legislature was given to the pressing demands of the citizens of Alpena, and a charter was granted them, the first section of which reads as follows: “That so much of the township of Alpena, in the county of Alpena, as is included in the following described territory: The southwest quarter of section 13, the south half of sections 14, 15 and 16, the whole of sectons 21, 22 and 28, the west fractional half of section 24, and fractional sections 23, 26 and 27, in town 31 north, of range 8 east, in the State of Michigan, be and the same is hereby set off from said township of Alpena, and declared to be a city, by the name of the City of Alpena, by which name it shall hereafter be known; and by that name may sue, and be sued, implede and be impleded, complain and defend in any court of competent jurisdiction.

May have a common seal, and alter it at pleasure, and may take, hold, purchase, lease, convey and dispose of any real, personal and mixed estate, for the use of said corporation.”

The law provided also, that there should be three wards in the city, and so giving it three Supervisors.

The city charter provided, also, that the annual election of city officers shall be held on the first Monday of April of each year. The Mayor, Comptroller and Treasurer were to be elected annually; the Recorder every two years, and the full term of the Justice of the Peace was three years.

On the ward tickets two Aldermen were to be elected at the first election, one for one year and one for two years, and thereafter one.

Alderman to be elected each year, and to hold office for two years; the Common Council to be composed of the Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen; The officers to be appointed by the Common Council were Attorney, Marshal, Street Com missioner, Director of the Poor, and Engineers of the Fire Department.

At the first city election, the following gentlemen were elected to fill the first offices: Seth L. Carpenter, for Mayor; Abram Hopper, for Recorder; James A. Case, for Comptroller; Albert L. Power, for Treasurer; George Richardson, Justice of the Peace for three years, and Ira Stout for two years.

In the First ward, Alexander McDonald, for Supervisor; George Richardson, for Alderman two years; John H. Stevens, for Alderman for one year, and Frank Drew for Constable.

In the Second ward, James J. Potter, for Supervisor; Henry S. Seage, for Alderman for two years; Ira Stout, for Alderman for one year, and Richard Campbell, for Constable.

In the Third ward, James McTavish, for Supervisor; Samuel Boggs, for Alderman for two years; Gordon Davis, for Alderman for one year, and Timothy Crowley, for Constable.

The incorporation of the city was thought, at the time, to be a fearful experiment; that it would subject the citizens to a large increase of taxes, and result in financial ruin and death.

But this was their only alternative, and the people preferred to take the chances of committing suicide, than to endure uncertain torture and ruin that threatened them by the aggressive acts of the majority of the Board of Supervisors. Contrary to the expectations of the most hopeful, the experiment has proved a success, paying for all it cost, if not more.

The city government, with few exceptions, has been conducted with wisdom and economy, and if the citizens have to pay more taxes, they have more conveniences and better protection for life and property.

While it required the united efforts of all the people to make the experiment a success, yet the city is largely indebted to the integrity, economy and perseverance of its executive officers, who were leading business men, and personally interested in the growth and prosperity of the city.

Their names are given in succession, up to and including the centennial year of 1876.

The first Mayor was Seth L. Carpenter; the second Mayor was Albert Pack; the third Mayor was Andrew W. Comstock, and the fourth Mayor is George L. Maltz.

The following is a list of city officers in 1876: Mayor, Geo. L. Maltz; Recorder, A. R. McDonald; Comptroller, J. D. Turnbull; Treasurer, Charles B. Greely; Justices of the Peace, Paul Dane, A. R. McDonald and Chas. A. D’Aigle.

Supervisors—First ward, Thomas G. Spratt; Second ward, Ira Stout; Third ward, Marshall N. Bedford. Aldermen—First ward, Charles H. Rice and George Richardson; Second ward, James Tims and J. P. Healy; Third ward, Jason Gillett and J. D. Sheahy. Board of Education—First ward, B. F. Starbird and H. R. Morse; Second ward, J. C. Viall and Ira Stout; Third ward, Paul Dane and D. McRae.

City Attorney, V. C. Burnham; City Marshal, Douglass Scott; Chief Engineer, A. L. Power.

The incorporation of the city had detached a large portion of the inhabitants from the township of Alpena, yet there remained enough to keep up the organization, and N. M. Brackinreed was elected Supervisor.

He was a good scholar, a persevering business man, and well calculated to build up the much reduced interests of the township.

On May 8th, 1871, the Board of Supervisors of Alpena county, met for business, it being the first session of the board after the city election, and was composed of the following members: N. M. Brackinreed, of Alpena; A. McDonald, First ward, city; J. J. Potter, Second ward, city; J. McTavish, Third ward, city; G. J. Robinson, Ossineke, and Albert Molitor, Rogers.

At this session Messrs. Robinson and Molitor were absent.

The Hawks did not care to meet the bird they had so much sought to maim or destroy, which, retaining its name, had changed to an Eagle of formidable dimensions, and on which the Hawks could now have but little impression.

One of the Hawks, through the influence of the people of Alpena, who wished to be rid of him, obtained a quasi organization of the county of Presque Isle, where he continued to depredate, until he became so intolerable that he was shot. But little inquiry has been made in regard to who it was that did the shooting, the people all seeming to say, “Sic semper tyrannis.”

On the 15th of March, 1873, the Board of Supervisors met for the purpose of erecting two townships—one to be called Long Rapids, and the other Wilson. The territory embraced in the township of Long Rapids is as follows: The north half of town 31 north, of ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 east, and the whole of town 32 north, of ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 east. The first annual meeting was to be held at the Jones school house, in the Louden settlement, on the 7th day of April, 1873. W. H. Marston, J. 0. Carr and John Louden were appointed to act as a board of inspectors of election, and William E. Jones to post notices.

The territory embraced in the township of Wilson was as follows: Commencing at the southeast corner of section 36, in town 30 north, of range 7 east, running thence northerly on the town line between ranges 7 and 8 east, to the northeast corner of section 1, in town 30 north, of range 7 east; thence easterly on town line to the southeast corner of section 36, town 31 north, of range 7 east; thence northerly on town line, to the northeast corner of section 24, in town 31 north, of range 7 east; thence westerly on section line, to the meridian; southerly on meridian line, to the southwest corner of section 31, in town 30 north, of range 1 east; thence easterly on town line, to the place of beginning.

The first annual meeting was to be held at the boarding house, on the Luce farm, on the 7th day of April, 1873. Noble M. Brackinreed, George Herron and Charles B. Greely were made inspectors of election, and X. M. Brackinreed to post notice of election.

The members comprising the board at this time, and who voted for the erection of these townships, were, G. J. Robinson, of Ossineke; X. M. Brackinreed, of Alpena; D. McRae.

City Comptroller; A. L. Power, First ward, and John D. Potter, Second ward.

At the end of this chapter is given a list of the county officers and a list, also, of the several township officers from the time of their organization, up to and including the centennial year of 1876, so far as the writer is in possession of the facts.

This is done for the benefit of those who may wish to use this work for reference.

The first officers elected in the township and county of Alpena, are given in full before in this chapter, and also the city officers of 1876.

COUNTY OFFICERS ELECTED IN 1860.

Representative in State Legislature, from Alpena county— Alonzo E. Persons.

Sheriff—John W. Glennie.

County Clerk—David D. Oliver.

Register of Deeds—Abram Hopper.

County Treasurer—David Plough.

Prosecuting Attorney—Oliver T. B. Williams.

Judge of Probate—David D. Oliver.

Circuit Court Commissioner—Oliver T. B. Williams.

County Surveyor—David D. Oliver.

Coroners—Levi O. Harris and Hugh Johnson.

ALPENA TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1865.

Supervisor—J. K. Lockwood.

Township Clerk—A. Hopper.

Township Treasurer—H. R. Morse.

Justice of the Peace—Martin Minton.

Commissioner of Highways—S. E. Hitchcock.

 

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1863 AND 1864.

Sheriff—A. J. Gary.

County Treasurer—David Plough.

Judge of Probate—J. B. Tuttle.

Prosecuting Attorney—Obed Smith.

County Clerk—Robert White.

Register of Deeds—Abram Hopper.

Circuit Court Commissioner—J. B. Tuttle.

County Surveyor—David D. Oliver.

Coroners—Samuel E. Hitchcock and Josiah Frink.

County Supervisors—-D. D. Oliver and Daniel Carter.

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1865 AND 1866.

Sheriff—J. C. Parke.

County Treasurer—David Plough.

Judge of Probate—J. B. Tuttle.

Prosecuting Attorney—Obed Smith.

County Clerk—Robert White.

Register of Deeds—A. Hopper.

Circuit Court Commissioner—J. B, Tuttle.

County Surveyor—David D. Oliver.

Coroners—S. E. Hitchcock and Josiah Frink,

ALPENA TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1867.

Supervisor—James K. Lockwood.

Township Clerk—A. Hopper.

Township Treasurer—James A. Case.

 

Justices of the Peace—Obed Smith, four years; Frederick N. Barlow, three years.

Highway Commissioner—James Cavanagh,

ALPENA TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1868.

Supervisor—Ira Stout.

Township Clerk—A. Hopper.

Township Treasurer—J. A. Case.

School Inspector—A. W. Comstock.

 

Justices of the Peace—James Cavanagh: to fill vacancy of F. N. Barlow, Meade X. S. Macartney; to fill vacancy of Martin Minton, P. M. Johnson.

Highway Commissioners—Samuel Boggs and Thos. Murray.

Constables—Timothy Crowley, John McKay and Thomas Gillan.

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1867 AND 186S.

Sheriff—Orin Erskine.

County Treasurer—Josiah Frink.

Judge of Probate—J. B. Tuttle.

Prosecuting Attorney—Obed Smith.

County Clerk—Fulton Bundy.

Register of Deeds—A. Hopper.

Circuit Court Commissioner—Truman P. Tucker.

County Surveyor—P. M. Johnson.

Coroners—J. W. Glennie and L. V. Vincent.

ALPENA TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1869.

Supervisor—James K. Lockwood.

Township Clerk—Abram Hopper.

Township Treasurer—A. L. Power.

Justice of the Peace—J. A. Case.

Highway Commissioner—Thomas Murray.

School Inspector—F. N. Barlow.

Constables—Timothy Crowley and Wm. Andrews.

ALPENA TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1870.

Supervisor—Charles W. Richardson. Township Clerk—Abram Hopper. Township Treasurer—Albert L. Power. Justice of the Peace—Ira Stout. Highway Commissioner —Daniel Carter. School Inspector—Andrew W. Comstock. Constables—William E. Rice, Fulton Bundy, E. K. Potter and Orin Erskine.

Overseers of Highways—First district, George Richardson; third district, Albert Merrill; fourth district, Geo. C. Herron; fifth district, James O. Carr.

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1869 AND 1870.

Sheriff—James Cavanagh.

County Treasurer—-Abram Hopper.

Judge of Probate—David Plough.

Prosecuting Attorney—Obed Smith.

County Clerk—F. Bundy.

Register of Deeds—James A. Case.

Circuit Court Commissioner—Obed Smith.

County Surveyor—John Lyman.

Coroners—James J. Potter and Isaac Wilson.

OSSINEKE TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1868.

Supervisor—David D. Oliver.

Township Treasurer—George J. Robinson.

Township Clerk—Fayette Jones.

Justices of the Peace—Charles E. Blauchard aud Dougald Me Arthur.

Highway Commissioners—David Oliver and Amasa Chaffee.

Constables—John Ellsworth and Amasa Chaffee.

School Inspectors—-David D. Oliver and R. E. Gallup.

 

OSSINEKE TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1869,

Supervisor—David D. Oliver.

Township Treasurer—George B. Melville.

Township Clerk—Reuben E. Gallup.

Highway Commissioners—William Cole, Joseph Reed and John Riddle.

Justices of the Peace—Joseph H. Parsons, Samuel Ellsworth aud Robert B. Oliver.

OSSINEKE TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1870.

Supervisor—George J. Robinson.

Township Treasurer—John Ellsworth.

Township Clerk—Alonzo Randall.

Highway Commissioners—A. M. Chaffee, Jeremiah Patnod and Duncan McKillop.

Justices of the Peace—Samuel Ellsworth. Duncan McKillop, Jeremiah Patnod and William Shortland.

School Inspectors—G. J. Robinson and D. McKillop.

Constables—J. J. McFall, James Powers and William Johnson.

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1871 AND 1872.

Sheriff—James Cavanagh.

County Clerk—Seth L. Carpenter.

County Treasurer—Abram Hopper.

Prosecuting Aitorney—J. B. Tuttle.

Register of Deeds—Alex. McDonald.

Circuit Court Commissioner—J. H. Stevens.

County Surveyer—T. McGinn.

Coroners—D. Carter and . Simons.

 

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1873 AND 1874.

Sheriff—Thomas B. Johnston.

County Treasurer—A. Hopper.

County Clerk—Chas. N. Cornel?.

Prosecuting Attorney—V. C. Burnham.

County Surveyor—Thomas White.

Register of Deeds—A. McDonald,

Circuit Court Commissioner—John H- Stevens.

ALPENA COUNTY OFFICERS, 1875 AND 1876.

Sheriff—Thomas B. Johnston.

County Treasurer—Abram Hopper.

County Clerk—Charles N. Cornell.

Register of Deeds—Alex. McDonald.

Prosecuting Attorney—V. C. Burnham,

County Surveyor—Thomas White.

Circuit Court Commissioner—John H. Stevens.

ALPENA TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1876.

At the spring election, seventy-six votes were cast in this township.

Supervisor—James A. Case.

Township Clerk—Conrad Wessel.

Township Treasurer—Henry L. Oppenborn.

Highway Commissioner—Patrick Egan.

Justices of the Peace—Richard Naylor, James B. White, William Lumsden and William Pulford.

School Inspector—James Glennie.

Constables—Walter Gavagan, Jeremiah Sears, Chas. Cook and Chas. Gierke.

LONG RAPIDS ‘TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1876.

At the spring election, this township cast one hundred votes; nearly three times as many as was cast in the county of Alpena and all her territory in 1858.

Supervisor—John Ferguson.

Township Clerk—Joseph Cavanagh.

Township Treasurer—Darwin J. Soper.

Justices of the Peace—H. Hodgins, W. W. Hicks, James O. Carr and A. AV. McFarland.

Commissioner of Highways—David McNeil.

School Inspector—Albert Milton.

Constables—Charles Keating, John McMillen and John Vance.

WILSON TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1S7C.

This township cast sixty votes. at the spring election,

Supervisor—Noble M. Brackinreed.

Township Clerk—Pardon BuelL

Townsbip Treasurer—John McSorley.

Justices of the Peace—J. McSorley, George M. Green. Jas. Kimball and George C. Herron.

Highway Commissioner—Richard M. Cornell.

School Inspector—X. M. Brackinreed.

Constables—Thomas Smith, Robert McLeod, Joseph Wviuan and Daniel F. Carr.

OS8INEKE TOWNSHIP OFFICERS, 1876.

Snpervisor—Israel G. Sanborn.

Township Clerk—Chris Rimer.

Township Treasurer—

David Oliver

 

Justices of the Peace—Israel G. Sanborn, David Oliver, Jas. Lewis and John Force.

Highway Commissioner—John E. Sanborn.

School Inspector—Martin Benjamin.

Constables—Andrew Poths, James Lenox, John P. Profrock and Thomas Sampson.

GEORGE N. FLETCHER

GEORGE N. FLETCHER – ONE OF THE FIRST TO ENGAGE IN THE LUMBER BUSINESS, AND WHO WAS CHIEFLY INSTRUMENTAL IN THE RAPID GROWTH OF ALPENA, MICHIGAN.

IMPROVEMENTS.

The “Jay House,” built in the fall of 1844, as mentioned in Chapter I, was built near the corner of River and First Streets.

In the fall of 1846, a party of four families of French halfbreeds, came from Mackinaw to the mouth of Thunder Bay river, for the purpose of hunting and trapping.

They occupied the “Jay House,” and built two others.

Of course, they could not be called settlers, for they came there only to spend the winter, and went away again in the spring.

Walter Scott came to Thunder Bay River in 1851, for the purpose of fishing and trading with the Indians. He moved away in 1857, and so did not become a settler.

The first settler that came to Fremont, was Daniel Carter, who moved his family to Thunder Bay river in the fall of 1856.

He came in the interest of G. N. Fletcher, and was accompanied by a few men, who came to work during the winter.

Mr. Carter’s family consisted of wife and daughter, and were the first resident ladies of Fremont.

Mr. Carter and men chopped a narrow strip of timber, on both sides of the river, and cut the timber in Thunder Bay River, nearly up to the South Branch, with a view of clearing it for running logs.

This was the first work done, looking toward the improvement of the place.

When A. F. Fletcher came to Fremont, in 1857, a number of mechanics came with him.

He brought lumber for building a store and boarding house, and under date of August 30th, he writes to G. N. Fletcher, Esq., and says: “I arrived safely here Wednesday noon, and found Mr. Carter at home.

He had been to Duncan, had not commenced the boarding house, but we will have it up day after to-morrow.

I am building that and the store a little stronger than you spoke of, as Dan. says it would not last through the winter, if I did not.

We cannot tell where the store ought to be, but will get it as near as possible.”

At this time only a temporary survey of the town had been made, and for this reason, it was impossible to know where to place the building.

In September of the same year, John McNevins came to Fremont with some men, to make some timber for a mill dam, to be erected across Thunder Bay river; but the work was soon after discontinued, on account of the unparalleled depression in financial matters.

It may be well to remark, that the year that Alpena county was organized and assumed a place among the sister counties of the State, was remarkable as being the most depressing year, financially, that this country ever saw; business being good in 1856, when placed in contrast with 1857.

The following letter, written by John Oldfield, Esq., to George N. Fletcher, and dated Dunville, Ontario, Oct. 14th, 1857, gives a plain and concise statement of financial affairs at that time; it says:

“Your favor of 8th instant, in relation to Thunder Bay affairs, came to hand last evening. I immediately saw Mr. Minor, on the subject, who is decidedly of the opinion, as well as myself, that it will be imprudent to attempt to go on with the work, unless, indeed, that you are prepared to furnish the means yourself. As far as I am concerned, I cannot furnish one dollar towards it; indeed, there is such a general depression in all financial matters here, that I cannot raise money enough to run my mill, and intend shutting down. All business seems completely paralyzed; nobody pays, nor can pay, and I find myself with a large amount of bills receivable, some past due, and others falling due at an early date, but no money, and no prospects of getting it. Even clear lumber, in Albany, will not bring the cash. With all these depressing circumstances staring us in the face, Mr. Minor and myself can see no other way but to stop the work, and, consequently, do not think it worth going up to lay any of the piers this fall, as you suggest. “Yours truly,

“Signed, J. OLDFIELD.”

Mr. Fletcher, owning a half interest in the property, and not being so much affected by the hard times as his co-partners, for the reason that he had sold his mill property at St. Clair, prior to the panic, was disposed to go on with the work, hut the other proprietors not furnishing means, the company’s work ceased.

Mr. Fletcher continued to make improvements in his own interests, and it was very fortunate for the people of Alpena County, and its organization, that he was able and willing to do so.

In the fall of 1857, Mr. G. N. Fletcher, in company with other parties, started a store in Fremont, under the firm name “Miller, Fletcher & Co.”

They kept a general assortment of such goods as are wanted in a new, isolated place, even whiskey and tobacco, and these articles Air. Miller was very much opposed to handling.

The work on the mill dam, for the Thunder Bay Dam Co., as it was called, was discontinued; but Mr. Fletcher continued to give employment to most of the people of Fremont, on his own account, and built a dock, and a large building on the corner of Second and Water streets, and known in 1867 as the “Myers Block.”

It should have been known as the “Miller Block” for he had the care of building it, and occupied it for many years.

It will be referred to in the rest of this work as the “Myers Block.”

All the proprietors, except G. N. Fletcher, having business relations other than at Fremont, were much embarrassed by the unprecedented hard times that shook many off their feet, financially, did but little for the improvement of Alpena, during 185T and the first half of 1858.

In the fall of 1858, men began to multiply in Alpena, “and sons and daughters were born unto them.”

Financially, matters having improved a little, Messrs. Lockwood, Minor and Fletcher resolved to go on with the work at Fremont.

In pursuance of this resolution, the schooner J. S. Minor came to Fremont, having on board about thirty persons, among whom were Messrs. E. K. Potter, Abram Hopper, W. Stevens, Moses Bingham and Thomas Murray.

Alexander Archibald and family and Samuel Boggs and family were among the number.

Many of those who came were mechanics.

Messrs. Archibald and Murray came for the purpose of lumbering for the firm of Lockwood & Minor, having a contract to cut, haul and run onto the rapids, one million feet of logs, more or less, at one dollar and seventy-five cents per thousand feet, being the first contract by the proprietors of Fremont, for cutting logs on Thunder Bay river.

Mr. Archibald, after building a frame house for his family, near the corner of Second and River streets north, (for buildings in Fremont at this time were few, and not far from the woods,) commenced to cut his supply road to the lumber woods, this being the first road made in the county that exceeded a mile in length.

He made this road nearly on the same line that the so called Section Line Road is now on, until he reached section 13, in town 31 north, of range 6 east, and thence northwest to Thunder Bay River, in section 2, of the same town and range.

Men’s wages at this time were from $11 to $16 per month, and they agreed to stay and run the logs in the spring.

The very low price for putting in the logs, and the wages of the men, show that there was not much “boom” to business at that date.

Edward K. Potter

Mr. Edward K. Potter scaled and marked the logs for this camp this winter, and to him must be accorded the honor of scaling the first log on Thunder Bay River, not barring the honor due the scaler who scaled in the camp of Alvin Cole during the same winter.

It is claimed by William Boulton, in his History of Alpena, that Mr. E. K. Potter measured the first cargo of lumber “that left Alpena, and that the schooner Meridian, Capt. Flood, carried the first cargo of lumber from Alpena.

” If he had, added the word “City,” he would have been correct.

In writing a history of the county, nice distinctions should be observed, between the whole county, and a certain locality, where both have the same name.

While it would be true that Mr. Potter measured the first cargo of lumber that left Alpena city, and that the schooner Meridian, Capt. Flood, carried the first cargo of lumber from the city of Alpena, yet it would not be true in regard to the county of Alpena, for the writer measured a cargo of lumber, and shipped it on his schooner, the Marshall Ney, John W. Paxton, Captain, before the county had an organization.

In December, 1858, Messrs. John Cole and Alvin Cole arrived in Fremont, accompanied by a large number of men.

Alvin Cole came for the purpose of lumbering for George N. Fletcher, having taken a contract of him, similar to the one taken by Messrs. Archibald and Murray.

The logs were to be cut in the same vicinity, and banked near each other in the river.

John Cole was a millright, and came to Fremont for the purpose of building two large sawmills, to be run by water power.

One was to be erected on the east side of Thunder Bay River, for George N. Fletcher, and the other on the west side, for the firm of Lockwood & Minor.

The timber was all made, hauled and framed for the mill, during the winter and spring.

The mill dam was not built, according to expectations, on account of some disappointment or disagreement among the proprietors.

The work of building the two sawmills was suspended, for the reason that they had no dam for water, and the two mill frames were piled away to await further consideration and development.

The timber for the Fletcher mill was burned in 1860, in a sweeping fire that burned over a large district around Alpena, and came very near burning what there was of the town.

Although this was considered a great loss to Mr. Fletcher at the time, yet it was a blessing in disguise.

It saved his timber until it was more valuable, and relieved him of the embarrassing perplexity that attended milling at that time, in Alpena, and in which his co-partners were soon after engaged; and while their business did more to build up the village, it put less money into their pockets.

The mill frame made for Lockwood & Minor was not put up for several years.

The survey of the village of Fremont, by E. A. Breakenridge, was only a temporary one, without map or record, and was made for the purpose mentioned in Chapter III.

As by law, it was imperative that a survey must be made of the village, and a map of the same be placed on record in the Register’s office, with a conveyance to the public of the right of way of the streets of the same, before lots could be legally sold, the proprietors were resolved to have the survey made and recorded.

In April, 1858, the writer was engaged by Messrs. Fletcher, Lockwood and Oldfield, to make the survey, under their supervision, all of them being in Fremont at the time, Mr. Oldfield being particularly anxious to have a thorough survey made.

The writer then organized his party for the work, and after ascertaining the variation of the needle, and administered the oath to his chain-bearers, proceeded to make the survey, as follows: Commencing at the southeast corner of section 22, thence north nine and one-half degrees east, 3.78 chains, to a point where he planted a post.

From this post he projected a line bearing north, fifty-one degrees east, and south, fifty-one degrees west, for a base line, and named it First Street.

He then projected another line, bearing north, thirty-nine degrees west, and south, thirty-nine degrees east, from the post for a meridian line, and called, it River street.

On this meridian line, south to the bay, posts were set at proper distances, and at all proper places between this line and the river. On this meridian, northward to Thunder Bay River, posts were placed at proper distances.

Posts were set at all proper places between this line and the river, and the river was meandered up to the section line between sections 21 and 22.

The base line was carried east, across the river, to a point designated by one of the proprietors, and another post was planted, and another meridian line projected, and named Fletcher street.

On this meridian line, south thirty-nine degrees east, to the bay, posts were set at proper distances, between this line and the river.

The meridian line was also extended north, thirty-nine degrees west, from the said post, to Beech Street, and posts set at proper distances on this line, and between it and the river.

Then Beech Street was run north, fifty-one degrees east, to Oldfield Street, and thence on Oldfield Street to Bridge Street, and posts set on these streets at proper distances; thence north, fifty-one degrees east, on Bridge street, to Miller street, and thence north, thirty-nine degrees west on Miller street to Mackinaw street, and posts were set at proper places.

Soon after the field work was completed, the writer made a map of his work, and presented it to J. K. Lockwood, who approved of it, and went with the writer to Mortimer L. Smith, in Detroit, who made two copies on cloth, one for Mr. Lockwood and one for the writer, and which copy the writer has yet in his possession.

Mr. Fletcher was not satisfied with the survey, for the reason that some of the streets reached the river, and that the meridian, on both sides of the river, was too close to it for mill purposes.

The proprietors, after making many important alterations, bad the mutilated and changed map of Oliver’s survey lithographed and put upon the records, ostensibly as the survey of E. A. Breakenridge.

There is no acknowledged survey of the city on record, nor is there any original field notes on record.

E. A. Breakenridge is credited with the survey, and Oliver with the mistakes, if any are found.

The west square, belonging to the county, was named Victoria Square, in respect to the proprietors who resided in the Queen’s Dominion; and the east square was called Jessie Square, Jessie being the name of the wife of General Fremont, after whom the village was named.

One half of the proprietors then resided in Canada, and hired their help there; and the other half resided in Michigan, and per sequence the town and county received their immigration from both places.

They were hardy, industrious and enterprising people, who came for the purpose of making for themselves homes, and to build up communities and industries for themselves and their children; and to learn how well they have done their task, you have only to look over Alpena county in 1876.

In January, 1859, provisions began to be very scarce in Fremont and in the lumber camps, and by the last of February; many people were reduced to whitefish and bread.

It was utterly impossible to get anything from Saginaw, by land, and the writer having people at his place (Ossineke,) to care for, could render but little assistance.

The people bore their privations with remarkable fortitude.

All remained at their work, as though they had plenty, until in March, when they were relieved by the appearance of Mr. Lock wood’s schooner, the J. S. Minor.

This visit from “General Scarcity” was repeated for several years, but only once succeeded in driving any one away.

This shortage of provisions was occasioned, not so much by the inability or unwillingness of the proprietors to furnish the supplies, as by the incalculable increase of population, outside of those employed by the proprietors.

Every year the supplies were largely increased, but the increase of consumers was still in advance of the supplies, and it was not until outside parties began to bring in provisions that the defect was remedied.

The following letter, from E. K. Potter to the writer, and dated June 2nd, 1876, with liberty to use, graphically and humorously characterizes the events at that time. He says:

“In the fall of 1858, Lockwood & Minor inaugurated the first lumber operations on the Thunder Bay River.

Contracts were let to Archibald and Murray, and Alvin Cole.

It being something new to provide a supply of everything for six months, in a country as new and undeveloped as this was, it is not to be wondered at that the supplies run short long before spring, and by the first of February, 1859, that -General Scarcity,’ you spoke of, was here in full dress uniform.

I was in the lumber camp that winter, and with sorrow beheld the last piece of pork hung up by a string, over the center of a rude table, as a reminder of happy by-gone days of peace and plenty.

Mr. Whitefish stepped in and took the place of honor which had been occupied by Hog, and held the balance of power from that time until the 16th of March. Mr. J. K. Lockwood being informed of our sad state, had his good schooner, the J. S. Minor, fitted out and started for Alpena, or Fremont, as it was then called at that time, with pork, beef, sugar, etc., and she arrived as above stated, on the 16th of March, and to all appearances, it was just as cold and winter-like as at any time during the winter.

We all felt rejoiced to hear the news in camp, that the Minor had arrived with provisions, and we all sung Mr. Lockwood’s praise, as many a poor man and his family have had occasion to do since; and I will here say to Mr. Lockwood, more than to any other man, belongs the credit of starting and keeping in motion the then small lumbering operations which gave employment to the few who were here, and thus securing the necessaries of life until better times should change the then discouraging situation of affairs, it being right after the dreadful panic of 1857, which will be remembered by all, as the hardest times this country had seen for fifty years.

Messrs. Lockwood & Minor built the so-called -Island Mill,’ in 1860, which was the principal means of support for this then small and poor village, for three or four years. One pair of horses did the log hauling for the mill in the summer, and the lumber woods was the present site of Alpena. Down timber and burnt timber, and in fact everything that would make a piece 6×6, was hauled to the little mill, and squared, and the block ends cut off, and shipped to Cleveland, and pork, flour, tea, sugar, etc., brought back in return, and thus, from year to year, the ‘log’ was kept rolling, until to-day we have, from this small beginning, which has been so imperfectly described, a city of nearly, if not quite, five thousand inhabitants, an honor to the founders, who, while striving to advance its interests and that of its inhabitants, in all proper ways, have not, by selfishness, grown rich in this world’s goods, but they have the satisfaction of knowing that they helped their fellow man.

“Yours respectfully, “Signed, E. K. POTTER.”

The writer would here suggest, that those who have come to Alpena, of later date, who cannot do a day’s work for the city or county, or even for the celebration of the “Glorious Fourth,” without being paid for it; who came here after a town was made for them, by the old pioneers, and when the coffers of the treasury were well filled; who never underwent any hardships or expense for the city or county, should well remember, that many privations had to be endured, and many days’ labor performed for the city and county, without pay, by the proprietors and first settlers, ere a town was built up for their reception; and the men who were wise, prudent and persevering enough to build up and govern the county, until it had grown to opulence and influence, should be allowed at least a complimentary voice in making the laws, and not considered over-selfish if they wish to have a “hand share” in the spoils, when any are had.

Mr. Fletcher and the firm of Lockwood & Minor having failed to build the two water mills referred to, were anxious to have their logs manufactured into lumber, and gave sufficient inducement to Messrs. Obed Smith and Harman Chamberlain, of St. Clair county, to determine them to erect a steam sawmill at Fremont; and in the spring of 1859, they commenced the work of building the first steam sawmill in Alpena county.

They pushed forward the work with vigor, and in August or September of the same year they sawed the first boards. This was an important, and an encouraging event.

All before had been failure, disappointment and expense, without any adequate returns.

Now the mill would give employment to the people, and the proceeds would furnish the means to purchase the necessaries of life.

The first work done by this mill, was to cut the logs belonging to the firm of Lockwood & Minor.

This occupied the balance of the season of 1859, and a part of 1860.

In the summer of 1859, Mr. J. K. Bingham came to Fremont. He brought with him, what was then considered a large stock of merchandise.

He landed his goods on the north side of the river, (the reason will be given in the chapter on temperance,) and proceeded at once to erect a store, on Dock street; and in a few weeks a second store was added to the village.

He then commenced the erection of a public house, near his store, on Dock Street, and sometime in September, the first hotel in Fremont was finished and opened to the public.

In the summer of 1860, John Trowbridge & Bros. leased the Smith & Chamberlain mill.

They also purchased Mr. Fletcher’s logs, as they were then situated in the river.

They thought they could get better sawyers in the State of Pennsylvania, than they could in Michigan, and there they engaged Mr. George Bundy, to come with a crew of men, and saw their lumber.

When Mr. Bundy came with his men, to saw the logs, behold, the logs were all fast on the “Big Rapids” and nothing less than a big flood would get them off.

Trowbridge & Bros. then procured a charter from the Board of Supervisors, to build a dam across Thunder Bay River, in section 1, in township 31 north, of range 7 east, for the purposes of flooding and manufacturing.

Then they proceeded to make the dam, and in September or October it was ready for the first flood.

A few of the logs reached the mill that fall, and the balance in the spring, and were sawed during the season of 1861.

All the lumber sawed from these logs, was made into one raft, and towed to Chicago.

It reached that place without much, if any, injury, and was the first and last raft of sawed lumber taken from Thunder Bay River.

At this time, a bitter feeling existed between John Trowbridge & Bros. and the proprietors of Fremont, growing out of an affair that took place in 1858 and 1859.

In Thunder Bay River was a middle ground, covered with water, except in low stages of the river.

The Trowbridge Bros. claimed that this middle ground was an island, unsurveyed, and consequently belonged to the United States.

The proprietors of Fremont claimed that it was a middle ground, and a part of the river, and the right to it was purchased with the adjacent lands.

On this middle ground, the Trowbridge Bros. built a board shanty, to hold it by pre-emption, and the proprietors of Fremont, or some of their representatives, pulled it down.

This was repeated two or three times, and the Trowbridge Bros., finding they could not hold it in that way, resolved to have the disputed “middle ground” surveyed by a United States Deputy Surveyor, as an island.

In order to do this, it was necessary to bring into this survey, certain other unsurveyed islands in Thunder Bay and vicinity. These islands the writer, a short time prior to this, had been authorized by the Surveyor General to survey.

By false representations, the order to the writer to survey the islands, was revoked by the Surveyor General, and a Deputy Surveyor sent on to make the survey.

After the surveyor’s report was sent to Washington, and a strong remonstrance was sent from the proprietors of Fremont, the writer sent a detailed account of the whole transaction to the Surveyor General, and nothing since has been heard from the survey, and the islands remain as they then were, and the proprietors of Fremont were victorious.

In 1860, Lockwood & Minor, finding the Smith & Chamberlain mill was in the hands of John Trowbridge & Bros., and operated by them, foreign to the interests of Fremont, resolved upon building a steam sawmill on the disputed -middle ground.”

They commenced the work accordingly sometime in July, and pushed it with such vigor, that in six weeks from the time they struck the first blow, they were cutting lumber with one six foot circular saw.

This was called the “Island Mill”, because ii was situated upon the disputed island.

The importance of this mill is given in Mr. Potter’s letter, to which the reader is referred.

Sometime in 1859. Mr. Hilliard Broadwell came to Fremont.

He came for the purpose of locating a site for a water mill.

He was very conservative in his principles, from in his own opinions, and familiar with water sawmills in the “old way,” and nothing would do him but a water sawmill.

He selected a site on the long rapids, and in the spring of 1860, commenced to erect a mill dam across Thunder Bay river, on section 7. in township 31 north, of range 8 east, which was finished in July or August of the same season.

He then erected a sawmill, on the east bank of the river, having two upright sashes, carrying two saws each.

The lumber was taken to Trowbridge Point, on a tram railway, and shipped.

This mill was operated a few years by Mr. Broadwell, but was found to be too primitive to be profitable, or compete with later improvements in milling, and was abandoned, and is now one of the old things of Alpena County.

A large portion of the improvements made in 1861, consisted in finishing up buildings, clearing the ground around them, making fences, etc.

Some short sidewalks were made this year.

From 1858 to 1862, a number of dwellings had been erected, and among the most noted were: One by J. S. Irwin, a cottage, between River and Minor streets, and then “way up in the woods”; one built by A. F. Fletcher, on the corner of Water and Second streets, a two story building, and for a long time the best dwelling in the village.

It was occupied for a time, in 1861 and 1862, by Mr. Leroy Bundy, as a hotel, for the best visitors to Alpena.

Mr. Bundy was Postmaster for a short time, and was Deputy County Clerk in 1861 and 1862.

John Cole built a large dwelling near the corner of Water and First streets, and Samuel Boggs built a cottage on River and Second streets.

John W. Glennie built a two story dwelling on the corner of Chisholm and First streets; and William E. Jones built a cottage on the corner of First and River streets.

David Plough built a cottage on First and River streets; Martin Minton, a cottage on the northeast corner of River and Second streets; and on the opposite corner Oliver T. B. Williams erected a large dwelling, which was destroyed by fire before it was entirely finished.

Daniel Carter lived on Water Street until 1859 or 1860, when he erected a large dwelling on Chisholm Street, and moved into it, from Water Street, the same year.

At his house on Water Street, was held the first election, the first session of the Board of Supervisors, the first session of a court.

It was made the first post office, the first boarding house, and for a long time the hospital, where all the sick and wounded, who had no home in the village, were taken and cared for by Mrs. Carter, who was the only physician in the county, and she did good service, as many have good reason to remember.

In 1862, Lockwood & Minor commenced to build another steam sawmill, on the east side of River street, between Sixth and Seventh streets.

They had got the frame up, when the fire from the woods, which was near, spread into and through where the town now is,—1876,—by a strong wind, burning the mill frame, together with a number of dwellings, and destroying a large quantity of rubbish.

This so happened on the fourth day of July, and admonished the people, more than an oration, to clear away the timber around their dwellings.

The mill frame was soon replaced, and in October the mill was completed, running one six-feet circular and a siding mill.

This was known as the “Home Mill.”

In 1861, Samuel E. Hitchcock, familiarly known among his friends as “The Deacon,” came with his family to reside in Fremont; and in 1862, erected a fine dwelling on Chisholm Street, near the bay.

He had his lands surveyed, and made them an addition to the village of Fremont.

In pursuance of an agreement with the Board of Supervisors, “The Deacon,” in 1863, erected a large and commodious building, on the corner of Washington avenue and Chisholm street, and finished it, for county offices, and a room for holding the courts; and also for holding church and Sabbath school.

It was known as “The Deacon’s Court House.”

As soon as it was finished, and accepted by the Board of Supervisors, a lease was made for five years, and longer if the county of Alpena desired, with a provision that the court room might be used on the Sabbath, for the purpose of holding church and Sabbath school.

The year 1863 was not remarkable for the number of new buildings erected, but much improvements were made in finishing and enlarging those already erected, in clearing grounds, making fences, and improving the streets with ditches, sawdust and sidewalks; so that, in 1864, the little village began to assume the appearance of civilization.

The year 1864 is remarkable in the history of Alpena county, as the one from which it can date the commencement of its rapid growth and prosperity.

“General Scarcity” was superseded by “General Plenty,” and has held command ever since.

Although a fierce and bloody war had been and was then raging in the southern States, and General Grant was fighting his way from the Rapidan to Richmond, and General Sherman was advancing step by step from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and a heavy draft, for soldiers and revenue, had been made on the northern States, yet they were prosperous in their business relations, and rapidly increasing in material wealth.

This was particularly so with Alpena.

Greenbacks were first issued in 1862, and in 1864 began to be frequently seen in Alpena.

The supply of pitch and tar from the southern States, and articles manufactured there, being cut off by the blockade, brought Norway pine into demand, and tar and turpentine reached fabulous prices.

This brought a large number of people to Alpena, to look for Norway pine to manufacture into timber and lumber, and the Norway pine stumps to manufacture into tar and turpentine.

Lester, Long & Co. built a steam sawmill, on the east side of River street, between Fifth and Sixth streets.

This mill run one large circular saw and lath mill—capacity about two million feet of lumber and one million pieces of lath, and employed about twenty men.

They also built a boarding house near the mill.

This year, the “Home Mill,” belonging to Lockwood & Minor, was destroyed by fire, involving a heavy loss to them.

It was re-built the same season, and now—1876—belongs to Bewick, Comstock & Co.

This rear—1864—the Thunder Bay Dam Company’s dam was finished and a large water mill built, on the east side of the river, by John Oldfield.

It ran one large circular saw, one muley, with edgers, slab saws and lath machines.

It employed about forty men.

Mr. Oldfield built, in connection with his mill, a large boarding house, barn, and a few small dwellings.

Mr. Bowen built a storehouse and dock, on the south side of Dock Street.

Messrs. Doer &. Fairchild erected a manufactory for making tar and turpentine from Norway pine stomps and many hundreds of these were made into tar, turpentine and charcoal.

They sold their interest to Martin Minton, who, in 1365, built another factory, at Ossineke.

This was a lucrative business as long as the war lasted, but when the war ended, prices of tar and turpentine soon dropped so low that there was no profit to the manufacturer, and it ceased to be an industry in Alpena County.

This year—1864—the first bridge was built across Thunder Bay river. (For particulars see chapter on roads.)

In 1865, William Jenney and Elisha Harrington built a large steam sawmill, on the east side of River street, and north of Fourth street.

This was, when erected, and is, in 1876, the largest mill in Alpena.

They run one gang, one muley saw, and two large circular saws, with lath machines, edgers, slab saws, etc.

They also erected, near their mill, a large boarding house, and store, and a few dwellings.

This property changed hands, and in 1876 belonged to Hilliard, Churchill & Co.

In 1863, the Smith & Chamberlain mill was destroyed by fire, which was strongly suspected to have been the work of an incendiary.

This year—1865—it was re-built, on the site of the burned one.

It run one gang, one muley saw, one large circular saw, and lath mill.

Has a capacity to cut about six million feet of lumber, and about one and a half million pieces of lath per season.

The property, in 1876, belongs to Folkerts & Butterfield.

The First Congregational Society of Alpena, commenced this year—1865—the erection of a large and beautiful church, on the north side of Second Street.

It is a wooden structure, and cost about $6,000—finished in 1868—and is, in 1876, the largest and best church in the city.

This year— 1865—two large hotels were being built; one on the corner of Fletcher and Dock streets, by J. R. Beach, and called the Union Star Hotel, and the other on the west side of Chisholm street, by Julius Potvin, and known as the Alpena House.

They were finished in a style to accommodate the traveling public, and were expected to supply a need long felt by the citizens of the village.

In 1866, E. P. Campbell & Co., built what is known as the Campbell & Potter mill.

It is located one and a half miles due west from the mouth of Thunder Bay river, and on its most southern bend.

A tram railway was made from the mill to the bay, a little over a mile in length.

A large and commodious dock was built out in the bay, for the purpose of piling and shipping lumber, and landing goods.

The mill run one muley saw and two large circular saws, and a lath mill—had a capacity to cut six million feet of lumber, and a million and a half pieces of lath per season.

At or about this time, G. S. Lester, under the firm name of C. Thompson & Co., erected a large shingle mill, a short distance north and east of the Campbell & Potter mill, using the tram road and dock of E. P. Campbell & Co. for shipping purposes.

It run a rotary machine and one Chicago, and had a capacity to cut about ten million shingles during the season. These very important improvements were soon followed by others, as a matter of necessity.

The two mills would give employment to about fifty men, who must board near their work; and being separated then from Alpena, by a mile and a half of a dense tamarack swamp, it became necessary to erect suitable buildings for their accommodation; and a cluster of dwellings and other buildings were soon erected near the mills, and this cluster of buildings was known as Campbellville.

The next necessity that presented itself, was a road on the section line, and direct between the two places; and the first step to be taken in that direction, was to drain the swamps.

Two large ditches were made, one near and parallel to the tramway, and the other near and parallel with the section line, to the bay.

These ditches drained a large portion of the surface water, and enabled the people to open a road for pedestrians, but it was some time before teams could travel over it, during the spring and fall.

This year—1866—two shingle mills were built; one on the north side of the river, near the bay, by Thomas Robinson, who introduced the first planing machine into Alpena.

This was a great desideratum.

Prior to this, all lumber had to be dressed by hand, or brought from Detroit, and as mechanics’ wages were from three to five dollars per day, and board, it made building very expensive.

The other shingle mill was built by Hopper & Davis, on the north side of the river, and west of Chisholm Street.

Both of these were burned, the former in June, 1867, and the latter is unknown to the writer.

L. M. Mason & Co. completed the water mill, commenced by Lockwood & Minor in 1858, the frame of which was made at that time, by John Cole.

This mill is located on the west side of the dam, and runs one muley saw, two shingle machines, and a lath mill.

Although Alpena had as few crimes to punish, perhaps, as any county in the State, of its age and population, yet it was necessary that it should have a place where disorderly persons could go and be taken care of.

In 1864 or 1865, the Board of Supervisors made a contract for clearing Jessie Square, and erecting a suitable building for a jail.

It was built on Chisholm Street, and made of two-inch plank, doubled, and fastened together with spikes driven close together.

It had three or four cells, well made, and strong; two light rooms for prisoners, and ample rooms for turnkey and family. Attached to this was a woodshed and stable.

It was painted the Scotchman’s “muckle dun” color, and made a very unimposing appearance.

In 1866, three church edifices were in construction—Catholic, on Chisholm Street; Congregational, on Second Street, and Episcopal, on Washington Avenue.

These will be noticed in another chapter.

The increase of population, the erection of dwellings, public buildings and places for doing business, depended largely on the enlargement of the improvements made for the manufacture of lumber, and followed them as rapidly as could be expected.

Most of the buildings were substantial structures, either as business places or dwellings; and many of the residences were spacious, tastefully made and commodious.

At this time, a large portion of the business of the village was transacted on Water Street, and the leading mercantile firms were as follows: Benjamin C. Hardwick, on Water Street, dealer in dry goods, groceries, clothing, boots and shoes, crockery, hardware, etc. L. M. Mason & Co., merchants and lumber dealers; store on Water Street; miscellaneous merchandise.

A W. Comstock & Co., on Second Street, near the bridge, carried a fine assortment of miscellaneous goods.

A F. Fletcher & Co., on Water Street, dry goods, ready-made clothing, boots, shoes, etc. Mason, Doty, Luce & Co., lumbermen and merchants; store on Fletcher street; carried a large assortment of miscellaneous merchandise.

Hopper, Davis & Co., dealers in dry goods, groceries, clocks, jewelry, etc., on the west side of Water Street.

Mason, Lester & Co., lumbermen and merchants; store on Water Street; a large assortment of miscellaneous merchandise.

Bolton & McRae, dealers in choice groceries, provisions and liquors, on the corner of Dock and Fletcher streets.

William P. Maiden, the first physician and surgeon in Alpena, opened the first drug store, on the corner of Second and River streets, and carried a fine assortment of goods in his line.

F. N. Barlow and J. H. Noxen, under the firm name of Barlow & Noxen, introduced the first hardware store in Alpena, on the corner of Second and River streets; carried a fine assortment of hardware, iron, stores and tinware.

Martin H. Minton and John Creighton, manufacturers of and dealers in boots and shoes, and harness, on Second Street. Wm. West, shoemaker and dealer in boots and shoes, on Second Street.

H. Hyatt, this year—1866— built the first bakery, and commenced the business of baking. It was known as the Eagle Bakery.

He also erected a building and opened a meat market, near his bakery, on Water Street.

Although both of these improvements were much needed and duly appreciated by the people, yet the village was not large enough to make the business very lucrative.

The upper rooms of this building were nicely fitted up for a Masonic hall, and this was the first one occupied by the Masonic fraternity in Alpena.

At the door of this hall, many excellent citizens knocked and were admitted, and brought from darkness to light, and presented with the tools and instructions whereby they could work out the problems of life, on the square and compasses, -with temperance, fortitude, prudence and justice, and to travel on the level of time, toward that Divine Architect Who has made all things well, and Who uses neither trestle-board or patterns, and never made a mistake.

Besides the business places already mentioned, Alpena had a number of mechanical establishments, great and small, five public houses, only two of which could be honored with the name of “hotel.”

These were the Union Star Hotel, owned and kept by J. R. Beach, and the Alpena House, owned and kept by Julius Potvin.

Both houses were well managed, and were rivals for business; were favorites with the public, and a satisfaction to the business men of the place.

Alpena also possessed one or two billiard rooms, and a number of drinking places. We will now leave the village for a time, to look after the surroundings.

In 1862, John Trowbridge & Bros. lumbered a large quantity of short logs, and put them into the North Branch of Thunder Bay River; and the same season built a small shingle mill propelled by water, near the dam, in section 1, town 31 north, of range 8 east, and a boarding house near the same.

In 1863, the Trowbridge Bros. lumbered long timber, from section 16, town 31 north, of range 8 east, and in the autumn of the same year, undertook to raft it to market.

They proceeded to make cribs of the long timber, and load them with short logs.

When the raft was nearly finished, and which contained about two and a half million feet of lumber, a furious storm arose, which lasted long enough to tear the raft to pieces, and scatter the timber in every conceivable disorder along the shore of the bay.

They then built a small steam sawmill, near the first point east of Alpena, and about two miles distant, and subsequently known as Trowbridge Point.

Here they cleared a small piece of ground, made a dock, and erected a number of buildings.

They spent the season of 1864 in removing the logs from the bay shore to the mill, and sawing them, and which cost them nearly as much as the logs were worth, resulting in a large loss to the parties.

In 1865- and 1866, Trowbridge Bros. built a large water mill, at the dam, for sawing lumber, and made a tram railway from the mill to their dock at the point, and being about seven miles in length.

The mill run one muley saw, one six-foot circular saw, one shingle machine, and a lath machine.

Up to this time, little or no attention had been paid to tilling the soil.

Indeed, it was almost the universal belief that the land was too poor, and the climate too arctic to produce good crops, and that it never could be a good farming country.

In an article published in the Pioneer, in November, 1866, headed “Our Prospects,” and written over the signature of “Don Pedro,” is the following: “The question is this; you have all heard it, so do not look for anything new.

What is there to sustain Alpena when the lumbering is done with, but farming? and will that pay for the undertaking, or, in other words, reward the laborer?

Reader, this is a question which comes home to the bosom of all who have an interest in the futurity of Alpena; and it is one that should be agitated and pushed forward for one sole and particular reason: that is, the lumbering must surely come to an end and then there must be some other resource to fall back upon, or Alpena will then soon sink into decay, and the tenements now so rapidly going up, will become but stables for the wandering kind.

Fruits will not generally become a source from which we shall ever reap much benefit, although Prof. Winchell has even gone so far in his geological statements as to declare that the best fruit country in Michigan is from this latitude, extending to the Straits.

But let that be as it may, there is no one who will deny the fact that this is a first class grazing country.”

Then, after admonishing the people to raise hay and stock, he says: “All kinds of roots, so far as I can ascertain, grow in large quantities and of good quality.

The cereals do quite well, but not enough so to warrant a cultivation of them.

The writer has answered the same question many times, by stating what he now writes, that there is good farming lands enough in the county to support Alpena, when the pine timber is exhausted; but the question need not fret the questioner, for he will be in his grave long before lumbering ceases to be an industry of Alpena.

It was truly refreshing to many, at that time, to learn that the country was not totally barren, and absolutely worthless, when stripped of its pine timber, and that the timber would last longer than one decade; and hence the importance of Don Pedro’s discovery and announcement, “that this is a first class grazing country.”

The writer cultivated some land, at Devil River, and raised good crops; but this was attributed to its peculiar situation, the abundance of manure, and the extra care and cultivation.

In 1861 or 1862, Alexander Archibald and Thomas Murray purchased a piece of land, on the rapids, below Broadwell’s mill, of Elisha Taylor, of Detroit; built a house and barn, and moved his family there; cleared four or five acres of land, and sowed it with oats and grass.

They harvested a very good crop, and were satisfied with their experiment, and would have proceeded to make the first farm in the county, had not the property changed into the hands of Mr. Broadwell, with whom they were at enmity, and they abandoned the contract and the place.

Mr. Broadwell also cleared aud cultivated with success, a few acres near his mill.

In 1860 or 1861, a man known by the name of Antwine, cleared a few acres of land and tilled it, at the confluence of the North Branch with the main river, and about the same time, G. N, Fletcher selected a piece of land, in section 29 or 30, town 31 north, of range 7 east, and had from ten to fifteen acres cleared.

He sold or rented the same to John King, who moved on to it with his family, and stayed two or three years.

King raised large quantities of potatoes and bagas, and sold them by the quantity, or sleigh load.

This was the first produce raised in the county, and sold by the quantity.

This seems to be all that was done in the farming line, up to and including 1866.

In the future of this chapter, it will be impossible to follow in detail the rapid growth of the village; and I shall notice, only in a general way, those that do not introduce some new industry, or necessarily promote other improvements.

In 1867, the business men of Alpena began to feel their financial strength, and the want of larger facilities tor transacting their business.

Their harbor deficient, their roads bad, their docks, warehouses and business places too small.

A “Harbor Improvement Company” had been organized, and considerable work had been done in the way of building piers and dredging, yet the water on the bar was too shallow to admit large vessels and steamers, and the company resolved to extend the piers into twelve feet of water, during the winter of 1867 and 1868; and this was expected to remove the harbor difficulty.

The only roads, at this time, connecting Alpena “with the rest of the world,” during the winter season, was the East Saginaw and Au Sable River, and the Duncan, Alpena and Au Sa that purpose two sets of machinery were necessary.

Oliver not being able to finish the mill with a gang, and finding that the engine was able to run two large circular saws, put a circular in place of the gang, which did good work.

Subsequently, the property went into the hands of Cunningham, Robinson, Haines & Co.

They not knowing the design of Oliver, put into the mill the gang, and retained the two circular saws, thereby crowding the mill with saws, which the stream was not able to supply with logs.

Book 3

The year 1868 gave a new impulse to mill building.

A young man of good business capacity, stern integrity, and persevering industry, came from the State of Ohio, to Alpena, and purchased a site for a steam sawmill, on the north side of the river, next to the bay.

Backed by a father who was a man of means, and who declared that “Frank was a good boy,” he commenced the erection of a mill, near the end of the north pier, and then out in the bay.

This was an undertaking of considerable magnitude, and was a very important improvement to Alpena.

It extended the limits of the town, and gave a better appearance to its front.

It would give permanency to that side of the pier, as the offal from the mill would soon fill in and about the pier, and make it solid and free from the attacks of the waves from the bay.

The pier would be an advantage to the mill, for with a very little modification and expense, it could be used as a dock for piling and shipping lumber.

This mill was commenced in 1868, and finished in 1869.

It ran one large circular saw and one muley saw, and a lath mill.

It had a capacity to cut about five million feet of lumber per season, and about eight hundred thousand pieces of lath.

It employed about twenty-four men, and is known as the Gilchrist mill.

A lumber and shingle mill combined was built this year—1868 —on the north side of the river, and named the Chamberlain mill, by A. P. Fletcher & Co.

It ran one large circular saw, which is capable of cutting two million feet of lumber per season, besides doing the necessary work for the shingle machine.

For the manufacture of shingles, it ran one Valentine doable cutter, one Evarts single cutter, and one hand machine.

It also ran a lath mill, edgers, slab saw and cant slasher.

Its capacity for shingles is about twelve millions per season, and five hundred thousand pieces of lath.

The manner of working tip the timber in this mill is very economical.

The logs are first taken to the circular saws, and all the upper qualities of limber taken off.

The balance of the logs are cut into cants of proper size for shingle bolts, and then passed to the cant slasher and cut into blocks for the shingle machines.

The only objection to cutting timber in this way is, that some of the shingles are cut with the grain of the wood, instead of being cut across it.

The mill employs about forty persons, men and boys.

The company also built a large dock for piling and shipping their products.

Bewick, Comstock & Co. commenced to build a shingle mill and dock, on the south side of the river, above Second Street.

It was not finished until 1869.

It runs one Valentine double cutter, and one Evarts single cutter.

The logs are cut into blocks with a drag saw.

The daily cut of this mill is about seventy thousand, and it gives employment-to about twenty persons.

A small shingle mill was built in 1867 or 1868, by Hagerty & Co. on the bay shore, near Campbell & Potter’s dock.

It run one single cutting machine, with a capacity to cut two or three million shingles per season, and employed eight persons.

A. H. Doty built a shingle mill, on the north side of the river.

It run two single cutting machines, with a capacity to cut about six million shingles per season, and gave employment to thirteen persons.

At what date this mill was built, the writer is not able to give.

In regard to the first shingle mill erected in Alpena, the writer has passed over until now, not being able to get the particulars.

J. S. Minor, under date of March 16th, 1878, to the writer says:  The first shingle mill was built by G. S. Lester; run a Valentine machine; twenty men; twelve million; and since destroyed.”

The rapid increase of mills caused a corresponding increase in the cutting of timber.

In the spring the river was packed with logs for miles, so that those having logs in the rear would have to wait for them until the logs in the front had been moved.

Every one having logs to drive, in the spring, was anxious to get in ahead on the drive of logs.

This sometimes caused contention and strife.

Some mills were compelled to be idle in the spring, on account of the jam of logs in the river, unless logs were wintered over in their booms; and it became necessary that some arrangement should be had whereby logs could be delivered at the different mills, during the summer seasons they were needed.

On the 25th of April, 1868, a number of citizens of Alpena met at the office of L. M. Mason & Co., and organized the Thunder Bay River Boom Co. The capital stock of the company was $10,000, in one hundred shares of $100 each.

Officers were elected as follows: President, B. F. Luce; Secretary and Treasurer, S. Mitchel Noxen; Directors, B. F. Luce, P. M. Johnson, Wm. H. Potter, E. Harrington, and S. Mitchel Noxen.

If civilization means a great number of wants and their supply, then Alpena had reached a high state of civilization, for her wants were many, and as soon as one was satisfied, another stood ready to claim attention.

Prior to 1867, all machinery and foundry work for the mills at Alpena, was done at Detroit or Saginaw, and sometimes a small break caused a serious delay.

A foundry and machine shop was very much desired by the mill owners, but this question stood in the way: Is there work enough to make it pay?

David Crippen was the first man that undertook to answer the question.

He was a practical machinist, and by hard work and prompt attention to the wants of his customers, he has been able to answer the question in the affirmative.

He came to Alpena in 1867, erected a foundry and machine shop, built up a trade, and made the business a success.

The visit of the “Fire King” will be noticed in the chapter on fires.

A fruitful source of mortification and regret to the people of Alpena was a deficiency in accommodations for visitors, and this led to the erection of the Fletcher House.

This want was felt, more or less, from the lime of the incipient village, to the opening of that house.

To meet this desideratum, Samuel Boggs, in 1867, commenced the erection of a large and commodious hotel, on the north side of Dock Street, near the river.

It was finished and opened in 1868, and known as the Huron House, and became a competitor for business, with the Star Hotel Both of these houses run expresses to the boats, and the traveling public was pleased and satisfied.

But this state of things lasted only until 1871 when both hotels were swept away by a fire, the details of which may be seen in the chapter on fires.

In 1868, Dr. Wm. P. Maiden built a three story building, on the corner of Chisholm and Second streets.

He designed the first story for a drug store, the second story for offices, and the third for a Masonic hall.

The Alpena House, destroyed by fire January 1st, 1868, was re-built, on the site of the old one, in 1868 and 1869, and will be noticed in the chapter on fires.

The frame of the Union School house was raised in August, 1868, the details of-which are given in the chapter on education.

In 1865, the oil excitement reached Alpena, and in the Thunder Bay Monitor of April 8th, we find the following:

“notice.—The stockholders of the Alpena Oil Company will meet at the Court House, on Friday evening, April 14th, at 7 o’clock, to organize, and transact such other business as may lawfully come before them.

“MARTIN H. MIXTON,

“—. FAIRCHILDS,

“E. K. POTTER,

“D. R JOSLIN,

‘Stockholders.”

D. D. Oliver, of Ossineke, made this company a proposition, that, if they would locate the well at Squaw Point, on lands belonging to him, he would contribute $1,000, and would deed the company five acres of land, provided they should find anything valuable.

This proposition was accepted by the first stockholders, who agreed with the writer, that Alpena was too near the dip of the rock, or edge of the basin, to find much brine or oil.

Subsequently, men became stockholders, who had more property interests in Alpena than knowledge of geology, and either thought or pretended to think, that oil could be found in Alpena as well as in any other place, and this divided ideas and interests delayed the operations of sinking a well until in January, 1869, when new arrangements were made to feel into the “bowels of the earth,” for oil, salt, or whatever might be of value.

The first work in putting up the derrick and necessary buildings was done in January.

The location selected was near E. Harrington’s mill. In March, 1869, Mr. Hagerty, who had a contract for sinking the well, reported the lithological structure for 64.5 feet, as follows:

1st . Various strata of sand, gravel, boulders, 30 feet.

2d. Limestone, 2’

3d. Quartz rock containing considerable copper ore, 18’

4th. Shale, 4’

5th. Soapstone, 3.5’

6th. Limestone, 7’

Total, 64.5 feet.

After this, but little attention was given to the structure or kind of rocks, but generally limestone, with some layers of shale and soapstone.

At 600 feet, a vein of mineral water was reached, which flowed with such force as to keep the borings clear, without pumping.

The well was sunk to a depth of 1,185 feet, and when the tubing was put in, in 1870, it was discovered that the drill had stopped in a solid rock of salt.

The brine was very strong, but could not be obtained in paying quantities.

It was supposed by some that, by letting the water flow upon this bed of salt, it would soon dissolve and form a reservoir for brine, of sufficient size to establish a business in salt making.

But this kind of rock does not dissolve as readily as manufactured salt, (chloride of sodium,) for, mixed with it is often sulphate of lime, (gypsum,) chloride of calcium, magnesium, etc., which renders the rock hard, and not easily dissolved.

The proprietors, G. N. Fletcher, Wm. Jenney and E. Harrington, being disappointed in regard to obtaining brine, turned their attention to the mineral water.

Mr. Fletcher submitted a quantity of the water to Dr. S. P. Duffield, a practical chemist, of Detroit, Mich., for a quantitive analysis, with the following result:

ANALYSIS.

Specific gravity, 1.012

IN A GALLON.

Bicarbonate of soda, 15.736

Bicarbonate of lime, 55.136

Bicarbonate of magnesia, 62.920

Bicarbonate of iron, 1.840

Sulphate of lime, 30.056

Silica and aluminum, 3.088

Chloride of sodium, 68.256

Organic matter and loss, .928

237.960

Total mineral constituents, 237.032 grains.

Sulphurated hydrogen gas, 3.91 cubic inches.

Carbonic aicd gas, a trace.

 

Another well was bored by Mr. Hagerty, in 1874, on the east side of Thunder Bay River.

At 700 feet a vein of very soft water was struck, which flowed the full capacity of the well.

At 950 feet a mineral vein was reached; and at 1,050 feet salt rock.

It is somewhat remarkable, and to be regretted very much, that a minute and detailed record of the geological character of the several strata of rock was not made.

It might have led to valuable results.

The first hardware store was started by Barlow & Noxen, in 1866.

Mr. Noxen soon left the firm and J. J. Potter stepped into his place, and with Mr. Barlow built up a large trade.

In March, 1869, Mr. Barlow retired from the business and E. K. Potter filled the vacancy.

The firm soon was changed to Potter Bros. & Co., and so re-organized, the business was well managed and is now one of the largest mercantile establishments in Alpena.

The same year, Mr. Barlow commenced to build a clapboard mill, on the south side of the river, near the pier, for the purpose of cutting clapboards and door stuff.

It ran one clapboard machine and sapper.

Subsequently, it was changed to a shingle mill, running one double and one single machine.

Had a capacity to cut 100,000 shingles per day, and employed twenty-seven persons. It was owned in 1876 by Edward White, and valued at $8,000.

In 1870, the people of Alpena had become exceedingly prosperous, in the general acceptation of the term in this country—people are prosperous according to the accumulation of wealth, over and above paying their expense of living.

To show how prosperous the people are, we have only to show their surrounding conditions and influences, and their accumulation and increase of property and population, and we can do this in no better way than to show the acts and statistical reports of the people themselves, or through their representatives.

The population of Alpena proper, in 1864, was 674, and in 1870, according to the state census, was 2,756, an increase of 459 inhabitants yearly.

The vote cast in 1864 was 69, and that in 1870 was 519, a yearly increase of 75 votes.

This verifies the statement, before made, that Alpena dates its prosperity and rapid growth from 1864.

From its organization to 1864, six years, it had accumulated only 69 voters, while from 1864 to 1870, six years, it more than doubled that number each year.

The valuation of property, as made by the Board of Supervisors, and as shown by the census, was made upon the town of Alpena, which, in 1860, comprised the whole county.

When the towns of Ossineke and Corles were organized, in 1867, it materially changed its territory.

Alpena was again metamorphosed in 1871, by the organization of the city, and again changed by the organization of the towns of Wilson and Long Rapids.

A large portion of the accumulation of wealth belonged to the village of Alpena, and when connected with other territory and subject to such changes, the figures of the supervisors fail to express fairly the rates of increase of values in the village.

In 1868, the equalization of the assessment rolls were as follows:

Alpena, $700,000.06

Harrisville, 524,879.25

Alcona, 230,013.02

Ossineke, 137,961.89

Unorganized territory, 620,505.37

Total, $2,217,359.59

In 1870, the several tax rolls were equalized at the following amounts:

Alpena, $769,917.24

Ossineke, 142,660.00

Unorganized territory, 576,152.66

Total, $1,488,729.90

The two years above have been selected: First, to show the change in value by a change in territory, and second, to select two years in which no change had been made in Alpena territory.

But this shows only the ratio of values for the two years, is found to be $69,917.18.

In July, 1862, Congress enacted a law, imposing a tax of five per cent on all incomes over and above one thousand dollars net, and now, by giving a list of persons in Alpena, who paid an income tax in 1866 and in 1868, and the amounts on which they paid their tax, will better show their increase of wealth than any estimates made by the supervisors.

The following is the income tax lists (exclusive of legal exemptions’) for Alpena County, for the years 1866 and 1868, as furnished by E. B. Chamberlain, assistant assessor, 15th division, 6th district:

1866.

Henry Bolton, $966.62

Samuel Boggs, 926.00

Andrew W. Comstock, 500.00

Wm. B. Comstock, 500.00

John Campbell, 240.00

James Cavanagh, 283.84

Alexander H. Doty, 900.00

‘Temple Emory, 2,000.00

Addison F. Fletcher, 781.34

John W. Glennie, 136.65

Elisha Harrington, 8,676.55

Benj. C. Hardwick, 1,162.00

Thos. H. Hunt, 800.00

Phineas M. Johnson, 781.34

Edward Sachpell, 600.00

Benjamin F. Luce, 2,356.66

Donald McRea, 743.34

William P. Maiden, 293.00

William Norris, 341.00

S. Mitchel Noxen, 4,656.91

John Oldfield, 4,531.91

Chas. Oldfield, 4,531.91

D. D. Oliver, 9,795.00

William H. Potter, 2,600.00

Edward K. Potter, 230.00

1868.

Henry Bolton, $578.24

A. W. Comstock, 1,500.00

Wm. B. Comstock, 1,500.00

James Cavanagh, 3,007.88

Josiah Frink, 200.00

A. F. Fletcher, 500.00

Thos. H. Hunt, 1,500.00

Elisha Harrington, 7,213.00

Jas. K. Lock wood, 3,957.50

Benjamin F. Luce, 4,290.00

Donald McRae, 578.23

Henry R. Morse, 313.73

S. Mitchell Noxen, 2,631.80

Charles Oldfield, 2,631.80

James J. Potter, 613.05

William H. Potter, 6,375,00

It may not be uninteresting, to some of the readers of this book, to how in this place.

The various circumstances that conspired favorably for the growth of Alpena and that which exercised the largest influence, was the then so-called “depression greenback.”

Most of the wealth of Alpena in 1864, was her immense forests of pine timber and the accumulation of wealth by the people depended mostly upon the low price and easy purchase of those lands.

For the purpose of settlement and drainage of the swamp lands, the Legislature in 1859 passed a homestead law, by which ant settler or occupant of eighty acres of swamplands upon making application to the Commissioner of Land Office, was entitled to certificate of purchase conditioned that the settler should live on the land continuously for five consecutive years.

That also, within three months, from the date of such certificate, the settler should file with the Commissioner of State Land Office, a certificate from the Supervisor of the Township which the land is located, Together with his own affidavit that he is  in actual possession and occupancy of such land, that he shall not cut or carry away any valuable timber, except upon lands cleared for cultivation – complying with these provisions and proving the same at the expiration of the five years, he would be entitled to the deed of the land from the State of Michigan.

In 1862, Congress also passed a homestead law, by which any person male or female, being the head of a family or a male twenty-one years of age, and a citizen of the United States or had declared his intention to become a citizen, and who had always been faithful to the government, and by paying a small registration fee, was permitted to select and occupy one hundred and sixty acres of land, from any United States Lands, subject to entry at one dollar and twenty five cents per acre, and that, by living on the land for five consecutive years, and making proof of this to the Register of the Land Office of the District where the land belonged, was entitled to a patent of the land from the United States.

In 1862, Congress established a Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C, and in 1863 made a grant of lands to the several states, to aid them in establishing an Agricultural College in each state.

Some of the states selected their lands, while others, being remote from the land districts, put their certificates on the market, and sold them for what they could get, being always less than one-half their cash purchasing value at the United States Land Office for lauds.

For the purpose of drainage and reclamation of the swamp lands, the Legislature, in 1859, made a law granting swamp lands to aid in making roads and bridges, and in 1861 appropriated about four hundred thousand acres for that purpose. Subsequently a large portion of the swamp lands have been used in the same way.

The law provided that, if the contractor elected to take lands for the construction of any road, as soon as his contract was accepted by the Board of Control, he had a right to select a portion or all the lands called for by his contract, and the Commissioner of the State Land Office would withdraw them from the market and hold them during the life of the contract; that whenever the contractor finished two miles or more of the road, and it was accepted by the local road commissioner, be was entitled to receive deeds of so much land as he was entitled to per mile for making the road.

As soon as the contract was accepted by the Board of Control, the Swamp Land Commissioner credited the contractor with the amount of the contract.

This was called “unmatured scrip.”

As fast as the contractor finished his road and had it accepted by the Road Commissioner, he was credited with so much “matured scrip,” on which he was entitled to deeds.

This scrip was transferable by an order from the contractor, drawn on the Commissioner of the State Land Office. This scrip was placed upon the market and sold at a low figure, sometimes for less than one-half its purchasing value for land

Besides these substitutes for cash, in the purchase of pine and other lands, were “bounty land warrants,” issued to all persons who had been soldiers in the service of the United States.

Those issued to soldiers of the war of 1812, were in the State of Michigan exempt from taxation for three years after the date of the patents.

During the years 1865, 1866 and 1867 the prices of those substitutes, in the hands of middle men or brokers, ranged about as follows:

Land warrants of 1812, 40 acres, $ 40 to $ 48

Land warrants of 1812, 80 acres, 88 to 94

Land warrants of 1812, 120 acres, 109 to 115

Land warrants of 1812, 160 acres, 134 to 140

Agricultural college scrip, 160 acres, 104 to 108

Swamp land scrip, on the dollar, fifty to fifty-two cents.

It may not be without interest to some of the readers of this book, to notice the condition of the currency of the country, at this time.

Hon. E. G. Spaulding, in his history of the greenback, on page 198, says:

“Gold and commodities continued to advance in price.

On the loth of January, 1864, gold was $1.55; on the 15th of April, $1.78; on the loth of June, $1.97, and on the 29th of June, $2.35 to $2.50, which showed that the legal tender notes were only worth forty cents on the dollar in gold.

The next day, the 30th of June, 1864, Mr. Chase resigned the office of Secretary of the Treasury.

At this time the inflated paper issues, outstanding, were over $1,100,000,000, and in a few days thereafter, gold reached its highest quotations, $2.85, or more accurately speaking, greenbacks depreciated until they were worth in gold thirty-five cents on the promised dollar, at the board of brokers, in the city of New York.”

It may be well to examine this point a little, to ascertain whether gold appreciated, or as it is asserted, “that greenbacks depreciated.”

Facts support the allegation that, among the business men and laboring classes, in the United States, gold appreciated, the same as other property.

Foreigners, and those basing their values on gold, claimed that the greenbacks had depreciated, but this was a fact, only when the greenback was taken out of the United States.

Gold and foreign currency, not being used as a legal tender, became property, and with it fluctuated in prices.

In 1864, a gold dollar would buy, say $2.50 in greenbacks, and in 1876, it would buy only $1.12.

Now, the greenback would buy as much government land, in 1864, as it would in 1876.

The taxes, State and county, were no more on the dollar, in 1864, than in 1876, and the greenback dollar would pay as much tax in 1864, as it would in 1876, and the greenback dollar would pay as much debt, in 1864, as in 1876.

The gold dollar could not force the payment of any more taxes or debts, in 1864, than it could in 1876, nor could it buy any more government land, unless it was exchanged for legal tender.

Surely there was no depreciation shown by these facts, and if the people had to pay high prices for what they purchased, they also received high prices for what they sold, whether that was labor, lumber, iron or merchandise.

All these circumstances combined to make it extremely easy for any person to become the possessor of a piece of pine land, which was rapidly increasing in value.

Many, who had gold or Canada currency, exchanged it for “the depreciated greenback,” receiving two dollars or more for one, and then purchased scrip or land warrants, at about fifty per cent below their value, for land, making it cost the purchaser from twenty to thirty cents per acre, in gold.

Many, in this way, were becoming wealthy, who did not appear on the income tax list, or add much to the figures of the Supervisor.

These conditions extended to Alpena and her surroundings and was applicable more or less to all the Northern States.

The following quotations from the Alpena Pioneer, of various dates, will give you a better idea of the condition of things about the Village, and the thrift and activity of the people, than any report made by the writer:

May 8th. 1869.

James Hunt has laid the foundation for an upright to his house.

Charley Cornell is making his lots look much better by clearing them up.

M. B. Spratt and Frank Starbird are improving the appearance of their houses, by new fences.

J. B. Turtle has bought a house on State Street.

J. H. Stevens has purchased the next lot, and has the lumber on the ground for building.

Will it be safe for two lawyers to live so close together?

Deacon Hitchcock is erecting a feed store, next to Hueber’s meat market .

Kesselmeyer has bought the residence of Robert Carnes, and has raised a two story building for a barber shop, grocery, etc.

Dr. Maiden’s new office and fence are a great improvement to his premises.

W. M. Sutton has traded houses with E. K. Potter, and is building an office between his house and Dr. Maiden’s.

E. K. Potter has a large pile of lumber on the site of the old drug store.

We expect to see a hardware store there before long.

J. W. Hall is building a cabinet shop for our friend Aber; also a dwelling house; and Mr. Todd a tailor shop and dwelling house, making that corner look lively.

May 15, 1869.

We are pleased to see the improvements going on in the way of paint and shade trees.

The idea of getting shade trees in this sand is quite discouraging, but when it proves successful, the beauty of the improvement more than repays the trouble.

J. S. Minor is entirely refitting the residence purchased of Leroy Bundy, and building a fence.

W. H. Phelps has erected a very convenient and substantial dwelling on Third Street.

Ira Stout is finishing another for himself by its side, while the street is being extended south of the section Hue Bridge, and five or six new buildings going up, the owners of which we did not learn.

Going back to Chisholm Street, we found a new fence, nearly finished, around Rev. Mr. Barlow’s house, also preparations for building on John Blakely’s lot. (Wonder if this isn’t a shadow, which a future event casts before.)

The new coat of paint, on Mr. Mortimer’s house, improves the appearance of this corner, and. we observed some timbers on the site of the old Alpena House, which was burned down last New Year’s.

On Lockwood Street, several buildings are going up, which causes our village to gradually creep towards Campbellville. We learn that Henry Potter intends to make an addition of forty acres to the village, this spring.

November 20th, 1869.

Burrell’s Hotel is improving very fast in its appearance.

Its new coat of paint, and its blinds, making it one of the most presentable buildings in town.

Z. M. Knight has covered his new store and is finishing it up.

It will show a neat front to Water Street.

Abe Crowell is building a tasty residence near the Court House, which, with Mr. Chisholm’s new house on the opposite side, makes that street look more attractive.

From our window we can see the goodly proportions of Mr. Gilchrists’ new residence, beautifully located on the banks of the river.

On Chisholm Street, Mr. Potvin’s hotel makes glad the waste place, where the old one burnt last New Year’s.

This new building needs another story to make it look well.

John Blakely’s cottage gives a very sunny appearance to that side of the street and makes a very desirable cage for the bird he caught this week.

The progress of agriculture, from 1866, was more than a doubtful experiment.

The writer, having been correspondent of the county of Alpena for the Agricultural Department at Washington, from 1863 to 1870, and compelled to make monthly returns to the department, during that time, his attention was called to that department of industry.

Perhaps more than anyone in the county, and as he traveled over the country, in making surveys and exploring for pine lands, he naturally noticed the soil and its adaptation to raising farm produce, and he became early convinced, by observation and experiment, that there was but very little fault in the soil or climate, and that the application of intelligent labor, would place Alpena county among the best agricultural districts in the State.

In the fall of 1865, the writer located the southeast quarter of section twenty-five, in town thirty-one north, of range six east, and the southwest quarter of section thirty, in town thirty-one north, of range seven east, being the first burnt lands purchased, for farming purposes.

He sold these lands to Dr. J. B. Truax, H. Sawyer and H. King.

Sometime in 1866, Sawyer, for defending J. K. Miller and G. N. Fletcher, against the attack of some drunken men, was the next day assailed by a mob, headed by one Crawford, whom Sawyer shot and killed instantly.

For this he was arrested, tried, and bound over to the Circuit Court, and sent to Saginaw to jail, as there was none in Alpena, by the same class that assailed him, but he never had a trial, as the people refused to appear against him.

More about this affair in the chapter on temperance.

In consequence of this sad affair, Sawyer and Dr. Truax surrendered their contracts and left the place, while Mr. King paid for his land and became the first permanent farmer in the county.

The writer subsequently sold the Truax quarter section to N. M. Brackinreed, in 1868, and the Sawyer lot to Pardon Buell, for farming purposes.

This became the nucleus of a settlement.

In 1867, Charles B. Greely and George B. Erskine commenced to clear a farm in section nineteen or twenty, in township thirty-one north, of range six east.

The land was densely covered with large sugar maple, beech and hemlock timber, and it required a good ax, a strong arm, much will power, and persevering industry to make a large farm in this place.

Fortunately, they possessed all these requirements, and constantly the sound of the ax and the crash of falling timber, could be heard, until a large piece was ready to be piled into log heaps and burned.

This was done, and the ground was planted with potatoes and baga turnips, and Mr. Greely reported that the first crop brought them over one thousand dollars, besides what they used for the family and seed.

This was the largest sale of farm produce that was raised in the county.

The chopping, clearing, and planting continued until 1871, when they found that, from being the possessor of a good ax each, and some other “traps,” in 1866, they were now the owners of a farm of two hundred acres, and more than one-half of that cleared, with a good house and barn, etc., good teams, wagons, and farming implements, and this mostly made from the land.

Their prospects, at this time, were exceeding prosperous, but a dark cloud suddenly came over their sunshine.

About two years prior to this, Mr. Erskine brought to his forest home a charming bride, a lady of about twenty-four summers, and who by her industry, cheerful disposition, and accommodating spirit, made her endearing to her husband, and his home bright and cheerful, and won for her the kind regard and respect of all that knew her.

In June, 1870, she went to the State of Maine, to visit her mother, and while there, died, soon after giving birth to a son, that also died at, or soon after, its birth.

When the sad news of the death of his beloved wife and darling son, reached Mr. Erskine, it gave him such a shock, and cast such a gloom over his once happy home, that he could not bear the thought of living there longer, and Mr. Greely, sympathizing with him, they sold the farm and came to the city.

In 1876, the property belonged to Mr. Emerson, having passed through several parties.

Soon after Messrs. Greely and Erskine commenced their farming, they were followed into the woods by Mr. Kimball, who located a farm on the south side of them, and Mr. Green, who located near them on the northeast, while A. R. Richardson commenced to clear a large farm, a mile or so east of them, and who soon had a large clearing, with a good frame house and barn.

This formed the beginning of another settlement.

About the same time, 1866 or 1867, James A. Case and William Hawley commenced to clear farms on Thunder Bay River, in section thirty-one, in township thirty-two north, of range seven east, and John Mainville and one or two others, located in section twenty-eight, of the same town and range, and while Mr. Case was debating with himself, whether farming there would pay, and the probability of any more settlers.

Mainville was disputing his rights with a family of beavers, for the occupancy of an old beaver pond.

This, with Antoine’s clearing, at the mouth of the North Branch, was the first settlement in this township.

In 1867, James Demster, William Pulford, David Dunn, and a few others, settled on homesteads a few miles east of Alpena city, and about the same time, E. Woodruff and Alex. Macaulay and others, settled on and near Partridge Point.

Richard Naylor commenced farming about three miles northwest from the city, and a few other settlers at other points, so that, in June. 1869, the writer reported to the Department of Agriculture, at Washington, thirty-six farmers in the county.

In 1870, the Rev. F. N. Barlow commenced to build a large steam sawmill, and booming grounds, out in the bay, near the south pier.

He commenced the work, by running a large crib around an area of the bay, sufficiently large to hold his logs, and drove piles for the foundation of his mill, out in the water, to be filled in around it with the refuse from the mill, which was afterwards done.

This mill was finished in 1871, and run one large circular saw, one of J. B. Wayne’s iron gangs, two patent edgers, one gang lath mill, one drag saw, two clapboard sawing machines and one sapper, for clapboard bolts.

It had also, in connection, a planing mill, with one large iron planer, and a clapboard planer, one re-sawing machine, two ripping saws, and one butting saw.

This mill gave employment to, from forty-five to fifty men, and was valued at fifty thousand dollars.

The refuse from the mill soon filled all the places, that refuse could be used to advantage, besides making steam.

A large wrought iron refuse burner was made, ample in capacity, for burning the accumulations, together with machinery for conveying the refuse, directly from the saws to the burner.

This property changed owners several times, passing from Mr. Barlow to George Prentiss & Co., and from them to the Alpena Lumber Co.

In 1876 it is owned by Mr. Churchill.

The city of Alpena is indebted to the thrift and business push and capacity of Mr. Barlow, in this enterprise, for the large and important extension of territory, the stability of her harbor improvements, the accumulation of fifty thousand dollars of wealth to the city, and the addition of, at least, one hundred inhabitants, and while Mr. Barlow got more experience out of the operation, than money, yet it was a permanent good for the place.

In 1871, A. R. Richardson built, on Maine Street, the first brick dwelling in the city.

Soon after the fire, in April, Bolton Mc McRae built a large, three story and basement brick block, on the corner of Dock and Fletcher streets, being the first brick store in the city.

This rear a telegraph line was extended from Bar City to Alpena, and will be noticed in the chapter on communication.

Events in history take place in regular succession, the same as the events in a persons life, and it is impossible for any event to take place before its antecedent.

So with the growth of Alpena.

Among its first wants were streets and roads and as soon as these became well made, horses and carriages were in order, and needed; and people who con Id not keep a horse and carriage, borrowed, or hired of those who had.

Until a livery stable became necessary, as one of the appendages of the city. J. R. Beach was the first one in the city to keep horses and carriages for hire.

In 1871, McDade & Co. built and maintained a livery stable, on the corner of Washington Avenue and Second Street.

In the winter of 1872 and 1873, John S. Minor built his new mill, on the old disputed middle ground.

It was planned for two five and a half foot circular saws.

In 1876, he employed twenty-four men, and cut, with one circular saw, five and a half million feet of lumber.

Prior to 1872, all the banking business for Alpena was done in Detroit.

But very little currency was taken at Alpena, for the reason that there was no safe place for deposit.

Mill men in Alpena checked out of Detroit banks, and payees generally spent a large portion of the money in Detroit; and this dwarfed the trade of Alpena, and kept it without money.

On the 1st of March, 1872, Charles Bewick.

Andrew W. Comstock and William B. Comstock organized The Alpena Banking Co., with A. W. Comstock as cashier.

In April of the same year, Geo. L. Maltz and J. L. Whiting organized The Exchange Bank, with Geo. L. Maltz as cashier.

These banks brought a large amount of currency into the city: supplied the needs of the business men of Alpena, and became very important institutions of the place.

A large hotel was erected this season, by George N. Fletcher, of Detroit, under certain arrangements with the people of Alpena, and called the Fletcher House.

It is situated on the bay shore, and occupies the whole space between Water and River Streets, one front of one hundred and forty feet facing the bay; one front of one hundred and forty feet facing Water Street, and fifty-one feet fronting on River Street, the whole being forty-five feet wide.

The building is three stories high; the first story fifteen feet, the second story fourteen feet, and third story twelve feet, and surrounded by a mansard roof and observatory, which commands a view of the bay, with its islands and various points.

This house is warmed by steam, and lighted with gas manufactured for the purpose.

It is intended to be, in all its arrangements, a first class hotel.

Although Alpena was considered a very healthy place, yet it sometimes happened that people died there; and it therefore became necessary to have a place to bury them.

For this purpose, and to locate and establish the first cemetery in the city of Alpena, Daniel Carter, in July, 1873, donated to the city, ten acres of land, from the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 21, in town 31 north, of range 8 east.

We too often find cemeteries located so near growing towns, that they soon become surrounded with buildings; become a nuisance, and have to be moved.

This one, however, is located near the western limits of the city, on the Section Line Road, so called, and so far away that it never will be reached by the buildings of the city.

It is located on a sandy plain, covered with spruce pine trees, and when properly improved will be a very peaceful spot to repose this “mortal coil,” when the spirit that gave it life has left it and gone to higher spheres.

The only objection to it is its homogeneousness.

The first white person buried in this cemetery was a man by the name of Peter Duclos, and the first Indian buried there was Pe-na-se-won-aquot, son of the old chief Sog-on-e-qua-do.

Directly after the great fire of July 12th, 1872, the City Fathers passed an ordinance, establishing a fire limit, which was very much opposed, as being unnecessary in so small a town; but it had this good effect, that it caused parties on Second street to re-build with brick, and gave an impulse to the structure of such buildings as gave permanency and beauty to the place; and from this time until 1876, brick buildings were the order of the day.

In 1873, A. McDonald erected a fine brick block, on Second Street, and in the same or following year.

Potter Bros. & Co., F. S. Goodrich and Chas. C. Whitney built large brick stores, on Second Street.

In 1875, Pack and Blackburn erected fine brick stores, and in 1876, Deacon Hitchcock built the brick Centennial building, on the site of the old court house.

Other large and substantial buildings were erected on the burnt district, during this time, the details of which the writer has not been able to reach.

CHAPTER V.

FIRES AND FIRE ORGANIZATIONS.

Alpena has been a great sufferer from fires. Perhaps no place of its age and population has been visited by the fire king so often, and with such terrible effect, as Alpena.

In 1860, an extensive fire run through the woods adjoining Alpena, destroying much valuable timber, both standing and made into flat and square timber, and destroyed a large mill frame belonging to G. N. Fletcher, and one of the mill frames made by John Cole, in the winter of 1858 and 1859.

In 1862, another fire from the woods, destroyed Lock wood & Minor’s new steam mill, shortly after being enclosed, and burned, also, a number of small buildings, the loss being considerable for Lockwood & Minor at that time.

In 1863, the large steam mill belonging to Smith & Chamberlain, was destroyed by fire, resulting in a loss to the owners and to the place, that cannot be estimated.

The property was valued at $30,000.

It was thought by many, at the time, to have been the work of an incendiary.

A shingle mill, built and owned by Thomas Robinson, in 1866, and running in connection with the shingle mill, the first planer brought to Alpena, was destroyed by fire, in 1867.

This was a ruinous loss to Mr. Robinson, as he had placed in it all the means he had; was without insurance, and was unable to re-build.

Another shingle mill, built in 1866, and owned by Hopper & Davis, was burned soon after Robinson’s.

This fire so crippled their business relations that for a long time the mill was not re-built; and the damaging result to their future prosperity could not be estimated.

And still another shingle mill was destroyed by fire, but I cannot state the time.

This mill was the first of its kind erected in Alpena, and was built by G. S. Lester.

A tar factory, owned by Martin Minton, was submitted to the flames.

Some other fires occurred between 1863 and 1869, the particulars of which the writer has not been able to procure.

Soon after the burning of the shingle mill and planing mill of Thos. Robinson, Scott Doane, Moses Bingham and J. B. Beers formed a co-partnership, for the purpose of carrying on the general planing business, and making doors, sash and blinds, on the north side of the river, near the bay.

On the 1st of June, 1868, Beers retired from the firm, and the business was continued by Doane & Bingham.

They run a surface planer and matcher, a large molding and sash machine and other auxiliary saws and machinery.

At this time, a demand arose among the lumbermen for grinding feed, and Mr. Bingham, being a practical miller, as well as an excellent mechanic, resolved to supply the want.

The firm soon started a feed mill in connection with their sash factory, capable of grinding three hundred bushels of feed per day.

All went on well until the 3rd of May, 1S69, when the fire king, which seemed to rare had his headquarters near Alpena in those days, burned the upper story of their sash factory, together with a quantity of dry lumber.

Since 1866, some daring experimenters in farming had raised, contrary to expectations, a large quantity of wheat, and they wished to have it made into flour.

The firm determined to meet the exigency.

They soon enlarged, and changed their feed mill into a grist mill, with a bolt and other machinery for making flour with success.

This gave great encouragement to the farming interest.

The firm was now doing excellent work, and progressing finely, until October 1st, 1870, when the fire king made them a serious visit.

Not to be foiled again by “that hose,” this time HE started the fire in the engine room, and in a few minutes the factory and mill were in flames.

Nothing was saved, nor had they any insurance.

For years of labor they had only a mass of blackened ruins and disappointed hopes.

But they possessed intrinsic value in themselves, and had the confidence, esteem and sympathy of the people.

By their persevering toil and fair dealing, they had built up an industry which the people of Alpena could not afford to see blotted out.

The Alpenians never allowed a necessary institution to die, and that which they needed they always made strenuous efforts to obtain.

Meetings were held by the people, and arrangements soon made for money and credit for the firm, so that they could commence at once to re-build on the site of the old factory; and in June, 1871, they came out with a new edition, revised and enlarged by the authors.

It would seem that “His Fire Majesty” took particular delight in destroying the public houses of Alpena, for every one erected prior to 1872, was given to the flames, except the re-build of the Alpena House, the first one being destroyed on the 1st of January, 1868.

This was a large loss to Julins Potvin, the proprietor, who, as soon as he had recovered a little from the daze occasioned by the fire, commenced to re-build a larger and better house, on the site of the burned one, and soon had it ready for the accommodation of the public.

In 1863, a court house was finished, by Deacon Hitchcock, according to a contract between him and the Board of Supervisors, and was known as the “Deacon’s Court House.”

This was burned in 1870, under circumstances which gave rise to suspicions that it was the work of an incendiary; but no proof of the fact could ever be elicited.

In the summer of 1870, the dwelling of Fulton Bundy was given to the flames, and a “right smart” fire it was.

And in February, 1871, another fire occurred, which consumed the foundry and machine shop of David Crippen, valued at $5,000, and insured for $2,000, together with a boarding house belonging to Lockwood & Minor, and valued at $1,800, and insured for $1,000.

The north side of Dock Street had been built up with good buildings.

Next to the river, on the north side, was a large and commodious public house, owned and occupied by Samuel Boggs, called the Huron House, and on the opposite side of the street was a large building, used as a store and storehouse, owned by J. C. Bowen, and occupied by Folkerts & Butterfield.

On the northeast of Dock and Fletcher streets was the store and residence of Bolton & McRae.

On the opposite corner was the Union Star Hotel, and next to it, north, was the Evergreen Hall, so named by the ladies of Alpena, for the tasteful manner in which J. R. Beach, the owner of this and the Star Hotel, had decorated it with evergreens for some festive occasion.

Moses Bingham owned and occupied a large dwelling, on the next lot north of Evergreen Hall.

At this time, business on the east side of the river began to assume a lively appearance; the bridge was in fair condition, and the hotels run carriages to the boats, for passengers, so that visitors to Alpena could find good accommodations.

“But a change came over the spirit of their dreams,” the powers that “dominate behind the scenes” had engaged the fiend to destroy their property and bright anticipations, for on the 9th day of April, 1871, about noon, the alarm of fire was given, from the billiard saloon of Guild & Clewley, in the Beebe block, situated near the center between the Huron House and Bolton & McRae’s store.

It was soon discovered that all the buildings on that side of the street would be destroyed, as everything was very dry, and the village had no engine or any organized fire company, so everything was in confusion, as might be expected, under the circumstances.

It was soon seen that the most that could be done, was to save what of the furniture and goods they could, and let the fire burn itself out.

Accordingly, the people got two lighters from the opposite side of the river, on which they piled the contents of the buildings nearest the river, and carried them beyond the reach of the fire; but many of the goods and furniture of the Star Hotel and other buildings in the vicinity, were carried into the streets and there burned before they could again be moved.

When the fire reached Bolton & McRae’s store, the wind was blowing quite fresh, and soon carried the flames across the street, to the Star Hotel and other buildings in the vicinity, which soon became a heap of ruins.

The principal buildings destroyed in this fire, were the Huron House, owned and occupied by Samuel Boggs, and valued at $10,000.

He had an insurance on the property of $2,000 only, and this was for the benefit of Benj. C. Hardwick, who then held a mortgage on the same.

The Star Hotel and Evergreen Hall, owned and occupied by J. R. Beach, and valued at $12,000.

He also had a small insurance of $3,000 on his buildings, for the benefit of T. Luce & Co.

Those parties were the greatest sufferers by this fire.

The small insurance only paid the indebtedness on their property, and left them nothing with which to re-build.

For their industry and enterprise, they had nothing left but the lots and blackened ruins, and the furniture saved from the fire; but they were both good mechanics, and of cheerful and hopeful dispositions, and not being easily discouraged, they soon gathered up what they had and commenced work, in hopes to retrieve their losses; but the destroyer was still on their tracks, as the sequel will show.

The building occupied by Folkerts & Butterfield, and owned by J. C. Bowen, was valued at $4,500, and insured for $3,000.

The goods of Folkerts & Butterfield were covered by insurance.

The building owned by Henry Beebe, valued at $3,500, had no insurance.

The dwelling of Moses Bingham, valued at $2,500, with no insurance.

Both of these losses were severe, but did not fall with such crushing weight upon Mr. Beebe, as he had means to re-build, as it did on Mr. Bingham, who had so recently sustained a heavy loss in the burning of the Doane, Bingham & Co. sash and blind factory.

The building and goods of Bolton & McRae were fully insured, which prevented a ruinous disaster to them and much loss to the place.

Others sustained losses, which the writer is unable to particularize.

The city felt a severe loss in the destruction of Evergreen Hall, as it deprived the people of any hall suitable for holding public entertainments, and the city was again without hotel accommodations for the traveling public.

There is an old saying: “There is no great loss without some small gain.” and this may be applied in a very small way in this case.

It taught the people of Alpena, and the newly made “City Fathers,” the extreme necessity of organizing a fire company, and procuring a steam fire engine: and this business must have been among the first of their official acts, for in May, 1871, the first fire company was organized, by electing the following officers:

Foreman—A. L. Power.

Assistant Foreman—Fred. Buchanan.

Secretary—G. W. Hawkins.

Treasurer—L. B. Howard.

G. W. Hawkins, J. T. Bostwick and William Johnson were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws.

NAMES OF MEMBERS.

A. W. Comstock,

James Walker,

S. S. Meade,

J. T. Bostwick,

N. Carpenter,

E. G. Johnson,

Will. Hitchcock,

Win. Johnson,

John Kesten,

Geo. Speechley,

H. S. Seage,

A. L. Power,

Fred. Buchanan.

Geo. W. Hawkins.

L. B. Howard,

Geo. Plough,

Theo. Luce.

Thos. H. Lester,

Fred. Smith,

C. E. Wilcox.

A. F. Fletcher,

Abe C rowel 1,

D. G. Aber,

S. A. Aber,

M. McCollum,

R. Bradshaw,

M. McLeod,

R. J. Kelley,

John D. Potter,

J. R. Beach,

C. C. Whitney,

Thos. C. Lester,

A. D. Stout,

Henry Nipbee,

Roland Galbraith.

Andrew Guyld,

George Jones,

James Murray,

William Wall,

Frank Northrop,

Burt Buchanan,

books (5)

On the 4th day of July of the same year, a well uniformed and equipped fire company, with a steam fire engine, was, for the first time, paraded in Alpena, and his Honor, Mayor Seth L. Carpenter, addressed them in a very appropriate speech.

The engine and company were named after an old chief of the Thunder Bay band of Indians—Sog-on-e-qua-do.

His name is mentioned in the first chapter.

Soon after the destruction of the Star Hotel, J. B. Beach rented the American House of Gelos Potvin, and commenced again to keep a public house, as they were at this time much in demand.

He opened sometime in May, and in October of the same year, was again compelled to flee before the devouring flames.

This time his loss was not large, as he saved most of his furniture; but he lost his business, and no man can be thrust out of business without sustaining considerable loss.

Only a part of the house was consumed, as the fire company was promptly on the ground, and did good service.

The success of this engine led the people to suppose that they were safe from the attacks of large fires.

But the fire king was laughing to think what a “big smoke” he would give them the next season, and show them how utterly inadequate was such an engine to quench his wrath, when once fairly kindled.

In the spring of 1872, we find Mr. Beach proprietor of the Burrell House, but the same destroyer was still on his tracks, and followed him there, and he was again burned out in the big fire, this time losing all he had.

Soon after the loss of the Huron House, Mr. Boggs purchased some property of Dr. W. P. Maiden, on Second Street, and commenced to erect a hotel called the Sherman House.

He had scarcely finished and opened it, before it was swept away in the great fire—the fire being particularly severe on the hotels.

The account of the great fire we shall give as we find it in the Alpena Pioneer Extra, of the date of July 13th, 1872.

ALPENA BURNED!

Loss of Property $200,000—Insurance $80,000.

Sixty-Five Buildings Burned—Four Persons Burned to Death, Others Badly Burned.

At fifteen minutes to five o’clock yesterday afternoon, July 12th, the barn in the rear of the Sherman House, a house recently opened, and owned and occupied by Samuel Boggs, was discovered to be on fire.

The alarm was given, and the engine in position promptly, but there was some delay in getting up steam.

The fire being among hay, spread with fearful rapidity, and in an incredibly short time the Sherman House and Goodrich’s jewelry store were enveloped in flames.

The engine commenced to play, but the wind blowing fresh from the northwest, carried the fire with astonishing rapidity across the street, into the row of business houses on the south side of the street.

Crowell & Godfrey’s building, the Burrell House, McDonald’s building, Blackburn’s building, the Huron House, Maltz’s residence, and the barns and offices, etc., in that block, were soon all ablaze.

Mayor Pack’s residence and office were burned.

Potter & Bros’, hardware store, McDade & Gavagan’s hotel, and Comstock’s mill and boarding house were burned.

Aber’s building and furniture rooms, and the whole row of houses on the north side of River Street to Luce’s mill.

The fire raged until about six o’clock, before its limits were confined, when it had destroyed about three and a half blocks, containing about sixty-five buildings.

Among the heaviest losers were Potter & Bros., Anspach & Co., C. Burrell & Co., A. Pack & Co., George L. Maltz & Co., P. McDade, F. S. Goodrich, and Charles C. Whitney.

These might not have been the greatest sufferers, as many lost all they had.

The Alpena Weekly Argus office was entirely destroyed.

But the saddest record we have to make, is the burning to death of three persons, and badly burning of three others, one of whom has since died.

Mrs. Westbrook, keeping a millinery store, on Second Street, perished in the street, in front of her store, and could not be rescued until nothing but her bones remained.

The bones of two others, supposed to be men, have been found.

George Westbrook, son of the milliner, was so badly burned, in trying to rescue his mother, that he has since died.

A sailor named Kelly, and George Westby, Barlow’s engineer, are very badly burned.

Doubts are entertained of Westby’s recovery.

One of the men burned is supposed to be John Lavin.

The county papers were saved.

We subjoin an imperfect list of sufferers and their losses, as hastily estimated:

books (6)

The county papers were saved.

This last paragraph can be explained by saying that, soon after the court house was destroyed by fire, in 1870, the court and county offices, and the court and county records were removed to rooms in the Potter block, on Second street, and had again to pass through the uncertainties of a large fire; but they were all saved.

The experience of the last fire convinced the city officials that their fire department was too small to work successfully against a large fire.

In July, 1875, at a special meeting of the Common Council, a resolution was passed, for the purpose of purchasing one of Silsby’s No. 4 size rotary steam fire engines, for the sum of $5,850, with hose cart and hose.

The engine was soon after purchased, and a fire company organized, called Alpena No. 2.

Robert Oliver was appointed First Engineer.

Soon after this, a change was made in the management of the fire department.

And now they had the engines and a proper organization, there was a scarcity of water; and large tanks had to be made in various parts of the city, for a supply.

These tanks proved to be only a partial success, as the water was muddy, and many of them with a scanty supply.

It is hoped that not far in the future, the city will be well supplied with water from the river or lake; and until this supply of water is had, but little progress can be made against fires, as the following will show:

In June, 1875, E. Harrington’s house and barn were burned, valued at $1,500; insured for $3,000; Robert Napper’s blacksmith shop and wagon factory, valued at $6,000, and insured for $1,500; H. J. Eaton-s residence, valued at $3,000, and insured for $2,000.

On February 25th, 1876, Henry Beebe’s block was a second time destroyed by fire.

Building and stock valued at $12,000, and insured for $4,000.

Michael O’Brien lost his stock of boots, shoes, leather, etc, valued at $1,000, and insured for $1,000; and soon after this the residence of Dr. Jeyte was destroyed, valued at $4,000, and insured for $2,300.

On the last day of November of the same year, the Myers block, so called, and the oldest building in the city, was burned.

How it caught fire was a mystery.

Some other fires occurred, the details of which the writer has not been able to obtain.

This chapter is the most gloomy and thankless of any in the history of Alpena, but it affords some food for careful thought and study.

In looking over the list of sufferers by the several fires, you will find that those who needed insurance the most, had the least, and some had no insurance at all.

Our fellow citizens, Samuel Boggs, J. R. Beach, Thomas Robinson and others, are poor men this Centennial year, simply because they did not keep fully insured; and Mrs. Westbrook and son probably owe their shocking and untimely deaths to the same cause.

Many not only lost their property by the fire, but being without insurance or means to re-build, they were swept out of a lucrative and monopolized business worth to them many times the value of the property they lost.

It is impossible to reach the exact value of property destroyed by fires in Alpena, between 1857 and 1876, but we can approximate very nearly, and keeping within the bounds of certainty, we have the very nice sum of $342,900.

In 1875, the assessed valuation of property in Alpena City was $906,640, so that, by these figures, one-third of the entire accumulations of the people for eighteen years had been destroyed by fires.

About $100,000 of this loss has been paid back by the insurance companies, leaving a dead loss upon the industry of the people, during that time, of twenty-five per cent.

 

CHAPTER VI.

COMMUNICATION.

Mail.

Long before the writer came to Thunder Bay, and probably since the establishment of the military posts at Sault Ste. Marie and Mackinaw, a mail route had been established between these points and Saginaw, and carried along the west shore of Lake Huron, on the backs of men or on sledges drawn by dogs, and for that reason the mail is placed in this chapter, before steamers or roads.

The conveyance of the U. S. mail was entrusted to the care of Frenchmen and half-breeds, and was carried on their backs, but mostly on what they called a trainaud, and drawn by dogs over the ice and snow.

The trainaud was made of two flat pieces of oak, maple or birch wood, about one-half inch thick, six or seven inches wide, and from nine to fourteen feet long.

These were fastened together with cross-bars, and nicely turned up at one end.

On this the mail was placed, with their camp and provisions, and fastened to the trainaud with cords attached to the cross-bars.

The dogs were placed tandem, or one before the other, and attached to the trainaud by long traces.

The dogs were generally large, muscular animals, well trained for the work, and capable of much endurance; and in early times were often very fancifully harnessed.

The harness consisted of a buckskin collar, with harness of some bright metal, and extending about six inches above the neck of the dog, and turned with a whorl at the top, in which was suspended a nice little bell.

The straps were all made of black leather, with large housing of red broadcloth, when the dog was of a dark color and blue when the dog was of a light color.

The housings were fringed with a long yellow fringe, and nicely worked with beads all over.

The men were rapid travelers, making trips from Bay City to Sault Ste. Marie in four days, under favorable circumstances—a distance of about two hundred and twenty miles—and in two instances they made, under a reward, a traverse from Bay City to Devil river, in seventeen hours—a distance of one hundred miles or more.

Having given some idea how the mail was carried on the Lake Huron shore, at the time Fremont was first settled, we now proceed to give some details in regard to the establishment of the first post office in Alpena County.

Among the many privations that are experienced by the early settlers of a country, is the absence of reading matter and mail facilities.

The American thinks it a hardship to do without his newspaper, if only for a short time, and receives it again with as much eagerness as he does his “bread and butter,” after being without his dinner.

The first settlers of Alpena were no exception to the rule, and Mr. Carter says, in a letter to George N. Fletcher, under date of the 14th of February, 1857: “I want you to send more papers; we read everything all to pieces.”

As soon as A. F. Fletcher arrived in Fremont, he became sensible of this great want of mail, and in his first letter to his cousin, G. N. Fletcher, he says: “You ought to write to Washington about a post office.”

Soon after this letter, a petition went to Washington, for a post office at Fremont, and on the loth of January, 1858, the papers arrived “from Washington, establishing a post office at Fremont, with Daniel Carter as postmaster, together with blanks and other things necessary for the newly made postmaster to exercise the functions of his office.

From 1850 to this time, the writer received his mail in the winter, through arrangements made with the postmaster at Bay City, and the mail carriers, the writer’s mail being made into a sealed package and carried outside the mail bags; and in summer, by arrangements with the postmaster at Detroit, and his schooner and other vessels coming to Devil river for lumber—receiving his mail quite regularly during the winter, and at intervals of from one week to one month during the summer.

Soon after the operations of the post office at Fremont had commenced, it was discovered that there was another Fremont in the State, and some letters occasionally went to the wrong Fremont, and the people had the name changed to Alpena Post Office.

Then letters sometimes went to a place called Alpine, and the name of the post office was again changed to Thunder Bay Post Office, and subsequently to Alpena Post Office, which name it still retains.

Having a mail route established along the lake shore, for the winter season, the mail came regularly once a week during the winter, but having no mail route established for the summer season, the office had to depend on such arrangements as the postmaster could make with the postmaster at Detroit, and circumstances.

When any responsible person went to Detroit, and to return soon, he was authorized to carry the mail; and about the last words to those leaving for Detroit, were, “Don’t forget the mail.”

This state of things continued only one summer.

Mr. Carter petitioned the department at Washington, to establish a mail route between Bay City and Fremont, in the summer season.

They replied that they could not establish a mail route, but would grant him the whole proceeds of the office for the purpose of carrying the mail.

During the summers of 1859, 1860 and 1861, Mr. Carter procured the mail to be carried between Bay City and Alpena, as often as it could be carried, in a small boat; and at the end of the three years, Mr. Carter found himself to the good, less expenses, about two hundred dollars.

The mail was then carried by steamers, running between Alpena and Bay City, for the proceeds of the Alpena post office and the other offices along the shore, and what the people donated, until July, 1866, when a regular mail route was established; and from that time until 1876, there has been a daily mail carried on the boats, and as regular as the weather would permit.

Up to 1863, the winter mail had been carried by “dog train,” along the shore.

This winter, the arrangement was changed, and the “dog train” came only as far as Fremont, and returned.

Mr. Carter, under a sub contract, carried the mail between Fremont and Bay City, and continued to carry it in the winter, until the summer route was established, in 1866.

It was then carried by stage, until 1876.

Mr. Carter’s house was made the first post office, and this, as well as many other of the institutions that now belong to Alpena, took their incipient growth at Mr. Carter’s house.

For remuneration as postmaster, Mr. Carter was to have sixty per cent of the revenue from the office, yet his salary for the first year did not reach the moderate sum of five dollars.

Mr. Carter resigned the office in April, 1860, but was not relieved until October, when E. K. Potter was appointed his successor, and following him in office was Leroy Bundy.

William D. Hitchcock

The present incumbent, in 1876, is William D. Hitchcock, and the fourth on the list of Alpena postmasters.

The office is now one of considerable importance, being made a money order office in 1868.

Its revenue, in 1875, being $3,027.31; and the amount of orders issued reached the sum of $24,036.09.

In 1867, through the influence of the writer, a post office was established at Ossineke, called the Ossineke post office, and the appointment of George B. Melville as postmaster.

The revenue of the office, for the first year, was a little over three hundred dollars.

In 1876, there were four post offices in the county, two as above stated, and one called Long Rapids post office, with John Louden as postmaster, and one called East Side post office, with Mrs. Ellen Roberts as postmistress.

By Water.

Prior to 1844, but little was known of Alpena County, and its waters were very seldom visited by any craft larger than a fishing boat.

In 1845 and 1846, Thunder Bay Island becoming a large fishing station, made it profitable for steamboats going around the lakes, to call at this island, for freight and passengers.

In 1846, the fishermen on the island entered into an agreement’ with two steamers, to call at the island every trip up and down during the season, when the weather would permit; and it became a habit with all the steamers to land passengers at the island, and call for them when signaled for them to call, by hoisting a flag.

And this habit, once obtained, continued until 1859; and most of the travel to and from Fremont was by this route—the freight mostly coming on sail vessels.

After the sawmill was built at Devil River, vessels occasionally came there for lumber.

In 1852, the writer purchased the schooner Marshall Ney, and run it regularly from his mill, at Devil River, to Cleveland, for four years.

Occasionally, during this time, small vessels came in search of freight or trade.

In 1859 and 1860, the business of Fremont having largely increased, steamers found it profitable to make occasional trips there, and Capt. Darins Cole, owner of the steamer Columbia, was induced by the people of Alpena, to place his boat on the route between Fremont and Detroit, and in a short time began making regular trips.

The Columbia being a small boat, was able to land her passengers and freight on the dock inside the river, while the Forest Queen, that came to Fremont only when she could obtain a profitable freight, was compelled to lay outside the river, and discharge her freight and passengers on lighters and boats, on account of the sandbar at the mouth of the river.

In the spring of 1860, we find the following in the Detroit papers: “Steamer Columbia, Darius Cole, Master, leaves Detroit every Monday, at 2 p. M., arrives at Bay City Wednesday morning, and leaves Bay City for Thunder Bay every Wednesday morning, at 10 o’clock.”

At the same time, the Forest Queen made trips to Tawas, every Friday, and every other Friday extended her trips to Au Sable, and sometimes came to Fremont.

From 1859 to the fall of 1864, the Columbia continued to make weekly trips from Detroit to Alpena, and the Forest Queen came when she could get a paying freight.

In 1863, the Genesee Chief, Capt. Clark, run on the Bay City route, and continued on that route until the fall of 1867.

In the fall of 1864, the Sky Lark, Capt. A. G. Ripley, came on the Bay City and Fremont route, and the “old Columbia receded.”

The Sky Lark continued to make bi-daily trips each season, until the summer of 1866, when she was sold to western parties and taken off the route, and the steamer Huron, Capt. D. Cole, run in the Sky Lark’s place during the remainder of the season.

In 1867, the steamer Alpena, Capt. John Robeson, run on the route between Detroit and Alpena, making regular trips; and the Huron, Capt. D. Cole, run with the Genesee Chief, on the Bay City route.

During the years 1867 and 1868, the harbor of Alpena had been so much improved by piers and dredging, that steamers could enter the river, and in 1868, a new impulse was given to mill building in Alpena, and consequently a large increase of freight for that place, as well as a corresponding increase along the shore.

In the spring of 1868, the steamer Huron, Capt. D. Cole, started on the Bay City and Alpena route, and in July, the steamer Geo. W. Reynolds, Capt. Benj. Boutell, run with the Huron, on the same route.

On the 4th day of July, the steamer Metropolis made her first visit to Alpena, and run on the route the remainder of the season.

The Marine City run this season, on the shore route, from Detroit to Alpena, in place of the Alpena, and extended her trips to Mackinac Island.

In 1869, the steamer Metropolis, Capt. Cole, run on the Bay City route, and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, run from Detroit to Mackinac.

Business having largely increased in Alpena and on the bay shore, in 1870, the Metropolis, Capt. Cole, started on the Bay City route in the spring, and in October, the steamer Sandusky, Capt. McGregor, was placed on the same route; and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, run on the shore, from Detroit to Mackinac.

In 1871 and 1872, the steamer Sandusky, Capt. John Stewart, run on the Bay City route; and in 1872, the steamer Lake Breeze, Capt. Lathrop, run with the Sandusky, on the same route; and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, continued to run from Detroit to Mackinac, and the propeller Galena, Capt. Broadbridge, made regular trips from Cleveland to Alpena.

About the middle of the season of 1873, the steamer Dunlap, Capt. Brown, and the steamer John Sherman, Capt. John Stewart, were placed on the Bay City route, the Dunlap continuing on the route until after 1876.

She was sailed in 1874, by Capt. Snow, and in 1875 and 1876 by Capt. A. G. Ripley; and the Sherman, Capt. Stewart, run with the Dunlap in 1874.

In 1875 and 1876, the steamer Dove, Capt. Knowlton, run with the Dunlap on the Bay City route, and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, continued to run on the shore route, between Detroit and Mackinac Island.

In the meantime, the propellers Wenona, Capt. L. R. Boynton, and the Galena, Capt. Broadbridge, run from Alpena to Cleveland.

By Roads.

The first meeting of the Highway Commissioners took place at the house of Daniel Carter, on March 26th, 1858, and, “On motion of D. D. Oliver, it was voted to form two road districts:

“Road District No. 1, to be bounded as follows: Commencing on Thunder Bay, where the east and west center line of town 30 north, of range 8 east, intersects the bay; thence west, to range line between ranges 7 and 8; thence north, to town line between 31 and 32; thence east, to range line between ranges 8 and 9; thence south, to Thunder Bay; thence on margin of bay, to the place of beginning.

“Road District No. 2, to be bounded as follows: North by Road District No. 1; thence east by Thunder Bay, to the town line between towns 28 and 29; thence west to range line between towns 7 and 8, and thence north, to the south boundary of District No. 1.”

At the second meeting of the Highway Commissioners, which soon followed the first, a petition, signed by Joseph K. Miller, Addison F. Fletcher, David Plough, Daniel Carter, Moses Bingham, Abram Hopper, James S. Irwin, Lewis Atkins and David D. Oliver, was presented to the board, to lay out and establish a road, “commencing near the mouth of Thunder Bay river, and thence by the most feasible route to the mouth of Devil river,” this being the first township road surveyed in the county.

The petition was accepted, and the county surveyor was requested to make the necessary survey of the road.

At the spring election of 1859, a motion was made by the electors, and carried, and the following was placed upon the records: “Voted to raise the sum of one hundred dollars, according to the report of the Highway Commissioners, for the purpose of surveying and establishing a road from the mouth of Thunder Bay River to Devil River.”

The records do not show that any one was authorized to levy and collect the tax, but nevertheless the tax was levied and collected, as the same has been done many times in towns where their organizations were much older than Fremont.

The writer made the necessary survey of the road the same season, but too late in the fall to do any work on the road.

WILLIAM D. HITCHCOCK.

CLOSELY IDENTIFIED WITH THE QROWTH OF ALPENA, AND WAS ITS FOURTH POSTMASTER, BEING APPOINTED IN I868.

SARAH L. CARTER

MRS. SARAH L. CARTER, ONE OF THE FIRST WOMEN SETTLERS OF ALPENA COUNTY, AND IN THE EARLY DAYS, THE ONLY PHYSICIAN IN THE COUNTY.

HON. EDWARD K. POTTER.ONE OF THE EARLY SETTLERS OF ALPENA. PIONEER LUMBERMAN AND MILL. OWNER, AND AT ONE TIME REPRESENTATIVE IN THE STATE LEGISLATURE.

The first highway tax roll was made in 1858, by Lewis Atkins, township clerk, for Road District Mo. 2. Only four parties appear on the roll, subject to road tax, as follows:

Page and Oliver, taxed 112 days, 4 hours.

David D. Oliver, taxed 1 day, 7 hours.

Andrew Horn, taxed 5 days, 6 hours.

John Dawson, taxed 1 day, 3 hours.

The highway tax roll of District No. 1, the writer has not been able to obtain.

The people all along the Lake Huron shore, and especially those at Fremont, were very anxious to have a road opened between Bay City and Fremont.

Indeed this road bad become a necessity, and a petition was drawn up and signed by nearly all on the shore, and presented to the State Legislature, who, in 1859, passed the following act:

Sec 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, That Daniel Carter, of Fremont, C. C. Chilson, of Bay County, D. D. Oliver, of Devil river, Allen Terry, of AuSable, and Charles H. Whittemore, of Tawas City, be and the same are hereby appointed commissioners to lay out and establish a state road, from Saginaw City, in the county of Saginaw, to Cheboygan, in the county of Cheboygan, touching at Tawas City, AuSable, and Fremont, on Thunder Bay.

Sec. 2. For the purpose of the further construction and improvement of said road, there is hereby appropriated all the non-resident highway taxes, not otherwise appropriated by law for State roads, within six miles of the line of said road, on each side thereof, for the year 1859, and for five years thereafter.”

The act also provided that the Highway Commissioners, of each township, through which the road should pass, should adopt and work the same, and it also provided that “said commissioners” should receive the large sum of “one dollar and fifty cents per day, for each day they were so engaged in laying out said road.”

Soon after the commissioners had received notice of their appointment, a meeting of the commissioners was called to meet at Tawas City, that being the central point.

The only way to reach that place from Fremont, was either to foot it down the shore or go in a small boat.

Accordingly Messrs. Carter, of Fremont, and Oliver, of Devil River, two days before the meeting was to take place, started for Tawas City, in the said small boat.

They reached the place of meeting, in good time and found all the newly appointed commissioners on hand, excepting C. C. Chilson, of Bay County, who had but little interest in the road.

The commissioners met and, after thoroughly discussing the matter, and considering the great wisdom and munificence of the Legislature in passing the act, came to the conclusion that there would not be money enough collected during the said five years, to keep a brushed road that length in repair, after it had been laid out and made, as at that time but little land had been purchased along the line of the proposed road, and after voting the enterprise a failure, they adjourned sine die.

Thus ended the first effort for a road from the Saginaws to Alpena.

After a week spent in this useless effort, Carter and Oliver returned, having spent their time and money, for which they could not expect any remuneration, except the consciousness of having faithfully discharged the duties imposed upon them by the people, and the imposition imposed upon the people by the Legislature.

The subject of a State road, from Bay City to Cheboygan, was not dropped, but the subject continued to be agitated until, in 1861, the State Legislature passed a large bundle of bills for making State roads, and among them was the following:

Sec. 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, There shall be laid out and established, by commissioners to be appointed by the Governor, upon the most direct and eligible route, between the places hereinafter designated, the following State roads: (The 22d in the list is) a road from Duncan, in Cheboygan county, to AuSable River, in Iosco county, via Alpena, to be known as the Duncan, Alpena and AuSable River State Road.

Sec. 3. To secure the construction of said road, there is hereby appropriated an average amount of six hundred and forty acres of State swamp land to the mile.”

David Plough, of Alpena, was appointed commissioner on the Duncan, Alpena and AuSable State Road.

No provision having been made, by the Legislature, for laying out this road, excepting the lands, the Board of Supervisors met and passed an order, to accept lands of the State of Michigan, for the benefit of the county, and issue road orders, provided they would be accepted, for making the survey of the road, in lieu of the land, and they authorized the commissioner to make a contract accordingly, and in April, 1862, he made a contract with the writer to make a survey of the road, for the sum of five dollars per mile, payable in county orders, or lands, at the option of the surveyors.

The road was to be surveyed under the supervision of the commissioner, the writer furnishing all things needed for the work.

On the 31st of May, 1862, the writer commenced the survey of the road at AuSable River.

His party consisted of David Plough, commissioner, and Daniel Carter looking out the most feasible route for the road; A. J. A. Micholowski and Frank Trowbridge, for chain men; John King and Isaac Isaacson, for packers; Robert Newell, for axmau, and Elijah Degroat, for cook.

The survey was made in due time, and the report accepted by the Board of Control, at Lansing, in the fall of 1862.

In July, 1863, the first contracts were made for the work on the road.

The largest contractors on the road were S. O. Harris and J. B. Babcock.

Mr. Plough remained commissioner for a number of years, and was variously praised and blamed, as interest or prejudice prompted, but he was honest, and failed to make money out of the road, when he could have seen “millions in it.”

Here the speculative ideas of Plough and Oliver were at fault, for the extensive knowledge that Oliver had at that time of pine lands, and the extensive influence and power exercised by the Commissioner of State Lands, in letting and accepting contracts, would have made the business extensively profitable; but all this passed like a panorama, with but little thought, if any, in that direction, and so the wisdom, that comes after the fact, is worthless.

A short time prior to the survey of the Duncan, Alpena and AuSable State Road, a State road had been made from East Saginaw to AuSable river, called the East Saginaw and AuSable State Road, but was only passable for teams in the winter, on account of the condition of the AuGres swamps, and it was, after repeated efforts and appropriations of swamp lands, that it became passable in the summer season.

The road, from the AuSable to Alpena, was finished during the summer of 1864, and that winter a stage line was run by Daniel Carter, between Alpena and Bay City, and the people rejoiced that they had a way out of the woods during the winter.

In order to carry the mail, Mr. Carter, in 1863, run teams between Alpena and Bay City, by traveling sometimes in a bushed road, and sometimes on the ice, on the lake shore, but this way of traveling was risky and disagreeable.

The Legislature had failed to connect the two roads, by one-half mile of road, and a bridge across the AuSable River.

In the winter of 1866 and 1867, through the Hon. J. K. Lockwood, an appropriation of swamp lands was made for the improvement of the road, and for building a bridge across the AuSable River, and in 1867, the connection of the roads was made by a bridge across the river.

The road, from Alpena toward Duncan, was continued to be made slowly, and in 1865, Daniel Carter built a bridge across Thunder Bay River, on the contract of G. N. Fletcher.

It was many years before this road was finished to Duncan, and indeed, in 1876, it is not passable for teams, the whole length, in the summer.

From the organization of the township, to 1870, most of the proceeds of the road tax were expended on the streets of Fremont.

A bridge had been made, in 1865, across Thunder Bay River, connecting Dock and Second streets, and paid for from the proceeds of the road tax.

It was a poor experiment, and soon went to decay.

A road had been surveyed and cut out for a bush road, on the west side of the river, from Fremont to the Broadwell mill, at the rapids, and some work had been done, on what is known in 1876, as the section line road.

When the Duncan, Alpena and AuSable State Road was surveyed, it was carried in a direct route from the town line, near Greenbush, in Alcona county, to Ossineke, in Alpena county, and passed west of Harrisville and Black River.

It was surveyed there instead of following the lake shore, through the instance of S. O. Harris, who compromised with the commissioner, and paid the writer thirty dollars for backing up on his line, from Harrisville to Greenbush.

What his object was, the writer was not informed.

The people along the shore still needed a road, and, in 1865, an appropriation of swamp land was made for a State road from Ossineke to Harrisville, following the shore to South Point and Black River, and late in the fall of 1866, the road was opened for winter travel.

Obed Smith was the principal contractor and builder of this road.

On the 3rd of May, 1869, a meeting of the citizens of Alpena was called, for the purpose of taking into consideration the condition of the old bridge.

At this meeting the Highway Commissioners were requested to examine the bridge and report at the next meeting.

On the 15th of May, the commissioners, D. Carter, Thos. Murray and Samuel Boggs, made their report, and the following resolution was passed:

“Resolved, That a new bridge be built by tax, on the present site of the old one, and to be finished by the first of May next.”

A motion was also made and carried, requesting the Board of Supervisors to call a meeting and take the necessary steps to build a county bridge. J. K. Lockwood, Chairman; A. Hopper, Clerk.

This meeting had the desired effect, and during the winter of 1869 and 1870, a good and substantial wooden bridge was placed over the stream, connecting Dock and Second streets.

This bridge is good in 1876.

For several years, during the winters, much talk and agitation was had by the people of Alpena, and those along the bay shore, in regard to a railroad along the shore, to Alpena, but was always dropped during the summer.

In January, 1875, quite an impulse was given to the railroad agitators by a man of the name of Jefferds, who proposed to build a railroad, from Alpena, direct to Sterling, on the Saginaw and Mackinaw road, and the spring opened with a fair prospect of a railroad to Alpena, and made quite a stir for a short time.

The road was surveyed, and grounds cleared for a site, for workshops, and an engine house, and some of the road cleared and graded.

Had the people of Alpena “boosted” the enterprise a little, as much as they will have to do, in all probability, when they get a road, they would have had one this summer, but they had lapsed into their usual summer complaint, and Mr. Jefferds not being able to build the road, it was abandoned.

In the winter of 1875, five sections of swamp lands were given by the State, to build a State road, from Alpena to Long Lake, and called the Long Lake State Road.

The five sections of land, being insufficient to build the road, it being six and one-half miles long, a sum of $700 was raised by the people for that purpose, and in July, of the same year, a contract was made for building the road, and in 1876, the road is being made.

 

DAUGHTER OF MR. AMD MRS. DANIEL. CARTER, AND FIRST SCHOOL TEACHER IN AL.FENA COUNTY.

CHAPTER VII.

EDUCATIONAL.

Schools.

As soon as practicable after the township meeting, held on the 5th day of April, 1858, the School Inspectors of the township of Fremont, met for the purpose of forming a school district, and as much territory as could be allowed by law, was incorporated into School District No. 1.

Soon after this, a school meeting was called, and Addison F. Fletcher was elected the first School Director.

Mary L. Carter

Miss Mary L. Carter was hired to teach the first school, and after being inspected, commenced teaching, m a small cooper shop, made of rough boards, which was then the best building that could be procured for a school house, and which stood on lot 10, in block 3, of the village plot.

The writer has not been able to find a record of this school, and thinks that no record was kept.

The second school was commenced on the 23d day of May, 1859, and ended on the 20th of August of the same year. The report is as follows:

DISTRICT NO. I, ALPENA.

Number of days taught, 69

Number scholars enrolled, 28

Whole number days attendance, 1,246

Average attendance, 18 4-69

Signed, MARY E. TROMBLY, Teacher.

Accepted Aug. 30th, 1859, Signed, ADDISON F. FLETCHER, Director of School District No. 1.

This school was taught in an upper room in what is now called the Myers block, on the corner of Second and Water streets, on lot 13, in block 3, of the village plot.

This building was completed in the fall and winter of 1858.

The first floor was used as a storehouse, and the second was used for county and other purposes, viz: Circuit Court room and county offices, school room, church, Sabbath school, printing office, and all public gatherings.

We give below the names and ages of the scholars attending this school, as being of some importance, should the record be preserved for the next Centennial year, and may be interesting to some of the present generation:

books (7)

The first male teacher was M. R. Clark, who taught only twenty-two days, ending September 22d, 1859. David Plough, Director.

Soon after the Rev. C. G. Bisbee came to Alpena, in 1860, he was hired to teach the school, but he made no report until the 27th of February, 1862, when the number of scholars enrolled was fifty-one, doubling in two-and-a-half years.

Following Mr. Bisbee, as the next school teacher, was Leroy Bundy, who only taught forty-eight days.

In 1863, the school was taught by C. P. Butler, who had an average attendance of twenty-five scholars during the summer term.

The winter term ended April 29th, 1864, and was a full term, with an average attendance of twenty-two scholars.

The report is made, but not signed.

Miss Kate Barclay taught the summer term of 1861, but made no report.

In 1863 and 1861, the first district school house was erected in the county.

It was located on lot 2, in block 20, of the village of Fremont, and was the construction of Samuel Boggs.

J. B. Tuttle taught the first school in this house, and consequently was the first teacher who taught in a district school house in Alpena County.

His report is as follows:

Report of a term of the public school, taught in District No. 1, of Alpena village, Alpena County, Michigan, during the winter and spring of 1864 and 1865. School began Jan. 3d, 1865 – School closed April 1st, 1865.

Number of days taught, 71

Number of scholars enrolled, 94

Number of days attendance, 4,047

Average daily attendance, 57

Signed, J. B. TUTTLE. Dated at Alpena, April 1st, 1865.

This report shows a rapid increase of scholars, and a corresponding increase of inhabitants in Alpena County, more than doubling in two years.

In 1865, another district school house was erected, on the east side of the river, and a school taught there.

The large increase of population rendered it necessary to have more school room, and the School Board, deeming it advisable to erect a Union School house, took the necessary steps in that direction and in 1867, the Legislature authorized the building of a Union School house, by the following act:

An act to authorize the formation of Union School District Number One, of the township of Alpena, in the county of Alpena.

Sec. 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, That the School Inspectors of the township of Alpena, in the county of Alpena, are hereby authorized to organize the said township of Alpena, or so much thereof as they may deem necessary, into a school district, to be known as Union School District Number One, of said township.

Sec. 2. Said school district shall be organized according to the provisions of the school laws of the State, and all moneys lawfully voted to be raised in said district, by tax or loan, shall be a valid debt against all the property in said district.

Sec. 3. This act shall take immediate effect.

Approved March 27th, 1867.

Soon after the passage of the preceding act, bonds were issued and negotiated, and the necessary funds raised for the construction of a Union School house, and in 1868, a suitable building was erected, under the supervision of David Plough, as directed by the School Board.

The building was located on grounds, donated to the township, for school purposes, by S. E. Hitchcock, and it cost, in round numbers, the sum of $20,000, when finished, furnished, and the ground cleared off and fenced.

When first built, it was on the margin of the forest, on the west, isolated, and in a swamp.

Noble M. Brackinreed taught the district school, on the southwest side of the river, after J. B. Tuttle, until the Union School house was finished, when he was transferred to it, as principal teacher.

Charles T. Brockway was engaged as the first Superintendent, and in November, 1809, the Union School commenced its regular operations, under his supervision.

Mrs. Sutton, Mrs. Stevens, Mrs. Vanlnwegen, Miss Doane and Miss Barclay were engaged as teachers.

They were inspected by Messrs. Comstock and Barlow.

The school was divided into four grades—the primary, secondary, senior and junior.

Each grade was divided into two classes, called the A and B class, excepting the senior grade, which was divided into three classes, the highest of which pursue the higher English branches, and is in every respect a High School grade. Scholars were taken into the school at the age of six years.

F. S. Dewey succeeded Mr. Brockway, as Superintendent, in 1871 or 1872, for he says in his report of 1874: “In 1872, or two years ago, I changed the course of study.”

He divided the school into five grades, of two years each, primary, secondary, intermediate, grammar and high school. It now takes ten years to go through the course.

Mr. Dewey is Superintendent in 1876.

The writer has given the names of the teachers, in the Union School, as reported in 1874, with their salaries, showing the condition of the school, at this time.

But little change from this was made in the school up to 1876.

F. S. Dewey, principal, salary $1,400 per year.

Miss H. S. Bachman, assistant principal and teacher of grammar school, salary $600 per year.

Miss L. J. Bachman, intermediate teacher, salary $500 per year.

Miss Godfrey, secondary, salary $450 per year.

Miss Ella Myers, secondary, salary $450 per year.

Miss Mary E. Smith, secondary, salary $450 per year.

Miss L. Rutherford, primary and secondary, salary, $400 per year.

The whole number of pupils in school was 374, and the number of scholars enrolled was as follows:

Boys, 325;

girls, 281.

The number of seats in all the rooms was 450.

In 1876, there are fourteen school districts in the county, and twelve district school houses.

In the village is a Catholic school, a German school and a Norwegian school.

Journalism.

We are indebted to the proprietor of the Pioneer for the following letter, written to him by D. R. Joslin, in regard to the history of the Alpena County Pioneer.

We give all of his letter that is pertinent.

Mr. Joslin says:

“In the year 1862, I was publishing a paper at Port Austin, in Huron County, called the Huron County Reporter.

During the winter of 1862 and 1863, hearing of a commencement of a village, at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, and the fine prospects of a large and thriving village, not far in the future; the large amount of pine lands on the river and its branches, and the large amount of lands, which appeared upon the- tax rolls, and not satisfied with the prospects of Port Austin, I was induced to correspond and learn the prospects of locating a paper at Alpena.

Accordingly 1 corresponded with O. T. B. Williams, the Prosecuting Attorney.

He took an immediate interest to encourage the enterprise, and so did all the people of the village, which, at that time, contained about 250 inhabitants, and according to their means, subscribed a liberal donation of $200 to aid in establishing the paper.

Accordingly, about the 26th of April, 1863, on Sunday, I arrived with my printing office, at Alpena, on the Forest Queen, which anchored out in the bay.

Freight was loaded on scows and poled in.

The printing office was landed off the scow, on Miller’s dock, Sunday, and procuring a room over Miller’s store, now the Myers block, and commenced immediately to set up the office, and in order to secure the tax printing, must issue by the 1st day of May, which, by working day and night, with one hand, issued on the last day of April, a twenty column paper, having five columns per page, of 17.5 inches a column, of which twelve columns were reading matter, called the Thunder Bay Monitor.

It was hailed with great satisfaction and well patronized.

The issue of the first year was about 150 copies, which was very large, according to the population, for at that time, there were only two mills in the place—Messrs. Lockwood & Minors, on Water Street, and the Island mill—the Chamberlain mill just burned.

One dry goods store, Mr. Hardwick’s.

Messrs. Lockwood & Minor kept a- few things, but could hardly be called a store.

Mr. Miller kept a small grocery store.

Mr. Bingham kept the only hotel, a small two story wood building, on the north side of the river, which had to be reached from the south by a boat, if one could be found, if not, go over on a saw log, or stay where you were.

These composed the business places of the town; therefore the paper was almost destitute of home advertisements, so we had to look abroad for advertisements to fill up, many of which were of little profit.

The tax list, which was large, was a great relief to the expenses.

The next year, three other mills were built, and a number of stores and hotels, having double the population and business, and gave the advertising columns a much better appearance, and helped greatly to its support. I continued to publish the paper until the fall of 1865.

Being so unfortunate as to lose my wife, causing a derangement in my business, in the month of November, 18G5, I sold the office to D. D. Oliver.

Mr. Oliver immediately installed J. A. Case as editor, and J. Honsburger as publisher.

Sometime in the spring of 1866, Mr. Oliver changed the name of the paper to the Alpena County Pioneer, which has continued since.”

In 1867, Oliver sold a half interest in the paper to Robert S. Toland, and the paper was conducted under the firm name of Oliver & Toland.

Finding the paper too small for the growing business of the town, Oliver, through the direction of Toland, enlarged it to a twenty-four column paper, being 24×16.

Oliver resided at Ossineke, and having business there, could not see to the management of the office, and consequently the business run behind expenses about five hundred dollars, up to the spring of 1868.

James K. Lockwood

James K. Lockwood and Oliver were very anxious to have the paper live a Republican, and after some talk in regard to the matter, Oliver sold his interest in the office to Lockwood, at a certain price, with conditions that Toland should have the same chance with him as he had with Oliver, and that George McFadden, who was employed in the office, should have the privilege of buying the half interest in the office, if he should so elect, at the same price that Lockwood purchased of Oliver, it being the object of Lockwood and Oliver to make the business live.

In 1868, we find the Pioneer published by Toland & McFadden.

Had these young men taken the advice of Oliver and Lockwood, and had been more persevering and economical, they might have had, at the Centennial year, a good property, a successful business, and an honorable standing among the citizens of Alpena.

But they could not see what the result would be, and in June, 1868, McFadden turned over to Lockwood, his interest in the Pioneer office, and for a short time, the business was run in the name of Lockwood & Toland.

In November, 1868, Lockwood & Toland sold the Pioneer office to Albert C. Tefft.

Mr. Tefft was not a practical printer, and says, in an issue of his paper, in February, 1871: “Not being a practical printer, we have had some bad luck in not presenting so ‘clean’ a sheet as we wished sometimes.”

Mr. Tefft purchased the business to keep, and by industry, economy and good management, has made it a success, when practical printers had failed, and as a reminder of this fact, Mr. Tefft says, in an issue of his paper of the 22d of February, 1871: “Two years ago, when we first took charge of the Pioneer, its proprietors informed us that it had never been a paying institution, but that each succeeding owner had lost money in trying to sustain it.”

In September, 1871, Mr. Tefft enlarged it to a nine column paper, of 24×30, and put a new head on it, making it a large and respectable paper, and which was a true index of the growth of Alpena.

A second paper was started in Alpena, in June, 1871, owned and edited by J. C. Viall, and called the Alpena Weekly Argus.

It is Democratic in politics, and a champion worthy the steel of the Pioneer, and will have a tendency to arouse the Republican proclivities of the editor who has had his own way so long that his Republicanism was becoming egotistical.

The Argus office and its contents were completely destroyed in the great fire of July 12th, 1872.

He had no insurance, but the people, with their usual generosity, soon helped the editor to renew his paper, and in 1876, it is a successful and important institution of the city.

Sabbath Schools and Churches.

Soon after J. K. Miller came to Fremont, lie commenced to teach a Bible class on the Sabbath, at the house of Daniel Carter.

The class consisted of only five persons, being the children of James S. Irwin and Cyrus Erwin.

In the spring of 1860, the first Sabbath school was organized, with J. K. Lockwood as superintendent; W. H. Potter, treasurer and librarian, and A. Hopper, secretary.

In the summer of the same year, the Rev. C. G. Bisbee came to Fremont, and soon after took charge of the Sabbath school, as superintendent.

Mr. Bisbee was a man of considerable talent; was well educated, but not a good orator.

He was a good man, kind and obliging, and won the love and regard of all who knew him; and no one ever left the place with more well-wishes than the first minister of Alpena.

He was industrious, and taught school for two years after he came to Fremont, partly for his support, as the then newly organized church did not feel able to wholly employ and pay a minister.

He held preaching services and Sabbath school in the first room over the store now occupied by J. Myers, on the corner of Second and Water streets.

As soon as Deacon Hitchcock had finished the court house, the church and Sunday school were held in it, and Mr. Bisbee continued superintendent until he went away, in the spring of 1865, when Deacon H. Hyatt was elected in his place.

Mr. Hyatt was followed as superintendent, in the spring of 1860, by Rev. W. D. Russell, who left Fremont in September of the same year, when Wm. D. Hitchcock, the present superintendent, in 1876, was elected.

Mr. Hitchcock has done much to elevate and systemize the school, and bring it up to a high standard of excellence, and has succeeded in gaining the affectionate regard of the children of his school; and will be remembered kindly by the coming generation, when those who occupy higher positions will be forgotten.

There is another name that has taken high rank in the annals of the first Sabbath school, and in the remembrances of the children, and which deserves honorable mention in this connection—Julia F. Farwell.

She has always taken a lively interest in the school, and done much for its advancement.

She always had charge of the class called the “Birds’ Nest,” being a large class of small scholars, and with her received elementary teachings.

In 1860, the whole number of scholars in attendance was twenty-five.

In 1866, the scholars had increased to 126.

In this year, the Episcopal Sabbath School was organized, and in 1867, the Methodist, Baptist and Catholic schools were organized, all of which drew more or less scholars from the old school; yet, in 1875, the scholars had increased to 193, divided into twenty-seven classes.

This school belongs to the First Congregational church, and is held in the church, being the first and largest school in Alpena.

The officers, in 1876, are as follows: Wm. D. Hitchcock, superintendent; T. M. Luce, assistant superintendent; Belden W. Smith, secretary; John D. Potter, treasurer; Eugene Motley. James Johnston and Charles Watrous, librarians; Henry S. Seage, George Nicholson, Mrs. W. H. Potter and Nannie Person, choir, and Mrs. F. H. Armstrong, organist.

Church Organization.

On the 2d of March, 1862, an organization was effected, under the name and style of “The First Congregational Church, of Alpena.”

The organic members were as follows: C. G. Bisbee, S. E. Hitchcock, Samantha Hitchcock, Julia F. Farwell, Elizabeth Mooney, Emily H. Plough, B. C. Hardwick and Lydia J. Martin.

The Rev. C. G. Bisbee was the first pastor, and held church in the upper room of a building, standing in 1876, on the corner of Second and Water Streets, and now called the Myers block, and continued to hold services there, until the court house was built, in 1863, on the corner of First and Washington Streets, and was then adjourned to the court house, and the church and Sabbath school continued to be held in the court house, until their church was finished and dedicated, and then law and gospel, that had so long been in such fearful proximity, was separated.

Gospel says: Steal not.

Law says: Steal by night and steal by day, but do it in a legal way.

The church is a wooden structure, costing $8,000, and was built all the way from 1865 to 1868, and dedicated October 4th, 1868.

A bell was purchased in 1860, and placed in the church, at a cost of $420. The value of the property, in 1876, is about $10,000.

Soon after the Rev. C. G Bisbee left the pastorate, his place was filled, for a short time, in 1864 and 1865, by the Rev. Thos. F. Hicks, and following him, the Rev. W. D. Russell filled the pulpit until 1866, when he left the place.

During the year 1867, services were held by the Rev. D. C. White, and the Rev. F. N. Barlow, a Baptist minister.

It must be borne in mind that, up to about this time, it required all the people in Fremont, without drawing any lines, to fill a church, “and they could hardly.”

In the latter part of 1867, the Rev. Rufus Apthorp accepted a call to the pastorate, and continued to officiate until 1870, when he was succeeded by the Rev. A. B. Allen, who fills the pastorate in 1876.

Baptist Church.

On the 15th day of October, 1867, steps were taken to organize the society, known as the First Baptist Society, of Alpena.

F. N. Barlow was the first minister. The organic members were as follows: P. M. Johnson, D. Carter, E. Harrington, C. L. Kimball, W. M. Sutton and John Nicholson.

Catholic Church.

In 1864, the Rev. Patrick Barnard Murray came to Alpena, in the interest of the Catholic Church, and held services and attended to the needs of the Catholic people, as best he could without a church.

In 1865, he purchased of David D. Oliver, all the land in Oliver’s addition to the city of Alpena, east of Chisholm Street, for $300, Oliver donating $100, for the purpose of building a church, and in 1866, the Rev. Murray succeeded in erecting a good and substantial church, and was dedicated as the Saint Bernard Church.

In the Catholic Church, the Bishop owns the church property in fee, and the presiding pastor or priest is president, secretary and treasurer of the local church.

As soon as the church was finished, a Sabbath school was commenced, and in 1870, a week day school was commenced, having about 100 scholars.

The Catholic churches count their members by families, and in 1876, Saint Bernard’s church numbered about 300 families, and was presided over by the Rev. Father John Van Gennip.

The schools, at this time, numbered 250 scholars in each, and taught by four teachers—the Sisters of Charity.

The value of the church property, in 1876, is $10,000.

If our dwellings in the spirit world are built up of the good deeds we do here to our fellow beings, and that each good deed is a separate piece of the structure, then we think that the Sisters own many of the best dwellings in the summer land, and many people, when they arrive there, Will be surprised and disgusted at the shabby looking dwellings they have erected.

Episcopal Church.

This church was organized on the first of February, 1865.

The Rev. G. O. Bachman was the first rector, and held his first services on the 9th of July, 1865.

He remained in charge of the church for eighteen months, and was relieved by the Rev. H. H. Brown, who remained in charge for six months, and was succeeded by the Rev. W. W. Rafter, in June, 1868, and who is still rector of the church, in 1876.

Public Library.

In the paper of 1868 and 1869, was a notice of a public library, kept at the residence of Chas. W. Richardson, and open to the reading public every Saturday.

Mrs. S. A. Mather, president; Mrs. H. R. Morse, secretary, and Mrs. C. W. Richardson, treasurer and librarian.

It is said to have been organize in 1864, by four ladies, and called “The Ladies’ Metropolitan Library.”

This was the first library, for public reading, in the village, and reflects much credit on the benevolent ladies, who got it up.

Long will they be remembered.

CHAPTER VIII.

JUDICIARY.

Soon after the writer was elected Justice of the Peace, in 1857, he purchased a justice docket and Tiffany’s Justice Guide, being the first docket and law book used in the county.

Ai the spring election of 1858, Daniel Carter was elected Justice of the Peace, and the writer, having no desire to do any business in the justice line, turned over to Mr. Carter his docket and law book.

Some time, during the summer of 1859, Leonard Jewell came into the river with a sail boat, having liquor on board, to sell.

As soon as he commenced to sell his liquor, J. K. Miller brought suit against him, before Daniel Carter.

There were, at that time, no lawyers in the town, and Mr. Carter, very young in the business.

However, it so happened that Obed Smith, who was then a Justice of the Peace, in St. Clair County, and who had some experience in law matters, was in Fremont, on a visit.

So Mr. Smith, after instructing Mr. Carter, in regard to his duty as Justice of the Peace, then acted as counsel for Mr. Miller.

The case was tried.

It was proved that he had sold liquor unlawfully, and he was fined.

The boat was anchored out in the stream, and the Constable had taken the rudder ashore, to prevent the boat leaving until they had got through with it.

Jewell pretended that his money, to pay the fine, was on board the boat, and requested the privilege of going after his money, which was readily granted, supposing that he could not go away without his rudder, but what was their surprise, when they saw him sailing out of the river, steering his boat with an oar.

There was no boat to chase him and bring him back, so they had to let him go, but he never came back to sell liquor.

This was the first law business transacted in the county.

Under the constitution of 1850, the Judiciary was changed, making eight Circuit Judges, and each presiding over certain districts, called Judicial Circuits.

This number was soon enlarged, and in 1857, Alpena was placed in the Tenth Judicial Circuit, which was composed of the following counties: Saginaw, Gratiot, Isabella, Midland, Iosco, Bay and Alpena, with unorganized counties attached to them for judicial and municipal purposes.

Subsequently, the Circuit was changed, and in 1876, Alpena is placed in the 18th Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Bay, Iosco, Alcona, Alpena, Presque Isle and Otsego.

The constitution of 1850, also fixed the salaries of all officers, and making the Circuit Judge’s at $1,500 a year, a sum barely sufficient to pay the board and traveling expenses of some of the Judges in the northern counties, and they were compelled to seek relief through the several Boards of Supervisors, who, in order to do justice, which the Legislature had not done, they were compelled to violate the laws of the State, and become a law unto themselves.

The first session of the Circuit Court was held in the Myers block, in October, 1860, and presided over by Judge Woodworth.

The court officers were: William R. Bowman, Sheriff, and Addison F. Fletcher, Clerk. Oliver T. B. Williams was the only resident lawyer.

He had moved to Fremont, in the spring of 1860.

He was a man of considerable ability, and in the fall of 1860, was elected first Prosecuting Attorney.

Judge Woodworth held but one or two sessions of court, and was succeeded by the Hon. James Birney, who held but one session of court each year, until the fall of 1865, when the Honorable Jabez G. Sutherland was elected.

Judge Sutherland held two sessions of court each year, until 1870, when he was elected to Congress.

The Hon. T. C. Grier was appointed to fill the vacancy, and held the May term for 1871.

Judge Grier died before the time of holding another session of the court, and the Hon. Sanford M. Green was elected to fill the judgeship, and who is the presiding Judge in 1876.

Alpena has been very fortunate in her selection of Circuit Judges.

All have been able lawyers, old and experienced jurists, and well headed.

The court officers, in 1876, are:

Thomas B. Johnston, Sheriff.

John Thompson, Under Sheriff.

George W. Jones, Deputy Sheriff.

Charles N. Cornell, Clerk,

Alexander McDonald, Deputy Clerk.

Victor C. Burnham, Prosecuting Attorney.

A. M. Haynes, Reporter.

John H. Stevens, Circuit Court Commissioner.

The Circuit Court continued to be held in the Myers block, until 1863, when the first session of the court was held in the, so-called, Hitchcock Court House, and all the county officers, and records, were moved there, and so remained, until 1870, when the building was destroyed by fire, and many of the records and papers were burned.

The court records, records of the Board of Supervisors, the records of marriages, deaths, naturalization, some assessment rolls, account books and vouchers.

The court and offices were then removed to rooms over Potter Brothers’ hardware store, where they remained until they again passed through the ordeal of fire, but this time without being scorched, as everything belonging to the court and records, were saved.

The Court was then held in the Union School house, until the Potter block was finished, when the court and county offices were removed to rooms prepared for them, over the hardware store of Potter Bros., where they remain in 1876.

The following are the members of the Alpena bar, in 1876: Obed Smith, J. B. Tuttle, R. J. Kelley, J. D. Turnbull, J. D. Holmes, J. H. Stevens, V. C. Burnham, A. R. McDonald.

All survived the Centennial year, excepting Obed Smith, who died at his residence, in Alpena, on the 20th day of November, 1876.

He was the oldest member of the bar, being an octogenarian.

He was admitted in 1852. He was a Mason, in good standing, and was buried with Masonic honors—the Alpena bar attending his funeral in a body.

He was one of the early settlers of Fremont, having built the first steam sawmill in the county, in 1859.

In 1865, he built the first bridge across Thunder Bay River, between Dock and Second streets.

He was active in business, temperate in habits, truthful in his expressions, and was just in his dealings with his fellow men.

CHAPTER IX.

FINANCIAL.

The writer has given a list of the names appearing upon the first and original tax roll of the county, and the valuation of real estate and personal property, and the tax assessed to each person.

There seems to be some mistakes in this roll, which the writer has been able to point out below, and a discrepancy between this roll and the first highway tax roll, which he cannot explain.

Mr. Irwin, when he made the first assessment tax rolls, was inexperienced in township business.

He had no prior rolls to look at, and no one to instruct him in the matter, that was wiser than himself.

The property, to be assessed, was scattered from South Point to Middle Island, and the only way to reach it was by small boat, or foot it along an Indian trail along the lake beach.

The value of real estate, ah! what was it worth?

Any nominal sum that might be placed upon it.

Under those circumstances, would it be anything strange to find some mistakes?

It would be something unusual if there was not.

Real estate. Personal. Am’t of tax.

The first disbursement, from the road tax, was to pay for surveying a road, from near the mouth of Thunder Bay River to Devil river.

The first disbursement of the county funds was to pay J. K. Miller for making a transcript of the records of lands, from the counties of Mackinac and Cheboygan, which lands belong to Alpena County, and were recorded in those counties, while Alpena was a part of their territory.

The writer has given the valuation of property in Alpena County in 1858, and the amount of tax spread upon the tax roll, in order to show the financial condition of the county when it was organized.

And now it may not be uninteresting to the reader to give the assessed valuation of property in the county in 1875, and the financial condition of the city in 1876, as a contrast, and showing the rapid growth of the county; and also serving as a starting point for another Centennial.

At the annual meeting, on October 11th, 1875, the Board of Supervisors equalized the real estate and personal property in the city of Alpena and the several townships, subject to be taxed, as follows:

City of Alpena, $788,270 00

Township of Alpena, $100,000 00

Township of Long Rapids, $300,000 00

Township of Wilson, $299,256 00

Township of Ossineke, $350,000 00

A resolution was passed as follows:

Resolved, That the several Supervisors of the county of Alpena, are hereby authorized and directed, by the Board of Supervisors of Alpena County, to spread upon their assessment rolls for the year 1875, the following sums, and for the following purposes, to wit:

TOWNSHIP OF WILSON.

For contingent expenses, $2,400 00

For highway purposes, $1,496 28

TOWNSHIP OF LONG EAPIDS.

For contingent expenses, $4,092 48

For highway purposes, $1,592 48

TOWNSHIP OF ALPENA.

For contingent expenses, $8 400 00

For highway purposes, $521 73

TOWNSHIP OF OSSINEKE.

For contingent expenses, $600 00

For highway purposes, $2,880,00

For school purposes, $700 00

And it was also, Resolved, That the several amounts to be raised for State and county purposes, for the year 1875, in the several townships and city of Alpena, in the county of Alpena, be apportioned as follows, to wit:

City of Alpena—State tax$ 325 00

County tax, $6,870 00

Township of Wilson—State tax,$ 122 50

County tax, $2,605 00

Township of Long Rapids—State tax, $123 00

County tax, $2,615 00

Township of Alpena—State tax, $41 00

County tax, $875 00

Township of Ossineke—State tax, $143 39

County tax, $3,035 00

These resolutions were adopted by the following vote: Ayes, Bedford, Lewis, Louden, Phelps, Spratt, Turnbull, White and Brackinreed.

Nays, none. Cornell, Clerk of Board.

In March, 1876, the Comptroller and Treasurer of the city of Alpena, made a report to the Mayor and Common Council, as follows:

From the Comptroller.

Gentlemen:—I would most respectfully submit the following report, in reference to the finances of said city, for the present fiscal year, beginning April 1st, 1875, up to March 20th,

1876:

Outstanding contingent orders, April 1, 1875, $ 901 61

Contingent orders issued since, $8,697 45

Outstanding fire orders, April 1, 1875. $406 75

Fire orders issued since, $2,250 47

Outstanding police orders, April 1, 1875, $345 38

Police orders issued since, $1,007 50

Outstanding street orders, April 1, 1875, $195 95

Street orders issued since, $2,807 08

Outstanding bridge orders, April 1, 1875, $34 40

Bridge orders issued since, $721 15

Outstanding engine bonds, $2,000 00

Coupons on above, $300 00

Interest on coupons, $24 66

Interest on orders redeemed, $310 53

Total, $20,002 92

Contingent orders redeemed to date, $7,557 10

Contingent orders now outstanding, $2,057 68

Fire orders redeemed to date, $2,322 47

Fire orders now outstanding, $324 74

Police orders redeemed to date, $1,262 88

Police orders now outstanding, $90 00

Bridge orders redeemed to date, $745 35

Bridge orders now outstanding, 10 15 Signed, J. D. TUENBULL. Comptroller.

 

CHAPTER X.

MARRIAGES, BIRTHS, ETC.

In the spring of 1859, the first marriage was celebrated in Alpena County.

Miss Mary L. Carter being the first young lady that had come to the county as a permanent resident, assumed the right to be the first married; and in harmony with previous arrangements, it was recorded:

Married, March 10th, 1839, at the residence of the bride’s mother, by David D. Oliver, Esq., Justice of the Peace, George B. Melville to Mary L. Carter, both of Fremont.”

The record of marriages was burned in the court house, in in 1870, and not having any more of the records in his possession, the writer will not be able to notice any more of the early marriages of Fremont.

The records kept since the fire, shows that, from February 11th, 1871, to June 1st, 1876, two hundred and forty-four marriages, three hundred and sixty-seven births, and one hundred and ten deaths have been recorded.

VARIOUS SUBJECTS.

Temperance.

This subject involves the feelings of so many persons now living in Alpena, that a full discussion of the subject cannot be had; and the writer would omit the subject entirely, did it not play so conspicuous a part in the early settlement of the county; for he would find it extremely difficult to use the truth so sparingly as not to contradict the conceived ideas of some, and not offend others.

Almost every town, when new, has had its “roughs,” and “spreeing” time, and Fremont was not an exception.

Pontiac, Oakland county, Michigan, was noted, in its early days, for its “spreeing,” and a facetious gentleman, well known there in 1840, by the cognomen of “Salt Williams,” who said he “had an altercation with a man, and told him to go to hell or Pontiac, and the great fool went to Pontiac.”

Fortunately most of the proprietors and early settlers of Fremont were temperate people, and opposed to the introduction and traffic of spirituous liquors; and consequently the “spreeing” season of Alpena was not long, but it was not without its evil effects.

The writer had been much annoyed and injured in his business, at Devil River, by the sale of whiskey to his men, by one Walter Scott, who resided near the mouth of Thunder Bay River, and fished, looked pine lands, and traded with the Indians.

A number of times his life and property had been in peril, during the drunken sprees of his men, and in one instance, his mill was shut down for a month, in consequence of a drunken spree of his men.

Those who live in a well settled country or in a city where, if a man gets drunk and abusive, he is taken care of by the Sheriff, Constable, or the Police, can form no adequate idea of the annoyance, hardship and peril that liquor makes in a new place.

There you must either abscond, or be prepared to defend yourself by physical force.

In the spring of 1862, the schooner Helen, from Saginaw, came into Thunder Bay River, to bring supplies for Walter Scott.

This happened on Sunday, and some of the writer’s men saw her come in, and knew that she would have liquor on board, as Scott had run out of that article toward spring.

So two or three were delegated, by the others, to go to Thunder Bay River and bring three gallons of whiskey.

We had finished the winter’s logging, and run the logs to the mill, and were intending to start the mill, to run night and day, that Sunday night, at midnight, but when the time came to start, we found only one man that could work, or could be trusted in the mill.

We had seen what was going on, and had placed in our pocket one of Colt’s revolvers, as a protector, while watching the mill.

Soon after daylight, in the morning, as we were standing in our door, we heard a loud noise in the men’s sleeping room, across the way, and soon an old German came down the steps, his face streaming with blood, and following him were three or four men.

We stepped quickly forward, and as we passed into the street, the old German passed us, going into the house.

We asked, what was the matter, but received no response.

We then passed on to meet the men, who said the German had committed some offense; had got drunk and went to bed and left them, and that they had gone to wake him up and give him hell.

Before they got through with their “yarn,” the German appeared with a shot gun, loaded with nine buck shot.

As soon as they saw the German with the gun, there was a scattering, each one dodging out of sight, as quick as possible, except one who was standing close to us, and did not at once take in the situation, but when he did, he clung to us for dear life.

The old German came within two rods of us, with the gun cocked and pointing at us, said: “Get out of the way or I will shoot.

I will kill him.”

We told the old man that he would do wrong to shoot us, for we could not get out of the way of the man; to put down his gun and go into the house, and we would settle the matter all right, and after talking, perhaps two minutes, which seemed a much longer time, he put down the gun and started for the house.

As soon as the gun was laid down, the man behind us ran and seized it by the muzzle, and gave it a whack across a log and narrowly escaped setting the gun off, pointing at his breast.

In the meantime, those who had been hidden away came out, swearing that they “would kill the Dutchman,” and all made a rush for the house.

We quickly made up our mind that we had business on hand, and we felt for our revolver and a small round stone, to grasp in the hand, to support it, and give weight to the blow, and started on the run for the house.

A number had reached it before us, some with sticks and other things they had picked up.

Two had reached the German and were whacking away at him.

As we went into the house, we reached from the shoulder, for every head that came in our way, until we came to the old man, whom we told to go upstairs, and on obeying, we followed him to the stairway.

By this time, those that their heads had come in contact with the hand that had the stone in it, were rushing for us, and to go up the stairs, when we turned round with the revolver in our hand, and with words well qualified, we told them that we would shoot the first man that made any more disturbance; for them to go home and get sober and pack up their things, for they would all be discharged, and go down on the schooner Helen.

This made a quietus.

We then sent the only sober man we had to Thunder Bay River, to engage the schooner to call at Devil River, on her way down.

The next day the schooner came in, and, reluctantly, they all went aboard.

Some were good men, and had been with us for a number of years, and we felt loth to let them go, but under the circumstances, we could not retain those and not the whole.

We then went to Detroit, by the way of Thunder Bay Island, and hired a new crew of men and women, and put them on board a small propeller, called the Clifton, that had just started to run on the shore, from Detroit to Alpena, and came up as far as Port Austin.

Here, the boat went into the harbor, to discharge some freight, and in backing out, she struck a rock and went on so fast, that she could not get off.

We then took all our freight and persons on shore, found a place where the ladies could stay, and went into camp with the men.

We were here two weeks before any craft came in, that could take us to Saginaw.

After reaching Bay City, we hired a craft to take us to Devil River, where we arrived, after four weeks’ absence.

Although we had succeeded in keeping the sale of liquor from Devil river, yet so long as it was sold within reach of the men, it was impossible to escape the pernicious effects of the occasional sprees, and we were pleased to learn that the parties, about to operate at Fremont, were opposed to the sale of liquor.

Soon after Mr. Miller came to Fremont, an informal meeting was had, at which were Daniel Carter, J. K. Miller, J. S. Irwin, A. F. Fletcher, and the writer, and it was verbally understood and agreed to use all proper means to keep the sale of spirituous liquors from Devil river and Fremont.

This was the first combination against whiskey, in the county, and although not very strongly bound together, yet firm enough to have kept whiskey from the place for a long time, had Mr. Miller not taken so much responsibility on himself, and left more for his neighbors.

Several attempts were made to sell liquor from small boats, but they were severely dealt with, and generally quit the place in disgust.

In 1859, J. K. Bingham came to Fremont, bringing with him a general assortment of goods, that he supposed would be needed in a new country, and among other things, a few barrels of assorted liquors.

He saw Mr. Miller, and requested him to store the goods in his warehouse, for a few days, until he could build a store.

Mr. Miller, learning that Mr. Bingham had liquors, refused to give it storage, and no other storehouse being in the place, Mr. Bingham was compelled to provide storage for his goods, which he did by landing them on the east side of the river, where he covered them with boards, set a watch over them day and night, and commenced to sell his liquors, and before Mr. Carter or the writer had any intimation of the facts, the business had got so far established, that it would require more effort than they wished to accept, and more responsibility than they wished to incur, under the circumstances, to stop it.

Mr. Bingham was a man of energy, had a fair education and address; had considerable means, and much influence at that time, as Moses Bingham was his son, and had been in Fremont for some time, and he was acquainted with Abram Hopper and others, from his part of the State.

He was not long in winning the respect and sympathy of a large portion of the citizens of the county.

Had Mr. Miller quietly taken possession of the liquor, and then notified his friends what he had, and all went to Mr. Bingham, in a body, and requested him to send the liquor away, and stating our reasons, he would have complied with our requests, and liquor, for a long time, might have been kept out of the place, with but little effort, had it been well directed.

Mr. Miller was very conscientious in regard to handling whiskey and tobacco, and so utterly refused to have anything to do with Mr. Bingham’s liquors, and for this hasty and conscientious act, he made an enemy of Mr. Bingham, alienated very much the sympathies of friends, lost much of his influence among the people, and caused himself, for many years, to be treated with discourtesy, by those who were in favor of the liquor traffic, and which sometimes took on a form of open abuse, which was not approved by the majority.

These abuses, after a time, extended to everyone who was opposed to seeing a drunken mob in the street, and finally culminated in a man, by the name of Crawford, being shot and killed.

This was a sad affair, and created much excitement and heated discussion at the time, the details of which cannot, with propriety, be given here, or at this time.

Whether this affair was a fortunate or unfortunate one, it did much good for the county.

It made a line of demarcation between rowdyism and law and order, and showed a large majority for the latter.

It showed the roughs, that they were not masters of the situation, as they supposed they were, nor did they receive the sympathy they expected from the people.

In 1867, a man by the name of Sprague, was arraigned before the Circuit Court, for heading a drunken mob, and fined, and whiskey, in large quantities, ceased to abuse people in the streets, and marked the end of the spreeing time of Alpena.

The same causes, which produced a change in the spreeing, also divided the people, in regard to the temperance question, and for some time a bitter feud was carried on between the parties.

In February, 1870, a temperance organization was effected, called the Temperance League of Alpena, its object being the suppression of the liquor traffic, in the place.

The officers of this powerful organization were: for President, Capt . A. E. Persons; for Secretary, F. S. Goodrich; for Treasurer, James J. Potter, and for executive committee, Wm. H. Potter, Scott Doane, Wm. D. Hitchcock, Christopher Burrell and T. M. Luce.

The following paper was drawn up, which explains itself; “We, the undersigned, agree to take the number of shares set opposite our names, at $5.00 each, subject to such assessments as the Executive Committee of the Temperance League may find necessary to make, in order to carry on the work of organization. The capital stock to be $2,000.00, or more.”

The names of the stock-holders are given, to show the power and influence of this combination against the sale of liquor. W. H. Potter, W. J. Roe, A. E. Persons, T. M. Luce, Balfor Lee, J. J. Potter, Scott Doane, J. D. Potter, Fred. S. Goodrich, W. D. Hitchcock, C. Burrell, F. H. Vroman, H. M. Jacobs, J. C. Park, Robert Rayburn, Samuel Dafoe, E. K. Potter, C. W. Vail, Henry S. Seage, B. R. Young, A. C. Tefft, A. N. Sprait, J. W. Marshall, F. S. Dewey, Benjamin Richards, James Oglevie, H. Cook, Rev. F. N. Barlow, C. C. Whitney, T. Lang Taylor, Z. M. Knight, M. B. Spratt, A. Miller, G. W. Jones, A. Crowell, A. L. Powers & Co, C. E. Wilcox, Wm. E. Rice, James Tuggy, Thos. G. Spratt, Herman Chamberlain, E. M. Raymond, Chas. N. Cornell, H. M. Hyatt, A. Hopper, A. F. Fletcher, P. M. Johnson & Co.. Folkerts & Butterfield, J. W. Van Horn, S. E. Hitchcock, C. H. Trask, W. H. Sexton, S. L. Meade, J. Van Dusen, Fred Miller, Geo. 11. Nicholson, E. C. Barlow, W. Nason, H. R. Morse, F. D. Spratt, D. G.Aber, T. Luce & Co., E. White, B. Williams, C. L. Kimball, Rev. A. B. Allen, D. Plough, C. H. Rice, Geo. Masters, W. McMasters, J. S. Minor, Douglass Scott, A. L. Seaman, and Hugh Mellen.

Many who were favorably inclined toward the temperance cause, refused to take stock in this combination, on account of the belligerent attitude, its extreme measures, and the bitterness then existing between the parties, alleging that action on the part of the League, would endanger the property of Alpena.

Among those were: Geo. N. Fletcher, David D. Oliver, Daniel Carter, and J. K. Lockwood.

The League went into operation, and for two years a fierce struggle ensued with various vicissitudes of success and defeat, the details, or discussion of which, cannot, with propriety, be given here, nor would they be amusing or instructive, if they could be.

It is enough to say, that the League never accomplished its object, and the animosity of the people was smothered in the great fire in 1872, which swept away much of the cause of contention, and mingled the sympathies of the citizens in the great calamity that had overtaken both parties.

Two criminal prosecutions were made, growing out of the affair.

Prejudice condemned the parties and sent them to prison, but justice liberated them, and sent them home, as nothing could be proved against them.

It is to be regretted that the temperance cause has been so extreme and intemperate in its movements.

Time, talent and money enough have been expended to have accomplished all necessary good that was sought, had it been properly directed.

While it will be readily conceded that much good has been done to persons and localities, through the cause, yet it would require but little argument to prove that it has utterly failed to destroy liquor or decrease its manufacture and sale.

The obvious reason is, that it has always tried to do too much at a time, and to have some events transpire before their antecedents; or, in other words, to do an impossibility.

Whenever it asked and obtained a passage of law in its favor, it was always so stringent that it was impracticable, and only led to litigation, without any good result.

When the temperance organizations shall cease to be so extreme in their views, and change their belligerent attitude—shall be willing to treat the opposition with as much respect and amiability as the Savior did Satan in the wilderness—shall endeavor to modify the cause, rather than cure effects—prefer making their own drunkards, to having them made by others; then they will make some headway against the monster that is destroying its thousands every year, and has, by repeated liberties in the shape of strictures by the temperance cause, grown to its maximum of poisonous effects.

The first society of Good Templars was organized sometime in 1866, but for some cause, soon became disorganized, the records of which the writer has not been able to find.

The present society of Good Templars was organized October 3rd, 1873, under the name and style of Alpena lodge, No. 775, I. O. of G. T.

The charter members were: J. J. Potter, D. P. Lester, K. M. Donnelly, John D. Potter, Alex. Campbell, Nettie Riddle, William Powell, J. D. Holmes, D. B. Hagarty, Mark Young, Johnson Hamilton, with J. J. Potter first Worthy Chief Templar. The following are the officers installed in Alpena lodge, No. 775, I. O. of G. T., May 5th, 1876:

W. C. T.—A. Harshaw.

W. V. T.—Miss Jennie Campbell.

W. S.—J. C. Brockler.

W. T.— H. A. McTavish.

W. M.—C. C. Snider.

W. I. G.—Miss Belle McKenzie.

B. H .S.—Miss Belle McNeil.

L. H. S.—Miss Ruby Huston.

W. C— H J. Eaton.

W. A. S.—Miss Mary Pickering.

W. F. S.—James H. McDonald.

W. D. M.—Miss Mary McTavish.

W. O. G.—John B. Cole.

Installing Officer.—Alex. Campbell.

MASONIC.

We find the following prepared.

On December 28th, 1860, being St. John’s Day, the following officers were installed:

W. M.—Seth L. Carpenter.

S. W.—F. N. Barlow.

J. W.—A. Hopper.

Sec’y.—Charles Oldfield.

Treas.—William H. Potter.

S. D.—W. E. Rice.

J. D.—Geo. W. Hawkins.

Stewards.—John McKay, James A. Case.

Tyler.—Dennis Babcock.

“The Alpena lodge of F. and A. M. has enjoyed a greater degree of prosperity than any other lodge of its age in the State.

It was organized in 1865, when our town was very small, and it was difficult to find Masons enough who would remain in town until we could establish a lodge.

With true Masonic perseverance and industry, a dispensation was finally procured, and Bro. Wm. P. Maiden was appointed Master.

No brother could have been called to preside over the lodge, who would have devoted more of his time, talent and energy than did Bro. Maiden.

The lodge immediately commenced to thrive and flourish in the most satisfactory manner.

A hall was elegantly fitted up, over Hyatt’s bakery, and a large class of the most excellent citizens knocked at the door for admittance.

Every stranger admitted the work to be excellently done, and our members visiting other lodges were masters of their work.

Bro. M. was elected in 1866, and re-elected in 1867, during which time the lodge has been in most excellent condition, and has found it necessary to procure a larger hall, which it has done, over the drug store.

Bro. Maiden retires from the Mastership of the lodge, with a noble record and the gratitude of all his fellows.”

Bro. Carpenter, who succeeds him, is an excellent man and Mason, an accomplished scholar, and a worthy citizen, and no doubt will discharge the duties of his office with ability and honor.

Lodge 199, F. and A. M., was organized in 1865, but did no work until 1866, when they obtained a hall over Hyatt’s meat market, and proceeded, under a dispensation, to open the first lodge, with the following officers and members:

W. M.—William P. Maiden.

S. W.—Orin Erskine.

J. W.—Josiah Frink.

Sec’y.—James K. Lockwood.

Treas.—Chas. Rice.

S. D.—James J. Potter.

J. D.—David Plough.

Stewards.—O. H. P. Allen, Chas. B. Greely.

Tyler.—H. N. Harvey.

Members: John Newton, P. M. Johnson, Robt. J. Taylor,

A. C. Tefft, Geo. B. Erskine, and William Long.

Second W. M., Seth L. Carpenter; third W. M., Chas. H. Rice; fourth W. M., A. Hopper; fifth W. M., C. H. Rice; sixth W. M., L. B. Howard, in 1876.

THUNDER BAY CHAPTER.

Thunder Bay Chapter, No. 74, R. A. M., held its first convocation in Masonic hall, August 30th, 1870, working under a dispensation, but was chartered January 10th, 1871, the first officers of which were:

High Priest—Henry Bolton.

King—Charles H. Rice.

Scribe—William D. Hitchcock.

Charter members: Henry Bolton, W. D. Hitchcock, S. L. Carpenter, Alex. McDonald, Chas. Oldfield, A. C. Rice, Charles H. Rice, Geo. W. Hawkins, A. W. Smith, J. B. Erskine, Chas. B. Greely, F. N. Barlow.

Second High Priest, A. Hopper; third High Priest, W. D. Hitchcock; fourth High Priest, Z. M. Knight.

BIBLE SOCIETY.

In 1868, A County Bible Society was organized, as auxiliary to the American Bible Society, by the election of the following officers:

President—Rev. F. N. Barlow.

Vice-President—C. L. Kimball.

Corresponding Secretary—Rev. Rufus Apthorp.

Treasurer—W. D. Hitchcock.

Executive Committee —Rev. John Maywood, O. Mather, H. Hyatt, Benjamin Richards and M. B. Spratt.

THE YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.

Was organized in May, 1870, with the following officers:

President;—William D. Hitchcock.

Vice-Presidents—C. T. Brockway and B. Richards.

Corresponding Secretary—Dr. McSween.

Recording Secretary—J. D. Holmes.

The Board of Managers were as follows: A. B. Blakely, A. D. Hermance, B. Haywood, J. M. Blakely and D. W. Campbell.

AMERICAN PROTESTANT ASSOCIATION.

In September, 1868, the American Protestant Association was organized, at Evergreen Hall, entitled Pine Grove lodge No. 5.

The first officers elected are as follows: John Kesten, W. M.; Alex. Campbell, W. D. M.; John Smith, R. S., Dougal McArthur, F. S.; James Dixon, A. S.; William Waltenbury, Treasurer; John A. Sloan, Conductor; Henry Wickerson, Assistant Conductor; William Hamilton, Lt.; W. H. Harvey, O. T.; J. R. Beach, Chaplain.

BAND.

The first notice for the organization of a band, appeared in the Pioneer of the 20th of June, 1868, through the instance of the writer, who first agitated the matter, and donated the first ten dollars toward purchasing the instruments, which cost the sum of $350.

On August 1st, 1868, the organization of the band was completed, by the election of the following officers:

President—P. M. Johnson.

Vice-President—Dr. Wm. P. Maiden.

Secretary—A. Hopper.

Treasurer—C. F. Lacy.

Directors—R. S. Toland, J. B. Tuttle, W. D. Hitchcock.

The band was composed as follows:

First Eb Cornet, Chas. F. Lacy.

Second Eb Cornet, F. A. Pennington.

Bb Cornet, Chas. Golling.

First Alto, Geo. F. Howard.

Second Alto, Thos. B. Johnston.

Third Alto, Scott Doane.

First Bb Tenor, Denton Sellick.

Solo Baritone, Abram Hopper.

Tuba, Sylvester Williams.

Tenor Drum, Robert S. Toland.

Cymbals, Willie B. Boggs.

Bass Drum, Joseph C. Park.

Mr. Howard, Teacher and Manager.

ALPENA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

In April, 1874, a meeting was called, for the purpose of forming an agricultural society, but no action was taken at this time; but on the 30th of May, when the citizens of Alpena county met and organized the Alpena County Agricultural Society, by adopting a constitution and by-laws, and electing the following gentlemen directors to manage the affairs of the society for the first year: W. H. Potter, Seth A. L. Warner, J. K. Lockwood, James J. Potter, D. P. Buker, W. H. Phelps, James A. Case, Joseph Cavanagh, N. M. Brackinreed and W. H. Sanborn.

The object of the society was the promotion of agricultural, horticultural and domestic industry, by the use of competition prizes.

The officers shall be elected annually, by ballot, and shall consist of a President, a Vice-President in each organized township, who shall have the care of the society in his township, and shall be presiding officer of any meeting pertaining to the society in the absence of the President, a Secretary, Treasurer and Executive Committee.

The by-laws give the general duties of the officers and the general management of the society.

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The Abandoned Village In Michigan That Most People Stay Far, Far Away From…..


Today, most people stay away from Pere Cheney, Michigan (near Roscommon) but it’s not simply because there’s nothing left of the place except the old cemetery. Or because it’s on a difficult to travel road that resembles the ruts made by two wagon wheels.

Categories: Ghost Towns, Haunting, Michigan, Myths, Strange News, Treasure Legends, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Michigan Vietnam Veterans Memorial Park


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Attention readers….For only $5 per person, You can help make this happen…The Belding Vietnam Memorial Park and Wall needs your help to complete this 8 year project.

The entire memorial is a three phase project. The first phase involved getting permission from the city of Belding to secure the land needed for the monuments.

The granite monument with the three soldiers is part of phase two. In phase three, an outline of a map of Vietnam will be placed at the park. Beneath the map will be the names of all 2, 654 Michigan soldiers who lost their lives in the Vietnam War.

“We never forget them, and it’s a tribute and it’s going to be a lot of comfort to a lot of Vietnam veterans to see how they’ve been respected as a Vietnam veteran,” says Craycraft, who is himself a Vietnam Air Force Veteran.

The total cost of the project is $165,000 and $100,000 is still needed.

Watch the News broadcast here:

Vietnam Veterans remembered by new monument

Help with your donation here:

https://www.gofundme.com/beldingfreedomwall

Thank you for your support.

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They gave their lives….Can you give $1


Fresh out of High School, Michigan boys joined the fight in South Vietnam.
2,654 gave their lives in Combat. The Michigan Vietnam Freedom Wall in
Belding, Michigan will honor their sacrifice with thier names inscribed

in the 7 foot by 40 foot granite wall. In the middle of the 10′ circle will be a bronze monument of the field cross (the rifle, the helmet, and the boots). Surrounding the interior of the Vietnam monument will be bricks with the names of the people who wish to sponsor a Vietnam vet of their own.
Is the memory of these young men worth $1 to keep and cherish?
Please help with your donation to bring this wonderfull momument a reality and maintain the memory of these who have
given the ultimate sacrifice.
If everyone reading this would only dontate $1 to this cause, the finacial goal would be reached in a very short time.
Would the memory of one of Your loved ones be worth a $1 ???

http://www.gofundme.com/beldingfreedomwall

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Michigan Vietnam Freedom Wall…..needs your help and support…a go fund me project


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Are the Freedoms you enjoy worth at least one $1 ???

Please help with your donation. If everyone reading this would take a moment to donate just $1.00, this wonderful project would make it’s financial goal in a short time.

The Freedom Wall is the current phase in our memorial park. It is the memorial that will display 2654 names of Vietnam Veterans from Michigan that lost their lives in combat. The monument is a 7’x40′ wall with each name etched in the granite wall. In the forefront of the wall will be a 6′ tall granite monument in the shape of Vietnam with the map etched in the granite. In front of that will be a 10′ circle consisting of 12 pillar monuments 40″ x12″x12″ with the the faces of the 12 local veterans killed in Vietnam etched on the top slant of the pillar and their story cascading down the front of the pillars. In the middle of the 10′ circle will be a bronze monument of the field cross (the rifle, the helmet, and the boots). Surrounding the interior of the Vietnam monument will be bricks with the names of the people who wish to sponsor a Vietnam vet of their own.
This will be the most impressive monument in the State of Michigan honoring the Michigan Vietnam Veterans.

http://www.gofundme.com/beldingfreedomwall

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Backcountry Tranquility

A journal about my travels and related experiences :)

LEANNE COLE

Art and Practice

Lukas Chodorowicz

Travel, culture and lifestyle experienced on my adventures around the world. All photos taken by me. Instagram: @colorspark

BunnyandPorkBelly

life is always sweeter and yummier through a lens. bunnyandporkbelly [at] gmail [dot] com