Uncategorized

Flush after listening…new show


another show just hit the airways…for those that enjoy ADULT humor….The title tonight is “Pink Vaginas and Dinosaurs”

Advertisements
Categories: Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Dr. J. L. Whiting on early Detroit, Black Hawk, Cholera and speaking on the ‘the father of medicine in Michigan.’


DR. J. L. WHITING.

Evening News, April 30, 1880.

Dr. Whiting, after fifteen years of successful practice as a physician and surgeon, retired from the profession to engage in the forwarding and commission business.

Concerning this step, he said, “The tide of immigration from the east was beginning to pour in upon us in a steady flood, and the business was most promising.

I quit medicine to follow my new venture in February, 1832, but I was compelled to return to it in July, and work harder at it than ever I had in my life.

The cholera had broken out.

“The dreadful disease was brought to us by a vessel carrying troops ordered to the scene of the Black Hawk war, a war almost unknown to the history readers of this generation.

You are aware that Black-Hawk was a powerful Sac chief, somewhat after the Pontiac pattern.

The Sacs and Winnebago’s of Wisconsin had long been ugly and spoiling for a fight.

They were angry over the rapidly advancing colonization of Illinois, and dreaded further white encroachment.

In the spring of

1832 they commenced warfare upon the frontier settlements of Illinois, killing, scalping, burning, and outraging, and a national as well as a militia force was sent out to teach them a lesson.

After a number of fights the United States troops and Illinois militia, under General Atkinson, inflicted a crushing defeat upon the redskins at the junction of the Bad Axe River with the Mississippi, capturing Black-Hawk and his son and drove the Indians beyond the father Hawk and his son were taken to Washington. On their return Black Hawk stopped for a while in Dtroit, where I saw them both.

Young Black Hawk fell desperatly in love with a prominent society belle and wanted to honor honor her by making her his squaw.

She declined the proffered dignity for reasons best known to herself, but she has never married, and is still living in a state of single blessedness at Mackinac.

“Well, as I was saying,” continued the doctor, “I had just about got used to my new work down at the dock, when along came these troops with the cholera.

One of the men died of a pronounced case of Asiatic cholera on the Fourth of July.

The military surgeon accompanying the detachment was scared almost out of his wits, and immediately upon landing betook himself to bed in the hotel.

The commanding officer, thus deserted, called upon Dr. Rice, an able physician and an amiable man, to attend the sick, and Rice came to me to ask me to go with him.

I didn’t care to go, for I knew, though I had never seen a case of

Cholera that it was frightfully contagious and rapid in its results, and I told Rice so.

He urged that he had been authorized by the quartermaster to spare no expense in securing the most competent help, and finally he persuaded me to go with him.

I told my wife when I went home that Saturday evening that I had been called upon to attend the sick soldiers.

She looked grave and sorrowful, but said that as it was a case of duty she could not ask me to back out.

“That night sixteen cases were brought ashore and placed in the quartermaster’s stores, which had been converted into a temporary cholera hospital.

The stores were back of Fisk’s present crockery warehouse, between Jefferson Avenue and the river, fronting on Woodbridge Street.

Of the sixteen cases eleven proved fatal before morning.

“On the same day Dr. Rice had the sick call sounded and carefully examined every man of the detachment.

To everyone who showed predisposing symptoms of the disease, such as the premonitory diarrhea, he administered a thumping dose of ipecacuanha and calomel on the spot.

It acted like a charm.

There wasn’t another new case in the command.

After the dead were interred the detachment was hurried up to

Fort Gratiot to recruit, and before they left, the commanding officer warmly thanked Dr. Rice and myself for our services.

“The cholera visitation upon the citizens came later in the year 1832, and imposed a vast amount of work upon me.

It was confined largely to the lower classes, and swept off the intemperate and dissipated in large numbers.

In 1834 it attacked an entirely different class; the upper orders, the sober, temperate, and church-going people.

As in 1832 I was taken away from my commission business to attend to the stricken, and had to go out to Marshall, 100 miles, to attend to the cases there, the cholera having hopped over from Ann Arbor.

Dr. Rice did wonders during both visitations.

He practiced in Detroit for some 20 years, and was a man of great merit and as quick as lightning.

“This was not the only time I was called upon to minister to United States troops.

In 1823 the quartermaster insisted upon my going to Saginaw to attend to a sick garrison from Green Bay.

The troops were suffering from malignant intermitting fever, and at the end of three weeks’ attendance upon them I was knocked over myself.

I found the whole garrison sick, with one or two exceptions, and Dr. Zina Pitcher, the surgeon in charge, was the sickest of the lot.

He was completely broken up.

He had some 120 souls, old and young—60 enlisted men, with officers, laundresses, and children—under his charge, and all of them sick but one, with one of the most abominably distressing fevers imaginable.

He was all alone, one hundred miles from anywhere, with an appalling amount of work on hand, and no wonder he broke down.

When I reached Saginaw he was being carried all over the garrison on a mattress by men well enough as yet to move about or lift anything, giving opinions and advice, and a dreadful sight he presented, I can assure you.

The garrison was broken up in October and moved to Detroit where the troops were quartered on Fort street.

I did Pitcher’s duty from August, 1823, till May, 1824, nearly a year.

At that time I began to talk to him of moving into Detroit, for I had a high opinion of him as an able physician and a fine man.

In 1828, when I was making arrangements to give up my practice, I began writing to him, endeavoring to induce him to settle in Detroit and take my place, but I did not succeed until 1835 or ’36.

“Dr. Pitcher was styled not long ago, by a president of the county medical association, the ‘father of medicine in Michigan.’

With all due respect to the president, who knew better, as I told him afterwards, medical history compels me to dispute the title awarded to my old friend.

As long ago as 1811, I commenced the formation of a medical society among the few scattered physicians of the territory.

We had three at the capital and one respectively at Pontiac, St. Clair, Mount Clemens and Monroe, and they all joined me.

Long afterwards, when I had retired from practice, and when the number of physicians was greatly increased, county and State associations were formed and Dr. Pitcher was one of the first presidents of the Wayne County Society.”

Dr. Whiting had some experience with Cass among the Indians, and was a traveling companion with General Winfield Scott as early as 1827.

“In 1827,” he said, “General Cass called upon me to accompany a treaty-making expedition to the Buttes des Morts, or Hills of the Dead, on the Fox River about 40 miles above Green Bay.

The treaty was to be executed between General Cass and Col. McKinney, Indian agent at Washington, joint high commissioners for the United States, and Winnebago’s, Chippewa’s, Pottawattamie’s, Foxes, Sacs, and Menominee’s.

The expedition went out on board the steamer class vessel in her time.

She had only a main deck, which was a fore and after, with a cabin below.

The affair was regarded as a splendid chance for speculation, so the steamer was loaded down with Detroit merchants and their goods.

I was myself entrusted with $3,000 worth of goods of one kind and another, which I disposed of to advantage.

One of the passengers was General Winfield Scott, who was on a tour of inspection of forts and posts, and as two companies were stationed at Sault Ste. Marie he persuaded the captain to take him there.

This is how the first steamboat voyage to the Sault came to be made.

“The general was about 40 hours inspecting the post, and while he was busy we were having a splendid time enjoying ourselves in pleasure and trade.

There were about a dozen beautiful young ladies on board and we had a dance nearly every night.

The after cabin was given up to the demoiselles, so General Scott used to sleep on the dining tables every night, with a whale sperm candle burning at either side of his pillow; for there was an awful deal of fuss and feathers about the old fellow, even at that early stage of his career.

“My duties as medical officer were sufficient to keep me busy night and day.

I had to attend to the Indian sick, and as it was a season when green corn was in, they gorged themselves to repletion with it, and of course, suffered torments.

I was a big gun among them, I can tell you, as the ‘medicine man,’ with a couple of interpreters in constant attendance, moving around among people who regarded me as little less than a divinity, and swallowed the most atrociously unpleasant draughts with relish.

To hear them smack their lips over rancid castor oil which spoke for itself at long range, was a caution.

“We had to wait a long time for the Winnebago’s to come in, for they were saucy and disposed to show the whites that they didn’t care for them, but at the same time they were suffering from a bad attack of green corn.

A Menominee runner came in one day in advance of his people, many of whom came down from the neighborhood of Hudson’s bay, and in answer to my inquiries replied, with gesticulations far more eloquent than words:

‘Menominee sick like hel-l-l! Eat corn!

Break up Munnominee, purroo purro-o-o-o-f ! ! !’

“There were about 3,000 Indians of the different tribes present, many of whom had marched one thousand miles to partake of the benefits of the treaty and receive the presents of food and clothing.

They were supported while they were on the treaty ground and given all the provisions they could carry away with them.

The valuable lands which they ceded have long since become among the most fertile portions of the western granary.

We went upon this expedition in June and returned in August.

The Indians thought the world of Cass, whom they named OsKotchee, or ‘Big Belly.’ ”

Of his personal share in the Black-Hawk war Dr. Whiting tells in a modest, interesting way:

“I was appointed,” he said, “surgeon of the First Michigan militia regiment in 1818, and held my commission till 1832, when the war broke out.

A Dr. Hurd, who came here in 1819, was very anxious to displace me and brought a number of recommendations from people in high position which he pressed upon General John R. Williams, then commander in chief.

When we were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Dearborn (Chicago) preparatory to marching upon Illinois, Hurd spent a whole day with the general trying to get the position.

The fact was, he had been rather unsuccessful in Detroit, and the pay was an object to him, as much as the prestige was to me.

I was determined I would not be thrust out of my rank to suit Hurd, and in the long run I defeated him and was ordered to provide a supply of medicines and make ready to march at once.

I got Dr. Chapin, then our only druggist doing anything like a business, to fit me up a big medicine chest sufficient for the requirements of 200 infantry and a company of cavalry.

We got marching orders and had gone about fifty-five miles in the direction of Illinois when we received an order from General Williams ordering us back.

Our expedition lasted from the Thursday of one week till the too short a time entirely to give the First Michigan an opportunity to disquingish themselves on the field of glory, and I regret to say, also too short to qualify any of us for the 160 acres of land which every patriot had in his eye.

I didn’t have an opportunity of physicking a single combatant before the whole business was over.”

On the close of the “second cholera” in 1834, Dr. Whiting retired permanently from the practice of medicine, and devoted himself for the ensuing eight or ten years to the forwarding business, which consisted principally in the receipt and handling of the goods of immigrants who were then flowing into the State in large numbers.

The rush of immigration began in 1828 and continued for a long period afterwards.

“I saw,” said Dr. Whiting, “the early movement of emigration to Ohio, which was vigorously proceeding when I was on my way to Michigan.

I have seen the huge wagons of the pioneers, drawn by four teams of horses or yokes of oxen, making their way over the terrible roads, laden to the bursting point with household goods, and so arranged as to be moving homes for the family for the whole duration of the journey and until the settler could erect his log cabin in the unbroken wilderness.

The immigrants who came to us were from the thriftiest and most industrious New England stock, principally from the northeastern States and New York; people who could turn their hands to almost anything, and whose industry and perseverance, which they transmitted as a heritage to their posterity, have made Michigan what she is to-day.

“While keeping an eye on immigration, I saw the arrival of most of the men who have attained to note and position in this city and State.

It was while I had my office on the dock that Zachariah Chandler, then quite a new-comer, applied to me for a situation.

I well recollect when my friend, Mr. C. C. Trowbridge, came here—I was practicing then—a bright-eyed, ambitious, enthusiastic young man whose friendship I have enjoyed for scores of years, and whose career I have watched from early manhood to old age.”

Digressing a little, Dr. Whiting said:

“I observe in your sketch of Mr. Trowbridge that he speaks of an M. Laselle having once whipped the commandant of the fort in a dispute over a question of etiquette.

M. Laselle was well known as a peppery French officer in the Union service, who was present at Winchester’s defeat at River Raisin in the war of 1812-15.

He was the officer of the day, and, as the troops slept on their arm after the carnage, while posting a tall, gaunt New Hampshire soldier as a picket guard, intelligently instructed him as to his duties as follows:

” ‘Spose you see Hinjin, you say how?

How?

Dat call him ‘tenshun.

Den you say Endoss! Endoss!

Dat come here!

Come here!

‘Spose Hinjin no endoss, you vill sa-a-acra-wentelment baionnez le dans la ventre!”

[You will sacramentally bayonet him in the bowels.]

“To return to forwarding.

There was not much of a general trade in my earlier experience of the business.

The fur trade was carried on by a few houses, Judge Abbott, Mack & Conant, Dequindre, and the Buhls.

There were a few small manufacturing concerns turning out boots and shoes, clothing, wool hats, and so on, but nothing to signify.

For all our iron work we had to send to Cleveland, and large quantities of goods, now manufactured in and exported from Detroit, were imported from Ohio.

But as the flood of population poured in from the eastern states a change came rapidly about, which had a remarkable effect upon my business.

I had at one time the agency of five steam boats, something enormous for that period—purchased their supplies, and gave a decided impetus to the fuel trade by requiring a constant supply of from 1,500 to 2,000 cords of wood.

The steamers for which I was agent ran to Buffalo, calling at the different lake ports on the way.

Once or twice a year they went to Chicago and Mackinac with supplies and stores.

In my younger days we had quite a contemptuous opinion of Chicago as a little swampy hamlet compared with which Detroit was of metropolitan grandeur.

Times fully since then, yet always for the better in Detroit whose growth has been gradually solid and substantial.

I have seen the population grow from 900 to 130,000, and I know whereof I speak.”

Dr. Whiting, after a lengthened experience as a forwarder and commission merchant, went into business as a land and tax agent, in which he continued till his physical infirmity obliged him to retire.

He stayed at his post till he was forced to seek repose.

Speaking of politics, he said:

“I have never been actively engaged in politics.

I was originally what was called a ‘blue-light federalist,’ and cast my first vote for DeWitt Clinton for president just before I left for Detroit.

Parties have come and parties have gone, leaving me, in my opinions, pretty much where I was standing when I cast my first vote.

Though I was elected city clerk in 1832 and again in 1834, I have never sought office.

During my second term as clerk of the city I found I had to either giveup my warehouse or resign the clerkship, and I chose the latter.

This completes my experience of office.

I became a Whig when Whiggery represented principles, and when it died out I found it terrible hard work to become a republican, and only surrendered under protest.

However, I had not much time to throw away on politics and politicians; my life was too busy a one for any dissipation of the kind, and besides I have always had the confidence that this Union could take care of herself, without my going into hysterics about saving her.”

As I rose to go, Dr. Whiting said: “When you hear young fellows of yesterday talking of Detroit as a slow, fossilized place, remember that I have seen it grow from a frontier post, with half a hundred English speaking Americans in it, depending upon the precarious support afforded by the fur trade and the disbursement of public money by the troops; from a little settlement, yet showing the ravages of a long war, to a great imperial city, with the most thrifty and generally prosperous population of the United States, at the distributing head of the most magnificent inland water system of the world, and growing year by year in power and riches.”

Categories: Civil War, Michigan, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The 13th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War – A Narrative and Letters by Colonel Michael Shoemaker.


THE MICHIGAN THIRTEENTH – NARRATIVE OF THE OCCUPATION, FORTIFICATION, ATTACK UPON, DEFENSE OF, AND RETREAT FROM STEVENSON,  ALABAMA, IN 1862, BY THE THIRTEENTH REGIMENT OF MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY UNDER COMMAND OF COLONEL MICHAEL SHOEMAKER

The 20th brigade, of which the 13th regiment was a part, commanded by Col. Charles G. Harker, of the 3d division; Brig. Gen. Thos. John Wood, of the Army of the Cumberland; commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, arrived at Stevenson, Alabama, on Saturday, July 19th, 1862, and went into camp on the hill side east of and immediately adjacent to the town.
In our rear was a vacant house, of which I took possession and made it the headquarters of the field and staff officers of the regiment.
The other regiments of the brigade were immediately north and west of us.
Picket lines were established, and guards and sentinels posted in every direction from our camp.
The night after our arrival was very unpleasant, rain falling most of the time.
LETTERS EXPLAINING MOVEMENTS AND SITUATION.
(Extracts from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.)
“In camp near Stevenson, Alabama,
“Sunday, July 20, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:
I, yesterday, while on my way here, received your letter of July 4th.
On Thursday I marched my regiment to Decatur, and then almost immediately on arrival was notified that the brigade was to take the cars the next day for this place, and marched back again, making one of the hardest day’s work we have done since leaving Kalamazoo, in consequence of the frequent heavy showers and extreme heat.
On our return we were ordered to have reveille beat at 2 A. M., Friday, and march to the railroad.
We arrived there about sunrise, and remained there twenty-four hours waiting for the cars, they arriving about 2 A. M. Saturday.
We had to wait for another regiment, but finally got off about sunrise and arrived here last night, or rather in the afternoon, in time to get into camp by night.
I don’t know how long we shall be here, but probably until there is something done on one side or the other.
It looks now as though the Confederates would give us enough to do without waiting for us to make an attempt to take Chattanooga.
I never write much about our movements or what has been done, for you to learn all that from our newspapers much sooner than you can hear from my letters.
Tell Fred to send me a New York paper as often as twice a week.
We do not yet know much of the particulars of the battles before Richmond.
We never get papers here unless sent directly to us, and seldom at that.
Note.—In this article from the ready pen of Col. Shoemaker, we have a record not only of much personal interest, but an addition of great value, to the history of the war.
He takes us behind the scenes, “and shows how correct were our criticisms at the time, of the dilatory commanders whom we accused of trying how not to do it.”
He takes the reader along with him: we see the dreary bivouac, we follow with the weary march, we almost hear the roar and see the rush of battle, share the indignation of his men as they saw the half-hearted attempt of Gen. Buell to put down the rebellion by acting merely on the defensive, and we admire the skill with which Col. S. sustained his command at Stevenson, and made its hasty retreat by Buel’s orders— (see telegram No. 23) of nearly a hundred miles over the mountains to Nashville with the exultant foe at his heels.
The survivors of “the 13th” will thank their honored colonel for this record of their labors and trials: and, vivid as are the pen pictures he gives us, they only, no doubt, can fully appreciate the thrilling history.
On the 21st and 22d all of the command were occupied in policing our camp, making sanitary arrangements, procuring and distributing rations, and apparently making ready for a prolonged stay at this point.
I commenced to drill my regiment on the 23rd, and continued to do so every day when the weather would permit, until we moved into the fort, except such days as we were employed on fatigue duty or in the building the stockades or fort.
The brigade formed line of battle on the 24th at 3 o’clock A. M., and remained in line until after daylight.
In the afternoon I drilled my regiment.
At 9 P. M., there was an alarm sounded, and the entire brigade turned out and formed in line of battle; but the alarm was without cause, as no attack followed.
After an hour more of excitement the men were dismissed to their quarters and all became quiet.
Extract from letter dated July 22, 1862, to Mrs. Shoemaker.
“I have not seen a paper of any kind since a week ago last Sunday.
You can judge how little we know of what has taken place elsewhere, when I tell you that we learned last night that Gen. Duffleld was wounded at Murfreesboro, when it was taken, though that was near two weeks ago, and in our army.
Even this may not be so.
I mention it to show our want of opportunity to learn what is done.
“I am very well, and bear the life I lead much better than I would believe possible, for it is very, very severe in every respect.
Nothing but the cause in which we are engaged would keep me here a day, and I hope for a speedy termination of all our troubles, so that I may be released and return to my home and family.
I must confess, however, that with the limited intelligence I have of affairs elsewhere, and with my opinion of the management of our armies.
I do not see that we are any nearer a settlement than when I left home.
Tell Fred, he must send me papers.
I can get none here.
I am daily expecting Kidder and Lieut. Slayton, and shall then get some news.
“This is a miserable country, the commencement (or tail) of the mountainous country of East Tennessee; but few farms and little cultivation.
The inhabitants have nearly all left, and it is very difficult to get anything to live upon.
We have no butter, or potatoes, or vegetables of any kind.
The troops have been on half rations for some time, and it is hard living.
Pork, hard bread, and coffee are our principal articles of food.
Everything in the regiment is moving off very quietly and well, but the officers are terribly disappointed that they cannot get furloughs, and some of them will resign.
“The service is a hard one, quite a number are sick of it, and would rather leave than remain.
I do not know where the other Michigan regiments are.
I have seen none but the Mechanics and Engineers since we left Corinth.
Randall and part of the horses came with the artillery and transportation on the wagon road, and they have not yet come up.
We expect them to-day.”
LETTER ON MILITARY SITUATION.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“July 23, 1862.
“My Dear Wife.—
No mail yet; no letters, no nothing.
This is a miserable God-forsaken country, mean and despicable in every respect, and the people not only partake of the character of the country, but are meaner and more to be despised than it is.
Cowardly hounds, lying around home day times and at night meeting with their neighbors, and making a raid as guerrillas, if they can do so with perfect safety.
“My respect for the southern character generally is much lessened.
They are none of them willing to fight unless they have every advantage of numbers, time and opportunity, and there are few of them but will murder our men by shooting them from the bushes whenever they find them straggling, singly or in small numbers, at a distance from the camp, or column, if on the march.
Men are every day killed in this way.
They will not sell us anything if they can help it, and if they do they charge three prices for it.
We are now getting as a favor, one quart of milk a day for fifteen cents.
Buttermilk the same, and butter not to be had at all.
Yet these men are all protected by orders of our army and division generals.
No soldier is allowed to go into a house, or in any way have anything to do with the in habitants, and all officers are under much the same restrictions as the soldiers.
Secessionists are much better off in this country than either union men or soldiers.
The former are protected by both parties, while the rebels are perfectly relentless to all enemies, and even to all who do not support them.
All this, and more, which I cannot give in a letter, places the union army at a great disadvantage, and is much felt by us all, but it cannot get expression as it ought, as no inferior has a right to publicly criticize the actions of his superiors.
There is great dissatisfaction in the army, both as to its inactivity and its management.
We had before Corinth, a splendid army of one hundred thousand men.
Nearly two months have elapsed since its evacuation, and it has done literally nothing or worse.
This we know, and it, together with other facts not stated, but of the same nature, has taken from the army, so far as I can judge, all confidence in Generals Buell and Wood.
The latter is a fool.
I could fill a volume if necessary, to sustain what I have said, but enough for the present.
It is not usual to comment so freely to any upon the conduct of general officers.
They may be praised, but not blamed with impunity; and this letter, though every word and more is true, would cause me to be cashiered if it was known I had written it, consequently you will be very careful to whom you show it, or what you do with it.
Don’t burn it, but put it away under lock and key, for it may someday be of service for good instead of harm.
I would as soon Governor Blair would know its contents as not, but he must not speak to any one of the facts as coming from me.
He ought to know them, and the whole country ought to know them, for a different policy must be pursued or we can never crush this rebellion.
Remember me to all friends. Kiss the babies.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. SHOEMAKER.”
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“July 24, 1862.
“My Darling Wife,—
What time do you think it is?
I don’t know, for I have no watch, the one I bought of Brown never having kept good time.
I put it away in my trunk.
Speaking of that watch reminds me that I want you to tell Fred, not to pay Brown for it, as it is not as he represented it to be.
‘Says he, Riah!
Says I, what?’—
I will now, not to be as bad as the widow, go back to the time of morning.
 It is daylight, but not yet sunrise, say between four and five o’clock.
We get up at three A. M., form line of battle, and remain in that position until broad daylight, when the battalion is dismissed to attend reveille roll-call.
This early forming of line battle is to prevent the possibility of surprise, as the enemy are all around us, and vigilant.
They are on every side of us, and perhaps above and below us.
If I in chief command most of them would be in the latter position soon.
I can just see the sun; the upper disc is just visible up the valley of the Tennessee, and his beams are beautifully reflected by the forest that covers the mountains which rise here quite majestically on both sides of the river.
We are out from the town, which is no town at all (about like Leoni, or perhaps Grass Lake) less than a mile, in a beautiful grove of little oaks, and have as pleasant a camp as any heretofore occupied.
“Yesterday I went to town in my white hat and blouse, without vest, in fact in the rough, as we have to be most of the time while down here.
While there I went into an old tumble-down tavern, more like a barn than a house, had my ambrotype (early picture usually in a frame) taken, and that is the gift I am to-day sending you by mail.
I have received no letters since date of 4th, and it is said that all communication with the North is cut off, and that no mails are now received at all.
If no mails are received, then I suppose none can be sent.
I shall however, continue to write, and hope you will do the same.
“Twenty-fifth Brigade formed line of battle at 4 A.M., remained in line until sunrise.
In the afternoon I had a thorough regimental drill.
The same order was observed on the 26th by both brigade and regiment.
Lieutenant Colonel Worden applied for absence on sick leave, which was granted, and he left the regiment, not joining it again until after our arrival at Nashville with the rear part of General Buell’s army.
In the afternoon, Major Culver and myself rode out to Bolivar, a small village about four miles east of Stevenson, where we dined with Mr. Beals, who was formerly cashier of a bank (in Goshen, I think), in the State of New York.
A package of bank bills purporting to contain $1,000.00 was sent from his bank to a bank in Detroit, which when opened, was found to contain slips of newspaper cut into the size of bank bills.
It may be set down as a remarkable coincidence that I was in the bank at Detroit when this package was opened, and now met Mr. Beals, who in consequence of that transaction lost his situation in Alabama.
Quartermaster Kidder returned from Michigan, bringing letters and supplies from Mrs. Shoemaker and others.”
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“In Camp near Stevenson, Alabama,)
“Sunday July 27, 1862. J
“My Dear Wife:—
Yesterday a mail was received, and by it I received a letter from Jackson, of the 11th inst.
After the mail Kidder came in and brought your letters of the 12th to 16th.
The communications are now so much interrupted that the mails are very irregular and some perhaps entirely lost.
I have written you every day when I could do so, which has been frequently this month.
By reference to my diary I find that I wrote you on the 4th. 6th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 20th, 21st, 23d, 24th, 25th, and to-day is the 27th.
That is sixteen letters in twenty-three days, and perhaps one or two more that I made no note of.
Now, you exacting woman, what more than this would you have of a man, particularly of a husband?
Why, most lovers don’t do as well as that before marriage.
“I have not had as many annoyances as I expected.
I entered upon the duties of my command determined to conquer its difficulties, and have done so.
Governor Blair says he has had less trouble with this regiment than any in the service; and if he will follow my recommendations concerning it I will be answerable that it will continue so.
I am now drilling the regiment every day, and am as capable of doing so as many colonels who have been in the service a year.
Those who ought to know, say I do it better than any other officer in this brigade.
I write this because I think you will be pleased to know it.
I don’t write so to anyone else.”
INEFICIENCY OF THE OPERATIONS OF OUR ARMIES.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker, with criticisms on army operations.]
“In Camp Stevenson, Alabama,
“Before sunrise, July 28, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:—
I have just dismissed my men to their quarters.
We turn out before the first appearance of light, and form line of battle, and remain in position until reveille.
This is to guard against surprise.
We do not intend to be caught napping if we can prevent it.
We have four regiments of infantry, a battery, and a few cavalry here.
Our army is so scattered that I fear it will be all cut off in detail.
We had a splendid army when Corinth was evacuated by the confederates, one that was irresistible, both from its force and discipline, against any force the south had in the field.
If then Buell’s army had marched at once to Chattanooga, and the other moved down the rail road either towards New Orleans or Mobile, great results would have followed.
We might and ought to have Chattanooga and all East Tennessee.
As it is, that great army is so scattered and idle that it is only a terror to its friends, where it happens to be located in detachments.
It is attacked and being cut off in detail every day or two at some bridge, or town, which is guarded by a small force, but which would need none if a vigorous course had been pursued.
We cannot now take any place, much less Chattanooga, unless we are largely reinforced, and are more likely to be driven back to Nashville than to take Chattanooga.
Our communications are constantly interrupted, and our supplies cut off.
We have now been on half rations for two weeks, and it looks as though they might get to be even less, if not cut off entirely.
We are now in a very poor country, or short rations would not affect us.
We are now, even to make up half-rations, collecting and killing all the beef cattle, or rather all the cattle of every kind, we can find, and they are hard to find.
The farmers hide them in the woods and mountains, and we have to go eight and ten miles to find as many cattle.
Potatoes are worth two and three dollars a bushel, onions fifty cents a dozen, milk fifteen cents a quart, and butter not to be had.
“From all this you must not think that we are suffering, for we are not, but are all getting along very smoothly and well.
“I regret to see our armies so mismanaged, and think there must be a change of men and measures before the rebellion can be crushed out.
We must make war on our enemies, and not protect them in their persons or property if we wish to subdue them.
We have recently lost a force of near one hundred men at Courtland, between Decatur and Tuscumbia, and it is said that many of the assailants were recognized as men whose property our army had guarded.
“To show you the irregularity of the mails: I yesterday received your letter of the 9th, and also by the same mail one from Gov. Blair of the 21st.
Major Worden is quite sick and has applied for leave of absence, and will, I think, go home.
Are you not thankful that I am well, or do you wish me to be sick and come home?
Affectionately your husband,
“MICHAEL SHOEMAKER.”
SHORT RATIONS.
July 28th.
The brigade formed line of battle at 4 A. M. When the command formed line of battle, either here or elsewhere, in the morning, it was always at either 3 or 4 o’clock, and the troops forming the line remained in that position under arms until after broad daylight.
In the afternoon I drilled my regiment for several hours.
The Sixty-fifth Ohio, V.I., Col. Furguson, were sent towards Chattanooga in a fifth Ohio, V. I., Col. Ferguson, were sent towards  Chattanooga in an expedition and to procure provisions for the brigade, particularly fresh meat and vegetables, of which there was none in our commissary stores.
The command were on short rations most of the time.
The brigade was at Stevenson, and all of the time short of many articles of food.
Fresh meat and vegetables were always scarce, and most of the time could not be procured at all.
We occasionally received onions from the north for a few rations, and the effect produced by them was so noticeable that it became at once the subject of remark.
No other vegetable produced so immediate and beneficial a change.
The inhabitants of the town and country adjoining were universally hostile, and would furnish nothing unless obliged to do so.
Every day men off duty were granted leave to go in squads and forage among the surrounding plantations for the purpose of buying any provisions they could find for sale.
This was always on their own responsibility, and all purchases were at their own expense.
THE SOLDIERS’ MODE OF PROCURING SUPPLIES.
When the planters refused to sell their beef, pork, or mutton, all kinds of artifices were resorted to in order to obtain them; and in case of complaint at headquarters, it was very difficult, and generally impossible, to detect the culprits; for they always reported themselves to the planters as belonging to any regiment but their own; and a search of the camp, which was sometimes ordered by Colonel Harker commanding the brigade, never resulted in the discovery of the depredators or the fresh meat they had appropriated.
I will give one instance which occurred within my own knowledge.
A planter came into the came from some two miles distant and complained at brigade headquarters, that going out of his house the day previous, Sunday, he found some soldiers skinning one of his bullocks (Bull).
When he spoke to them, he said they were very pleasant and polite, they gave him the name and number of the regiment to which they said they belonged, and informed him that they were acting in strict obedience to orders from headquarters.
The planter then said to them that he would go to the camp and see about getting pay for his animal, but on attempting to leave his premises he found them surrounded by a cordon of sentinels, each marching his beat, fully armed and equipped, none of whom would allow him to pass without orders from the officer in command.
He then inquired for the officer commanding the detachment, who was at once pointed out to him.
He complained that his property was being taken from him, and that his grounds were guarded so that he could not leave them.
He said he wanted to go to camp and see the officer commanding the brigade.
The officer heard all he had to say, and then in a stern and rather threatening manner informed him that he need not feel anxious because he could not go, but rather because he would be obliged to go, as he had orders not only to procure the beef, but also to bring him, the planter, into camp, and that he must be in readiness to go with them when they were ready to leave, at the same time intimating that the planter would find some serious charges against him.
The planter became alarmed, and asked permission to go into his house to make some necessary preparation and inform his family where he was to be taken, so that they would understand the cause of his absence.
The favor was granted most graciously, the planter went into his house, spent some little time in consultation with his family, and rather prolonged the time, as he did not like the idea of being taken from his home under arrest; for the times were such that there was no foreseeing the consequences.
He might, however innocent, be kept from home for a long time, as some of those arrested were sent to Nashville.
When he did muster up courage to go out, he did not find the sentinels posted as they had been when he left the officer, and he soon discovered that all, officers, soldiers, and beef, had suddenly, silently, and mysteriously disappeared.
In doubt as to what was proper or best to do, he remained at home until the next day, Monday, when he came into camp and made his case known at brigade headquarters.
He then found that he had been victimized by some of the soldiers of our brigade, who were not only acting without orders, but in direct violation of them.
An investigation was ordered, but nothing came of it; except that it proved that the soldiers were not of the regiment they claimed to belong to, and that no officer was with the detachment committing the depredation.
The men undoubtedly went out in small squads and united for action after leaving the camp, and were probably from more than one regiment.
The regimental officers all sympathized with the men, and we always protected them from exposure when possible to do so.
GUERRILLAS, AND THEIR ACTIONS.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Stevenson. Alabama,)
“July 29, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:—
The birds are singing in the grove on every side of me, as they do every morning, and everything appears to be peaceable and quiet, but this is all deceptive.
Under the surface there is trouble, deadly hostility, and enmity.
Yesterday an escort of cavalry to a foraging train sent out to purchase beef cattle, so that we might have even half rations, was fired upon from the bushes, two men killed and three wounded.
The cavalry force was small, and fled as usual.
Within a few days the railroad from Decatur west to Cortland was retaken by the rebels, and from 80 to 100 of our men killed or taken prisoners.
At two or three places our men repulsed them after hard fighting against four to one, and in all these cases, the dead left on the ground by the rebels are found to be citizens who had been living at home with passes and protections, and whose houses and property had in many cases been guarded by our soldiers, whom they were attempting to surprise and butcher.
“When Cortland was attacked there was a brigade at Decatur; its commander, Gen. Schorf, telegraphed to Gen. Buell at Huntsville, but could get no answer, and did not dare to go to its relief without orders, so we lost the town, the railroad, and one hundred men.
When we had a force within protecting distance, which might not only have protected the road, the town, and the men, but also have inflicted summary punishment upon a band of assassins who were allowed to carry out their acts of double treason and murder with impunity.
I am fearful that Gen. Buell’s inactivity, or sympathy for traitors, to use a mild expression, will prevent the army from accomplishing anything towards crushing the rebellion, if it maintains its ground, which is becoming doubtful.
When we left Corinth we had a splendid army, and now where is it?
Scattered over the country, divided unnecessarily into detachments, and if employed at all it is in guarding the property of rebels.
If, after Corinth, we had proceeded immediately to Chattanooga, we could have taken it and East Tennessee I think, without a blow, and be now acting on the offensive.
As it is, we are being cut off in detail while in the act of doing nothing.
These are the feelings of the army so far as I can judge them, and unless there is a change of policy and men, the north will find that their three hundred thousand men they are now raising will be of little value.
My candid opinion is, and there are more reasons for it than I can give in a letter, that if the officers who are and
have been in the regular army are allowed to govern the army as they are now doing, we might as well recognize the Southern Confederacy first as last; for under their auspices we shall never put down the rebellion.
I came into the army a ‘West Point man’ but I cannot resist the evidence of my senses, and the stake is too great to admit of, or justify, silence.
The people here were afraid of Gen. Mitchel, and he kept them quiet.
I don’t know him and have never seen him, but I do know that it is the opinion of Gen. Buell’s officers, and army, that Gen. Mitchel is the most effective man of the two, and that he has done more for the cause with his division than Gen. Buell with his entire army.
There are many evidences of all these things which I see and hear which I cannot give in a letter, but you may be sure that the rebellion will never be crushed until the armies are commanded in the field by other men than such as Generals Buell, Wood, or even Halleck.
Pope is a good officer, and was an active one here.
If you have an opportunity you may show this letter to Gov. Blair, and I would prefer that he should see it, but to no one else at all, and neither you nor he must speak of these things as coming from me.
If it was known I had written such a letter it would cause me trouble.
“Affectionately your husband,
“MICHAEL SHOEMAKER.”
July 29.
The brigade formed line of battle at 3 A. M., and, excepting the detail for fatigue duty, were kept all day under arms in readiness for an apparently expected attack from the Confederate forces.
Colonel Ferguson returned without having seen any opposing force, and without having procured any supplies.
The fatigue parties today commenced to fortify the town by the erection of a redoubt, by building stockades on the line of the railroad for the protection of the depot, and by protecting and fortifying the depot buildings in such manner as to make them capable of respectable resistance.
These, when finished, were all occupied by details of soldiers.
One hundred and twenty men of my regiment were on this detail, and worked all day on the fortifications.
In the night there was a heavy fall of rain.
Injury by fall of horse.
July 30.
While superintending the labors of my men at different points, I attempted to cross the track of the railroad, and my horse became frightened at an engine which was standing near.
In checking him, he fell flat upon his side, with one of my legs under him, injuring it badly.
I succeeded in getting from under the horse, and in getting both him and myself out of the way of the locomotive engine, but had a very narrow escape from serious injury, if not loss of life.
This accident became finally the cause of some of the most remarkable events of my army life; as from the serious and painful result of the injury to my leg I was obliged to give up riding on horseback, after reaching Nashville obtain leave of absence from my regiment, which led to my capture by the confederate guerrillas, my adventures while on my way to Richmond, and confinement in Libby Prison.
All of my men fit for duty were to-day working on the redoubt and stockades.
Orders were issued from brigade headquarters to impress contrabands to assist in building fortifications.
Rain fell all the afternoon and most of the night.
July 31.
Rain in A. M.
In compliance with the order of yesterday I sent Captain A. Balch with a detachment from company G. into the country to impress contrabands (negro slaves’) to assist in the work of fortification.
Received notice of resignation of Captain Vosburgh, and Lieutenant Phelps, both of whom remained in Nashville without authority from me to do so, when the regiment left there for Savannah and Shiloh in March.
Work commenced to-day under my command on the redoubt, or fort, on the hill south of the town.
One hundred and twenty of my own men on fatigue duty on this work.
I made the following extracts from a letter of this date written to my wife:
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“July 31, 1862.
“My Dear Wife,—
I had a very lucky fall yesterday.
As I was crossing the railroad track on a plank-crossing there was an engine standing within a few feet of the road, and as my horse came opposite he leaned from it and started a little.
There had been rain in the night, and many teams over the road, so that it was somewhat muddy, and the mud here is more like grease than anything else.
As my horse started his feet all slipped from under him and we both came flat on the plank, one of my legs under the horse.
I extricated my other foot from the stirrup, the horse immediately sprang up, and so did I.
We were both covered with mud, but otherwise there was not much damage done, though it is a wonder how I escaped without breaking some bones.
My leg was somewhat bruised and is a little lame to-day, but not so much as to prevent me from being around all the time.
(Col. Shoemaker’s graphic account of his capture and imprisonment will be found in volume 3)
I bathed it freely with liniment as soon as I got back to camp.
We are now all busy erecting fortifications, and to-day have parties out after Negroes from the plantations to come in and help do the work.
They are rather scarce about here.
This is the first time we have been allowed to use anything belonging to the rebels, and I am glad to see a commencement in the right direction.
If followed up as it should be, it will relieve our soldiers of much hard labor and drudgery, and add vastly to the efficiency of the army.
I have had no letter from you since I last wrote.
In fact we have had no mail.
I was much amused at your letter about ‘glory.’
Your reasoning is as good as Falstaff’s on ‘honor.’
You would never love or respect a ninny of a man, who had no spirit, and those who have no feeling for their country are too selfish to love anything but themselves, and if I had been such an one you would never have loved me.
It may do for a woman to place her family before everything else, but even you did not and would not do that.
When I thought it necessary to go into the army, you consented, regretting, as I did, the necessity, but what would the world become if men were not willing to give up all in times like these, that their children and those who do survive may have a government?
I must close now.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. SHOEMAKER.”
August 1.
Out with my entire regiment and work on fort all day and until 12 o’clock P. M., with the ground very slippery and the night very dark.
The “powers that be” seem very anxious to forward the work on the fortifications, and our actions would now foreshadow a defensive rather than an offensive campaign.
I have to-day sent out another detachment to impress negroes, mules, and carts to work on the fort.
We had rain in the afternoon and night.
August 2.
Work on fortifications with one hundred and twenty of my men. Detailed one company to act as provost guard, and two companies on the picket lines.
I again sent out three detachments, to impress negroes, mules, and carts to work in the intrenchments, all of which were procured in sufficient numbers for present purposes.
PLACED IN CHARGE OP FORTIFICATIONS.
Sunday, August 3.
I to-day received orders, with “carte blanche” from Colonel Harker, commanding brigade, to build fort and stockades, and make such defenses for the protection of Stevenson as in my judgment I deemed best.
Stevenson is at the junction of the Charleston & Memphis, and the Nashville & Chattanooga railroads, and was at this time made a depot for the supplies of the army, and also for the convalescent soldiers from the direction of both Huntsville and Chattanooga.
I now directed two buildings, standing in what would probably be a line of fire if we were attacked, to be torn down.
I also had the passenger depot and the platform of the freight depot barricaded, and detailed three companies to occupy the depot and platform during nights.
The following is an extract of a letter written today to Mrs. S.:
“I am awful tired, and can’t write much of a letter.
How do we spend the Sabbath in Dixie?
I will tell you.
Up at 3 A.M.; form line of battle at 3:30, and remain in that formation until reveille, say about 4:30 o’clock.
At six A.M. the whole regiment turns out and work all day on the redoubt, stockades, and intrenchments.
This includes barricading of buildings and other temporary works.
We have here a large amount of rations and army stores, with more arriving, and from all directions.
We intend to protect them and do not mean to be taken by surprise.
We are working day and night on our defensive works.
I was out Friday night in the rain, but do not appear to have caught any cold.
The regiment worked from 6 till 12 P. M. with pick and shovel.
I send this by William A. Ewing, a son of Surgeon Ewing, who has been here a few days, and can tell you much of the particulars of our situation.
You must excuse this scrawl, particularly the substance of it, for I do not know what it is, I am so tired and sleepy.
Don’t fret, be of good courage, and above all things, keep in good spirits.
I do, though suffering hardships and privations greater than you have any idea of.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. S.”
On the 4th of August there was a very heavy fog.
Wm. A. Ewing left for home.
His father was getting somewhat uneasy about our situation.
He thought the action we were taking in fortifying our position signified that it was more probable that we would be attacked than that we would act on the offensive, and as his son was not connected with the army, he very properly concluded that he had better return home while our communications were uninterrupted.
I continued work on the fortifications with my regiment and the contrabands.
August 5.
Foggy and very hot.
Lieut. Col. Worden left for home on sick leave.
Formed line of battle 3:30 A. M.
WORK ON FORT.
August 6, 7, 8, 9.
Formed line of battle each day at 3:30 A. M., and work with entire regiment on fortifications at various points about the town, and on the line of the railroad.
On the 7th I wrote Mrs. Shoemaker as follows:
“Stevenson, Alabama, August 7, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:—
The sun is now just rising.
I was out at 3:30 o’clock with my regiment in line of battle to guard against surprise.
What with building stockades, breastworks, and other military duties, we are having a laborious time, particularly as the weather is not only warm, but very hot.
I have but little leisure time.
Major Worden went home sick yesterday.
He will come and see you.
He had but short notice before he left, and I had no time to write to you, as every spare moment was taken in writing to Governor Blair on official business.
When Major Worden returns I shall come home and make you a visit, or if we are stationed here, as we may be, I will send for you, though you will have to rough it if you come.
How would you like to sleep in a tent?
If ever there were any decent people here, I think they have left, for I have seen or heard of none; but I have been in but one house since I came, and got out of that as soon as I could do my business.
Most of the inhabitants of the town and country have left their homes, their houses being unoccupied in our arrival here, but from the appearance of these deserted habitations I think it never was much of a town.
We have torn down a part of it in making room for our guns to have good range.
Lieut. Woodruff will remain in Michigan some time on recruiting service.
Worden is now Lieutenant-Colonel.
On the night of the 8th Colonel Ferguson, of the Sixty-fourth Ohio, and Captain Stoughten and a very interesting meeting, at which they held such high revel that as a consequence.
Company “I,” which was acting as provost guard, was ordered into camp to prevent a recurrence of what might prove of serious injury to the discipline of the regiment, and to impress upon the officers the necessity of sobriety and strict attention to their duties, now more than ever necessary.
The order was revoked at the request of Captain Stoughten, and upon his promise that no such cause for complaint should again arise.
Captain Stoughten was a good officer, a very intelligent man, and as good as his word.
The afternoon of the 9th was spent in preparing the regiment for inspection.
On Sunday, the 10th, the regiment formed line of battle at 3:30 A.M. and worked on the stockades and redoubt in the afternoon.
As there were rumors of Confederate forces or of guerrilla bands being in our vicinity.
I sent a detachment of twenty men towards Dechard to reconnoiter.
They returned without having discovered signs of any armed force.
The following is an extract from a letter to Mrs. Shoemaker, dated August 10, 1862:
“The sun is just rising this bright, beautiful Sabbath morning, and I thought I could not better occupy my time until breakfast than by writing to you.
I was out with my regiment at 3:30 o’clock this morning; we came in at reveille, just before sunrise, and to that good habit of early rising you are indebted for this letter.
There is so much applying for leave to go home by officers that it is difficult to get away, and not desirable unless necessary.
It is hardly honorable at this time for an officer to be away from his post if he is able to do his duty.
If you come down here I may not be at home for some time, and am anxious to be kept informed about my business.
Fred, must write me once a week.”
On the 11th, I placed Company B, Captain McLaughlin, in the redoubt building on the hill south of the railroad, to remain day and night to act as a guard.
The working force of the regiment to-day finished the stockades on the railroad above the turn-table, and worked on the redoubt and barricades.
On the 12th formed line of battle at 3:30 A.M.
Regiment built lower stockades, and barricaded the brick depot and magazine.
Charley Ward, our cook, returned from Michigan.
Received and gave to Captain Jones, of Company “H,” his commission as captain.
On the 13th and 14th the regiment worked on stockades and barricades.
The stockades were all on the line of the railroads, at the bridges, and most exposed points.
The depot buildings and certain houses were barricaded, so as to be used for the defense of the station if necessary.
The work was thoroughly done, and all places fortified were occupied by detachments from my regiment or by convalescents sent here from other points on the railroad, and placed under my command.
These were at times quite numerous, frequently exceeding one thousand men and probably averaging that number from the time they commenced coming.
REDOUBT OR FORT OCCUPIED.
On the 15th I moved my regiment into the redoubt, or fort as we called it, which we were building on the hill south of Stevenson, pitched my tent and took up my headquarters there, but still continued to work at, and have charge of all the stockades and fortifications in the town and on its approaches.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
Stevenson, Alabama,
August 16, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:
I have had no letter for several days, but as some railroad bridges are burned in Kentucky, that, I suppose is the reason.
I am now more busy than ever.
Yesterday I moved my regiment to the redoubt, and am now occupying it and the stockades.
I have for the present, command of this post, and may remain here for some time.
The present command is only temporary.
The permanent appointment will be made by Gen. Buell.
I shall be recommended by the brigade commander, and will, I think, be appointed.
It is a very honorable, but very laborious and important position, involving great care and trust.
If I am left here I do not mean to be surprised, or taken without a good, big fight.
The place is strong, and capable of resisting a large force.
If I remain here, I shall have my own regiment, a battery and a squadron of cavalry, besides other details and all convalescents sent here.
When it is decided, and it will be soon, I will let you know, and if I stay, will have you come and make me a visit.
You would not wish to remain long; there is nothing in camp life but what, to say the least of it, is uninviting to any lady.
We have never yet had one in our camp.
In most towns there are comfortable places in the houses of residents, but here there is not one.
All is military here.
No resident of the country is allowed to come within our lines unless he has a written pass, and the country itself is very poor, and almost depopulated.
We have now the hardest kind of living.
No potatoes or butter.
In fact, we have no vegetables but onions, of which we bought a barrel a few days since.
If you could put up a small jar of butter, and seal it, you might have an opportunity to send it.
We are now having very warm, dry weather.
My health is tolerably good, but I am getting very thin.
We shall finish the works here next week, and I shall then know what I am going to do.
I suppose you have seen Surgeon Ewing’s son, Will., and Lieut. Col. Worden.
It is said the latter is to be married; he looked rather yellow for that when he left here.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. S.”
Supplies from home.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Lieut. Slayton came in last night and brought your letter, and all the nice little supplies you so thoughtfully sent me.
They were all very welcome.
Col. Harker, Surgeon Ewing, and Adjutant Culver were present when I opened them.
I said, see what it is to have a good, thoughtful, loving little wife.
I gave Surgeons Ewing and Pratt the collars, and we had a good laugh over them.
Dr. Ewing is wearing his today.
One bottle of the whisky got broken in Lieut. Slayton’s trunk, so there was but one left.
Some of the corn was spoiled, but the cake, sugar, salt, pepper, and two jars of preserves were in good condition.
I am now very busy, but hope in a few days to have moor leisure.
Those collars just fit me and I have one of them on.
The handkerchiefs are being washed; they got stained with the whisky, or something else.”
This extract goes to show, though only in a slight degree, the extent to which we were obliged to depend upon our friends in our distant homes for many of what are considered the necessaries of life, or get along as we could without them.
Captain Palmer and his company “C” were on the 16th detailed to occupy the stockade at the railroad bridge across Crow Creek, west from Stevenson; an exposed and important post.
As it was outside our picket lines the greatest vigilance was necessary to prevent the men from being cut off, or the post surprised by the guerrillas.
On the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th, work was continued on the redoubt and other fortifications by a large force of negroes, mules, carts, and all of my regiment, except such as were detailed for guard and picket duty.
All the stockades and barricades were finished, leaving only the redoubt, upon which the whole force was concentrated.
SAW-MILL CAPTURED.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“Sunday, Aug. 16, 1862.
“I have just read for the third time your letter of last Sunday, and although it is “awful” hot, I thought I would write you, as I shall be busy with military matters in the cool of the evening.
It seems quite pleasant to receive a letter from you in the same week that it is written, as that has of late been unusual.
There was a steam saw-mill captured from us by the guerrillas last night within half a mile of our picket-line.
It was a saw-mill used by a detail from the Mechanics and Engineers to get out lumber for a pontoon bridge which General Buell, when acting on the offensive proposed to use in crossing the Tennessee River.
The engineer, three soldiers of that regiment, and four Negros were taken and carried away.
We are surrounded by rebels.
The bushwhackers and guerrillas are all around us, and the confederate army is above (on the river) east and south of us.
One of our men was shot in the hand on Wednesday last when returning from a spring within eighty rods of our picket lines.
Our men are shot down from the roadside whenever there is an opportunity to do so with impunity.
Our camp, the town, and country are full of spies and informers, and the rebels know all about our forces, and our weak points when we have any such.
They are generally cowardly, and don’t want to fight when the numbers and chances are even, but when they can have four or five to one, or when they can shoot from the bushes, then they are “eager for the fray.”
This war promises to become a murderous one, and if the rebels keep up their present system, the country will be desolated wherever our army goes.
“I shall send this letter by Quartermaster Kidder, who goes home.
He has intelligence that his wife is very sick, and probably will not recover.
He has resigned.
He expects to come back to the regiment.
Who is going to be Colonel of the Jackson regiment?
What position does Livermore expect to have?
Tell me all about this regiment, and who of the Jackson folks are in it.
Kiss the babies.
Remember me to your mother, Fred., and all friends.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. SHOEMAKER.”
On the 20th I received an order from brigade headquarters to get my regiment in readiness to march with the brigade on the 21st.
This order was issued by mistake, and was countermanded, and an order issued appointing me to the command of the post of Stevenson, Alabama.
There was placed under my command, besides my own regiment, the 5th Indiana Battery, Captain Simonson; four companies of the Michigan Mechanics and Engineers, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Hunton; one company of the 29th Indiana V. I., Captain Casey, and all convalescents at, or to come to the Post able to do military duty.
“Colonel Harker with the other regiments of his brigade, the 64th Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel Young, 65th Ohio, Colonel Ferguson, and 51st Indiana, Colonel Straght, left early in the morning of the 21st of August, 1862 for Bridgeport, and I saw no more of them until the 7th of September, when I rejoined them at Nashville, Tennessee.
IN COMMAND AT STEVENSON.
I appointed Lieutenant Eaton as Provost Marshal of the Post, and Lieutenant James R. Slayton as Assistant Provost Marshal.
Strict orders were issued to all detachments occupying stockades, guarding bridges, on picket lines, or stationed at any point outside the redoubt to observe the greatest vigilance, and to hold themselves in readiness for action at any moment.
General Don Carlos Buell, commander of the Army of the Cumberland, came in on the railroad on the 21st, from Huntsville.
There came also over one hundred convalescent soldiers from the divisions of Generals Chrittenden and McCook, to remain here in my charge, to be taken care of, and made useful as far as possible.
On the morning of the 22nd, in company with Lieutenant Colonel Hunton, I visited and inspected the entire picket line (which was several miles in extent and completely surrounded Stevenson), the redoubt, stockades, and all points where detachments of troops were stationed, except some at railroad bridges, which were outside the lines.
We found the picket posts all properly placed, and the guards prompt and watchful in the discharge of their duty.
Captains Balch and Sunderlin with the companies under their command were relieved from duty in the stockades and stationed in the redoubt, their places in the stockades being filled from those of the convalescents sent to the post who were able to bear arms.
Captain Simonson was also ordered to place his battery in position in the redoubt so as to be ready for action at any and all times, which was done.
The work on the redoubt and stockades was pressed towards completion as rapidly as possible with the force at my command, mules and carts, which had been impressed in the surrounding country, the troops being now all required for military purposes.
General Buell on being informed of what had been, and what was being done, expressed himself pleased and satisfied with my dispositions, and enjoined the necessity of great care and watchfulness, as the post was liable to be at any time attacked.
The necessity of preserving railroad communication with Huntsville was particularly impressed upon me.
He left with his staff on the 22nd by railroad for Dechard.
A SURPRISE.
On the 23rd we continued to strengthen the fortifications.
While thus engaged I received the following telegram:
No. 1. “Dechabd, August 23, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker Commanding: —
Expedite shipment of stores from Stevenson in every possible way, and be ready to evacuate the place at a moment’s notice.
Let Engineers and Mechanics prepare pontoons for burning, and when you leave destroy everything that cannot be brought away. Confidential.
Operator at Stevenson will not let it be known.
“J. B. FRY,
“Colonel and Chief of Staff.”
The situation of officers occupying positions like myself in the Army of the Cumberland was peculiar in this.
Being always confronted by the Confederates, we had no opportunity to obtain information of what was taking place outside of our own immediate command.
We could learn nothing from those with whom we associated, for they were as ignorant as ourselves, and we never saw a northern newspaper less than from a week to ten or twenty days old.
People at home, reading the daily papers, knew infinitely more of the general movements of our army, to say nothing of the others, than did any of the brigade or regimental officers composing it.
As we had been all summer rebuilding burned bridges and repairing railroads torn up by the Confederates, and building fortifications, I had supposed that we were to act on the offensive and advance still further into the Confederacy.
It was, therefore, a great surprise to me when I received the above telegram.
I had no knowledge of the movements of the army of which we formed a part except what I actually saw, and none whatever of those of the Confederate army of Gen. Bragg to which were opposed.
This telegram, therefore, was the first intimation to me of what proved to be the incursion of Gen. Bragg into Kentucky, or that there was any other intention on the part of Gen. Buell than to hold this post, and make it a depot of supplies, as it was situated at the junction of the railroads from Memphis and from Nashville to Chattanooga, Atlanta and Charleston.
I was confirmed in my belief of the permanency of our occupation, by the fact that up to this time there had been large shipments of all kinds of supplies to Stevenson from Nashville and the north, evidently intended for distribution to the forces in the field beyond this point.
Of these there was a large amount that must now be re-shipped or destroyed.
I had under my command at this time over one thousand men, the battery, the companies of the Mechanics and Engineers, besides over a thousand convalescents, most of whom were unable to do military duty.
On the receipt of this telegram (No. 1) I immediately commenced to make arrangements for shipping all the stores and the soldiers who were too sick to be made useful.
On the 24th I dispatched by railroad a large amount of stores and all the convalescent soldiers that were unable to bear arms or unfit for other duty.
Of these there were several hundred.
I continued to work the negroes, mules, and carts in strengthening my position in the redoubt and around the railroad depot.
ON THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR.
The following extracts from a letter written to my wife will give the opinion of the situation which I at that time entertained, and which, viewed in the light of subsequent events, proves the correctness of the views I then held.
There never was a more bungling, ill-advised campaign, or one showing such evident want of military ability, and absence of strategical design, or intent, or knowledge, than that dating first from the surprise of our army at Shiloh, and again from the capture of Corinth.
After the battle of Shiloh, if the army had been moved directly forward it could have gone into Corinth without further fighting; for, when finally there, we had the evidence of its citizens that the Confederate army came there completely disorganized, with the exception of one division.
If any effort on our part was made to ascertain the actual state of things it must have been unsuccessful, or our commanders were stunned by the magnitude of the battle which had been forced upon them.
All the indications seemed to show that we had gained a great victory; all the orders under which we acted made it apparent that those in command were still apprehensive of being again attacked, and our movements were those of an army acting on the defensive rather than the offensive; of one that had fought a drawn rather than a victorious battle.
After the capture of Corinth, the Federal army was in sufficient force to have marched through the confederacy in any direction.
All the armies of the west were concentrated there, and formed one grand whole.
It could have marched through the confederacy to any point on the gulf or ocean, and then have swept around to Virginia with greater ease and less opposition than did Sherman before fighting the battles which preceded the capture of Atlanta, some years later.
Instead of moving in a body, the different armies composing the whole (all west of the Alleghenies) , were separated and dispatched in different directions, and the campaign of 1862 in the west came to naught, or worse.
These are not ideas born of subsequent events, but those held at the time, and expressed in letters to Gov. Blair, Mrs. Shoemaker, and others, as the following letter clearly proves:
The Army of the Cumberland spent the summer in the Valley of the Tennessee west of Chattanooga, building bridges, repairing railroads, guarding plantations, protecting cotton stored thereon (of which there was enough when we passed up from Corinth to Stevenson to have paid a good share of the National debt at the close of the war), trying General Turchin by court-martial for making war, and finally in September, ignominiously retreated to Louisville, by forced marches, in order to reach there before it could be occupied by Gen. Bragg and the confederate army, which had been recruiting its strength while our army had been engaged in labor and pursuits that all eventuated to the use and benefit of our enemies.
The bridges, the railroads, the cotton, and the corn, was all, or mostly all, used or destroyed by the confederates after our army, without fighting a battle, was forced to leave the country, and before its return.
“My Dear Wife :—
The troops have all left here, and are leaving, except my regiment, which is in charge of the post.
There is much uncertainty about our future movements, but you will know from the papers what has been done sooner than by my letters.
Communication is now very uncertain, as is everything else.
It looks now as though we were to abandon this country.
We are now one of the extreme outposts, and may see some fighting before we leave.
I will write you as often as I can, but every moment of my time is now taken up by duties.
I have now about one thousand men and four pieces of artillery to garrison this place.
The enemy are said to be in large force in our immediate vicinity.
I have no letter from you for some time; the last date was two weeks today.
Don’t say anything of what I write about military matters.
Sunday night, 25th August, 1862.
They are all in confusion here, and I fear will be worse.
I am writing in the depot.
The army is retreating; Huntsville and that line is abandoned.
Gen. Buell went through here yesterday, and has his headquarters now at Dechard.
“We want good generalship, or our lives if given, will do no good, but only be a useless sacrifice to the cause.
We ought now to be acting on the offensive instead of the defensive.
I hope there will soon be a change of policy, if not of commanders.
“Kiss the children.
I send my love, and think of you every minute.
Will write again as soon as I can.
In haste.
“Yours in love,
“M. S.”
HOLD THE FORT.
On the 25th, I received the following telegram (No. 2) from Gen. Buell:
“Dechard, August 25, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Do not let it appear there is any intention of abandoning your post, but be prepared to do so in -case of necessity.
It is desirous to hold your post as long as possible, and it is the intention to do so.
J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I continued to strengthen my position in every possible manner, both at the redoubt and in and about the town, keeping several hundred negroes and a large number of mules and carts constantly at work.
I allowed no one to know or have cause to suspect that there was any intention of abandoning Stevenson.
From the nature of the work carried on both day and night on the defenses of the place, both citizens and soldiers were led to believe that we meant to “hold the fort.”
Detachments from my command were every day scouring the country to procure supplies, and particularly forage for our animals for which we required a large supply.
We had one hundred and thirty-one horses with Simonson’s battery, and thirteen army wagons with four mules to each, with my regiment making one hundred and eighty-three animals, besides the horses of the officers of which there was between twenty and thirty, giving over two hundred horses and mules to feed.
COMMENTS ON THE SITUATION.
I today caused water to be hauled into the fort so that we might have a supply in case of emergency.
During the day trains came in from Huntsville, and passed directly through towards Nashville as soon as they could be transferred to the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad.
With them came Judge Lane, Gen. Rosseau, and a large number of others who were evidently leaving the country, including military officers, civilians from the loyal States connected with the army, loyal southern men, and refugees from the Confederate States.
This exodus, taken in connection with the orders I was receiving, forced me to conclude that our labor in the valley of the Tennessee and at Stevenson was all to be not only worthless to our cause, but was to accrue directly to the benefit of the Confederates; and all because the Army of the Cumberland, under Gen. Buell, had spent the summer in repairing railroads, building bridges, and fortifications instead of making real, actual war upon the enemy.
The plantations, the cotton, and the corn of the southern people, however hostile they might have been, had been guarded by Federal troops; and attempts, which I am happy to state were always fruitless, were made under the immediate command of Gen. Buell, to return “fugitive slaves” that had escaped from their masters and sought refuge in our army.
This was the manner in which the gallant Army of the Cumberland was employed, instead of seeking out and dispersing the Confederate forces wherever there was an attempt to concentrate them.
If the campaign of 1862 in the valley of the Tennessee, in the States of Alabama and Georgia, was not intended to give “aid and comfort” to the Confederates, by giving them time and opportunity to recover from the defeat, and disasters of Shiloh and Corinth, it most certainly had that result; for it enabled them to recruit and gather up their forces to such an extent, that at this time they were strong enough to resume the offensive so effectually as to whirl the Federal Army back across the States of Tennessee and Kentucky to Louisville on the Ohio river, and force it to abandon and leave for the use and benefit of the Confederacy all the fruits of its labor since leaving Corinth.
FURTHER ORDERS.
During the day I received from Gen. Buell telegram No. 3 as follows:
“Dechard, August 25, 1862, on the cars.
[“Confidential.]
“Col. Shoemaker:
Send one (1) of your companies to Bridgeport to escort the section of artillery at that place in its march to Stevenson.
The artillery will come up as soon as stores are removed, probably to-morrow.
J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I now became satisfied that the large quantity of stores in my charge must be removed or they would have to be destroyed, or left for the benefit of the Confederates; and I therefore caused all supplies, stores, and material not necessary for the defense of Stevenson to be shipped as fast as the facilities on the railroad would permit.
The prisoners were sent North under charge of Captain McLaughlin.
Late in the day, I received from General Buell Telegram No. 4, as follows:
“Dechard, August 25, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
Continue to strengthen your defenses, and be prepared for an obstinate defense.
J. B. PRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I caused a further supply of water to be hauled into the fort, and determined to impress more negroes to work on the fortifications.
Those we had were kept at work in relief squads both day and night.
On the 26th of August, I sent four wagons for forage with an escort, with orders to bring in air the negroes they could find, with mules, carts, and tools.
Company E, Captain Webb, formed the escort and guard, and as the day and night passed with Captain Webb absent and no intelligence of his movements, I became quite anxious about the safety of his command.
I knew the country was swarming with guerrillas, but heretofore they had never ventured to attack any of our command sent out for forage or any other purpose; but any soldier wandering from his command, or for any cause found alone, was certain to be cut off, and in almost every instance his fate was unknown to us, but there was almost an absolute certainty that he was foully murdered, and those reported on the rolls as “missing” were seldom if ever again heard of among men.
As the country was undoubtedly by this time well aware of the retrograde movement of General Buell, I feared the guerrillas might have become emboldened, and have gathered in force and ventured to attack Captain Webb, or obstruct his operations.
I had every confidence in the courage and capacity of Captain Webb, which the result justified, for he came in on the 27th with a large supply of forage, mules, carts, and Negroes with “working tools” for all of them.
BRIDGEPORT.
In compliance with the telegraphic order of General Buell I sent Captain Balch with his Company G to act as escort and guard for two howitzers (section of battery) from Bridgeport to Stevenson.
In marching back, when just east of Bolivar, towards evening, one of the company, not feeling well, fell out of the ranks.
His brother, also a soldier in the company, learning of this, also left the ranks to remain with and look after his brother.
This was all wrong, and ought not to have been allowed, as it was an almost certain sacrifice of the two men.
The sick man, if unable to march, should have been placed on one of the gun carriages and brought in with his company.
There was no danger that the force of Captain Balch, would be attacked, and no necessity for undue haste.
When these facts were reported to me I was highly indignant that these men should have been left under circumstances that most certainly would subject them to the tender mercies of the guerrillas, who were known to be perfectly inhumane in their treatment of stragglers from our ranks, and I determined to send in the early morning a force to bring them in or learn their fate.
I accordingly detailed companies K and I, with one howitzer, under command of Captain Chadwick for this duty.
The captain on his return reported that at the place where the first man left the ranks he found the brother, who last fell out of the ranks, lying on the ground, wounded, where he had been left the day previous, after being stripped of his gun, accoutrements, and most of his clothing.
This man stated that when he came in sight of his brother he was surrounded by guerillas, who fired upon, wounded, and then robbed him, and left, taking his brother with them, after having stripped him also.
The fate of the latter I never ascertained.
He is one of the great army of the “missing.”
The following orders by telegram were received the 26th:
No. 5.] “Dechard, August 26, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker, Commanding: —
Two (2) trains are to go to Huntsville at daylight.
One of them has three companies of 10th Wisconsin on board.
Distribute these men so as to guard both trains as far as Huntsville.
These companies are to be sent back to Larkinville.
Order them positively to go through to Huntsville with trains.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
The orders were given and the trains dispatched as directed, though it was evident there was apprehension of danger.
Also the following:
No. 6.
“Dechard, August 26, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
How many animals will you have to feed?
You must get in at once all the forage you can.
Cut the green corn for fodder.
Answer.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied by telegram that I had 107 horses and 78 mules, and that I could and would procure full supplies of forage.
CONFEDERATE FORCES NEAR.
On the 27th, for the first time, the enemy began to show themselves openly in the vicinity of the fort, and two of the garrison were fired upon by a squad of mounted men within two miles of the town.
One company sent below Widow’s Creek bridge for wood reported the railroad track torn up.
The signs, and they manifested themselves in all quarters, indicated that the confederates were about to commence offensive movements in this quarter, and probably “all along the line,” as a response to the masterly inactivity of our summer campaign.
In the afternoon there came into our lines several fugitive soldiers from Bridgeport, with very conflicting reports, some of them stating that there had been heavy fighting, and that our forces had been defeated.
Others said that the Federal troops had, after gallantly defending their position against superior forces, abandoned the place and retreated across the mountain.
All agreed that Stevenson was now the outpost, and that there were no federal troops between this place and Chattanooga.
These fugitives were all very positive we were soon to be attacked by a large force.
I now thought it unsafe to leave a guard at Widow’s Creek Bridge, as it was in such an exposed position, and so far from support.
Captain Jones, who was, with his company, acting as guard at that stockade and doing picket duty near there, was ordered into camp and stationed inside the fort.
The two howitzers were placed in position on the fortifications inside the fort.
The following telegram was received:
No. 7.
“Dechard, August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
Direct Col. Hunton (of Mechanics and Engineers to leave one company of Mechanics and Engineers under a good captain, at Stevenson, to do such work as may be required, and give him instructions then to march tomorrow for this place, by the road along the railroad; bring his empty wagons.
The baggage to be left in charge of the company which remains, and to come up by rail when ordered.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied to this by sending a telegram to Gen. Buell, asking him to allow me to keep with my command Col. Hunton and two companies of Mechanics and Engineers, in answer to which I received the following telegram:
“Dechard, August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Let two companies Engineers remain instead of one, and send one of them with train to repair.
How many convalescent and sick at Stevenson?
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
The answer to this dispatch I did not preserve or have mislaid, but the company of Mechanics and Engineers were sent as directed, and the number of sick and convalescent, over one thousand, given.
Lieutenant Colonel Hunton with two companies of Mechanics and Engineers remained under my command.
AM CONFIDENT THAT I CAN HOLD THE FORT.
I also received the following telegram
(No. 9):
“Dechard. August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
A brigade cannot dislodge you.
Hold the place.
The property must be got away.
Let Col. Hunton remain with you.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied to this that “I could and would hold the place against any force that could probably be brought against me.”
I had no doubt of my ability to do so, for I was convinced that the main army of Gen. Bragg was not moving in this direction at all, and I did not believe that any considerable force would be taken from his army (if, as appeared to be the case, he was assuming the offensive) for the purpose of attacking Stevenson.
I did not fear an irregular force, as I felt confident we could hold our own against any of that character which the Confederates could send against us.
The result proved that I was correct.
I had now the fort in an efficient state for defense, with the artillery (Captain Simonson’s Fifth Indiana battery) in position in it, held in constant readiness for use.
The railroad depot buildings and all the houses commanding the approaches to the town had been converted into fortifications.
Stockades had been built on the railroad on both sides of the town.
All these I had been able to fully man by placing in them, with part of my own regiment, the convalescents able to bear arms, which had been sent to me from both up and down the line of the M. & E. railroad.
I now received telegram (No. 10) in the afternoon:
“Dechard. August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
Take in your guards between Bridgeport and Stevenson, and prepare to defend the latter.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col and Chief of Staff.”
Also the following telegram
(No. 11):
“Dechard. August 27, 18G2.
“Col. Shoemaker:
If there is no special reason to the contrary, let a guard of one company go out carefully on the train in the morning with telegraph repairer to put up line to Huntsville.
See Mr. Chittenden, chief operator.
What news from Bridgeport?
Answer. “J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied that several straggling soldiers had come into Stevenson, bringing conflicting reports.
All agreed that Bridgeport had been at tacked by a large force of Confederates, and most of them claimed that the post bad been abandoned, but what became of the garrison none of them knew.
During the day water and provisions were hauled into the fort.
In the evening Captain Webb and his command returned with a good supply of forage, negroes, mules, and carts.
He had extended his trip farther than was expected when he started, and this had caused him to take more time.
He had neither seen nor heard of any opposing force; had not been molested, but reported that the expression of hostility by the inhabitants was universal.
In compliance with order by telegram (No. 10) I ordered Captain Jones with Company H in from Widow’s creek bridge, and stationed them in the fort.
August 28th.
I did not apprehend that there was any “special reason to the contrary” and therefore sent a company as guard with the cars and telegraph repairers towards Huntsville to put up the line where it had been broken by the guerrillas.
This duty was performed without molestation.
Two of the four companies of Mechanics and Engineers which had remained with me up to this time started this morning, with the transportation of the regiment, but without their baggage or loads of any kind in their wagons.
They went by the wagon road towards Dechard.
RECONNAISSANCE.
In order to ascertain if there was any danger of an immediate attack upon this post, I sent a scouting party composed of two companies towards Battle Creek, who made a reconnaissance to within four miles of Bridgeport, but saw no Confederate forces.
Soldiers from the hospitals, convalescents and sick, had been coming in to my charge by almost every train since the post had been placed under my command, and to-day, again, all those not able to bear arms were sent to Nashville on the railroad, as was also the baggage of General McCook’s division, which had been sent here some time before.
Large quantities of stores and supplies were also shipped to Nashville,—all that could be carried by the cars furnished for that purpose.
In order that I might be prepared as perfectly as possible for any emergency which might arise, I now reorganized my forces.
Captain Palmer and his company (C) were stationed in two stockades on the Huntsville railroad west of the town, the two companies of Mechanics and Engineers in two stockades and a barricaded building on the east side of the town; the convalescents capable of bearing arms were stationed in the depot and other buildings in the town.
To Colonel Hunton, I gave command of the Mechanics and Engineers and convalescents.
My own regiment, and two companies of the 29th Indiana V. I., which had joined my command, were given in charge the picket lines, the fort, and such duty outside the lines as might become necessary.
I also changed the picket lines, drawing them in so that if attacked they could be more readily supported.
I received the following telegram
(No. 12):
“Dechard, August 28th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker, Commanding: —
Send back all train guards at the earliest practicable moment.
“WM. SOAG SMITH.
“Brig. Gen. Commanding Post.”
I was engaged on the picket lines and with other duties until quite late, and lay down for the night without taking off my clothes; and from this time until I arrived in Nashville, Tenn., on the 6th of September, my clothes were never once taken off, and this not as a matter of choice, but of necessity.
BURNING OF BOLIVAR.
August 29.
I this morning sent two companies under command of Captain Chadwick east on the line of the railroad leading to Chattanooga to reconnoiter.
I was determined not to be taken by surprise, and I knew I could prevent it by keeping parties of observation beyond the picket lines on the route by which any force of the enemy must approach our position.
Late in the afternoon we observed from the fort a heavy cloud of smoke rising evidently in the vicinity of Bolivar, a small place east of us and on the line of march taken by Captain Chadwick.
This I learned was caused by the burning of several houses in that hamlet.
These houses, five or six of them, were, I have no doubt, burned by some of the men of the scouting party that went out in the morning under command of Captain Chadwick, although they all, so far as I could ascertain, denied committing the act, and if done by them, was against my positive order.
I was very particular in charging all officers and soldiers sent into the country, for any purpose whatever, to carefully abstain from interfering with, or in any manner injuring the inhabitants, either in person or property, any further than was absolutely necessary to carry out the orders under which the expedition was acting.
Commands sent for forage, Negroes, or any other supplies were instructed to use such force as was necessary to procure them, but to carefully abstain from all outrage, or any unnecessary violence; and this was the only instance in which my orders were disobeyed.
I have no doubt but Bolivar was burned by soldiers of Captain Chadwick’s command, and I think with his knowledge if not consent.
My entire command had for some time been satisfied that its inhabitants were not only acting as spies, but also as guerrillas, and to them, I believe correctly, was ascribed the outrage committed on the 26th on the two brothers of Captain Batch’s command.
It was to avenge the treatment of these men, in all probability that caused their comrades to fire the houses of those they believed to be guilty of that cowardly and inhuman act.
Captain Chadwick, and the other officers who were out with him, would never admit that any of his command fired the houses, but some of them must have done so, for there were no other parties who could have done it.
Captain Chadwick and his command returned late in the afternoon.
The captain reported that he had seen no confederate force, nor any sign of any.
He went to within four miles of Bridgeport.
All of the commissary stores, and what was remaining at Stevenson of the baggage of Gen. McCook’s division, was to-day shipped by railroad to Nashville.
Negroes and whites of the country.
I still kept the Negroes and carts at work on the fort and stockades.
The Negroes worked willingly and faithfully.
If there was any one thing which they appeared to fear more than all else, it was that the Federal forces would leave the country, and that they would be remanded to the tender mercies of their masters.
The Negroes were not only industrious and faithful workmen, but were also most useful, and in fact, our only trustworthy spies.
The information obtained from them, when they were where they dare speak freely, could almost always be depended upon.
That obtained from the whites was always intended to deceive or mislead, when they thought by giving it they could lead the Federal troops into danger or make them trouble of any kind.
Each and every one of them would travel fast and far to carry information to the Confederate forces when they thought advantage could be taken of it.
So well convinced was I of this that, after the 23rd of August.
I refused to permit any person living in Stevenson to pass outside the picket lines, or anyone outside to come within, without a written permit signed by the provost marshal or myself, and this liberty was given in but few instances, and only where we were satisfied that no advantage could be taken of it.
NOTES SOUNDING OF RETREAT.
The following telegram was received from General Buell who still had his headquarters at Dechard (No. 13):
“Dechard, August 29, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker—confidential:
Trains will go to Huntsville to-morrow to bring over the last stores from that place.
When they arrive at Stevenson tomorrow night have Simonson’s Battery loaded on the cars, and also all the baggage there is at Stevenson, and send all the trains up together.
The horses with harness of Simonson’s Battery and your regiment must come here by land, and you should start if possible, before daylight on the morning of the 31st.
“Direct Major Hall, 37th Indiana, to prepare a note for each of his detachments on the line, telling them to march to the North along the road, and let these notes be delivered by the last train.
Be particular on this point, as the guards must not leave until the last train passes, and that train should take the baggage of the guards.
Old tents should be destroyed.
If Major Hall is not at Stevenson some other officer must see to this.
It is the intention to evacuate the place and leave nothing to fall into the enemy’s hands which would be useful.
The pontoons should be fired just before you start.
No locomotives or cars should be allowed to fall into their hands.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
Major Hall was at Stevenson, and I gave him a copy of as much of this message as related to his command.
I had supposed until I received this telegram, that it was the intention of General Buell to hold Stevenson, as it was at the junction of the Memphis and Charleston, and Nashville & Chattanooga Railroads, and we had built here a fort, an earthwork of considerable strength.
I knew the army was moving north, but did not think the country was to be entirely abandoned.
In order that I might be better prepared to act under these orders I visited the picket lines and again changed them, bringing them nearer the town and fort, after which I received the following telegram (No. 14):
“Decharn. August 29th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
Guards of one company for each train must be sent with the trains which go to Huntsville.
Use Mechanics and Engineers for that purpose.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
REFUGEE WHITES IN THE SOUTH.
There came into our lines to-day a gentleman about 35 or 40 years of age, who asked to be taken to the officer in command.
He was taken to the Provost Marshal, Lieut. Eaton, of whom he asked to see me as the commanding officer, at the same time refusing, or rather declining to answer any questions.
I saw him, when he requested to be sent with as little delay as possible to the headquarters of Gen. Buell; and he professed to have important information which he could only impart to him (Gen. Buell).
He declined to give his name, was much agitated, and evidently laboring under considerable apprehension of danger from some quarter.
When he first saw our flag (the stars and stripes) he shed tears, and said it was the first time his eyes rested upon it for eighteen long, weary months.
He was evidently a gentleman of culture and standing.
Although I doubted his sincerity, I decided to comply with his request, and he was sent at once in charge of an officer to the headquarters of Gen. Buell, wherever that might be.
Who he was or what important information he communicated I have never learned; but if he was a sincere Union man, he was, in my belief, the only southern man I ever saw in southern Tennessee, Mississippi, or Alabama while I was in the service that was sincere in his profession of loyalty.
There were but few that made any such profession, and those we had uniformly found to be spies or informers.
The feeling of loyalty to the Confederacy, and not only disloyalty to, but hatred for the Union, was simply universal; and towards our army there was with the entire population, men, women, and children, a feeling of deadly hostility.
This was shown whenever there was an opportunity to cut off a single man or a small detachment.
While on the march we were constantly watched, and any man falling out of the rank from fatigue or any other cause, if left behind, was certain to be cut off.
My opportunities of judging of the temper and disposition of the people were exceptionally good, as my command was most of the summer of 1862 detached from the main line of the army, so that I was brought into direct communication with the inhabitants, particularly at Iuka, Bear Creek, Town Creek, and Stevenson.
We were also at Tuscumbia, Decatur, and Mooresville, and in fact, I may say that my facilities for obtaining information were good from Corinth to Chattanooga.
As a source of satisfaction to myself I felt deeply interested in learning as correctly as possible, the feelings and sentiments of the southern people, and I never lost an opportunity for obtaining information either from men, women, or Negroes.
I visited houses near all our encampments, and as far as possible took great care to make, the acquaintance of the residents in the vicinity of those stations where we remained any number of days.
The convictions to which I give expression are the result of mature deliberation.
I do not think it at all discreditable to our southern brethren that they should believe according to the light in which they were educated, but in common with all in our army, I detested the spirit which led to murder and guerrilla warfare.
From the time we left Salt river, in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama, I found that Confederate money was taken in preference to greenbacks, and in southern and eastern Tennessee and in Mississippi, the money of the Federal States would not be received at all in payment.
This was almost universally the case after we left Nashville on our march to Shiloh.
In Mississippi and Alabama there were no exceptions.
The inhabitants would not sell us anything at all, for any kind of money, if they could avoid doing so, but if they felt compelled to do so they invariably asked two or three prices, and would then only take Confederate money in payment.
There could be no more certain indication of, not only the feelings of the people, but also of their belief in the ultimate success of the Confederate cause than their preference for Confederate, and their absolute refusal to take the national currency.
It was useless to point out to them that if the Confederacy should succeed in becoming a separate nation, yet still the greenbacks would be good as against the loyal States.
No, they would have none of them.
They did not want any “yankee money,” and that the Confederate States would succeed in the war, and of the value of the Confederate money they never, at this time, allowed themselves to doubt.
Until after our arrival at Stevenson all supplies taken in the country for the army were paid for and at all times, before and after, the officers paid for all such supplies as they procured in the country.
FURTHER ORDERS.
Dr. Mandeville was stationed at Stevenson to assist in taking care of the sick and convalescent.
There were many of both classes at Steven son all of the time, although we were sending all able to be transported, and not able to bear arms, to Nashville as fast as we could get cars.
They were also coming to us every day by every train.
Dr. Mandeville had been ordered away, and I requested of General Buell, by telegram, that he might be allowed to remain with me and received the following answer (“So. 15):
“Dechard, August 29, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker: Dr. Mandeville can remain until further orders.
“R. Murray.
“Surgeon U.R.A. Med. Div.”
I also received this important dispatch from General Buell (No. 16):
“Dechard, August 29th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
Send all baggage wagons of your command here by the road along the railroad, starting at daylight tomorrow, and be ready to move with the troops at a moment’s notice.
Send Engineer companies as escort for wagons, or if they are not with you, send two of your companies.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
To obey this order would cause me to divide and weaken my force, and endanger both divisions if attacked, I therefore decided to ask General Buell to rescind this order, and sent him the following telegram:
“Stevenson, Alabama”
August 29th, 1862.
“Colonel J. B. Fry. A. A. Gen. and Chief of Staff:
Our teams are constantly employed.
Captain Simonson says he will need four, and can send but two.
I must use five.
That would leave, including ambulances, less than half to go, and would weaken my force two companies.
I think I can feed all the animals by stripping green corn, and would prefer to keep my force together.
Can I do so?
“M. SHOEMAKER,
“Col. Commanding Post.”
To this I received the following answer (No. 18):
“Dechard, August 29, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
If you think best, keep all your wagons and bring them with the regiment.
They must come empty or with light loads.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
By a determined effort on my part, and much extra work of my helpers I succeeded in shipping today to Nashville all the commissary stores remaining at Stevenson and the baggage of McCook’s division.
August 30.
The picket lines were disturbed at several different points the past night by the approach of scouting parties of the Confederates and spies who were evidently attempting to ascertain the number and location of our forces.
The picket guard wounded a Confederate captain, who succeeded in making his escape, but the guard captured his body servant, a remarkably bright, intelligent, good looking mulatto.
He declared that he knew nothing of any force of the enemy in our immediate vicinity.
The events of the morrow proved his fidelity to his master, as he was undoubtedly endeavoring to deceive us.
In the morning I visited the picket lines quite early, and charged the officers in command to act with great care and caution, to observe and report the appearance of any force, or of single individuals in the neighborhood of the lines.
On my return we commenced to move the provisions and ammunition out of the fort, preparatory to its abandonment.
I made such disposition of the means at my command that it enabled me to send away everything of value.
ORDERS FROM GENERAL BUELL.
Received from General Buell the following telegram:
“Dechard, August 30th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
You will put caissons on the cars, and start them in the morning, but retain the guns to march with you.
The gun chests should be filled with shells, not solid shot.
In case the trains should not get through from Huntsville tomorrow, you will hold your position until night, and then march with your whole force, unless you know by delay you can cover their movement, and if opposed force your way through.
“Colonel Chapin will be Instructed to wait until ten o’clock tomorrow for the train, and then force his way to you with what detachments he can pick up on the road.
“You may not have any trouble, but prudence and resolution will carry you through in any event.
Put your baggage on the cars, so as to move light.
Keep the horses and harnesses of the caissons to help your guns over the mountains.
“I will send two battalions of cavalry down tomorrow to meet you.
Colonel Chapin’s regiment will march with you, and the train must take up the bridge guards this side of Stevenson.
D. C. Buell,
“Major General Commanding.”
On Sunday morning, August 30, 1862, I caused all the baggage, commissary stores, sick and convalescent soldiers remaining at Stevenson to be loaded on the cars, and started on the railroad towards Nashville, Tennessee.
The caissons were also sent at the same time, and the only ammunition kept with us was the shells the artillery could store in the chests of the guns of the battery, and what the soldiers could carry in their cartridge boxes.
We had quite a number of prisoners, part of whom were regarded as military and part as civilians.
These were all sent to Gen. Buell by railroad in charge of Captain McLaughlin and Lieut. Dunbar.
The civilians were mostly residents of the vicinity whom I had caused to be arrested from time to time for acting as spies, and being in secret communication with the Confederate military authorities, to whom they made known our strength and all our movements.
Some of the prisoners complained bitterly at being sent from their homes and families.
To these Captain Eaton, Provost Marshal, most pertinently replied that their action and that of others like them had taken us from our homes and families, and brought us over a thousand miles and yet, with so much more cause, we did not complain.
CONFEDERATE FORCES CHECKED.
About 8 o’clock A.M. and before the arrival of any trains from Huntsville, I was informed by some of our scouts that there was a force of Confederate cavalry making a demonstration on the Bolivar and Bridgeport road.
I immediately sent out Captain Slayton with Company I, and Captain Simonson with two pieces of artillery to reconnoiter, with directions to check an advance on that road, if any was attempted, and ascertain the number of the forces of the enemy as nearly as possible.
Captains Slayton and Simonson were both on horseback, and were accompanied, besides their command, by some twenty or more mounted men, volunteers, of whom fourteen were of Simonsons’ battery on artillery horses, and the others, except Lieutenant-Colonel Hunton, officers of my regiment.
A short distance outside of our picket line and about one mile east of the town, they saw a force of cavalry in a small grove of woods directly on the road.
Captain Simonson immediately opened fire on them with his two pieces of artillery.
A few shells exploding among them caused their retreat without offering any resistance.
They were immediately pursued by our volunteer cavalry, who, charging at full speed through the woods, found that their hot haste almost precipitated them on to a brigade of Confederate infantry, supported by a battery of artillery and a troop of cavalry, drawn up in order of battle on the open ground and crossing the road.
They were in such close proximity that our volunteers were in imminent danger of being surrounded and their retreat cut off; but they promptly took in the situation, and before the enemy had time to act, after seeing how small was the force which was so bravely rushing through the woods, our impromptu cavalry turned, retreated and were saved from capture by the speed of their horses.
They all succeeded in reaching the ground occupied by our artillery, which again opened fire on the advancing foe, and checked the pursuit.
All this was immediately reported to me, and I dispatched another company of infantry, with orders to hold the position as long as possible, to advise me if more support was necessary, and I would send it to them at once.
The road on which they were stationed and defending was that leading directly to the depot, and if the Confederates succeeded in advancing upon it they would prevent the transfer of trains from Huntsville to the Nashville railroad.
After a lively cannonade of an hour the enemy ceased firing, drew off their forces to the left or south, and we had accomplished our object in forcing them to take a position, in making any further attack upon us, most favorable for the accomplishment of the objects we had in view.
THE CONFEDERATES ATTACK THE FORT AT STEVENSON.
The Confederates now approached the fort from the southwest, planting their battery and displaying their forces in the cleared field in that direction, opened quite a lively fire with their artillery on both the fort, and the town.
The two companies of infantry, and two pieces of artillery, were now ordered to return, and placed inside the fort.
They had acted with great gallantry, and rendered service of the utmost value by the tenacity with which they held their position in the face of a force so greatly superior.
They had caused the enemy to abandon the direct road to Stevenson, and swerve to the left or south, thereby not only preserving our railroad connections from immediate danger, but also protecting our line of retreat, which would have been greatly endangered, if not cut off, had the Confederates made good their advance directly upon the town, which, with the number and composition of their forces, they ought to and might have done.
The commander of the enemy did not bring his forces within range of our muskets, but Captain Simonson kept up a continuous fire on them from his battery in the fort with good effect.
They changed the position of their battery several times, and there was at intervals a good deal of confusion apparent in their ranks.
This artillery engagement was general and active from ten A.M. until about four P.M., without any loss on our side, as their balls and shells generally passed over the fort.
They had our range correctly, but did not well calculate the distance.
I do not know what loss the enemy suffered from the guns of Captain Simonson, but judge it must have been quite considerable, or they would not have been so wary or so dilatory in their movements.
The manner in which the Confederate gunners handled their artillery reflected anything but credit upon them, as it would hardly seem possible for a full battery to pound away steadily for six hours and inflict so little damage as we suffered.
There was not one man killed or wounded, no gun dismounted, and our stockades and other fortifications were not injured.
Some damage was done to several houses in Stevenson, into which they threw a portion of their shells, probably with the intention of destroying our railroad communications, but they failed in this, and “nobody was hurt.”
Soon after three o’clock the trains came in on the railroad from Huntsville with the Tenth Wisconsin Infantry, some refugees and others fleeing to the North.
EVACUATION OP STEVENSON.
I now sent a telegram to Brigadier General Soay Smith, giving him the state of affairs and telling him that I had no doubt of my ability to hold the place against the force operating against me, if such was the wish of General Buell.
The following telegram (No. 22) :
“Dechard, August 31, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Withdraw in good order, keep your artillery in advance preceded by skirmishers.
Use your artillery whenever you can, if the enemy pursues.
No cavalry has been sent.
“WM. S. SMITH,
“Brigadier-General.”
In obedience to this order I now commenced to withdraw from the fort and town.
The trains on the railroad, four of them, after those from Huntsville were transferred to the Nashville railroad, were sent off with all the remaining stores, baggage, caissons, the convalescent and weak men – all those not able to make a forced march.
The latter were placed in charge of Dr. Foster Pratt, Assistant Surgeon, who went with them to Nashville, Surgeon Alexander Ewing remaining with me.
On the retreat, the Tenth Wisconsin took the advance, the place of safety, and the easiest on the march, and kept it until we rejoined the rest of our forces at Tallahoma, although at Tantallan it should have taken the rear.
This Col. Chapin declined to do, claiming priority of rank and the right to do as he pleased; and from that point to Tallahoma he pressed his regiment through without paying the slightest attention to those in his rear.
He acted as if very apprehensive of an attack, and as desirous of avoiding one if made.
His course in dividing the command would have placed the artillery and my regiment at great disadvantage if we had been attacked in crossing the mountain between Cowan and Tallahoma.
I was so indignant at his conduct that I thought seriously of preferring charges against him.
Next in line of march on the retreat I placed our wagons, all being without loading of any kind.
The artillery came next, and the better to conceal our movements, one gun of the battery was discharged, then taken from its position in the fort and placed in the line of march, when another was discharged and treated in the same manner, and in this way the fire on the Confederates was kept up until everything was in readiness for the march, when the last gun was fired, taken from the fort, and the march began about 5 o’clock P. M., the 13th Regiment, Michigan V. I., bringing up the rear and being the last regiment of Gen. Buell’s army to leave Alabama.
In the meanwhile the enemy had not ventured within musket shot, and had been easily kept in check by our artillery.
RETREAT FROM STEVENSON, ALABAMA.
Had the Confederate force which made this feeble attack upon Stevenson, instead of so doing, occupied the railroad at any point between that place and Tantallan, it would have placed us in a very critical position, being as we were, in a hostile country, and it is doubtful if we could have forced our way through, as it would have involved the necessity of our attacking them in a position of their own selection, for we could only cross the mountains by a certain road, and to have reached this we would have to fight with superior numbers with the advantages all in their favor.
The Confederates could also, by tearing up a portion of the track of the railroad, have captured at least four trains of cars loaded with valuable stores, which left Stevenson not more than two hours before we marched out of the fort.
Instead, however, of opposing our retreat, the Confederates by their action appeared to be desirous to facilitate our departure from the country.
The road from Stevenson, north, runs around the foot of a high mountain in the immediate vicinity of the town.
Soon after we had passed around the end of this mountain the cavalry of the enemy appeared in force in our rear in pursuit.
In order to check any further attempt to molest our retreat I determined to give them a reception so warm that it would probably free us from further molestation.
I accordingly placed Company B in ambush on the side of the mountain, among the bushes, a few rods from the road, with orders to wait until the rear rank of the enemy was opposite them, and then open on them with a fire as rapid and fatal as possible.
I also ordered Captain Slayton, who commanded the rear guard to attack them as soon as the company in ambush should commence to fire, and informed him that he would be supported by my entire command if necessary.
As the Confederates advanced, and before they were fully abreast of Company B, one of the men fired without orders, and prematurely, which was followed by a volley from the whole company, when a number of the enemy, reported at eleven, were seen to fall from their saddles, and their entire force, estimated at two hundred, wheeled about, and retreated with the utmost precipitation.
We were no more troubled by them, or their support, and saw no other Confederate force under arms on our retreat to Tallahoma, Murfreesboro, and Nashville.
We destroyed the first bridge we crossed and continued our march until about three o’clock A. M., when we reached Anderson’s Station, on the railroad, where we bivouacked with the other forces.
In this skirmish at Stevenson we succeeded by skillful management, rather than by hard fighting, in accomplishing all we desired; for notwithstanding the attack of a large force, estimated at four times our numbers, we held them at bay for nine hours, during which time there was a heavy and continuous cannonade, and finally retreated from the fort and town, after the transfer and dispatch of all the railroad trains, without the loss of a man, animal, wagon, or any of the large amount of commissary stores which had been entrusted to my charge while in command at Stevenson.
On the march to Anderson Station we lost a four-horse ambulance, which, the night being intensely dark, got out of the road, and rolled down the mountain, on the steep side of which we were marching.
From this, the nature of the road on which we were making our retreat may be judged.
We were accompanied on our march from Stevenson by the entire negro force which had been working for us on and about the fortifications, and by all others who had come into the town while occupied by our forces.
There were among them as many women and children as men, and some of the most unpleasant scenes of the war were in witnessing the painful but determined efforts and struggles of some very old negroes, or of some mother with a whole brood of children, to keep with us on the march, and avail themselves of the protection of our troops, hoping thereby to attain their freedom.
How fruitless were their sufferings will presently appear.
There must have been with us at this time more, than one thousand negroes, of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
Anderson’s Station, and on the march.
Sept. 1.
In the morning at Anderson’s Station we found that the engine of the last train had run off the track the previous evening, and was still in that condition, thereby blocking two trains, and rendering them liable to capture.
The want of proper tools made the task of replacing the engine on the track a difficult one.
The 10th Wisconsin were immediately at work at it, and continued their efforts without success until noon.
I then proposed to have Lieut. Col. Hunton with his Mechanics and Engineers take sole charge of it.
This was done, and they soon had the engine on the rails, and about two o’clock P. M. both trains started for Nashville.
In the morning, when I found that we were to be detained for some time.
I ordered Captain Slayton to march towards Stevenson and reconnoiter, to see if any force was following us.
On his return at noon Captain Slayton reported having seen some troops advancing, who on seeing his company moving towards them, turned and retreated rapidly.
While at Anderson’s Station I received the following telegram;
(No. 23):
“Dechard, 1st Sept., 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Hurry your march with all diligence, night and day.
Bring everything with you if possible.
“W. S. SMITH,
“Brig. Gen.”
As soon as the trains on the railroad moved off we resumed our march, and proceeded about twelve miles to Tantallan, at the foot of the Cumberland Mountains, near the southern end of the tunnel on the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad, where we bivouacked.
Here one of my legs that was injured by being pressed between my horse and that of another officer, but neither that nor the one injured at Stevenson by the falling of my horse caused me much pain or inconvenience until after this time.
CROSSING CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS.
On the morning of the 2nd of September we commenced our march up the Cumberland Mountains, with six pieces of artillery and all our transportation (wagons and ambulances), over a road which, as we were told, had not been traversed by a wagon for eight years, or since the completion of the tunnel.
The ascent was steep, and in places not only difficult but perilous for our artillery and wagons, and not at all pleasant for officers on horseback or soldiers on foot.
The soil in the road, what little there had been, was all washed out, and it was not unusual to find a perpendicular rise of two feet in the rock crossing the road, and from this down to a bed of boulders, but after a toilsome march we arrived at the summit without accident or loss of any kind, except the breaking of the tongue of one of our wagons, and the loss of time in replacing it with a sapling cut by the roadside, by which we saved the wagon.
We found this wagon to be back in great service before morning.
At the summit we struck a traveled road, and the descent was made with comparative ease.
The distance is about ten miles, and we arrived at Cowan, at the foot of the mountains on the north side, at 2 P.M.
In crossing the mountain the line of march of the command became very much stretched out or lengthened, as all will understand who have ever marched any distance with troops; every obstruction, detention, or halt serving to throw the rear command still further behind.
My regiment brought up the rear, and as the 10th Wisconsin and Simonson’s battery did not halt for the whole command to close up, as they should have done, either at the brow or foot of the mountains, or at Dechard, we were left a long way behind.
When we reached Cowan, both the 10th Wisconsin and Simonson’s battery were out of sight.
I sent an orderly forward to them, requesting them to halt, and wait until we could close up, but they returned for answer that Gen. Smith had left Dechard, and given orders for them to march without delay, day and night, until they joined him, and that they should not wait for us, Captain Simonson adding that “self-preservation was the first law of nature.”
I was satisfied that they were unnecessarily alarmed, and if they were justified in fearing an attack, I was indignant at their pusillanimity in thus dividing the forces, and abandoning my regiment.
I did not believe there was any danger, but I knew that if the Confederates should place any force on our line of march it would be much safer for our forces to remain united than to march a detachment at a time, and that too, with the battery entirely unsupported and unprotected, except by the few men attached to it.
Judging from their hot haste it would appear that they were badly scared, if not panic struck, and that without cause; for we had seen no force of the enemy since the day we left Stevenson, and there was no evidence of any being in our vicinity.
My regiment, officers and men, were free in expressing their indignation at what they considered an unmanly desertion, and had I complied with their wishes I would have brought the conduct of Col. Chapin and Captain Simonson to the notice of Gen. Buell, but I gave it no further attention.
NIGHT MARCH FROM COWAN TO TALLAHOMA.
At Cowan I determined to halt, and refresh my men, and put them in better order for whatever we had to encounter, but I was fully satisfied in my own mind that it was nothing more than a long and fatiguing march.
I now ordered my wagons, which were in advance, to halt and wait until we joined them, which we did about two miles south of Dechard, in a pleasant grove, where we remained until our men were all in, and had partaken of such rations as we could command.
When we were ready to resume the march, I placed a wagon in charge of the captain of each company with orders that as the men became too weary to march they were to be placed in the wagons to ride, but that all such were to resume the march again as soon as sufficiently rested, so as to allow others to take their places in the wagons, and charged them to see to it that this was done in such manner that none should be left behind who should be unable to keep with their command on the march.
Many of the officers were quite active in impressing, and appropriating to the service of the government, all the horses, mules, and jacks on the route, so that when we arrived at Tullahoma most of them were mounted.
After completing my arrangements and giving my men a good rest, we started, and were enabled to continue our march to Tullahoma without making another halt.
I not only brought in all my own men, but also picked up a number of the 10th Wisconsin that had dropped out of their line from fatigue.
TULLAHOMA, MURFREESRORO, NASHVILLE.
We reached Tullahoma after midnight, having marched from Tantallan in twenty hours, a distance of thirty-six miles, which included the crossing of the Cumberland Mountains; of itself a full and most difficult day’s march.
At Tullahoma I found Brig. Gen. Wm. Soay Smith with his division, to whom I immediately reported my arrival.
He said he had given us up as captured, and expressed himself as being greatly pleased with my conduct and management, by which I had not only saved my own command but also all of the valuable property at Stevenson, which had been in store for the army.
The first words of Gen. Smith on my entering his quarters were, “My God! Shoemaker, is that you?
I never expected to see you again; I feared you and your regiment had been captured.”
The effect of this march was important, if not serious to me, as the long continuance on horseback, with the injuries my legs had received, the one at Stevenson, and the other at Tantallan, and having now worn my boots without drawing them off for several days and nights, caused my legs to swell so as to fill my large military boots, and they became at the same time painful almost beyond endurance, feeling as though they were being pierced by thousands of needles.
After leaving Gen. Smith, I met Major Fox of the Mechanics and Engineers, who took me to his tent, where I drew my boots for the first time since the 28th of August, and got what rest I could without removing any other portion of my attire.
JUSTICE TO THE THIRTEENTH MICHIGAN V. I.
The action of my command at Stevenson, and in rejoining the army, did not attract the attention it deserved, or otherwise would have done, from the fact that we were in the rear of the retreating army of Gen. Buell, and was unknown except to our superior officers, to whom we made our official reports.
Gen. Buell gave us full credit for our good conduct, but he was soon after removed from the command of the Army of the Cumberland, so that he had no opportunity to do us justice.
The retreat of Gen. Buell, and the advance of Gen. Bragg, endangering as it did, our supremacy in Tennessee and Kentucky, absorbed the interest of the public, and caused all minor actions to be overlooked, when not in the immediate front, and where no special effort was made to bring them before the public.
The number, frequency, and matter of the telegrams sent me by Gen. Buell, prove not only the importance of our position, but also the service we rendered in holding the town and fort until all the trains, persons, and property were removed.
We were left at Stevenson not only to secure the property and railroad connection, but also to mask his movements with the main army, and continued there until we were looked upon as a sort of forlorn hope.
That we did not share the usual fate of one was simply because we met circumstances as they arose with a determination to maintain ourselves wherever we were until we could get out without loss.
We continued with Gen. Smith and left Tullahoma the following morning, the 3rd of September.
THE NEGROES ABANDONED.
In leaving Tullahoma, all the negroes were, by command of Gen. Smith, turned outside our lines, and refused the further protection of our army.
This action of Gen. Smith I thought as unjust as it was unnecessary; for they asked for no help, but simply to march under our protection.
Many of them had done us good service at Stevenson; they relied, as they had good reason to do, upon us to give them a chance for freedom and liberty, and I was very sorry to see them deprived of it; but I do not know that Gen. Smith should be held responsible for this action, as he was simply carrying out the policy of Gen. Buell (his commander), while in command of the Army of the Cumberland.
Gen. Buell not only refused to protect fugitive slaves, but frequently ordered the camp to be searched for them for delivery to their owners.
I think Gen. Buell was one of our most able military commanders, but he either failed to understand the magnitude of the contest, or else was too much in sympathy with the Confederates.
Whatever the cause, he was too much of a “tender-foot” for the occasion and the times, and was very properly relieved of all command in the Federal armies.
Had all the commanders of all of our armies been allowed to treat the slaves as General Fremont proposed to do in Missouri, and the southwest, the rebellion would have been crushed in a year, and hundreds of thousands of lives, and an untold amount of suffering saved on both sides.
If the slaves coming to our lines, or rendering us service, had been protected, and advanced their freedom, the good result would soon have been apparent in such an exodus, and demonstration in our favor, as would have rendered the Confederacy powerless for resistance.
By turning them from our lines we taught them to mistrust us, and this induced them to remain contented on the plantations when almost the entire white male population of the south was in the armies of the Confederacy.
When finally we did offer them their freedom, which early in the war they would have earned for themselves if they had been permitted to do so, they feared to act, as our previous action justified them in doing, and failed to render as efficient service as they would have done had they been treated differently the first years of the war.
Here, with us, were men, women, and children, who had been working faithfully for us at Stevenson, asking nothing but to be allowed to follow us, protected from molestation, and this was mercilessly refused; when to have extended it would have required no action on our part.
All that was necessary was to let it be understood that we would not allow them to be seized and carried away.
These people were in a more pitiable condition than they would have been had they rendered us no service, for they would now be more cruelly treated by their masters or others who seized them than they would have been had they not been laboring for us at Stevenson.
THE MARCH RESUMED.—NASHVILLE.
After leaving Tullahoma on the morning of the 3d of September, we marched until 1 o’clock A.M. on the 4th, when we halted for two hours for rations and rest; then resuming our march and continuing until 2 o’clock A.M. on the 5th, when we reached Murfreesboro, where we joined another part of the army.
Here we were allowed to rest until noon, when the army was again put in motion on the line of march for Nashville, where we arrived on Saturday, the 6th of September, 1862, at two A. M.
I now, with my regiment, joined the division of Gen. Wood, from which we separated at Mooresville, Alabama, on the 18th of July.
I made a brief report in writing of our action at Stevenson, and sent it to Gen. Buell, as I was then acting directly under his command.
As an evidence of the incessant manner in which we were occupied, and of the fatigue we underwent, I would state that up to the time of our arrival at Nashville I had not once taken off my clothes since the Thursday of the week previous; that is, from the 28th of August to the 5th of September, and every night after Sunday, the day we left Stevenson, for the few hours’ rest we could take we lay down wherever we bivouacked, without tents or covering of any kind.
Most of the time we were without provisions, and we supplied ourselves in such manner as we best could.
After leaving Tantallan my legs commenced swelling, and every day would swell until they filled my large military boots so that it was difficult to draw them; and an impression made in the swelling, as a dent with the finger, would remain for an hour or more.
The swelling would subside when I was in a recumbent position, but as soon as I mounted my horse would again commence, and was always accompanied with a prickling sensation over the entire surface, which made the pain almost intolerable; but from which on this march there was no escape, and no opportunity to apply any remedy.
I have never suffered as much, physically, as during the march from Tantallan to Nashville.
Surgeon Ewing expressed himself as quite apprehensive of the effect of the condition of my limbs, and said that if I continued to ride on horseback there was great danger that from dropsy, or erysipelas, my legs would become permanently diseased, and perhaps endanger my life; when, with rest and prompt medical treatment I would soon recover, and be as well as ever.
He insisted on presenting my situation to General Buell and did so in person.
General Buell granted me leave of absence for thirty days, and I left Nashville Sunday night, of the day of my arrival, by stage for Franklin, Kentucky, for home; which, however, I was only destined to reach after a series of adventures and by way of Richmond, Virginia, and Libby Prison.
Near Tyree Springs the stage was surrounded by guerrillas, I was captured and taken to the headquarters of Generals Bragg, and Hardee, near Carthage, on the Cumberland River, from there to Knoxville, Richmond, and home after a short sojourn in Libby Prison.
Categories: Andersonville, Civil War, Confederate, Michigan, Uncategorized, Union | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

PATRICK SINCLAIR; BUILDER OF FORT MACKINAC – BY WILLIAM L. JENKS in 1915


By far the most conspicuous object in the Island of Mackinac is the old fort which overhangs so protectingly the village below.

The thick stone and earth walls, the three old block houses, built, according to the cards upon the doors, in 1780, the old buildings within the enclosure, all force the attention of the visitor, resident or tourist, to the age of the structure, but to few is known even the name, much less anything of the career of its creator.

In the extreme northeast of Scotland lies the shire or county of Caithness; a large part of it low and boggy, it rises toward the south and west, and contains but three streams of any size, the Wickwater and the Forss and Thurso Rivers.

Most of the coast line is rocky and forbidding and good harbors are few.

Near the northeast corner is John O’Groat’s house, and south of that along the East Coast is a large bay called Sinclair’s Bay.

For several centuries the name Sinclair or St. Clair-they are in reality the same, the latter being nearer to the original Norman form-has been the leading one in Caithness; the first earl of Caithness, created in 1455, being Sir William Sinclair.

From this shire, forbidding in its natural aspects, but like so many other places in Scotland, furnishing an abundant supply of young, energetic, capable and courageous men, came Patrick Sinclair, the subject of this sketch, of interest to Michigan, not alone because of his connection with Mackinac, but because he was the first man to establish a permanent foothold in the way of occupation, erecting buildings and cultivating land along St. Clair River.

Patrick_Sinclair

This noble river should today bear the name of Sinclair as it did for many years a century ago.

The present name is derived from Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Territory, the original name passing gradually through forgetfulness of the one and growing importance of the other to its present form.

It is a curious fact that both Arthur St. Clair and Patrick Sinclair were born in the same year in the county of Caithness, within twenty-five miles of each other, and they were undoubtedly distantly related.

Whatever the cause, temperament, roving disposition, hard and forbidding material conditions at home, certain it is that Scotchmen have proved through centuries the mainstay of British enterprise and glory in foreign lands, and Scotch soldiers and explorers have done much to extend England’s domains.

Patrick Sinclair mas born in 1736 at Lybster, a small hamlet on the east coast of Caithness about 11 miles southeast of Wick, the chief town of the County, and was the half son and oldest of four children of Alexander who had married a connection in the person of Amelia Sinclair, the daughter of another Alexander Sinclair.

His father was the fourth Sinclair of Lybster and the name Patrick was common in the family, his grandfather bearing it, and his great grandmother was the daughter of Patrick Sinclair of Ulbster.

We have no knowledge of his youthful education but it must have been considerable as his papers and correspondence evince facility in expression, clear ideas and a good command of language,

In July, 1758, Patrick Sinclair purchased a commission as ensign – practically equivalent to 2nd Lieutenant, a grade not then existing in the famous 42nd Highlanders, or Black Watch Regiment, but he may have had some previous service in some capacity as in a letter to Gen. Haldimand in August, 1779, he refers to his 25 years’ service in the army, which if not a rhetorical exaggeration would imply that he had entered the service in 1761.

At any rate he soon saw active service, as his regiment was sent to the West

Indies in 1759, and he participated in January of that year in the attack and capture of Guadeloupe.

Not long after with his regiment he went to New York and then to Oswego where they spent several months.

In July, 1760 he was promoted to lieutenant and in August his regiment joined the army which under the leadership of General Amherst invaded Canada and captured Montreal.

Later it went to Staten Island, and in October, 1761, shortly before his regiment left for the West Indies he exchanged into the 15th Regiment of Foot.

The reason for this exchange is not evident as the 15th Foot went to the West Indies the same Fall and in August, 1763 came back to New York and then to Canada.

One Company however of the 15th Regiment remained in America and it is possible that this was Sinclair’s Company, as there is some evidence that he was at Quebec for a year from October, 1761, then for a time at New York, and again at Quebec.

For a part of the time at least he was in Capt. Robert Stobo’s Company.

In the Fall 1763 or the Spring of 1764 Sinclair must have been transferred to or connected with the Naval Department of the Lakes, as in a petition to the Earl of Hillsborough in 1769, he states that he “hath servedhis Majesty near six years last past on the Great Lakes in North America where he had the honor to command his Majesty’s vessels on the Lakes Erie, Sinclair, Huron and Michigan,” and the inscription on a silver bowl presented to him by the merchants of Detroit in 1767 refers to him as Captain Sinclair of the Naval Department.

The 15th Regiment of Foot was stationed at various posts in Canada, but no part of it as far west as Detroit, which was garrisoned mainly from the 60th Regiment during the entire period Sinclair mas in charge (as he says), of the navigation on the lakes,’ his’ headquarters, however, being Detroit.

Sinclair’s duties were general but important; to maintain and provision the boats, see to their arming and protection against the Indians, who were numerous, and, for some time after 1763, largely hostile to the English, and so dispose the shipping as to serve best the interest not only of the various garrisons, but also of the Indian traders and the merchants, who of necessity depended upon these boats for the bringing in of their goods and the carrying out of their furs.

The boats then in use consisted of canoes, batteaux, snows, sloops and schooners.

The canoe was the famed birch bark canoe noted for its carrying capacity in proportion to its weight and admirably adapted to the carriage of persons but not freight.

The batteau was a light boat worked with oars, long in proportion to its breadth and wider in the middle than at the ends.

It was well adapted for carrying freight, and for some years after the English obtained possession of the lakes it was extensively used between the posts in transporting both freight and passengers.

Of necessity the shore was closely followed both with batteau and canoe.

The snow was a type of vessel long since gone out of existence, with two ordinary masts and rigged much like a brig, but having in addition a small mast near the main mast to which the trysail was attached.

All the sailing vessels were of small burden.

The schooner “Gladwin,” famous for her successful attempt in bringing aid to the besieged Detroit garrison was of 80 tons burden.

Up to 1780 the largest boat on the lakes was the brig Gage of 154 tons, built in 1774.

In the same petition referred to above Sinclair states that he is the only person on the lakes who has ever explored the navigation of the lakes for vessels of burden “by taking exact soundings of them and the rivers and Straits which join them with the bearings of the headlands, islands, bays, etc., etc.”

The beginning of the siege of Detroit by Pontiac was signalized by the murder by the Indians on May 7th, 1763, of Captain Robertson, Sir Robert Davers, six soldiers and a boat’s crew of two sailors while engaged in taking soundings near the mouth of the “River Huron” as the account states it, now called St. Clair River, to seeif the lakes and rivers were navigable for a schooner then lying at Detroit on her way to Mackinac.

As a means of facilitating his duties, especially in regard to the communications between Detroit and the upper lakes, Sinclair erected, in 1764, a small fort just south of the mouth of Pine River in St. Clair County, the buildings comprising two barracks, one for sailors and one for soldiers, two block houses for cannon and small arms, and a wharf for drawing out and careening vessels, all enclosed within a stockade.

This post, about midway between lakes Huron and St. Clair, enabled him to control the river as regards the Indians, and also furnished a place for trade with them.

This establishment was ordered and approved by Colonel Bradstreet who was in Detroit in August, 1764.

During the season of 1764 Sinclair had under his command the schooner “Gladwin” which had brought relief to the beleaguered garrison at Detroit in the siege of Pontiac, and at the close of that season’s navigation he put her in winter quarters at Pine River.

In connection with his duties while stationed on the Lakes he made a trip of exploration down in the Indiana Country along the Wabash River, thus acquiring considerable knowledge of the French settlements in that vicinity.

Sinclair seems on the whole to have got along with the Indians very satisfactorily, and to have obtained their respect and liking and to have established a widespread reputation to that effect.

He was not entirely free from troubles however, as in 1767 the Chippewas, or Mississaguas, murdered a servant of his near the foot of Lake Huron.

The murderers were apprehended and sent to Albany for trial but were finally released to his indignation.

In 1767 the system of operating boats on the Lakes was changed and delivered over to private contractors, and Sinclair’s duties and official position terminated but it required some time to close out his matters, and when in the early summer of 1768 his regiment returned to England he remained upon the Lakes, and did not return to England until the spring of the following year.

That his conduct of affairs while in charge was acceptable to the class with whom he came most in contact outside of his government relations is proved by the presentation to him in 1767 of a silver bowl-still preserved in the family-with the following inscription engraved upon it:

“In remembrance of the encouragement experienced upon all occasions by the merchants in the Indian countries from Capt. Patrick Sinclair of the Naval Department, not as a reward for his services, but a public testimony of their gratitude this is presented instead of a more adequate acknowledgment which his disinterested disposition renders impracticable.

Dated the 23rd September, 1767.”

The merchants of Mackinac also gave him a testimonial.

Sinclair had erected the buildings and made the improvements at his fort mainly at his own expense, and in March, 1769, he applied to Gen. Gage, then commanding the British forces in America., to be reimbursed for his outlay £200, but Gage replied that the Government had not directed the construction and therefore Sinclair could do with the improvements what he saw fit.

Proposed_outline_of_Fort_Mackinac

 

Perhaps in anticipation of such result and as a measure of self-protection

Sinclair had obtained from the Indians a deed to a tract of land upon the St. Clair River, 2 ½ miles along the river by the same in depth to include his improvements. This deed was dated July 27th, 1768, and was signed by Massigiash and Ottawa, chiefs of the Chippewa Nation, in the presence of 15 Indians of that Nation and of George Turnbull, Captain of the Second Battalion of the 60th Regiment, George Archbold, Lieutenant, and ensigns Robert Johnson and John Amiel of the same Regiment, also of John Lewis Gage,Ensign of the 31st Regiment, and Lieut. John Hay of the 60th Regiment, Commissary of Indian affairs.

 

In the deed the land is described as being “on the Northwest side of the River Huron, between Lake Huron and Lake Sinclair, being one mile above the mouth of a small river commonly called Pine River and ending one mile and a half below the mouth of said Pine River.”

The consideration stated is “the love and regard we bear for our friend Lieut. Patrick Sinclair and for the love and esteem the whole of our said nation has for him for the many charitable acts he has done us, our wives and children.”

The King of England in his proclamation of October 3rd. 1763, establishing the province of Quebec, had expressly prohibited the obtaining of deeds from the Indians except under special license, and through certain officials.Site_of_Fort_MichiliMackinac_on_Mainland

This deed, therefore, although executed with considerable formality, and in the presence of the highest British Officials in the vicinity, did not operate to convey any legal title and this was recognized by Sinclair himself in 1774, in a petition to the government to be reimbursed for his expenditures on the property.

The property thug obtained was of sufficient size and quality to entitle him to consideration among the land owners of his native home, and he improved it by clearing, by setting out an orchard on the north side of Pine River, and by additional buildings.

It included a considerable body of pine and it is a curious fact that this marked on the East side of Michigan the Southern line of the great pine section of the Lower Peninsula.

During the period of his station at Detroit, Sinclair used the fort, buildings and pinery, but it is not known who looked after it during his absence from this locality after leaving in 1769 until 1759 when he arrived at Mackinac, but in 1780 Francis Bellecour, the British Indian Agent at Detroit, mas in charge.

He evidently was not giving satisfaction to the Indians in the vicinity, as in July of that year Maskeash, one of the Chiefs who signed the deed, with his wife and ten other Indians from along St. Clair River, went up on one of the government vessels, commanded by Alex Harrow, to Fort Mackinac to ask that Baptiste Point de (or du) Sable, be appointed to take cliai.ge of the property in place of Bellecour. DeSable mas a free mulatto who had traded with the Indians at the lower end of Lake Michigan, and, as he was friendly to the Americans, had been captured in 1779 by a British force from Fort Mackinac on the ground of his being a sympathizer with the American Rebels, and taken to Mackinac and detained.

By his conduct after his capture he commended himself to his captors and to Sinclair, then Lieutenant Governor, and as a result he was released and sent down to look after this property and trade with the Indians.

He appears to have remained there more or less continuously until 1784 when his effects were taken to Detroit and he returned to Illinois and continued at Peoria and Chicago until his death in 1811.

Although not in chronological order the subsequent history of this tract may be here narrated.

Sketch_of_Fort_Mackinac

In 1783 Lieutenant Governor Sinclair was living on the Isle of Orleans awaiting a decision upon the allowance of his accounts.

A young man by the name of Nicholas Boilvin who was a native of the Parish of St. Nicholas near Quebec. decided to try his fortunes in the far west, and April 5th., 1783, Sinclair gave to him a power of attorney to take charge of 1iis.farm on Pine River, his “stock, houses, barns, orchards, gardens, timber and every other article thereto appertaining.”

The same instrument recommended Boilvin to the protection of the officers at Detroit, so that all other persons might be prevented from cutting timber or trading near the post to Boilvin’s detriment.

Boilvin, on reaching Detroit, decided to go still farther west and September 20th, 1783, he assigned his power of attorney to David Ross and shortly after went to St. Louis.

He there became an Indian agent of the United States, but later removed to Prairie du Chien, where he mas for many years a person of some consequence.

In 1788, Sinclair’s rights were sold at auction and bought by Meldrum & Park, a firm of merchants and Indian traders of Detroit who went into possession of the property, made improvements and erected two saw mills and a grist mill.

In 1795, as the Indian deed to Sinclair had never been registered, but taken by him to England. finally finding its way to the Public Record office in London, Meldrum & Park obtained another deed from twenty-six Chippewa Chiefs, purporting to be in confirmation of the former deed to Sinclair; but the new deed conveyed a tract ten miles along St. Clair River by four miles in depth or about six times as much land.

This seems to have been in accordance with the usual way of honesty and fairness with which the white men treated the Indian.

This deed was not recognized by the United States as a conveyance of title, but the possessions taken under it enabled Meldrum & Park and their grantees to obtain patents from the United States, in 1810, to nearly five thousand acres.

In 1768 or 1769 Sinclair petitioned the Earl of Hillsborough, then Secretary for the Colonies, for the appointment of Superintendent of Navigation upon the Lakes, pointing out his experience, his successful services and the great need of such an official to protect the interests of the government, but the petition was refused, much to Sinclair’s disappointment.

It is not known exactly when he returned to England and his regiment, but it was sometime in the spring of 1769 and he was engaged in recruiting for upwards of a year.

In May 1771 he applied to the Earl of Hillsborough for the grant of a house at Detroit belonging to the Crown in lieu of his buildings at Pine River.

The matter as referred to General Gage, then at New York, who promised to look into the matter and see if that could be done without injury but apparently the inquiry was never made and nothing came of the petition.

He was promoted to Captain April 13, 1772, and the next year retired with the provision that he would not lose his rank if he rejoined the army.

Upon his retirement Sinclair returned to his ancestral home at Lybster, but time moved slowly there to a man accustomed for years to the wilderness and freedom of the Great Lakes in America and to the power and influence which Sinclair had been wont to exercise and directly upon his retirement he began exerting influence to get back to this country.

On June 1st, 1773, Sir Charles Thompson who had been for seven years the Colonel of the 15th Regiment, and who was an intimate personal friend of the King, wrote Lord Dartmouth in his behalf, recommending him as a proper person for appointment in Pennsylvania, the Jerseys, New York and the New England Provinces, but nothing came of it.

The government had never recognized his title to his land in America, nor had it ever repaid his outlays upon it, and in December, 1774, he applied for payment not only of these charges, but also for £56 which he paid to the Indians in redemption of white captives.

In the same account he includes £27 for his expenses caused by his being detained in the west when his regiment was sent to Europe and £70 for two servants killed by the Indians.

In February, 1775, his same kind and influential friend wrote again to Lord Dartmouth recommending Captain Sinclair for employment in Canada.

This time the fates were propitious and prompt, as on April 7th, 1775, he was commissioned by King George III, as Lieutenant Governor and Superintendent of the Post of Missillimakinac.

By the Proclamation of 1763 the Province of Quebec was established with such boundaries that practically all the Great Lake region lay outside, and therefore without any established form of government, which remained essentially military, without courts or ordinary civil officers.

The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament and effective in October, 1774, greatly extended the limits of the Province so as to reach the Ohio on the South and the Mississippi on the west.

By this Act a form of government by Governor and Council was provided and the old French laws recognized.

Although the Act itself made no reference to or provision for the western posts, the King in April, 1775, recognized four western districts or posts, and appointed as many Lieutenant Governors or Superintendents, one each to the posts of Detroit, Missillimakinac, St. Vincennes, and the Illinois.

These appointees were respectively Henry Hamilton, Patrick Sinclair, Edward Abbott and Matthew Johnson.

There was no attempt made to define the limits of each district, but ordinarily no question could arise over conflict of jurisdiction.

There was in each case a fortified place, which formed the center of operations.

There was, however, a clear distinction between the Post or District, and the fortified place; thus in the case of Sinclair, his seat of operations was Fort Mackinac, while his post was Missillimakinac and extended to cover the territory of all the Indians who were wont to come to that point to trade.

In the commission appointing Sinclair Lieutenant Governor there was no definition of his powers but he was to hold the position with all its “rights, privileges, profits, perquisites and advantages during the King’s pleasure.”

The incumbent, however was required to obey such orders and directions as he might receive from time to time from the Captain General and Commander in Chief of Quebec.

As there was no statute or general regulation upon the subject, the relation of the Lieutenant Governor, a civil officer, to the military force stationed at his post was indefinite and at Detroit was productive of considerable trouble.

Anxious to arrive at his post of duty promptly, there being no direct shipping from Glasgow to Quebec, Sinclair sailed for Baltimore, where he arrived July 26th, 1775, and at New York August 1st.

His purpose then was to go up the Hudson to Albany, thence to Oswego, and from there by boat to Quebec, and he made all preparation to leave New York August 4th, but on that day the Provincial Congress of New York then in session, having learned the previous day of his presence in the city, and of his great influence with the Indians, thought it unwise to permit him to go to his post where he might prejudice his Indian friends against the Colonies, and took him in custody and sent him on parole to Nassau Island in Suffolk County, Long Island, where he remained

until the following March, when upon his application to be permitted to retire to Europe, the Continental Congress granted his petition and he returned to England that summer.

He remained in England about a year and, apparently, found it rather difficult to get passage back to America, as in May, 1777, we find Lord George Germaine, then Secretary of the Colonies, granting Sinclair permission in response to request to come over in the packet Bristol rather than as “an unwelcome guest in a man-of-war.”

He did not reach America until the fall of 1777, this time at Philadelphia where he went with letters to Sir William Howe who advised him that his best plan to reach his post of duty via Quebec was to go by way of the St. Lawrence River the following spring.

Accordingly he spent the winter with Lord Howe and when the English fleet and forces left for England in May, 1778.

Captain Sinclair went as far as Halifax, where he was again compelled to wait until he could obtain transportation to Quebec.

Communications between Halifax and Quebec were infrequent and slow and it was a year later, in June, 1779, that Captain Sinclair arrived at Quebec and was ready to present himself and his commission to the Governor and receive his instructions and proceed to his post, although he had sent a communication to the Governor from Halifax in October of the year before.

At this time Sir Frederick Haldimand was Governor General.

He was of Swiss birth and, after some years’ service in the Prussian army joined the British forces in 1754 and was rapidly promoted.

He was an efficient officer and a good soldier, but his character and training both emphasized the military over the civil power.

On more than one occasion he received severe reprimands from the English government because of actions due to this feeling.

The officer then in command at Fort Mackinac was Maj. Arent Schuyler DePeyster who had been there for five years.

He was a capable officer, quite influential with the Indians and tactful in his intercourse with others.

He was gifted in a literary way, and although of American birth had strong English sympathies, sewing in the English army during the Revolutionary War.

Upon his retirement from the army he went to Dunfries, Scotland, his wife’s native place, where he became a close friend of the Poet Burns.

For some time DePeyster had been desirous of leaving Mackinac, giving as his reasons that his health was poor and that his private affairs at New York where his family had long been established sadly needed his presence but his real reason was the distance of his post from civilization, as no further complaints were heard from him after he was transferred to Detroit.

It is probable that Haldimand and Sinclair had met before.

In 1760 Haldimand, as lieutenant Colonel, accompanied the British force from Oswego to Montreal and Sinclair’s regiment, the 15th Foot, was a part of the force. Although Sinclair arrived in Quebec early in June, 1779, and undoubtedly presented himself promptly with his commission and a letter from Lord Germaine, which stated that, as Lieutenant Governor, he would have command over the military force stationed there, as well as civil authority, the Governor General, who did not relish the idea of Sinclair’s exercising military as well as civil powers at his post, put him off on various pretenses for over a month-in the meantime writing to DePeyster that he intended to delay Sinclair until the ship’s arrival from England in mid-summer, hoping perhaps to receive by then some authority to reduce or negative the instructions in Lord Germaine’s letter.

The ships arrived, but nothing to favor his wishes: he thereupon wrote to England, commenting upon the union of the civil and military authority in one person; but the reply received the following year made plain that the action of the government in this respect was fully considered and not to be altered.

In the meantime Haldimand issued a set of instructions for Sinclair, in which, disobeying the express terms of Lord Germaine’s letter, he authorized Sinclair to act as Commandant only until a senior officer of the garrison stationed there should arrive, and impressed upon him that only such senior officer had power over the troops to be sent beyond garrison limits, and in addition the perquisites attached to the commander of the post were to go to the officer.

Naturally such instructions proved very distasteful to Sinclair who at once addressed a spirited remonstrance to the Governor.

After some vigorous correspondence, in which Sinclair proposed to return to England rather than occupy a position which might be humiliating, the matter was compromised;the instructions were somewhat modified, and it was represented to him that there was in fact no senior officer at the post and an early opportunity would be given to purchase a commission as officer which would entitle him to outrank anyone who would be sent to the garrison.

With these assurances he left Quebec the last of August, 1779, for his post, and arrived at Fort Mackinac October 4th, 1779, probably by way of the Ottawa River, four and one-half years after the date of his commission.

He had crossed the ocean three times and while, until this date, he had not been able to exercise any authority under his commission, he had not neglected one important part of his duty, to draw his annual salary of £200.

Three days after his arrival, Major DePeyster left for Detroit, and Sinclair was free to examine his empire.

The fort was on the mainland on the south side of the strait, and practically in the same condition as it existed in 1763 at the time of its capture by the Indians.

It enclosed about two acres and the ramparts consisted solely of pickets driven into the ground.

It was on the sand and so near the shore that the waves in time of storm dashed over the pickets.

The practiced eye of Captain Sinclair at once noted its insecure condition, its inability to resist any attack but that of small arms, and that it could not afford protection to vessels.

In a letter to Captain Brehm, aide to Governor Haldimand, written four days after his arrival, he suggested the removal of the fort to the Island of Michilimackinac, and pointed out at some length the many advantages which the island possessed in the way of easy construction of a defensible fort, the protection of vessels, and good building material “but for God’s sake be careful in the choice of an engineer and don’t send up one of your paper engineers fond of fine regular polygons.”

In another letter to Brehm a week later, he returned to the subject and urged prompt action.

“It is the most respectable situation I ever saw, besides convenient for the subsistence of a Garrison, the safety of troops, traders and commerce.”

Without waiting for authority from the Governor, which could not be expected to be received until the following spring, Sinclair proceeded to set men at work on the island clearing, making shingles, pickets, etc.

By February he had so much done that he set about moving the French Church over to the Island and persuaded the traders and Canadians (as the French were generally called) that the removal was not only desirable but certain.

In May, 1780, came the consent of the Governor to the change with the information that lie had so much confidence in the Lieutenant Governor’s engineering abilities that no other engineer would be sent.

Sinclair soon found, however that, with the limited means at his command in masons and artificers, it would not be possible to complete the new fort sufficiently to move into it during that season, and he accordingly took all steps to put the mainland fort into the best possible condition to repel attack which he feared might come from the “rebels” – friends and adherents of the United States and their Indian friends.

In the meantime Sinclair had obtained the desired reinstatement, in military rank, so he was properly styled the Commandant (as well as Lieutenant Governor), thus uniting the military and civil powers of the post.

It so happened that Capt. George McDougall of the 84th Regiment, had been for some time anxious to sell out and retire on account of his health, but as he was an active and efficient officer, well-liked by the Indians, the Governor was loath to permit him to go.

However, in the spring of 1780, on the representation of failing health, permission was granted him to sell out and Lieut. Patrick Sinclair became the purchaser and a Captain again in the British Army, his commission being dated from April 1, 1780.

Sinclair received notice of his appointment July 8, and it evidently was a source of much satisfaction to him as he signed his letters for a time “Patrick Sinclair, Capt. 84th Regiment &Lieut. Gov.”

It was not long before an affair justified his insistence with Governor Haldimand upon the propriety and necessity of the provisions in Lord Germaine’s letter. Captain Mompesson of the 8th Reg., then at Detroit, was ordered by Maj. DePeyster to take a part of his company to Mackinac to relieve a company of Grenadiers.

Upon his arrival, Ang. 21st, 1780, he immediately refused to take orders from Sinclair and the next day issued a Regimental order that he expected obedience to his commands from the troops in the garrison.

Both officers wrote at once to the Governor who immediately decided that Captain Sinclair was in the right, that his former rank as Captain in the 15th Regiment had been ‘preserved upon his leaving that regiment, and he therefore clearly outranked Captain Mompesson.

The Governor in his letter to Sinclair about the matter added that he had at length obtained his Majesty’s decision upon the disputed rank of Lieutenant Governors of the post; this decision was, in fact, merely a confirmation of Lord George

Germaine’s letter.

Another episode happened at this time not calculated to soothe a somewhat peppery disposition and one regardful of the dignity and authority of its owner. Capt. Alex Harrow, of the Schooner Welcome, arrived July 29th, 1780, and assumed, as superior in naval command, to give an order to Captain McKay, of the Felicity, which had been plying chiefly between the post and the Island.

(Captain Harrow was a Scotchman who came to the Great Lakes in 1779 as an officer in the naval department and, in 1794, settled in St. Clair County on a large tract of land lying a short distance above Algonac and upon a part of which descendants of his are now living.)

The Lieutenant Governor resented this interference with his own authority and as both men were tenacious of their dignity, it resulted in Harrow being taken from his vessel and imprisoned in the fort.

After confinement of a month or two the authority of Sinclair was confirmed by the Governor, and Harrow, through the good nature of Sinclair, who, though quick to anger, was equally quick to relent, was released and reinstated in command of his vessel.

The command of a post so distant and isolated as that of Mackinac was a severe test of the qualities of promptness, decision, judgment and tact, and an early opportunity displayed Sinclair’s possession of the first two qualities in ample quantity.

After France embraced the cause of the United States she endeavored to get Spain to do the same; but the latter, though aiding the Americans in many ways, including the sale of a large quantity of gunpowder at New Orleans, made no formal declaration of war until May 8, 1779.

Lord Germaine either devised or adopted a plan to drive the Spanish out of Louisiana and on June 17, 1779, wrote General Haldimand, directing him in co-operation with Brigadier General Campbell to attack New Orleans and the other

Spanish posts on the Mississippi River.

Haldimand issued a circular letter to the Governors of all the Western posts giving general instructions.

This letter after passing from Colonel Bolton, at Niagara, to Major DePeyster, at Detroit, was forwarded by the latter Jan. 2, 1780, to Sinclair at Mackinac.

The day after its receipt Sinclair sent a war party to engage the Sioux Indians to proceed down the Mississippi River.

He also ordered Mr. Hesse, a trader, but formerly in the army, to collect a force of Indians and supplies in Wisconsin for the same purpose.

A few days later he dispatched a sergeant with Machiquawish, a noted Indian Chief, and his band.

The combined force made an attack on St. Louis which was only partially successful, and the project, as a whole, was a failure, the result being to leave the district South of Lake Michigan and as far West as the Mississippi River in American control.

Sinclair shows up, however, very favorably in the affair and, if the King had been as well served elsewhere, the result might have been very different.

The removal to the Island fort was made in the summer of 1781, although the fort was not entire1 completed.

When finally completed for occupation it contained four block houses, three of which are still standing; the fourth, which stood near the southeast corner was later removed.

The walls have since been widened and raised, and the roadway from the lower town brought nearer to the face of the hill and parallel to it, and lengthened so as to reduce the grade.

The officers’ quarters within the enclosure stand where they were originally constructed and the guard house, built in 1835, is on the site of the one built by Sinclair.

However, the general plan of the fort remains substantially the same today as when it was originally constructed 134 years ago, except that the North wall toward the West is brought in. thus contracting the enclosure by about one-fourth.

Sinclair proposed to call the new fort “Haldimand” after the Governor, but the latter decided that the fort should be called Fort “Makinac,” and the post should be continued to be called Michilimackinac, thus indicating that the post, meaning the civil jurisdiction, was more extensive than the fort, which included only the garrison limits.

The Governor’s spelling of the name of the fort was never carried out but the name of the post continued as long as the British retained control.

When they left and the Americans took possession, the post, as such, ceased, and both island and fort took the same name, Mackinac.

Sinclair, as a means of propitiating the Indians and securing their approval of removal to the Island, had negotiated with some of the Chiefs for a deed which he finally obtained in May, 1781.

By this deed five Chiefs of the Chippewa nation relinquished to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair, for the behalf and use of the English King, the Island of Michilimackinac, and agreed to preserve in their village a belt of wampum seven feet in length to perpetuate and be a lasting memorial of the transaction.

The consideration was £5,000 New York currency (equal to $12,500 in 1915).

The deed was signed with the totems of the Chiefs, also by Patrick Sinclair, Lt. Governor & Commandant, Captain Mompesson, Lieutenant Brooke and Ensign McDonall, and witnessed by six of the resident traders.

The work of completing the fort went on slowly as the Commandant could not get the necessary workmen.

Major Depeyster at Detroit was not feeling very friendly to Sinclair and when requested to send artificers reported that he could not spare any.

In August, Brigadier General Powell was compelled to peremptorily order him to send up two carpenters.

During the years of the construction of the fort an unusually large number of Indians came to Mackinac from all quarters to receive their annual presents from the British Government.

Sioux, Menominies, Sacs, Foxes, Ottawas and Chippewas, Winebagoes and all other tribes between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, and even beyond, had become accustomed to make an annual pilgrimage to & Michilimackinac to meet the representative of their Great Father across the water and receive in return an outfit which would please their sense of display and enable them to support life until another season.

The coming of the white man and the introduction of strong drink and firearms had completely revolutionized the status of the Indians.

From an independent self-supporting people procuring their spare and difficult livelihood by the exercise of natural talents heightened by ever present necessity, they had become dependent for clothing and the means of obtaining food.

So longer were their own developed weapons sufficient.

They needed guns, powder and shot to kill the animals whose flesh gave them food and whose skins gave the furs the white man coveted and was willing to pay for.

The French had found it advantageous to give the Indians some presents to stimulate and maintain their friendship, but the English found it necessary to give far more.

The French, by their willingness to live the life of the Indians, to intermarry with them, and by their understanding and appreciation of Indian nature, were naturally regarded as their friends, and in the long French and English war the sympathies of the Western Indians were with the former and Pontiac found it easy to obtain the adherence of the most of the tribes.

When the English obtained possession of the western posts they thought it wise to conciliate the Indians by presents, and as time went on the number of Indians who applied for gifts and the extent of their demands increased until it became appalling to the British authorities.

An additional reason why during the period of Governor Sinclair’s station at Mackinac a larger amount of presents was needed than in ordinary times was that, owing to the Revolutionary War, the English feared-and with good reason-that the French were, in the main, friendly to the Americans, and would use their influence with the Indians to turn the latter against the English.

If this should happen all the Western posts would inevitably fall into the hands of the Americans.

The three posts on the lakes to which the Indians resorted in large numbers for supplies were Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac.

One of the articles most in demand was rum and, as an illustration, it appears that there was consumed during the year from June, 1780, to June, 1781, at the three posts, 19,386 gallons of this article euphemistically called “milk” at the Indian pow-wows.

This does not include the large amount used and furnished by the traders.

The nature of other articles sent by the Government as presents can be seen from the return showing that in 1781 there was sent to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair for Indian presents, 991 pairs of blankets, mostly 2% and 3 point, 102 dozen calico shirts, and 50 dozen linen ones, laced hats, feathers, looking glasses, knives, tomahawks, medals, needles and thread, axes, razors, brass and copper kettles, tobacco, powder, shot and guns, and a host of other minor articles.

It happened not infrequently that the supply of goods furnished by the government became low, or was very late in arriving at the post and, as the presents must be made when the Indians were there, the officers at the posts had been in the habit of buying from the traders such articles as they thought to be absolutely necessary.

In consequence they often were compelled to pay high prices.

These purchases as well as all other outlays were met by drafts drawn by the Lieutenant Governor upon the Governor General.

In order to prevent a further continuance of this practice and reduce, if possible. the great and Increasing expenses of the Western posts, on June 22nd, 1781, Governor Haldimand issued orders that the officers at Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac should, on no account whatever, after receipt of the order, purchase liquors or any other articles whatever for the use of the Indians from the trader, and that no circumstances whatever would he admitted a reason for not complying with the order.

Lieutenant Governor Sinclair did not observe this order very closely, evidently believing that this order was only intended for ordinary occasions, and that, as he was on the ground, he was entitled to use his judgment, even if it resulted in violating orders made at a great distance.

During the years 1780, 1781, 1782 the new fort was under construction, and in 1781 Sinclair drew on the Governor General drafts to the amount of £43,000 New York currency, for the engineering works and £65,000 for the Indian Department. This was an increase over the preceding year of £18,000 in the latter and nearly £35,000 in the former, which, however, was probably not unexpected as much more work was done on the new fort in 1781 than in 1780.

In 1782 the Lieutenant Governor drew for immense sums in both departments; in January one draft went forward for over £43,000 to be charged against the fort building, and to this no objection seems to have been made.

On the same day, however, he drew £11,450 on account of Indian expenditures, and when this draft was presented to Haldimand he refused to accept it, and referred the accounts to Mr. Goddard, general storekeeper and inspector of Indian presents, with instructions to charge out all articles he might consider presents to the Indians.

He later requested advice from his Attorney General upon the question whether he could legally pay part of the account, without acknowledging the whole.

Apparently he was advised that he might safely pay part as he did pay over £9,000.

In April Sinclair drew drafts to the amount of £14,500 of which £9,500 was on account of the fort and was paid, and £5,000 for Indian expenditures which was paid in part.

In July he drew for over £60,000 of which £40,000 was for the Indian department and the remainder for the Fort construction, about one-half of these drafts were accepted and the others refused and protested.

Although the Commandant at Detroit was at the same time also drawing heavily-in 1781, £162,000 and in 1782, £66,000 nearly all of which was on Indian account, none of his bills were refused.

In August, 1782, Haldimand alarmed at these enormous expenditures, which were affecting his own standing with the authorities in London, appointed Lieut. Col. Henry Hope, Sir John Johnson.

Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and James S. Goddard, to go to Mackinac and examine into the situation.

They arrived September 15th and found a number of irregularities.

There evidently had been looseness and carelessness in the keeping and checking of accounts, and the instructions of Governor Haldimand had not been followed with regard to the purchase of articles from the traders.

One of the perquisites which had been enjoyed and which though profitable to the Lieut. Governor, was detrimental to the public interests, was the reception by that official of presents from the Indians, generally in the nature of furs which naturally called for increased presents to the Indians, paid for by the Government.

It is apparent, however, that Sinclair’s actions had some justification.

Supplies ordered by him had not been sent, or were damaged in transit, or were so greatly delayed as not to arrive in time for distribution to the Indians, and the Commandant was obliged to choose between disappointing and alienating the Indians, a consequence of much importance until the Revolutionary War was ended – or purchasing goods from the traders.

Most of these drafts which were objected to were drawn in favor of George McBeath to be used by him in the payment of the various traders who had furnished articles.

McBeath had been sent up by Haldimand for the very purpose of taking charge of these expenditures and evidently thought them proper and necessary.

A few days after the arrival of the investigating board, Sinclair turned over the command of the post to Captain Robertson, the next ranking officer of the garrison, and left for Quebec arriving in October.

The fort was not yet entirely completed.

A careful survey made at the time by an engineer indicated the extent of the work done, and estimated that with 100 laborers and the necessary artificers, the fort could be put into a safe condition in about two months.

As nearly $300,000 had then been spent upon its construction without serious objection by the English authorities it may be easily conceived that they regarded the post as of high importance.

November 1st, Sinclair applied to Governor Haldimand for permission to go to Great Britain, which was refused on the ground that he was needed for the examination of his accounts.

He then took up his residence on the Isle of Orleans, awaiting action on this matter, and there he remained until the fall of 1784, when he finally obtained the desired permission and left for England.

In the meantime Haldimand wrote in October, 1782, to the English Treasury stating what he had done and that he would investigate and report.

In November, he followed this by an explanation of his reasons, which were in the main, that Sinclair had acted contrary to the order of June, 1781, in buying Indian presents from the traders.

He also promised to have the matter carefully looked into.

A year went by without any action whatever and in October, 1783, Haldimand wrote the Treasury that he was waiting with great impatience for instructions.

To this the Lords of the Treasury replied that he had failed to give them the information which he had promised, and which they needed before giving full instructions.

In January, 1784, the Treasury received remonstrances from the merchants whose bills were unpaid, and they wrote Haldimand that such parts of the bills as represented articles furnished and labor performed should be paid for at the usual rates.

In July, 1784, Haldimand wrote that he had offered £22,000 upon bills drawn for £57,000, and that his offer had been refused and he had been threatened with prosecution by the claimants.

In the meantime Sinclair was eating out his heart on the Isle of Orleans.

Prevented from going to England and meeting his family and friends, feeling the hostility of the Governor General, receiving the frequent importunities of the unfortunate traders who had parted with their goods, but had not received their money.

It is not to be wondered at that he fell into a state of deep and settled melancholy, and that even to his best friends his faculties began to seem impaired.

Representations were made to the Governor General and in August, 1784, he was allowed to return to England in company with Captain Erskine Hope and his wife, who was a connection of Sinclair.

The trip and his surroundings and his friends and relatives in Scotland, where he at once repaired upon his arrival in England, restored his health.

In November Haldimand himself left Canada for England, arriving at London in January, 1785.

As soon as Sinclair heard of this he left at once for London determined to have his affairs settled, and arrived there February 28, 1785.

He was delayed in meeting Haldimand, however, by being arrested at the suit of some of the holders of the protested Mackinac bills and thrown into Newgate prison, from which he was released on March 17th by his paying the bills.

He immediately demanded of Haldimand that the latter repay the amount at once, or he would apply for a Court Martial.

Apparently neither action was taken but early in April, Haldimand was sued for £50,000, he at once called upon the Government to defend him.

In the following year the action was dismissed, and the claimants appealed to Government for their pay.

The result of this application is unknown but the standing of Sinclair with the English authorities does not seem to have been impaired by all these proceedings. While at Mackinac he had advanced in military rank, having become a Major in 1782.

The next year his regiment, the 84th, was disbanded.

His absence from his post as Lieut. Governor did not affect his title or his salary except the allowance which he drew as commanding officer.

In August 1784, the Governor General was careful to impress upon Captain Robertson, then commanding at Mackinac, that his authority was merely in the absence of the Lieut. Governor.

In October, 1793, Sinclair was made a Colonel.

The post of Michilimackinac was transferred in June, 1796, to the Americans, and although Sinclair had not set foot in it since he left in August, 1782, he had continued to draw his yearly salary of £200 with great regularity.

According to modern ideas this would have been an unjustifiable sinecure, but that was an age of sinecures and it was acknowledged that an office was a vested right of which no possessor should be deprived without the payment of compensation.

Accordingly, it is not surprising to find that in April, 1797, Colonel Sinclair, then in London, petitioned the Duke of Portland, Secretary of State, that as he had been at great pains in fortifying and defending the post of Michilimackinac, and his Majesty had found it expedient to give it up to the United States, he flattered himself that this action would not be prejudicial to him and that his salary might be transferred to the general establishment.

This petition apparently seemed reasonable and his salary continued during the remainder of his life.

Not long after he was retired on half pay and withdrew to Lybster where he spent the remainder of his days.

Being still in line for promotion he was made a Major General on September 25th, 1803; he was made Lieut. General, July 25th, 1810, and at his death, which occurred January 31st, 1820 at the age of 84, he was the oldest officer of his rank in the British army.

From a consideration of all the evidence now available in the matter of the protested bills Sinclair was unfairly treated.

Haldimand, although a good soldier, was a stubborn opinionated man whose training as a soldier inclined him to be overbearing and impatient of anything except the most exact obedience to his orders.

In the face of the King’s commission to Sinclair with the accompanying letter of Lord George Germaine, which made the Lieut. Governor the Commandant entitling him to outrank any officer under a Brigadier General, he refused to recognize any military authority in the position.

Although admitting the great importance of placating the Western Indians, and having himself no personal knowledge of the difficulties of the situation, he thought his orders issued from a thousand miles away should be implicitly obeyed.

It is clear that Sinclair did not understand until the Board put in its appearance at Mackinac that he was doing anything more than the necessities of the situation required, in view of the fact that the government agencies were often so dilatory and neglectful as to leave the far distant post short or entirely lacking.

From his reply to Haldimand’s letter of June, 1781, it is apparent that he understood that his position as Lieut. Governor gave him discretion and this position was never contradicted by Haldimand.

His good faith is manifest all through, and even if Haldimand were justified in claiming that Sinclair had acted in contravention of his orders, that furnished no excuse for not paying the traders who had, in good faith, furnished articles actually used by the government and ordered by a representative they had no reason to suspect.

It seems probable that in the end the government paid the bills, as in 1786 the Treasury at London called on Haldimand to furnish information why the bills had been protested, and to explain why he had continued McBeath at Mackinac in connection with Indian disbursements after he had repudiated his actions in connection with Sinclair.

Sinclair married Catherine Stuart, of Invernesshire, and had four sons and one daughter.

Three sons died unmarried, and one married but left two daughters, who never married.

His only lineal descendants are through the children of his daughter, Susan, who married David Laing, surgeon, of Thurso.

A full length silhouette of General Sinclair taken after he had retired from the army shows a large handsome man of imposing presence.

Family tradition depicts him as an impulsive, warm hearted, as well as warm tempered individual, quick to resent and to punish, and equally quick to forgive; kindly and generous to dependents; philanthropic and helpful to the needy and improvident.

He lived to the good old age of eighty-four and his thoughts must frequently have gone back to this Inland Empire in which nearly a decade of his life was spent, and in which he had wielded a wide influence, and had erected a monument still enduring.

His name which was so closely connected with the early history of Michigan should be perpetuated and both Mackinac and St. Clair County should mark, by proper memorials, the name of Sinclair, as a most important one in their rolls of historic characters.

Categories: Ancient Treasure, Archaeology, artifacts, Legends, Michigan, Strange News, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

New Adult Radio Podcast…


noThe pages of this website are designed for ADULTS only and may include pictures,materials and AUDIO FILES that some viewers may find offensive. If you are under the age of 18, if such material offends you or if it is illegal to view such material in your community please exit the site. The following terms and conditions apply to this site. Use of the site will constitute your agreement to the following terms and conditions:

1.) I am 18 years of age or older
2.) I accept all responsibility for my own actions; and
3.) I agree that I am legally bound to these Terms and Conditions

https://www.facebook.com/groups/2109186515827541/

Categories: Uncategorized | Leave a comment

ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN


griffon-drawing-1

INDIAN AGENTS.

EARLY VISITORS.

ORIGINAL INHABITANTS.

The origin of the first occupants of this region is shrouded in mystery.

Several writers have adopted the theory that they were descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, and they fortify their position with a variety of interesting facts.

The founder of our fair domain was a believer in this theory, and the archives of France contain a lengthy memorial written by Cadillac in which he distinctly asserts his belief that the Indians are descendants of the Hebrew race, strengthening his argument with statements of many remarkable coincidences and customs confirmatory of the idea.

The researches of Schoolcraft, Prescott, Pickering, and others, indicate that the first comers were from Asia, that they were driven by winds and waves over to the Pacific coast, or made their way by the Aleutian Islands or Behring’s Strait to Alaska, and from thence southward to Mexico and South America, afterwards spreading northward and eastward over the American continent.

Elaborate and plausible arguments have been made to prove the converse theory, that the Chinese are descended from the Aztec race.

In support of this supposition, it is urged that the trade winds from the Peruvian coast pass directly to China, and that even frail vessels could easily be wafted thither.

Unique and ancient bronze implements are found alike in both countries; the picture-writings of the two countries are in many cases similar, and in others are exactly the same; and the Feast of Souls, as celebrated in Central America, is remarkably like certain of the Chinese ceremonies.

The order of the ancient occupancy of the country seems to have been, first the Olmec’s, then the Toltecs, then the Aztecs, or Aztecas.

Various reasons give rise to the theory that the Aztec race were the first occupants of this particular region.

Humboldt was of the opinion that the country of the Aztecas was in this latitude.

The meaning of their tribal name is “People of the Lakes;” and there is no place in the United States in which small lakes are so numerous as in Michigan, while the State is nearly surrounded by lakes, which are almost seas in extent.

The name Michigan is derived from two Chippewa words, Mitchaw, great, and Sagiegan, lake. Great Lake.

The so-called Indian mounds in various Western States, in their size, form, and contents, add force to the Aztecan theory.

In the township of Springwells, just below Detroit, were four of these mounds; one of them still remains inside the grounds of Fort Wayne; the second was on property now occupied by the Copper Smelting Works, and the third lay between the other two.

They were circular in form, from thirty to seventy feet in diameter, and varying from three to ten feet in height.

Two parallel embankments, about four feet high, led to them from the east.

One of these mounds was opened in 1837, and the one inside the fort, by permission of the War Department, on May 22, 1876.

Both were found to contain numerous skeletons, arrow-heads, and vases or pots of earthenware.

The one last opened contained also an iron vessel capable of holding two or three gallons, and several pounds of what appeared to be a sort of paint.

The Great Mound of the River Rouge, about half a mile below Fort Wayne, was at first, probably, fully three hundred feet long and two hundred feet wide.

In 1876 it was twenty feet high.

It has never been fully explored, but a partial investigation by Henry Gillman resulted in the discovery of stone axes, arrow-heads, fragments of pottery, and human bones much decayed.

An old Indian told a member of the Cicotte family that these mounds were erected as forts, at the time the tribes were fighting each other.

Indian tradition also ascribes these mounds to the Tuetle Indians, who preceded the Wyandotts.

The name Tuetle is believed to be a corruption of Tuteloes, a tribe once supposed to have emigrated from Virginia only as far north as the Susquehanna; but it now seems probable that some came as far as the Detroit.

Of the more modern Indian tribes who roamed over this region, the Algonquin race was the earliest.

They counted among their numbers in the northwest the tribes of the Ottawas, Menominees, Sacs, Foxes, and Chippewas.

There were also in this vicinity the tribes of the Miamis, Potowatamies, Winnebagoes, and the Ouendats, or Wyandotts.

The latter who came to this vicinity about 1680, excelled the other tribes in energy and progressiveness.

From time to time the Iroquois also appeared.

This nation was composed originally of the Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Oneidas, and Mohawks.

In 1714, the Tuscaroras of North Carolina united with them, and they were afterward known as the Six Nations.

They claimed all of Michigan, and between them and the Algonquins warfare was frequent.

Indeed, the Iroquois were the enemies of all the Indians at or near Detroit, and in 1649 they drove the Algonquins from this region.

They were unfriendly to the French, and during the French and English war did good service for the English.

They were the cannibals of America, and French residents of Detroit, in 1756, stated that the Iroquois actually ate the flesh of persons slain in battle.

It was the settled policy of the French commandants to induce as many friendly Indians as possible to settle near their forts.

We find Cadillac, in 1703, urging the Ottawas to move to Detroit.

The French records of the same year show that several Miamis were already settled there, and that on June 28 thirty Hurons arrived from Mackinaw and erected wigwams near the fort.

The Potowatamies had their village west of the fort, near the mouth of what was afterwards called Knagg’s Creek.

The Ottawa settlement was where Windsor now is, and the Hurons were gathered on the Canada side, opposite the Cass Farm.

In 1705 about two hundred Indians had been persuaded by Cadillac to settle in the vicinity.

In furtherance of his plans a great council of chiefs was held, continuing from August 6 to August 10, 1707.

The following translation from a French Colonial Memoir, written in 1707, and preserved at Paris, gives a vivid picture of Indian life at this period:

The village of the Pottowatamies adjoins the fort; they lodge partly under Apaquois, which are made of mat-grass.

The women do all this work.

The men belonging to that nation are well clothed, like our domiciliated Indians at Montreal; their entire occupation is hunting and dress ; they make use of a great deal of vermilion, and in winter wear buffalo robes richly painted, and in summer either blue or red cloth.

They play a good deal at la crosse in summer, twenty or more on each side.

Their bat is a sort of little racket, and the ball with which they play is made of very heavy wood, somewhat larger than the balls used at tennis; when playing they are entirely naked, except a breech cloth, and moccasins on their feet.

Their body is completely painted with all sorts of colors.

Some, with white clay, trace white lace on their bodies, as if on all the seams of a coat, and at a distance it would be apt to be taken for silver lace.

They play very deep {gros j’eu) and often.

The bets sometimes amount to more than eight hundred livres.

They set up two poles and commence the game from the center; one party propels the ball from one side and the other from the opposite, and which ever reaches the goal, wins.

This is fine recreation and worth seeing.

They often play village against village, the Poux against the Outaoues or the Hurons, and lay heavy stakes.

Sometimes Frenchmen join in the game with them.

The women cultivate Indian corn, beans, peas, squashes, and melons, which come up very fine.

The women and girls dance at night; adorn themselves considerably, grease their hair, put on a white shift, paint their cheeks with vermilion, and wear whatever wampum they possess, and are very tidy in their way.

They dance to the sound of the drum and sisiquoi, which is a sort of a gourd containing some grains of shot.

Four or five young girls sing, and beat time with the drum and sisiquoi, and the women keep time and do not lose a step ; it is very entertaining, and lasts almost the entire night.

The old men often dance the Medelinne (Medicine Dance); they resemble a set of demons, and all this takes place during the night.

The young men often dance in a circle {le tour) and strike posts; it is then they recount their achievements, and dance, at the same time, the war dance (des decouvertes), and whenever they act thus they are highly ornamented.

It is altogether very curious.

They often perform these things for tobacco. When they go hunting, which is every fall, they carry their Apaquois with them to hut under at night.

Everybody follows, men, women, and children, and winter in the forest and return in the spring.

The Hurons are also near, perhaps the eighth of a league from the French fort.

This is the most industrious nation that can be seen.

They scarcely ever dance, and are always at work; raise a very large amount of Indian corn, peas, beans; some grow wheat.

They construct their huts entirely of bark, very strong and solid; very lofty and very long, and arched like arbors.

Their fort is strongly encircled with pickets and bastions, well redoubted, and has strong gates.

They are the most faithful nation to the French, and the most expert hunters that we have.

Their cabins are divided into sleeping compartments, which contain their misirague, and are very clean.

They are the bravest of all the nations and possess considerable talent.

They are well clad; some of them wear close overcoats {juste au corps de capot).

The men are always hunting, summer and winter, and the women work.

When they go hunting in the fall, a goodly number of them remain to guard their fort.

The old women, and throughout the winter those women who remain, collect wood in very large quantity.

The soil is very fertile; Indian corn grows there to the height of ten to twelve feet.

Their fields are very clean, and very extensive; not the smallest weed is to be seen in them.

The Outaoues are on the opposite of the river, over against the French fort ; they, likewise, have a picket fort.

Their cabins resemble somewhat those of the Hurons.

They do not make use of Apaquois except when out hunting: their cabins in this fort are all of bark, but not so clean nor so well made as those of the Hurons.

They are as well dressed and very laborious, both in their agriculture and hunting.

Their dances, juggleries, and games of ball (la crosse) and of the bowl, are the same as those of the Poux.

Their game of the bowl consists of eight small pebbles (noyaux), which are red or black on one side, and yellow or white on the other; these are tossed up in a bowl, and when he who holds the vessel tosses them and finds seven of the whole eight of the same color he gains, and continues playing as long as he receives the same thing.

When the result is different, the adverse party takes the bowl and plays next, and they risk heavy stakes on all these games.

They have likewise the game of the straws, and all the nations gamble in like manner.

In 1736 there were five hundred Indian warriors at Detroit,—two hundred each from the Huron and Ottawa tribes and one hundred from the Potowatamies.

Bougainville, who was here in 1757,says:

The Indians who usually come to trade at Detroit are the Hurons of the same tribe of those of Lorette, near Quebec, a perfidious and deceitful nation in whom we must never put confidence.

There are also the Ottawas, the Sauteux, and the Potowatamies; these last named are of all the Indians the most faithful and the most attached to our interests.

They have never murdered any Frenchmen, and have often warned us of the plots of other tribes.

Cadillac says that the Ottawas wore, as an ornament, a little stone suspended from their nose, and that “Ottawa,” the name of the tribe, signified “the nation with a hole in their nose.”

The French gave nicknames to most of the tribes in this region.

The Wyandotts they designated as Hurons, because of their fierce aspect, comparing them to a wild boar; the Chippewas, as Sauteurs, from their residence near the Sault St. Marie; the Menominees were called Folles Avoines, from “wild rice,” one of their principal articles of food.

The name Potowatamie was abbreviated into Poux.

This nation was very uncleanly.

All of the tribes known to the Americans, north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi, had their council-fire at the village of the Wyandotts, near the mouth of the Detroit River.

The Wyandotts alone had the power to convene the tribes, and when a council was to be held, application was made to them, and it was held at their village.

This fact gave the locality a peculiar importance and made it familiar to all the Indians.

At various times nearly all the noted Indian leaders visited this post.

Pontiac, Tecumseh, and his brother The Prophet, were frequent visitors. John Logan, the Cayuga chief, whose speech to Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, is familiar to every schoolboy, was here in 1774, and after the treaty of Chillicothe, he resided for many years in this vicinity.

He became a drunkard, and was killed, between Detroit and Miami, by an Indian.

The French trusted the Indians almost without fear.

No seals or locks were placed on the storehouses, and the Indians came and went as they pleased. Under English and American rule the Indians were welcomed inside the stockade during the day, but at night all were turned out except those who were entertained by private persons.

The Indians were always persistent beggars, and no Arab of the present day demands backsheesh more clamorously than did the red men of their French and English “brothers.”

Their requests were generally acceded to, and the presents given them in some measure made up for the exorbitant prices charged them for articles offered in exchange for furs.

Their likes and dislikes turned, like a pair of scales, according as they had free range or were restricted in their visitations to the houses.

On September 18, 1770, Captain Stephenson, of the Eighteenth Regiment, then in command, wrote to Sir William Johnson:

My children here are quiet at present.

They have all been to pay me a visit and suck my breast, to which they made so close an application that I told them I was afraid they would throw me in a consumption.

They are very happy at having free access to my house, which my predecessor’s delicacy would not admit.

Even after this region was surrendered, the English Government sought the favor of the Indians by annual gifts; and year by year up to 1836 thousands from various tribes gathered at Detroit, Sandwich, or Maiden to receive the presents of their Great Father, the King.

The American Government was compelled to follow this precedent.

On November 24, 1807, Governor Hull wrote to the Secretary of War that within the two or three days previous seven or eight hundred Indians had called at Detroit, on the way to their villages, and that he had been compelled to feed them.

In the autumn of 1812, while the city was in possession of the British, the Indians committed many outrages.

A party of them went in a body to rob Colonel Lambert Beaubien’s orchard, but the Colonel attacked them with his fists, and made so courageous a defense that he drove them from his premises.

After the city again passed under American control, Colonel Cass was obliged to feed great numbers of the Indians.

In one communication to the War Department he states that for several years he fed an average of four hundred Indians per day.

Between 1814 and 1817, he disbursed $200,000 for the benefit of the Indians.

To divide and distribute among them the goods and bounty of the Government was a task vexatious in the extreme, and almost unbearable, for it was impossible to satisfy the stupid and stolid savages.

All the year round they came and went, and the agent’s family was “driven from one extremity of the house to the other by them.”

In addition to the annuities the “government blacksmith” repaired, free of charge, their guns and traps.

There was always some excuse for their coming, and citizens were not surprised at any time to see a swarthy face at the window-pane; oftentimes the click of the latch was the only warning of the entrance of one of the nation’s wards.

Some of them were gayly dressed with blankets of scarlet broadcloth, and strings of silver half-moons graduated in size from one to several inches in length, hung from neck to ankles, both in front and down the back.

Their moccasins and leggins were gay with beads and the stained quills of the porcupine.

The heads of the war chiefs were frequently gayer still with the vermilion and bear’s grease which had been rubbed thereon.

The squaws were not left behind.

There was always some burden for them to carry, and the procession ceased on one day only to begin the next.

Indians and more Indians, and still they came! Indians lazy and Indians drunk, Indians sick and Indians hungry, all crying “Give! give!”

After receiving their payments, hundreds of them would lie about the city stupidly drunk; in August, 1825, they so disturbed the peace of the city, that the Council, through the mayor, sought aid from the governor to quiet and control them.

A few of these Indians came to buy goods, and were really trustworthy.

An old account book of that period contains charges made against Indians called “Saw Goose’s Wife,” “Big Wind’s Daughter,” “The Rat,” “The White Devil,” ” The Old Cow,” “The Cow’s Sister,” “The Old Eagle and Son,” “The Red Bird,” and “The Turtle.”

Categories: Legends, Michigan, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Allegan and Barry Counties, Michigan in the Civil War….Officers and Enlisted men.


5228557711_b98ce008ff_oSECOND AND THIRD INFANTRY.

Formation of the Second Infantry-Battle of Bull Run-In Kentucky-In Mississippi-Siege of Knoxville-Re-enlistment-Off to Virginia-The Campaign of the Wilderness-Muster out-Members from Barry County-Members from Allegan County-

The Third Infantry-Representation from Barry and Allegan Counties –

The Regiment at Bull Run-Steadiness of its Brigade-Praise of the New York Tribune-Winter-Quarters-Gallantry at Williamsburg-At Fair Oaks-Prince de Joinville’s EncomiumThrough the Seven Days’ Fight-Second Bull Run-At Chancellorsville-At Gettysburg-Sent to New York-Back to Virginia The Mine Run Campaign-In the Wilderness and Subsequent Fights-Non-Veterans sent Home-Veterans and Recruits formed into a Battalion-Consolidated with the Fifth Infantry —Call for Men in July, 1864-Raising the New Third Infantry-It goes to Alabama-Back to Murfreesboro’-Depots-Faulkner’s Brigade The Regiment goes to Texas in 1865-Stays there till 1866-Mustered out in May-Barry County Officers and Soldiers-Allegan County Officers and Soldiers.

SECOND INFANTRY.

THE Second Regiment of Michigan Volunteer Infantry, the first three years’ regiment to take the field from that a During the civil war Allegan County received credit for twenty-one hundred and seventy-five men, and Barry for sixteen hundred and twenty-seven.

This is more than can be found in the reports of the adjutant-general of the State, but the discrepancy is principally due to the fact that re enlisting veterans were credited to the county twice, while their names appear in the reports but once.

A number of men, also, served in the navy whose names do not appear in the reports.

The credits also include those drafted men who, in the first months of the draft, were allowed to pay three hundred dollars each in lieu of personal service, though of course they are not represented on any rolls.

A few names were also, doubtless, omitted from the reports, in spite of the energy and fidelity of Adjt.-Gen. Robertson, on Second and Third Infantry rendezvoused at Detroit, and was mustered into the United States service May 25, 1861.

With an aggregate force on its muster-rolls of one thousand and thirteen men, commanded by the brave Col. Israel B. Richardson, it left Detroit, June 5, 1861, and at once proceeded to the seat of war on the Potomac.

The Second participated in the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and was one of the few regiments that did not become thoroughly demoralized as a result of that engagement (see history of the Third Infantry).

From that time until March, 1863, it shared in all the victories and defeats of the Union arms in Virginia.

It was then transferred to Kentucky, where it remained until June, when, with Gen. Parke’s division of the Ninth Army Corps, it reinforced Gen. Grant at Vicksburg.

With Sherman at Jackson, Miss., it lost heavily.

From Mississippi it re-returned to Kentucky, and in September, 1863, marched via Cumberland Gap to Knoxville, Tenn., where, under Gen. Burnside, it took part in all of the severe fighting incident to the siege of Knoxville, losing one-half its effective strength.

A large number of its remaining men re-enlisted in December, 1863, and returned home on furlough.

From Mount Clemens, Michigan, the regiment returned to Virginia in May, 1864, arriving in time to plunge into the Wilderness and bear its share on that hotly-contested field.

Thereafter, at Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, and in all the other principal engagements which culminated at Appomattox, the Second was an active participant.

It was mustered out of service at Delaney House, D. C., July 28, 1865, and arrived at Detroit, Michigan, for final pay and disbandment, August 1st of the same year.

MEMBERS OF THE SECOND INFANTRY FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company B.

Henry D. Thompson, discharged for disability, Sept. 16, 1862.

Company C.

William G. Fox, Wounded 5/5/1862 Williamsburg, VA, discharged for disability, Oct. 2, 1862.

Royal G. Rice, discharged at end of service, July 21, 1864. After the War he lived in Dowling, Mich

Charles I. Robinson, discharged at end of service, Jan. 26, 1865.

George Rogers, missing in action at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863. Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS (Severe wound in left leg, amputated)

Samuel R. Wilson, discharged for disability, Feb. 3, 1865.

Company D.

William Scudder, discharged at end of service, Feb. 10, 1864.

Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS http://www.fadedfootsteps.net/veterans/profile/4071/private-william-m-scudder-company-d-2nd-michigan-infantry-us-us-union-army.html

Company K.

Moses Boyden, discharged at end of service, Jan. 7, 1864.

Thomas M. Ellsworth, discharged at end of service, Nov. 16, 1863.

Estes Rorke, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863. Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS

John C. Stewart, discharged at end of service, Jan. 7, 1864. After the War he lived in Stanton, MI

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SECOND INFANTRY.

Company I.

David S. Buck, missing in action at Savage Station, Va., June 29, 1862.

Martin Crane, veteran, Dec. 31, 1863; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., Oct. 27, 1864.

James Carruthers, discharged at end of service, June 22, 1864.

Clark Conrad, veteran, enlisted Dec. 31, 1863.

George B. Myers, discharged at end of service, June 22, 1864.

Nathan A. Tanner, died of wounds at Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1863.

George P. West, discharged for disability.

Company K.

Alfonso Crane, died of disease at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863.

THIRD INFANTRY.

The Third Regiment of infantry, which was recruited during the month of May, 1861, was mainly from the counties of Allegan, Barry, Clinton, Easton, Gratiot, Ionia, Kent, Muskegon, Mecosta, Montcalm, Newaygo, and Ottawa and had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids.

It was the first regiment organized in this portion of the State, the second mustered for three years, and the third to take the field from Michigan.

Barry County was represented by about a hundred and fifty men scattered through all its companies except I, while Allegan’s representation was divided among companies A, C, E, F, I, and K.

Having upon its muster-rolls the names of one thousand and forty officers and enlisted men, the regiment left Grand Rapids on the 13th of June, 1861, and proceeded directly to the seat of war on the Potomac.

It was soon after assigned to the brigade commanded by Col. Israel B. Richardson, and first met the enemy at Blackburn’s Ford, Va., July 18, 1861.

Three days later Richardson’s brigade was engaged in that famous conflict, the first battle of Bull Run.

To show that the Michigan regiments then and there gave evidence of the material composing them, we need but cite the New York Tribune’s account of that battle, from which the following is an extract:

” I was told that a few regiments besides the three faithful ones of Blenker’s brigade had come in fair order, and that they were the Second and Third Michigan and the Massachusetts First, of Richardson’s brigade.

“Gen. McDowell also stated that “Richardson’s troops were the last to leave the field.”

When the defeated and almost disbanded Union army fell back on Washington, Richardson’s brigade served as rear-guard.

It maintained its position at Centreville Heights until the morning of July 22d, and when all detachments and stragglers had passed to the rear, it deliberately took up the line of march to Washington, where it arrived in perfect order.

To this brigade was then assigned the duty of guarding Bailey’s Cross-Roads and picketing other highways leading from Rebeldom to Alexandria and Washington.

After I account of the apathy or ignorance of the regimental and company officers.

In the preparation of the sketches of the services of the regiments great care has been taken to make them —although necessarily brief -as correct and interesting as possible.

The adjutant-general’s reports and the “Red Book of Michigan” have been closely examined, surviving soldiers of the various regiments have been consulted, and in many cases items have been added derived from the personal information of the gentleman who, under the direction of the general historian, compiled these military sketches.

That gentleman, Mr. J. S. Schenck, was formerly adjutant of the Sixteenth Illinois, and served nearly three years side by side with several of the Michigan regiments whose exploits he has here narrated.

It is intended that the sketches of the various regiments shall bear some proportion as to size to the number of men from these two counties in them.

It may be proper to add here that during the Mexican war Samuel Brown, Jr., Henry Starring, Franklin H. Heath, Silas S. Price, and Chester Ross, of Allegan County, served in Captain F. W. Curtenius’ company in the First Michigan Infantry of that period; the two men last named dying in the service. C. J. * Col. Richardson was a native of Vermont, and a graduate of West Point.

He served in the Mexican war, and attained the rank of major.

He was made brigadier-general of volunteers in September, 1861, promoted to the rank of major-general soon after, and met his death at the battle of Antietam, Sept; 17, 1862, while commanding a division.

This number represents all who served in both the first and second terms of service.

The Third Infantry assisted in the construction of the defenses of Washington, the Third went into winter-quarters near Alexandria, Va., where it remained until March, 1862.

Then the Third Michigan Infantry moved with McClellan’s army to the Peninsula.

At the battle of Williamsburg, the Third fought on the 5th of May, 1862.

The Third Infantry then with Berry’s brigade of Kearney’s division moved, through mud and rain, to the front at double-quick.

Here the Third Michigan Infantry formed line under fire, and, immediately charging a superior force of the enemy, recaptured a lost position and artillery, and did not stop until the enemy was dislodged and beat back from his own position to the plains below.

In regard to this fight, a Tribune correspondent said:

“By confessions of rebel prisoners, eight hundred of Berry’s men, mostly of Michigan regiments, drove back sixteen hundred of the enemy.”

At Fair Oaks, on the 31st of May. the Third particularly distinguished itself.

Its commander, Col. Stephen G. Champlin, was severely wounded, and the gallant Captain Samuel A. Judd was killed.

The total losses of the regiment in this action were thirty men killed, one hundred and twenty-four wounded, and fifteen missing.

The Prince de Joinville, an eye-witness of this battle, said:

“As at Williamsburg, Kearney comes to re-establish the fight.

Berry’s brigade of this division, composed of Michigan regiments and an Irish battalion, advanced as firm as a wall into the midst of the disordered mass which wanders over the battle-field, and does more by its example than the most powerful reinforcement.

“The Third was also engaged at Savage Station and Peach Orchard, June 29, 1862; Glendale (or Charles City CrossRoads), June 30th; Malvern Hill, July 1st; and Groveton (or Second Bull Run), Aug. 29, 1862.

In the latter battle it lost twenty men killed, besides a large number wounded and missing. Proceeding from Edward’s Ferry, Md., via Warrenton and Falmouth, Va., to Fredericksburg, Va., the regiment was engaged at the latter place Dec. 13, 1862, losing nine men wounded.

At Chancellorsville, on the 1st, 2d, and 3d of May, 1863, it sustained a loss of sixty-three men, killed, wounded, and missing.

On the 11th of June the regiment began a toilsome march via Centreville, Va., Edward’s Ferry, and Frederick City, Md., to Gettysburg, Pa.

The roads were dusty, the heat was intense, and the men suffered terribly.

At Gettysburg, on the 2d and 3d days of July, 1863, the Third again dealt staggering blows to the cohorts of treason, sustaining a loss on its side of forty-one men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Having followed the enemy to Williamsport, it marched thence to Harper’s Ferry, crossed the Potomac at that point, and moved forward to Manassas Gap.

On the 17th of August, 1863, the regiment proceeded to Alexandria, Va., and from there to New York City, whither it had been ordered to aid in the preservation of the public peace and the keeping down of a mob during the then pending draft.

Remaining there some days, it proceeded up the Hudson to Troy, N. Y., where it was stationed two weeks.

The Third Michigan Infantry then returned to its brigade in the Army of the Potomac, arriving at Culpepper, Va., Sept. 17, 1863.

On the 26th of November, 1863, the regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign, engaging the enemy on the 27th at Locust Grove, and on the. 30th at Mine Run.

With the army it returned to Brandy Station December 2d, having lost during the movement thirty-one men in killed, wounded, and missing.

One hundred and eighty members of the regiment reenlisted as veterans Dec. 23, 1863.

They received a thirty days’ furlough, and at the expiration of that time returned to their command.

From December, 1863, until the beginning of May, 1864, a season of inactivity prevailed.

On the 4th of the latter month the Third crossed the Rapidan at Ely’s Ford, advanced to Chancellorsville, and during the three following days was in the midst of the terrific battle of the Wilderness, sustaining a heavy loss.

It was also engaged at Todd’s Tavern on the 8th and at Spottsylvania on the 12th, where it participated in the successful charge of the Second Army Corps.

At the North Anna River it again encountered the enemy, May 23d and 24th.

The Pamunky River was crossed on the 27th, and the advance continued toward Cold Harbor.

During this month of continuous fighting the regiment sustained a loss of thirty-one men killed, one hundred and nineteen wounded, and twenty-nine missing.

At Cold Harbor, on the 9th of June, 1864, the regiment, with the exception of the re-enlisted men and such as had joined since the original organization, and certain designated officers, was ordered home for the purpose of being discharged.

The remaining officers and men-some three hundred and fifty in number-were formed into a battalion of four companies, and attached to the Fifth Michigan Infantry.

The order consolidating these regiments was confirmed by the War Department June 13th, and on the 20th day of June, 1864, the old Third, which had been one of the first to take the field in defense of the government, was formally mustered out of the United States service.

THIRD INFANTRY (NEW).

In addition to the hundreds of thousands gone before, on the 18th of July, 1864, the President issued his proclamation calling upon the loyal States for five hundred thousand more men.

Volunteers from the several States were to be accepted for one, two, and three years, as they elected.

Michigan’s quota under this call was more than eighteen thousand, of which twelve thousand had to be recruited or drafted.

Governor Blair determined to raise six new regiments of infantry, viz., the Third, Fourth, Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first, or one in each Congressional district, and in pursuance of this plan issued his proclamation on the 21st of July, 1864.

On the 29th of the same month orders were issued to reorganize the Third Infantry, and to Col. Moses B. Houghton (formerly lieutenant-colonel of the old organization) was entrusted the charge of raising the new regiment.

Grand Rapids was named its place of rendezvous, and the Fourth District its field for recruiting.

The exigencies of the service did not permit the complete organization of all these regiments before the enforcement of the impending draft (Sept. 5, 1864), and seven companies, which had been raised for the Thirtieth at * Composed of the Second, Third, and Fifth Michigan, and a New York regiment.

The Third, thus reinforced, completed its organization at once (October 15th), and, being mustered in with eight hundred and seventy-nine officers and men, left camp for Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1864, going thence to Decatur, Ala.

It remained at Decatur-having meanwhile a skirmish with the enemy at that point-until November 25th, when it was transferred to Murfreesboro, Tenn., and ordered to duty at Fort Rosecrans.

On the 7th of December, while Gen. Milroy was engaged at the Cedars with the principal part of Forrest’s rebel command, Faulkner’s rebel brigade of mounted infantry made a dash on the picket-line at Murfreesboro, drove in the guard, and gained possession of the town.

After a spirited engagement of an hour’s duration, four companies of the Third, together with an equal number of companies of the One Hundred and Eighty-first Ohio, with a section of artillery, repulsed the rebels and pursued them two miles.

The regiment remained at Murfreesboro and its vicinity until Jan. 16, 1865, when it was moved to Huntsville, Ala., and assigned to the Fourth Army Corps.

On the 31st of January it was ordered to Eastport, Miss., and proceeded as far as Nashville, Tenn., when, the order being countermanded, it returned to Huntsville, remaining there until the middle of March.

With its brigade it then marched to East Tennessee, occupying successively positions at New Market, Bull Gap, and Jonesboro’, where it was employed in pursuing, capturing, and driving off the numerous guerrilla bands infesting that region.

The Third was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., on the 20th of March, arrived there the 28th, and on the 15th of June, 1865, with its corps, proceeded by rail from Nashville to Johnsville, Tenn.; thence by steamers down the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, arriving on the 5th of July.

After a short delay the regiment proceeded in vessels to Indianola, Texas, and thence it marched to Green Lake.

On the 12th of September it started out for Westerin Texas, and, after a fatiguing march of fourteen days’ duration, it reached San Antonio.

During the following winter two companies were on duty at Gonzales.

Early in the spring of 1866 the entire regiment was ordered to Victoria, Texas, and was there mustered out of the service, May 26, 1866.

Marching to Indianola, it took steamers to New Orleans, going thence via the Mississippi River to Cairo, Ill., whence it was transported by railway to Detroit, Michigan.

It arrived there June 10, 1866, and was soon after paid off and discharged.

BARRY COUNTY OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE THIRD INFANTRY (FIRST TERM).

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major Israel S. Geer, enlisted June 10, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. C, Aug. 1, 1861.

Company B.

John Goff, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Willard Main, mustered out July 9, 1865.

Robert Strong, mustered out May 19, 1865.

Company C.

Captain Israel S. Geer, com. Dec. 26, 1861; wounded and taken prisoner at Wilderness, May 6, 1864; mustered out Sept. 21, 1864.

Jacob T. Bipley, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., July 12, 1864.

Jacob Broepphe, missing at Mine Run, Va., Nov. 30, 1863.

Christian Fostler, transferred to 5th lrf., June 10, 1864.

Lewis Ruthardt, discharged for disability, May 1, 1864.

Company D.

John Winebremer, transferred to 5th Inf., June 10, 1864.

Company E.

Sergeant Andrew Nickerson, Hastings; enlisted June 10, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. H, Aug. 5, 1862.

Musician James L. Reed, discharged May 24, 1862.

Mathew Bain, discl. for disability.

George W. Btgl)ee, discharged for disability, Feb. 17, 1865.

James G. Birdsall, discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1863.

Cornelius Barkluff.

Alonzo H. Bennett, mustered out May 30, 1865. Thomas Burke, mustered out May 27, 1865.

Daniel E. Birdsall, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Samuel B. Cook, discharged for disability. George Decker, mustered out June 28, 1865.

Washington Feriis, discharged for disability.

D. W. Foster, died of wounds at Portland, June 17, 1862.

Franklin Green, transferred to 5th Inf.

Emmett A. Hamilton, died of wounds at Groveton, Va, Aug. 29, 1862.

George H. Hill, died in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864.

Ralph IHenley, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Andrew J. Jordan, mustered out May 17, 1865.

John A. Kellogg, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Andrew G. Kilpatrick, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

James Kilpatrick, discharged for disability, Sept. 30, 1862.

David C. Leach, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Samuel McMurray, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Dwight T. Merrill, mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. John B. Osgood, mustered out July 5, 1865.

William Paustle, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, July 28, 1865.

Merrick D. Reed, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Daniel A. Randall, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Truman Sawdy, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 26, 1863.

Martin M. Sweet, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Joseph E. Sutton, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Simeon C. Stanton, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Edward Stevens, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Truman J. Wisner, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Company F.

James R. Dexter, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1861.

Samuel S. Garrison, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

John Oberly, discharged for disability, Jan. 14, 1863.

Timothy Penders, discharged for disability, Nov. 12, 1863.

Ephraim Parsons, mustered out May 8, 1865.

Owen F. Palmer, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Isaac Walker, ditch. for disability, Feb. 7, 1863.

Company G.

Captain Abram J. Whitney, Hastings; com. 2d Lieutenant, Co. I, May 13, 1861; promoted to 1st liout. Aug. 1, 1861; Captain, June 9, 1862; resigned Sept. 26, 1862.

Company H.

2d Lient. Andrew Nickerson, com. Aug. 5, 1862; promoted to slt Lieutenant, Co. K, Oct. 20, 1862.

Aaron E. Dupee, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

James F. Dibble, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Jeremiah Sanders, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Company K.

Captain Andrew Nickerson, Hastings; com. Nov. 1, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Oct. 20, 1862; killed in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

Corp. Edwin H. Mallory, enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Wagoner Isaac D. Reed, enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Edward Bugbee, died of disease at Yorktown, May 3, 1862.

William Buck, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Henry II. Bailey, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Austin Dibble, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

Charles W. Feber, discharged at end of service, June 17, 1864.

Oscar Gaines, discharged to enlist in regular service, Dec. 17, 1862.

Jonathan Kellogg, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Jonathan Kelly, transferred to Vet. Res Corps.

Orange McClure, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Mortimer Millard, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Lorenzo W. Payne, discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863.

Jacob S. Pickle, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Sept. 17, 1861.

William Parrish, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Henian Parrish, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Cody M. Reed, discharged to enlist in regular service, Nov. 29, 1862.

Alfred H. Slocum, discharged for disability, June 20, 1862.

Charles H. Sanford, died in action at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863.

Warren Wilkinson, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE THIRD INFANTRY (FIRST TERM).

Company A.

Captain Milton Leonard, com. 1st Lieutenant Nov. 1, 1863; 2d Lieutenant Feb. 5, 1863; died in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864.

Company C.

Musician John B. Champion, discharged Feb. 28, 1862.

Theo. Castor, transferred to 5th Inf., June 10, 1864; mustered out Sept. 4, 1865.

Christian Pleigden, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

John P. Scheidt, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

Valentin Schaeffer, discharged for disability, June 20, 1861.

Anton Steffles, discharged for disability, Feb. 23, 1862. Thomas Schneider, died of disease at Baltimore, July 19, 1863.

Jos. A. Schuler, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864. Peter Wagner, discharged for disability, Oct. 1, 1861.

Company E.

Edward T. Webster, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. Harvey Wilson, discharged for disability, July 29, 1861.

Samuel F. Woolman, died May 30, 1864, of wounds.

Company F.

2d Lieutenant Milton Leonard, transferred 2d Lieutenant from Co. A, May 1, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. A, Nov. 1, 1863.

Musician Edward C. Wheelock, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Geo. W. Bailey, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Harvey S. Briggs, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865. J

ohn Calkins, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

John Hefner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Martin Jones, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Daniel G. Slade, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

Company I.

Wm. H. Campion, discharged for disability, November, 1862.

Nelson J. Davis, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Edward R. Goble, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Sylvester Gay, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1864.

Alfred M. Gardner, discharged for disability, Dec. 31, 1862.

Perry Goshom, discharged for disability, Nov. 17, 1862.

Josiah E. Huff, died of disease, Nov. 18, 1861.

Lonson Hill, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Albert Hamlin, discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

Calvin Hall, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Jerome Kibbee, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

John McDonald, discharged for disability, Oct. 1, 1863.

Joseph L. Paney, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Jas. Reeves, discharged for disability, Aug. 7, 1862.

John Simpkins, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Willard Sweet, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Company K.

John Felton, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

Win. H. Harvey, transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Edwin Nickerson, transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out June 9, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY IN THE REORGANIZED THIRD INFANTRY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

Asst. Surg. Philo H. Drake, Hastings; com. Nov. 24, 1864; res. June 20, 1865.

Sergeant-Maj. Geo. W. Sheldon, promoted to 2d Lieutenant May 19, 1865; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Company A.

Francis Rogers, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Company B.

Charles Tichenor, discharged at end of service, March 18, 1866.

Company C.

Corp. Vine E. Welch, Barry; enlisted Sept. 3, 1864; transferred to Co. F.

Richard D. Hudson, mustered out May 23, 1865.

Company D.

Captain Washington K. Ferris, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; res. March 12, 1865.

Corp. Jacob Rhodes, Baltimore; enlisted Aug. 26, 1861.

Corp. James Marvin, Johnstown; enlisted Aug. 17, 1861; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Barry Baulch, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Thomas Boggart, mustered out Nov. 6, 1865.

John H. Day, mustered out June 12, 1866.

Simon Eberly, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

David L. Fereter, mustered out Aug. 11, 1865.

Benjamin G. Foster, mustered out May 26, 1866.

John A. Harrington, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Leonard M. Hyde, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Bayliss T. Sweezy, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 16, 1865.

Anthony B. Wisner, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1865.

Philip A. West, mustered out July 11, 1865.

William H. Watts, mustered out May 2.5, 1866.

Company E.

Captain Reuben P. Lamb, Prairieville; com. July 28, 1864; res. May 12, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Albert H. Ellis, Hastings; cornm. July 29, 1864; hon. discharged, May 15, 1865.

Sergeant Samuel M. Tripp, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 17, 1864; discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Sergeant Edwin King, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; mustered out May 26, 1866.

Sergeant John T. Shelp, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 17, 1864; discharged by order, April 16, 1866.

Sergeant Henry M. Merritt, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 5, 1864; discharged by order, July 3, 1865.

Sergeant John White, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Corp. James N. Collister, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 18, 1864; discharged July 12, 1865.

Corp. Samuel Lamb, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; discharged May 17, 1865.

Corp. Robert Frost, Woodland; enlisted Sept. 3, 1864; discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

Corp. John H. Freeman, Prairieville; enlisted July 28, 1864; discharged by order, Sept. 5, 1865.

Corp. William Wickham, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 30, 1864; discharged by order, Sept. 5, 1865.

Corp. William Scudder, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 19, 1861; absent sick at muster out.

William Atwood, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 30, 1865.

C. J. Brown, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

Joseph Barnes, mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Eugene A. Beach, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Lewis S. Campbell, mustered out from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 12, 1865.

David F. Campbell, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 10, 1865.

Fabrius Deplanta, mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Jacob Frink, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Stephen Heath, mustered out July 24, 1864.

Stephen Haight, mustered out Oct. 6, 1865.

Benjamin Hass, mustered out Sept. 4, 1865.

William N. Haight, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., December, 1864.

Conrad Kehler, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

Seth Lovell, mustered out July 15, 1865.

William J. McArthur, mustered out May 25, 1866.

John H. McArthur, mustered out May 25, 1866.

William Myers, mustered out Sept. 28, 1865.

William Mills, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Alpheus F. Morse, mustered out July 13, 1865.

James Myers, mustered out Sept. 9, 1865.

Samuel M. Martin, mustered out June 13, 1865.

William McNeil, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

William Nichols, mustered out March 3, 1866.

Oliver P. Nichols, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Nelson H. Orr, mustered out April 16, 1866.

Charles W. Pickle, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Willis Peck, mustered out Sept. 5, 1865,

Samuel A. Phillips, discharged at end of service, May 2, 1866.

Andrew Smith, mustered out May 25, 1866.

David Sisco, mustered out May 25, 1866.

John E. Spaulding, mustered out Sept. 28, 1865.

Gilbert Van Brunt, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., April 19, 1865.

Sidney J. Wiley, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Company F.

Corp. George S. Ward, Barry; enlisted March 2, 1865; mustered out March 2, 1866.

Lewis S. Campbell, mustered out from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 12, 1865.

Philip Ragle, mustered out June 18, 1865.

Allegan County had no credited representatives in the new regiment.

SIXTH AND SEVENTH INFANTRY.

Formation of the Sixth Infantry-“The Peculiar Regiment”-The Allegan County Company-On Duty in Baltimore-By Ship to New Orleans-Sickness there-Services in Louisiana-Siege of Port Hudson-Converted into Heavy Artillery-Re-enlistment-Services in Arkansas-Reducing Mobile-Subsequent Services-Mustered out-Members from Allegan County-From Barry County Organization and Departure of the Seventh Infantry-Ball’s Bluff -On the Peninsula-Second Bull Run and South Mountain-Terrible Fight at Antietam-Gallant Passage of the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg-Chancellorsville-The March to Gettysburg Hard Fight there-At New York-Re-enlistment-The Great Campaign of 1864 and 1865-Mustered out —The Barry County Members.

SIXTH INFANTRY.

This regiment was formed during the summer of 1861, having for its rendezvous the village of Kalamazoo.

It was afterwards organized as heavy artillery, and on account of its almost entire isolation from other Michigan regiments during its term of service, and of the fact that it served as both infantry and artillery as occasion required, it was denominated at State headquarters the “peculiar regiment of Michigan.”

Allegan County had a large representation in its ranks.

Company G, which started for the front under the command of Captain Chauncey J. Bassett, was most emphatically an Allegan County company, and was the first entire command to leave that county’s borders.

Bearing upon its rolls the names of nine hundred and forty-four officers and enlisted men, and commanded by Col. Frederick W. Curtenius, of Kalamazoo, a veteran of the Mexican war, the regiment left its rendezvous Aug. 30, 1861, and proceeded to Baltimore, Md., where it remained on duty for several months.

Early in March, 1862, it sailed for Ship Island, Miss., and from there in April proceeded to New Orleans, and was one of the first regiments to enter that city upon its surrender to Gen. Butler and Admiral Farragut.

On the 15th of May it sailed up the Mississippi, and was engaged in the battle at Baton Rouge on the 5th of June, and again at the same place on the 5th of August, losing on the latter day fifty-three men.

From Aug. 20, 1862, until December 6th, the regiment was stationed at Metairie Ridge, guarding one of the approaches to New Orleans.

This location was exceedingly unhealthy, and the command was so reduced that on the 6th of December, when it moved to New Orleans, only one hundred and ninety-one, out of an aggregate of seven hundred and fifty-five, were fit for duty; but the men soon recovered upon their arrival in the city.

In January, 1863, the regiment was with the expedition, under Gen. Weitzel, to Bayou Teche, which destroyed a rebel gunboat.

In the early part of February it was stationed a few miles out from New Orleans, and on the 23d of the month accompanied an expedition to Ponchatoula, where it had quite a sharp skirmish, losing two men Captain Bassett was commisioned major of a colored regiment in October, 1862.

He afterwards rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the same regiment, and was killed while in command of it, during the disastrous Red River campaign. Wounded.

On the 12th of May it made a raid on thy Jackson Railroad, destroying a camp at Tangipahoa, capturing sixty prisoners, and destroying property of the value of four hundred thousand dollars.

On the 21st of the month it embarked for Port Hudson, where it arrived on the 23d.

During the siege of this stronghold by Gen. Banks it was in an advanced position, and participated in the assaults of May 27th and June 14th, in which it lost severely.

On the 29th of June a detachment of thirty-five men formed the forlorn hope of an assaulting column which attacked the “citadel,” but were driven back with a loss of eight killed and nine wounded.

By an order of Major-Gen. Banks, commanding the Department of the Gulf, issued on the 10th of July, following the surrender of Port Hudson, the Sixth was converted into a heavy artillery regiment, and on the 30th of the same month the order was approved by the Secretary of War.

The regiment was stationed at Port Hudson from the last-mentioned date until March 11, 1864, engaged in garrison duty.

At the latter date, the men having mostly re-enlisted as veterans, the command proceeded to Kalamazoo, Michigan, on a furlough of thirty days.

On the 11th of May it arrived at Port Hudson, with its ranks well filled by men recruited in Michigan.

On the 6th of June it was ordered to Morganza to serve as infantry, at which place it remained until the 24th, when it proceeded to Vicksburg, where it joined the engineer brigade.

On the 23d of July it was sent to the mouth of White River, Arkansas, and thence to St. Charles, in that State, where it was attached to a regiment of infantry.

A detachment of the regiment, while on a transport en route from Vicksburg to White River, was fired upon by a rebel battery, and lost two men killed and several wounded.

It remained but a short time at St. Charles, when it returned to Morganza, where it was for some time employed on engineer service, but subsequently was returned to duty as heavy artillery by the chief of artillery.

It was present at the surrender of Fort Morgan, Alabama, but not in time to participate in the bombardment.

On the 1st of October portions of the regiment were stationed at Forts Gaines and Morgan, in Mobile Bay.

On the 23d of December, 1864, five companies were detached for an expedition under Gen. Gordon Granger against Mobile, and were temporarily attached as infantry to the brigade of Gen. Bertram, with which they continued until Jan. 27, 1865, when they were returned to the regiment.

On the 31st of March, Companies A and K were detached from the command at Fort Morgan and ordered to report to Gen. Granger at the front, each being equipped with a battery of ten-inch mortars.

On their arrival they were placed in position under the guns of the Spanish Fort, where they did fine execution at fourteen hundred yards’ range.

Upon the surrender of this fort the two companies manned and turned the captured guns, consisting of seven-inch Brooks rifles and one-hundred-pounder Parrotts, on the remaining rebel forts, Huger and Tracy, which soon after surrendered.

April 10th, Company B was placed on picket duty at Navy Cove, and Company E was assigned to duty in garrisoning Fort Powell.

Companies A and K rejoined the garrison at Fort Morgan, April 20th, and on the 9th of July the regiment was ordered to report to Gen. Sheridan at New Orleans, where it arrived on the 11th, and encamped at Greenville, four miles from the city.

At that place it was furnished with new camp-equipage and wagontrain, and placed under orders for Texas; but on the 5th of August orders were received for its muster out, which was completed on the 20th, and on the 30th it arrived at Jackson, Michigan, and on the 5th of September was paid and disbanded.

Its losses during the war were sixty-five men killed or died of wounds, and four hundred and fifty died of disease,-the heaviest loss by disease of any Michigan regiment during the war.

MEMBERS OF THE SIXTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Non- Commissioned Staff.

Com.-Sergeant Leander W. Leighton, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability.

Hosp.-Stew. Geo. W. Moore, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; promoted 1st Lieutenant 11th Regiment Col. Art’y, Aug. 6, 1863.

Drum-Msj. Danl. W. Marbell, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, March 30, 1862.

Company A.

Win. R. Ashcroft, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company B.

Clayton M. Carr, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company C.

Jefferson Brown, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Wm. Gorman, mustered out Sept. 5, 1865.

Albert Pearsall, died of disease at New Orleans, La., Oct. 9, 1864.

Company E.

Geo. Nichols, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company G.

Captain Chauncey J. Bassett, Allegan; com. Aug. 19, 1861; promoted Major in Louisiana Regiment Col. Troops, Oct. 20, 1862.

Captain Henry Stark, Otsego; com. Oct. 21, 1862; 1st Lieutenant Aug. 20, 1861; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. White, Otsego; com. July 1, 1862; died of disease at Carrolton, La., Oct. 16, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Oscar Haire, Otsego; com. Oct. 21, 1862; enlisted as Sergeant Oct. 21, 1861; res. July 19, 1864.

2d Lieutenant Alfred C. Wa!lin, com. Aug. 21, 1861; res. June 30, 1862.

Sergeant Win. H. White, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; promoted 1st Lieutenant July 1, 1862.

Sergeant Jas. E. Garrison, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, June 26, 1864.

Jas. Stewart, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 29, 1863.

Sergeant Sidney Ruuse, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; veteran, Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Corp. Richard W. Duncan, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; killed at Port Hudson, June 30, 1863.

Corp. Alonzo H. Chandler, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability.

Sergeant Geo. M. Guest, enl: Aug. 20, 1861; discharged by order, Sept. 28, 1863.

Corp. Walter Wood, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Corp. Rodolplhus Symonds, died of disease at Port Hudson, July 23, 1863.

Corp. Geo. H. Hiarris, discharged Dec, 10, 1863.

Corp. John E. Hopper, discharged for disability, Feb. 19, 1863.

Musician Charles Bassett, died of disease, Nov. 10, 1861.

Musician Curtis Myers, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Musician Warren Johnson, discharged for disability, Jan. 20, 1862.

Wagoner John P. Parish, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Jas. Austin, died of disease at Fort Morgan, Ala., April 12, 1865.

Wm. Bailey, discharged for disability, Oct. 15, 1862.

Daniel Buskerk, discharged for disability, Jan. 20, 1862.

John Born, died in action at Baton Rouge, Aug. 5, 1862.

Jas. H. Booker, died in action at Port Hudson, May 27, 18a3.

John Bartlett, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Milo Baker, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865. Thomas Carey, died of disease at New Orleans, Aug. 15, 1862.

Elijah Crane, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28, 1863.

Richard L. Darling, died of disease, June 28, 1862.

Frederick Dailey, died of disease at Port Hudson, Aug. 24, 1863.

Geo. W. Dailey, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Carlos E. Dexter, discharged for disability, June 5, 1863.

Enoch S. Dexter, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Jas. W. Edwards, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Lewis Eggleston, died of disease, May 28, 1862.

Terry C. Fuller, died of disease at Port Hudson, Aug. 26, 1862.

Geo. W. Frank, discharged at end of service, Aug. 2:3, 1864.

Bevj. Fry, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

James Frew, discharged at end of service, Aug 2:3, 1864.

David C. Frew, discharged by order, April 26, 1864.

William Frew, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Joseph W. Fay, missing in action. Jennings Goring, died of disease, Nov. 18, 1861.

IHenry Guest, discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

Abram E. Garrison, discharged by order, Oct. 8, 1863.

Miles Horn, discharged for disability, June 30, 1862.

Edward Haumer, discharged at end of service, Feb. 20, 1865.

Robert Harrison, died of wounds, July 1, 1863.

Freeman Hudden, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Francis M. Hurd, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Almos J. Jackson, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

William Kerns, discharged for disability, April 10, 1862.

John J. Kennison, dis(ch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

J. E. Kennison, discharged by order, Feb. 26, 18C4.

William Kidder, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28,18C3.

Luke Maloy, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28, 1863.

Homer Mankus, died of disease at Vicksburg, July 12, 1864.

William Marshall, died of disease, Sept. 16, 1862.

Henry Marble, died of disease, Oct. 24, 1862.

Leonard Minard, discharged for disability, Dec. 10, 1861.

John J. Maine, discl. for disability, Jan. 30, 1864.

Solomon McBride, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

John McBride, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Ebenezer G. Murma, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Robert H. Norris, (lied of disease at New Orleans, La., Jan. 5, 1863.

George Newton, discharged for disability, Oct. 3, 1863.

Oliver Potts, discharged for disability, Api il 9, 1862.

William H. Parish, discharged for disability, April 11, 1862.

Curtis Z. Pratt, discli. by order, Oct. 8, 1863.

Silas Pratt, died of disease.

Charles Parkhurst, died of disease at Carrollton, La., Feb. 11, 1863.

Robert Payne, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Charles E. Plummer, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out. Aug. 20, 1865.

William Ross, discharged tor disability, Dec. 10, 1861.

Leander Ross, discli. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

Orlando D. Rosenburg, discharged at eind of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

John Rollins, discli. at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Riley Southwell, discharged for disability, Oct. 15, 1862.

Henry Southwell, discharged for disability, Dec. 26, 1862.

John B. Smith, discharged for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

Enoch Simpson, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Csborn Swaney, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Hiram Sliriver, died of disease at Carrollton, La., Sept. 30, 1862.

George H. Starkweather, died of wounds, July 1, 1863.

Samuel Schrickengast, died of disease at Port Hudson, July 23, 1863.

Frank B. Seymour, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20. 1865.

Orvis Sweetland, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Charles Symonds, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

James C. Symonds, veteran, etl.March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Byron Teal, discharged for disability, Oct. 10, 1861.

John W. Van Lent, discli. for disability.

Peter Wyner, died of wounds at Baton Rouge, July 3, 1863.

Henry A. Wiltse, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Brown Wynne, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Frank Whipple, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Theodore Weed, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

James Youlden, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company I.

George M. Pardee, died of disease at Vicksburg, Sept. 25, 1864.

Company K.

Henry Ilixon, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SIXTH INFANTRY.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major George T. Griswold, Vermontville; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. H.

Company C.

Chauncey Boyce, discharged to enlist in regular service, Nov. 17, 1862.

William H. Burges-, discharged by order, May 18, 1865.’

G. P. Sterling, discharged to enlist ill regular service, Nov. 17, 1862.

Company G.

Samuel Russell, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company H.

1st Lieutenant Henry C. Baer, Castleton; com. March 7, 1865; 2d Lieutenant Dec. 2, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

2d Lieutenant George T. Griswold, Hastings; com. March 7, 1865; previously SergeantMajor; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Allen T. Baer, died of disease at Oak Hall, Va., Nov. 18, 1861.

Henry C. Baer, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864.

Leander Cross, died of disease at New Orleans, La., Dec. 25, 1862.

John A. Gregg, veteran, enlisted Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Ely Myers, died of disease at Natchez, Miss., May 18, 1862.

SEVENTH INFANTRY.

The Seventh Regiment of Infantry was recruited during the summer of 1861, and rendezvoused at Monroe.

It was mustered into the service for three years, August 22d, and, bearing upon its rolls the names of eight hundred and eighty-four officers and enlisted men, set out for Virginia, Sept. 5, 1861.

Arriving there, it was stationed on the upper Potomac.

It was one of the regiments detailed to go to Ball’s Bluff, on the 21st of October, under Gen. Baker, and shared in the losses inflicted by the sudden and overwhelming attack of the enemy on that disastrous day.

In the spring of 1862 it proceeded with the Army of the Potomac to the Peninsula.

At Yorktown, West Point, Fair Oaks, and the “Seven Days’ Fight,” the Seventh was an active participant.

Retiring with the same army from the Peninsula, the enemy was again met at the second Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862, and at South Mountain, September 14th.

Three days later it stood face to face with the foe at Antietam.

Here it was engaged in one of the most terrific struggles of the war, and bravely maintained itself throughout, though the victory it assisted to achieve was purchased at the cost of a list of killed and wounded embracing more than one-half of its force present in action.

After Antietam the Seventh continued with the Army of the Potomac, in its marches through Northern Virginia, until the 11th of December, 1862, when that army stood on the north side of the Rappahannock gazing across at the enemy’s works at Fredericksburg.

During the night of the 10th the Union pontoniers had partially constructed a pontoon-bridge across the stream, but at daylight the rebel sharpshooters soon drove them away.

Volunteers were called for to cross the river and seize a foothold on the opposite shore.

Lieutenant-Col. Baxter, then in command, called on the Seventh for that duty, and as one man they responded to the call.

Foremost of all the army, they sprang into the boats and pulled for the opposite side.

The rebel bullets fell thick and fast among them and many were slain or wounded, among the latter being their gallant commander, but still they held on their way, and at length made good their landing.

Close behind them came a Massachusetts regiment.

The two formed on the bank, dashed up to the heights above, drove the enemy from his entrenchments, and captured several hundred prisoners at the point of the bayonet.

The bridge was then completed, and a portion of the army crossed in safety.

The subsequent disasters which befell the forces there assembled under Gen. Burnside cannot dim the glory gained by the Seventh Michigan Infantry in the execution of this brilliant exploit.

On the 3d of May, 1863, the regiment again crossed the Rappahannock to take part in the battle of Chancellorsville, but was not seriously engaged.

During the Gettysburg campaign the regiment under went more than the usual hardships of that dusty and torrid period.

On the 27th of June it marched thirty-seven miles, six on the 28th, and on the 29th thirty-two miles, making seventy-five in three days,-a remarkable exploit when it is considered that every soldier carried a rifle, bayonet, full cartridge-boxes, belts, blanket, haversack with three days’ rations, and canteen, and that the marching in column in a cloud of dust is far more fatiguing than walking alone.

The Seventh arrived at Gettysburg on the 2d of July, and immediately went into battle on Cemetery Hill.

In this exposed position it remained until the close of the action, meeting and repelling some of the fiercest attacks of the enemy.

So much had the regiment been depleted by its previous conflicts that only fourteen officers and one hundred and fifty-one men went into this fight.

Of this small number twenty-one were killed (including the commander, Lieutenant-Col. Steele) and forty-four wounded, the total casualties being nearly half of the whole number engaged.

Shortly after the Gettysburg victory the regiment was ordered to New York City to assist in preserving order during the enforcement of the draft.

Returning to Virginia, it was engaged in skirmishing, marching, etc., until December 7th, when it went into winter-quarters at Barry’s Hill.

Here one hundred and fifty-three men re-enlisted as veterans, and the regiment was sent home to recruit.

After thirty days’ furlough it returned to Barry’s Hill.

It remained there until the grand advance of the army took place, during the early days of May, 1864.

From that time until the collapse of the Rebellion was rendered certain by the surrender at Appomattox, the Seventh was ever found in the fore-front of battle.

In the campaign from May to November, 1864, it had lost forty-one men killed, one hundred and thirty-one wounded, thirty-six taken prisoners, and thirty reported as missing in action, some of whom were killed.

After the review at Washington, D. C., the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., where it arrived June 23d.

It was mustered out of service at Jeffersonville, Ind., July 5th, and reached Jackson, Michigan, two days later, where it was paid off and disbanded.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE SEVENTH INFANTRY.

Company H.

Thomas Cromp, discharged by order, July 7, 1865.

Company I.

Captain Bezaleel W. Lovell, com. Aug. 22, 1861; res. Aug. 30, 1862.

Captain Elhanan C. Phetteplace, com. Sept. 2, 1862; 1st Lieutenant, Aug. 22, 1861; res. May 11, 1863.

Captain Samuel C. Ilodgman, comr. June 22, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Sept. 2, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, Aug. 25, 1862; res. March 1, 1864.

Corp. Irving Rose, enlisted Aug. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 6, 1862.

Musician P. B. Haman, enlisted Aug. 22, 1861; discharged April 10, 1863.

John B. Ashley, died of wounds at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 2, 1862.

Orman Armstrong, discharged for disability, May 12, 1864.

Joshua Boorum, discharged for disability, April 14, 1863.

John Chapman, discharged for disability. Henry Cromp, discharged by order, July 28, 1865.

Lucius M. Cady, died at Savage’s Station, June 30, 1862.

Wallace Evans, discharged July 23, 1862. Augustus M. Fonts, discharged for disability.

Andrew J. Forber, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Alonzo Fonts, died of disease at Bolivar, Md., about Dec. 1, 1862.

Joseph A. Kidder, died of disease at Camp Benton, Md., Dec. 29, 1861.

Caleb Kelly, discharged for disability, Sept. 2, 1862.

John H. McClelland, discharged for disability, June 30, 1862.

Thomas McLeod, discharged for disability, July 9, 1862. Philander Mead, mustered out July 5, 1865.

James Norton, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Charles H. Palmer, died of disease at Fort Monroe, May 3, 1862.

Nathaniel S. Pangburn, discharged for disability, March 4, 1863. Xylar Sweet, discharged Nov. 15, 1862.

Charles Scoby, veteran, enlisted Dec. 18, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

James M. Travis, died of wounds at Frederick, Md., Oct. 10, 1862.

Henry M. Taylor, discharged May 30, 1862.

Henry L. Valentine, discharged for disability.

Amos W. Warner, discharged for disability.

Charles 0. Wade, discharged for disability, Aug. 5, 1862.

EIGHTH, NINTH, AND TWELFTH INFANTRY.

Formation and Departure of the Eighth Infantry-Takes Part in the Expedition to South Carolina-Its Services and Battles there-Its Casualties-To Kentucky and Mississippi-Back to Kentucky Through Cumberland Gap to East Tennessee-Siege of Knoxville -Re-enlistment-Off to Virginia-Services in the Campaign of 1864-Brilliant closing Services-Muster out-Members from Barry County-From Allegan County-The Ninth Infantry recruited, mustered in, and ordered to Kentucky-Winter-Quarters there Services in Tennessee-Six Companies attacked at Murfreesboro by Forrest’s Division of Cavalry-Suffers Heavy Loss, and is compelled to surrender-Prisoners exchanged-Regiment detailed as Provost-Guard-Re-enlistment- Continuation of Guard Duty through the War-Marches with Sherman’s Army to Atlanta Services at Chattanooga and Nashville-Mustered out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members-The Twelfth Infantry -Mustered in and hurried to the Front-Pittsburg Landing Battle of Metamora-A Detachment defends a Block-House Services in Mississippi-In Arkansas-Close of its Services-Barry County Members-Allegan County Members.

EIGHTH INFANTRY.

This regiment rendezvoused at Detroit.

It was mustered into the service Sept. 23, 1861, and on the 27th of the same month, having on its rolls the names of nine hundred and fifteen officers and enlisted men, it set out for the front, led by the gallant Col. William M. Fenton, of Flint.

At Annapolis, Md., on the 19th of October, 1861, it embarked as part of the expedition which under Gen. T. W. Sherman was to operate against the enemy along the South Atlantic coast.

From this time until the termination of the Antietam campaign the regiment was very actively engaged, participating in nine battles, occurring in four different States, viz.: Hilton Head, S. C.. Nov. 7, 1861; Port Royal Ferry, S. C., Jan. 1, 1862; Fort Pulaski, Ga., April 14, 1862; Wilmington Island, Ga., April 16, 1862; James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862; Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29 and 30, 1862; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, 1862; South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862; and Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Its casualties at Wilmington Island were fourteen killed and thirty wounded; at James Island, thirteen killed, ninety-seven wounded, thirty-five missing, and thirty-five taken prisoners.

The alterations from the time of its enlistment to Nov. 1, 1862, showed the following astonishing results:

Number of men discharged, two hundred and sixty;

died of disease, fifty-five;

killed in battle or died of wounds received in action, eighty-nine;

wounded in action, two hundred and forty-three;

deserted, ten;

taken prisoner – One hundred of these were discharged because of their enlistment in the regular army.

joined by enlistment, two hundred and seventy-three;

officers resigned, twenty-one.

In March, 1863, it proceeded with the Ninth Army Corps to Kentucky, and in June following to Vicksburg, Miss.; thence in August it proceeded, via Cairo, Cincinnati, and Nicholasville, to Crab Orchard, Ky., and on the 10th of September it marched, via Cumberland Gap, to Knoxville, Tenn., where, with the Ninth Army Corps, under Gen. Burnside, it participated in the stirring scenes there enacted during the fall of 1863.

During the siege of Knoxville by the rebels under Longstreet the Eighth occupied the front line of works, and assisted to repel the fierce assault on Fort Sanders, Nov. 29, 1863.

The regiment during this period endured many hardships and privations from want of sufficient food and clothing.

The enemy were finally compelled to retire, and were pursued by the Eighth as far as Rutledge.

The regiment then re-enlisted as veteran volunteers, and on the 8th of January commenced its march across the mountains via Cumberland Gap. Nicholasville, Ky., was reached January 19th; a march of two hundred miles, through icy passes and over rough mountain-roads, having been performed in ten days.

Arriving home, a large number of recruits was obtained, and on the 9th of March, 1864, the regiment left its rendezvous at Flint, and again proceeded to join the Ninth Army Corps in Virginia.

Thenceforth its history was identified with that of the Army of the Potomac.

In the battle of the Wilderness it lost ninety-nine men, killed, wounded, and missing; at Spottsylvania, forty-nine; at Bethesda Church, fifty-two; at Petersburg, June 17th and 18th, forty-nine men.

At the Crater, Weldon Railroad, Ream’s Station, Poplar Grove Church, Pegram Farm, Boydton Road, and Hatcher’s Run, it was also engaged, losing numerously in killed, wounded, and missing.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, it had lost in killed, or died of wounds received in action, eighty-six men; died of disease, forty; wounded in action, two hundred and eighty-seven; missing in action, twenty-nine; taken prisoners, thirty-seven; while it had gained by reenlistment of veterans two hundred and ninety-nine, and by the joining of recruits, five hundred and forty-two.

In the final campaign in Virginia the Eighth bore a distinguished part.

It assisted to repulse the enemy when he assaulted Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865, and on the 2d of April was engaged in the attack on his position at Fort Mahon, when it carried the works in its front, and was the first regiment to place its colors on that rebel stronghold.

It occupied Petersburg, April 3d, and soon after marched to ‘City Point, whence it embarked on transports to Alexandria, Va.

It was mustered out of service at’ Delaney House, D. C., July 30, 1865, and, arriving in Detroit, Michigan, Aug. 3, 1865, was paid in full and disbanded.

MEMBERS OF THE EIGHTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp. Stwd. John Michael, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 30, 1861; discharged at end of ser, vice, Sept. 23, 1864.

Company B.

Sergeant Saml. Stowell, enlisted Aug. 26, 1861; discharged for disability, March 23, 1863.

James H. Black, discharged to enlisted in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862.

John C. Black, veteran, enlisted Dec. 29, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

David C. Lee, discharged to enlisted in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862.

Company F.

1st Lieutenant Travers Philips, Hastings; cor. Aug. 29, 1861; res. June 11, 1862. 2d Lieutenant

Jacob Maus, Hastings; com. Aug. 29, 1861; res. Jan. 9, 1862. 1st Lieutenant

Austin D. Bates, Irving; enlisted Jan. 9, 1862; sergeant; res. Oct. 23, 1862.

Sergeant Wm. A. Thomas, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Sergeant Jas. F. Mead, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; promoted 2d Lieutenant June 6, 1864; mustered out at end of service, Sept. 23, 1864.

Sergeant Chas. H. Swartout, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Co. G. Sergeant Chas. Snyder, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; promoted 2d Lieutenant; mustered out Sergeant, July 30, 1865.

Sergeant John M. Bessmer, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 30, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 31, 1863.

Corp. Augustus I. Newton, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 9, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Corp. Edgar A. Nye, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; died in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864.

Corp. Wm. H. H. Powers, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 2, 1861; veteran; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Corp. John H. Wolfe, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; discharged at end of service, Sept. 23, 1864.

Musician Wilbur F. Dickinson, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 8, 1865.

Wagoner Robert D. Gates, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; discharged by order, May 3, 1863.

Saml. Belsom, discharged for disability, Dec. 27, 1862.

Alonzo H. Bennett, discharged for disability, Feb. 13, 1863.

Julius Brazee, discharged at end of service, May 15, 1865.

Win. 0. Barrett, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Wm. C. Barrett, Died of disease at Washington, D. C., August, 1864.

Dorrance E. Burdick, veteran, enlisted Dec. 29, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Sidney D. Cobb, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

Emmett Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862.

Harlan Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Geo. Cross, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Alonzo B. Duffy, discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Alvan B. Durham, veteran, died of disease at Washington, D. C., May 4, 1865.

John G. Dowd, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

William Desmond, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Edward H. Easton, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Henry Grebel, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

William H. Geiger, discharged fQr disability, March 27, 1862.

Abraham Guntrip, discharged Jan. 8, 1863.

Joseph Garnish, died of wounds at Washington, D. C., June 30, 1864.

Oliver H. Greenfield, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, July 6, 1865.

William LI. Holden, veteran, eul. Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Henry W. Hawes, discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Edward Johnson, discharged for disability, Sept. 27, 1861.

Elijah Kibbee, discharged by order, Aug. 15, 1865.

Herman Knickerbocker, died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

George W. Kightliner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; died on picket duty before Petersburg, Va., Dec. 9, 1864.

George Lusk, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

James Y. McLellan, died of wounds, June 25, 1862.

John F. Maile, discharged for promotion, Aug. 11, 1864.

Daniel McKenzie, discharged at end of service, March 27, 1865.

John L. Maile, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Jan. 20, 1865.

Duncan McBain, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Daniel Pierce, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 12, 1865.

John F. Phillips, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Nov. 23, 1861.

James S. Perry, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

James I. Fullmer, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862. George W. Peck, discharged for disability.

Close R. Palmer, discharged for disability. Charles M. Runyan, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Gurden Clark Rathbun, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

William Stokes, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Nov. 27, 1861.

Benjamin Sirebury, discharged for disability.

Henry Sliter, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Hiram Seeley, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Edward G. Stoffe, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Richard C. Smith, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; died of disease in Michigan, Feb. 2, 1864.

John B. Tatro, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Dec. 6, 1861.

William S. Turrell, died of wounds at Fredericksburg, Va., June 18, 1864.

Harmon Wanderlish, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

Luther B. Wilcox, died at Spottsylvania, Va., May 9, 1864.

Myron H. Wells, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

William R. Wheeler, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

George Wellman, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

John W. Waggoner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 12, 1865.

Company G.

1st Lieutenant Chas. H. Swartout, Prairieville; enlisted Oct. 18, 1864; promoted Captain Co. K, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 30, 1865.

13 I William Carpenter, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Daidimus M. Darling, mustered out July 30, 1865.

John English, mustered out July 30, 1865.

John Lewis, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Company L

Edgar A. Clark, discharged by order, July 6, 1861.

Edgar H. Clark, discharged by order, Aug. 9, 1865.

Alonzo Gilbert, discharged by order, Aug. 9, 1865.

Elijah P. Guiger, discharged by order Aug. 9, 1865.

Pelingal D. Wright, discharged for disability, Feb. 4, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE EIGHTH INFANTRY.

Company D.

Quincy C. Lamoreaux, died of disease at home, April 25, 1865.

Company G.

Wm. Coleman, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Nathaniel Davis, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Robt. Patterson, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Thos. Welch, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Chas. Wilson, killed on picket before Petersburg, Feb. 18, 1865.

NINTH INFANTRY.

This regiment, so well known in the old Army of the Cumberland, was recruited during the summer and fall of 1861, its rendezvous being at Fort Wayne, near Detroit.

It was mustered into the United States service for three years Oct. 15, 1861, and ten days later proceeded to the seat of war in Kentucky, being the first regiment from Michigan to enter upon active service in the field, west of the Alleghanies.

It reached Jeffersonville, Ind., on the 27th, and the following day embarked for Salt River, Ky.

Soon after, it constructed a defensive work on Muldraugh’s Hill, a point on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, where it remained during’ the winter of 1861-62.

During its stay at that place the men of the Ninth were terribly afflicted with measles and other diseases, and as many as four hundred were on the sick-list at one time.

The regiment remained at its winter cantonment until February, 1862.

Immediately after the capture of Fort Donelson it was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., and after a few weeks to Murfreesboro, Tenn., where it was on garrison duty nearly all the time until July 13, 1862.

During that period, however, it formed part of Gen. Negley’s command, which marched as far south as the Tennessee River, opposite Chattanooga, and then returned to Murfreesboro.

Subsequently four companies were detached and stationed at Tullahoma, Tenn.

On the 13th of July, at four o’clock in the morning, the six companies stationed at Murfreeibboro were attacked by three thousand rebel Cavalry under Gen. Forrest.

The Third Minnesota Infantry, with a battery, was encamped two miles northwest of the town.

The first attack on the camp of five companies-one company was at the courthouse-was repulsed.

Gen. Forrest then attacked the single company in the court-house.

Col. Parkhurst sent to the commander of the Minnesota regiment for aid, which the latter, perhaps for good reasons, declined to give.

The one company in the court-house held the foe at bay two hours, but was obliged to surrender.

Forrest then returned to attack the camp.

The men had meanwhile thrown up some slight defenses, behind which they fought vigorously until past noon, having just one hundred officers and men (out of less than three hundred) killed and wounded.

Finding themselves outnumbered ten to one, and receiving no assistance, they finally yielded to the inevitable, and surrendered.

The enlisted men were paroled at McMinnville, but the officers were not released until several months later.

In the latter part of December, 1862 (the prisoners taken at Murfreesboro having been exchanged and returned to duty) the regiment was detailed as provost-guard of the Fourteenth Corps, with Col. (afterwards General) Parkhurst as provost-marshal.

Gen. Thomas remarked, when he made the detail, that he had fully acquainted himself with the conduct of the regiment in the defense of Murfreesboro, and that he needed just such a force for provost-guard.

The Ninth acted in that capacity throughout the remainder of the war.

Its services at the battles of Stone River and Chickamauga in stopping runaways and maintaining order were arduous in the extreme, and were warmly complimented by Gen. Thomas.

When that gallant officer assumed command of the Army of the Cumberland, after Chickamauga, Col. Parkhurst was made provost-marshalgeneral of the department, and the Ninth became the provost-guard of that army.

In December, 1863, two hundred and twenty-nine of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and returned to Michigan on furlough.

In the latter part of February, 1864, they again appeared at Chattanooga, with their numbers increased to about five hundred men.

The regiment was again ordered to act as provost-guard of the Army of the Cumberland, and during the summer and autumn participated in all the movements of that army in Georgia and Tennessee.

It entered Atlanta on its evacuation by the enemy, and was there engaged in provost duty until that city was abandoned by the Union forces, when it returned to Chattanooga.

It was largely recruited during the season, and, notwithstanding the muster out of non-veterans whose terms had expired, had eight hundred and ninety-seven enlisted men on the 1st of November, 1864.

It remained in Chattanooga until the 27th of March, 1865, when it was moved to Nashville.

There it stayed on duty at headquarters and as guard at the military prison until the 15th of September, when it was mustered out of service.

The following day it set out for Michigan, arriving at Jackson on the 19th, and on the 26th day of September, 1865, the Ninth Michigan Infantry was paid off and disbanded.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company E.

John C. Henry, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Loren Hill, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Geo. H. Kirkland, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Richard C. Kent, died of disease at Nashville, July 2, 1865.

Company H.

Mason F. Rose, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 25, 1865.

Samuel A. Raplee, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Hiram Saxton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Asahel Sprague, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Jas. W. Schemerhorn, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company I.

Christian Sutter, discharged by order, Jan. 7, 1865.

Eli Shuck, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company K.

John E. Kenyon, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Win. L. Torry, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Edwin O. Fenny, mustered out June 8, 1865.

John Weigand, mustered out July 4, 1865.

Company B.

Jas. W. Bennett, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Nicholas Barton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Wm. Corey, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Horace Cook, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Saml. Coleman, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Patrick Colton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Martin J. Darling, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Miles Woodmansee, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company C.

Albert Emmons, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Samuel Fisk, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Lorenzo Lawrence, died of disease at Nashville, July 2, 1865.

Company D.

Wm. D. Green, mustered out June 20, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company A.

William W. Ashley, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company B.

Orrin J. Buck, mustered out June 20, 1865.

John H. Crispel, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 19, 1865.

Company E.

Sidney M. Constantine, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

George Gordon, discharged by order, Sept. 27, 1865.

Levi Kingsbury, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 7, 1865.

Company G.

Samuel A. Owen, discharged by order, June 20, 1865.

Company H.

Sheil Pulsifer, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Orrin Potter, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company L

Watson W. Wait, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company K.

John Tagle, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

TWELFTH INFANTRY.

The Twelfth Regiment of Michigan Infantry was mustered into the United States service at Niles, March 5, 1862, and on the 18th of the same month proceeded to St. Louis, Mo.

From there it was hurried forward to the Tennessee River, and reached Pittsburg Landing in time to take part in the battles fought there on the 6th and 7th of April.

It was also engaged in the battle of Metamora. on the Hatchie River, Oct. 5, 1862.

From the time of its organization to Nov. 1, 1862, it had lost forty-seven men killed, or died of wounds received in action, ninety-two wounded in action, one hundred and six died of disease, and one hundred and six men taken prisoners at Shiloh.

On the 24th of December, 1862, while one hundred and fifteen of the regiment were occupying a block-house at Middleburg, Tenn., they were attacked by a force of the enemy’s Cavalry three thousand strong.

A severe engagement ensued, ending in the complete repulse of the enemy, with a loss to him of nine killed and eleven wounded, left on the field.

Gen. Grant in subsequent orders warmly congratulated the men on account of this heroic defense.

Early in June, 1863, the regiment was ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., and during the siege was stationed on Haynes’ and Snyder’s Bluffs. After the surrender of Vicksburg it was ordered into Arkansas, where the remainder of its service was performed.

It re-enlisted as a veteran regiment at Little Rock, in November, 1863, when it returned to Niles on furlough.

It again took the field -its ranks swelled by numerous recruits-in March, 1864;

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

I returning to Arkansas, where various duties were well performed until Feb. 15, 1866, when it was mustered out of the service at Little Rock.

It arrived at Jackson, Michigan, February 27th, where its members received their final pay and their discharge-papers, on the 6th of March, 1866.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE TWELFTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff.

Asst. Surg. Almon A. Thompson, Vermontville; com. Sept. 24, 1862; res. Jan. 28, 1863; asst. surg. in 11th Cavalry., Dec. 23, 1863; mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Company A.

Alfred L. Clyborne, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

Henry Casselman, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

Charles E. Ferguson, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

John Heath, discharged for disability, Sept. 23, 1865.

Jay Proctor, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., Jan. 7, 1865.

Company C.

Duncan McDonald, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company E.

Perry Brown, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., April 6, 1865.

William Brown, discharged by order, May 27, 1865.

Jesse Callihan, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

George L. Chandler, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Elijah J. Hale, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Charles C. Jenson, discharged by order, Sept. 14, 1865.

Company G.

Joel G. Brown, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Hamilton Brown, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Merritt Everett, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Warren Everett, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Alfred Feighner, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 28, 1864.

John Rinehart, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., Aug. 14, 1864.

Ansel Towle, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Aaron Wright, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 17, 1863.

John Walker, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 3, 1864.

Company I.

John Hartwell, discharged by order, Aug. 22, 1865.

Solomon Seward, discharged by order, Sept. 30, 1865.

Company K.

Hiram Johnson, died of disease at Washington, Ark., July 11, 1865.

MEMBERS OF THE TWELFTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company B.

Albert Critz, died of disease at Camden, Ark., Sept. 24, 1865.

Edward P. Coots, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company E.

Frederick Hardy, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Jacob Snyder, discharged by order, Sept. 15. 1865.

Company F.

Sergeant Columbus Blake, Gun Plains; enlisted Dec. 10, 1861; died of disease at Pittsburgh, Pa.

Stephen Eldred, discharged September, 1862.

Lawrence B. Green, discl. by order, May 20, 1865.

Stephen M. Hamblen, discharged at end of service, Sept. 9, 1865.

Andrew J. Munger, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

David S. Reynold, discharged Sept. 1, 1862.

Thomas H. Stubbarts, veteran, enlisted Feb. 24, 1864; discharged for disability, Jan. 19, 1865.

Company G.

Benjamirl Alexander, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

Isaiah Rathbone, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company H.

Milton Burnip, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Sept. 15, 1864.

Alfred Dolittle, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Joseph Pattengill, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Samuel F. Stainbrook, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Large Representation from These Counties in the Thirteenth-It joins Buell and marches to Pittsburg Landing-Siege of Corinth-Returns with Buell to Kentucky, and again advances to Tennessee Battle of Stone River-Great Bravery and Heavy Loss-Hard Marching-Battle of Chickamauga-Ordered to serve as Engineers -Re-enlistment-Services near Chattanooga-In Northern Alabama-It joins Sherman at Atlanta-The March to the Sea-The Method of the March-Through the Carolinas-Manner of Procedure-The Battle of Bentonville-A Hard Fight-Col. Eaton killed -Carlin’s First Brigade holds its Ground-Repulsing the Enemy -Capturing a Large Force-Heavy Loss-Subsequent Services Muster out-Officers and Men from Allegan County-From Barry County.

The regiment above named, recruited during the fall of 1861, was mustered into the United States service for three years at Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jan. 17, 1862.

Among its officers and enlisted men the counties of Allegan and Barry were largely represented; the former by more than three hundred men,-its greatest representation in any separate command during the war.

It contained, too, a larger number of the sons of Barry County than any other regiment, excepting the Sixth Cavalry.

Commanded by Col. Michael Shoemaker, the regiment left Kalamazoo for the seat of war in Kentucky, Feb. 12, 1862, with nine hundred and twenty-five officers and men, to which number seventy-four were added by enlistment prior to July, 1862.

The Thirteenth joined Gen. Buell’s forces, and with him marched through Kentucky and Tennessee, via Bowling Green and Nashville, to Pittsburg Landing, which place it reached, after a forced march, near the close of the second day’s battle, too late to take part in the conflict.

From that time until the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard, the Thirteenth was engaged in the arduous picket and pick-and-shovel duties performed by Gen. Halleck’s army during the siege.

It then moved with Gen. Buell’s forces into Northern Alabama, and was the last of the command to leave that locality when the general fell back towards Louisville.

It shared all the hardships of that long march across the States of Tennessee and Kentucky, and soon after reaching Louisville, in October, 1862, retraced its weary steps in pursuit of its old enemy, the rebel Gen. Bragg.

It aided in chasing him and his motley forces out of Kentucky, but was not present at any heavy engagement.

It suffered severely from disease, however; the deaths from this cause during the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, numbering seventy-one, while the number discharged for disability during the same time was one hundred and twenty.

After a short stay at Silver Springs, Tenn., the regiment advanced and aided in driving the enemy from Lebanon.

Proceeding to Nashville, it was on duty in that vicinity until the 26th of December, when it marched with Gen. Rosecrans’ army towards Murfreesboro.

On the 29th it was deployed as skirmishers, and lost several in killed and wounded.

On the 31st of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, the regiment was hotly engaged in the battle of Stone River, having twenty-five killed, sixty-two wounded, and eight missing out of two hundred and twenty-four who entered the conflict.

On the 31st of December it recaptured by a bayonet charge two Union guns which had fallen into the hands of the enemy.

After the victory at Stone River the Thirteenth was engaged in building fortifications at Murfreesboro, and in scouting through the adjoining parts of Tennessee, until the 24th of June, 1863, when it advanced with Gen. Rosecrans against Bragg.

After various marches and countermarches in rear of the retreating forces of the latter general, the regiment, with its division, moved from Hillsboro’, Tenn., to cross the Cumberland Mountains.

By a four days’ march, over mountain ranges rising three thousand feet above the valleys, along roads so steep that the artillery and ambulances, and the baggage, supply and ammunition wagons often had to be hauled up by hand, the division reached the Sequatchie Valley.

It then crossed the Tennessee River at Shell Mound, and, marching upon Chattanooga, the Thirteenth was one of the first regiments to occupy that place.

On the 19th and 20th days of September, 1863, the regiment was in the midst of the hotly contested field of Chickamauga, where, although the Union troops, being outnumbered, were forced to retire from the field, the rebel loss far exceeded their own.

The Thirteenth went into this battle with two hundred and seventeen officers and men, and of that number lost twenty-five killed, fifty-seven wounded, and twenty-five missing, some of whom were probably killed.

The total number of those killed or mortally wounded in action during the year ending Nov. 1, 1863, was fifty-one, while there were ninety-two others wounded, sixty-six who died of disease, and one hundred and sixty-two who were discharged for disability.

On the 5th of November the Thirteenth, together with the Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Michigan Infantry and the Eighteenth Ohio Infantry, was organized into a brigade of engineers and assigned to duty at Chattanooga, being attached to the headquarters of the Department of the Cumberland.

It was present at the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain, but was not seriously engaged.

During the months of December, 1863, and January, 1864, it was stationed on the Chickamauga, engaged in picket duty and in, cutting logs for building warehouses at Chattanooga.

The Thirteenth re-enlisted as a veteran organization January 17, 1864, and on the 5th of February started home, arriving at Kalamazoo on the 12th.

After the usual veteran furlough the regiment returned to the front on the 26th of March, with its numbers increased by over four hundred new recruits.

Chattanooga was again reached April 20, 1864, and for five months from that time the regiment was stationed at Lookout Mountain, engaged in the construction of military hospitals and guarding the sick and wounded sent back from Sherman’s army.

It was then relieved from engineer duty and assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.

After a severe march through Northern Alabama, in pursuit of Forrest’s and Roddy’s rebel Cavalry, the regiment joined its brigade at Rome, Ga., on the 1st of November.

As the Fourteenth and other corps retraced their steps towards Atlanta, the towns on the route, bridges, telegraph lines, and railroads were all destroyed.

And when the corps marched into Atlanta, on the afternoon of November 15th, the city was already in flames, no more to be made a rebel stronghold.

On the following morning Gen. Sherman’s army set out on the celebrated “march to the sea” with one day’s rations in the haversacks and none in the supply-trains.

This renowned but comparatively easy achievement was accomplished by sixty thousand men, veterans, all of them, and the flower of the whole Western army, who swept in a resistless mass through Georgia, brushing contemptuously aside the few feeble detachments of militia and conscripts which endeavored to oppose them, without delaying for a moment their own mighty and majestic advance.

Having reached Savannah on the 10th of December, 1864, the regiment was on duty in the trenches before that city until the 21st of the same month, when Hardee’s rebel forces evacuated the place.

On the 17th of January, 1865, The force under the immediate command of Gen. Sherman in his march through Georgia and the Carolinas was composed of the Fifteenth and S nnh and Seventeeth Army Corps, or ” Army of the Tennessee,” under Gen. Howard, as the right wing, and the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps, or “Army of Georgia,” under Gen. Slocum, as the left wing, while Kilpatrick’s division of Cavalry guarded the front, flanks, and rear.

The Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps formed the major portion of the Army of the Cumberland during the Atlanta campaign of 1864, but at the beginning of Gen. Sherman’s ” march to the sea” the name of Army of Georgia was adopted, to distinguish Gen. Slocum’s command from the troops commanded by Gen. Thomas, who still remained in command of the Army and Department of the Cumberland, with headquarters at Nashville, Tenn.

These four army corps already mentioned were composed of three divisions each, except the Fifteenth, which had four divisions, and each corps, having its own artillery, ammunition, ambulance, pontoon and supply trains, was a separate and well-equipped army in itself.

When no enemy appeared the corps moved on parallel roads from ten to fifteen miles distant from each other.

In case fighting was apprehended, the two corps forming a wing were massed upon one road.

The Fourteenth Corps, commanded by Gen. Jeff; C. Davis, with Kilpatrick’s Cavalry, was usually to be found on the extreme left flank of the armies.

Its First, Second, and Third Divisions were commanded respectively by Gens. Carlin, J. D. Morgan, and Baird, and their movements were made in the following order: Carlin, with the First Division, would take the advance for three days; from two to five miles in rear of him was Morgan, with the Second; while in the rear was Baird, encumbered and struggling to bring forward over swamps, creeks, and rivers the corps trains of six hundred wagons, to each of which was attached six mules, guided with single rein by a profane Northern Jehu, who did not seem to enjoy his position unless covered with mud from spur to visor.

On the morning of the fourth day Carlin would fall in in the rear, taking Baird’s position, Baird would move in the centre, while Morgan took the advance, and thus they alternated at the beginning of each fourth day. Meantime, foraging-parties of from fifty to sixty men, detailed daily from each regiment, scoured the country in front and on the flanks for provisions.

Indeed, so anxious were these foragers to ” strike a fresh plantation” before those of other commands that they usually left camp as early as two o’clock A.M., and throughout the day kept in advance of the main column of troops by a distance of from five to ten miles, very frequently being found in advance of Kilpatrick’s Cavalry.

Whether on foot, on mules, or mounted on Southern thoroughbreds, jolting along in a loaded plantation cart, or riding into camp seated in a sumptuous barouche, the foragers of the Fourteenth Corps cared little for Wheeler’s, Butler’s, or I1impton’s rebel Cavalry, and when attacked by them, readily organized their skirmish line and reserve, without officers, and, advancing, cleared their way.

Thus did Sherman’s armies bowl “down to the sea,” and after the proud and defiant city of Savannah was within their grasp the same scenes were re-enacted in the march northwards through the Carolinas.

The regiment advanced with the Army of Georgia up the right bank of the Savannah River to Sisters’ Ferry, where, after much labor and delay, it crossed into South Carolina.

Thence it proceeded, via Barnwell Court-House, Williston, and Lexington, to near Columbia, S. C.; there it crossed the Saluda River, and, moving up the west bank of the Catawba, crossed the latter river at Rocky Mount, where rains, mud, and swollen streams again hindered the Fourteenth Corps for more than a week.

After making the passage of the Catawba, the command was hurried forward by forced marches to Cheraw, where, on the south bank of Great Pedee, the main forces were overtaken. From there to Fayetteville, N. C., skirmishing with the enemy’s Cavalry was a daily occurrence.

The enemy under Hardee was driven out of the latter place and pursued to Averysboro’, N. C., where, on the 16th of March, a sharp engagement ensued; the enemy being driven from the field, losing heavily in killed and wounded, besides many prisoners,among the latter being Col. Rhett and his famous regiment of young South Carolinians.

The Union forces operating in this field were those of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps, commanded by Gen. Slocum; the Army of the Tennessee, or right wing, being some twenty-five or thirty miles to the eastward, moving on Goldsboro’.

One division of the Fourteenth Corps and of the Twentieth were guarding their respective corps-trains, leaving but four small divisions-at the most not more than twenty thousand men, and one third of those shoeless-to engage such numbers as might oppose them.

From Averysboro’ the Fourteenth Corps took the advance, Morgan’s Second Division leading, and Carlin’s First coming next.

Baird was guarding the train, while the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps were in the rear of Carlin.

During the 17th and 18th of March, Morgan’s skirmishers had several encounters with the enemy, but the latter rapidly retired whenever his columns were seen advancing, until late in the afternoon of the 18th, when the Confederates disputed his further progress with artillery, supported by infantry and Cavalry.

Morgan’s First Brigade, composed of the Tenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, Sixteenth and Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, and Seventeenth New York Infantry, being in the advance, immediately formed line of battle and moved forward, when the enemy again retired.

The regiments of this brigade stacked arms on their color-lines and encamped for the night.

Gen. Sherman, with his staff and escort, also established his headquarters in the midst of this brigade the same evening.

Early on the morning of the 19th the general commanding set out to join the right wing, and Carlin’s First Division of the Fourteenth Corps moved to the front, to take the advance for the three succeeding days.

By this time Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, one of the best officers in the Confederate service, had collected all the available rebel troops in Georgia, North and South Carolina, and was prepared with near forty thousand men to make one desperate effort to stop Sherman’s advance toward Richmond, or at least to defeat his left wing.

He accordingly took up a strong position near the little village of Bentonville, which gave its name to the battle which followed.

His presence was unknown to the Union troops in his front, and when Carlin’s troops moved out on the morning of the 19th, they did so with buoyant spirits and the long, swinging stride so characteristic of this army.

Johnston’s army and line of earthworks were scarcely five miles distant from the place where Morgan encamped on the night of the 18th.

Therefore, Carlin had hardly given room for Morgan to place his command on the road when his (Carlin’s) advance struck the enemy, and at once became hotly engaged.

Morgan’s troops hurried forward on the double-quick and took position, by orders of Gen. Davis, on Carlin’s right, while the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps came up with all possible speed and went into line on his left.

At the beginning of the battle the First Division advanced with confident steps to what they expected would be but a repetition of their former easy victories, and at one time the Thirteenth Michigan gained a position within six rods of the enemy’s intrenchments, but the storm of lead was too severe to be withstood.

The brave Col. Willard G. Eaton, of Otsego, was shot dead at the head of his men, and at length the whole division was compelled to fall back to the shelter of a low acclivity within easy musket-range of the enemy’s works.

The battle raged with wavering fortunes all the rest of the day.

Johnston, in the hopes of destroying before reinforcements could come up a force much less than his own, forced the fight, but the men who here represented the Union arms were the surviving heroes of Donelson, Shiloh, Island No. 10, Corinth, Perrysville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, besides the score of battles fought during the Atlanta campaign; while the eastern troops of the Twentieth Corps had breasted the leaden storm on the Peninsula, at Chantilly, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg before joining the Army of the Cumberland.

They were men who had been out two months from Savannah, receiving during that time no mails, letters, or tidings from home, and they did not propose to be balked in their onward march now, or to assist in filling rebel prison-pens, and the oft-repeated assaults of the enemy were met by a withering fire and counter-charges which sent them hurrying to the shelter of the woods.

While Carlin’s division and the Twentieth Corps were so warmly engaged on the open ground, Morgan was equally busy in the pines on the right, and his First Brigade, under Gen. Vandever, composed of the Michigan, Illinois, and New York Regiments previously mentioned, had the best fortune of any of the troops in the battle of that day.

This brigade was stationed on the extreme right, and its right flank was guarded by an impenetrable swamp.

During the intervals between the charges of the enemy, Vandever’s brigade was enabled to erect log breastworks, the trees being felled and cut into the required lengths with hatchets, of which nearly every man carried one in his waist-belt.

Late in the afternoon, during a desperate charge on Morgan’s left, one of his brigades gave way, and a column of the rebels occupied low, swampy ground.

Their position was screened by a dense pine forest, and was approached by the Union forces over cleared fields.

The enemy passed through the gap.

Wheeling to the left, they moved down in rear of Vandever’s brigade, making it necessary for the Union troops to occupy the front side of their own works, from before which their immediate opponents had happily retired.

Here a short sharp fight of a few moments’ duration was ended by Vandever’s men leaping forward in a charge, and compelling the surrender of several hundred rebels.

In this battle the Thirteenth Michigan Infantry lost one hundred and ten officers and men, killed, wounded, and captured.

During the long night which succeeded, Gen. Sherman was marching the Army of the Tennessee to the reinforcement of the almost overwhelmed, but not defeated, Army of Georgia.

He arrived at daylight of the 20th, and a day or so later Johnston was driven from the field.

After his surrender the Thirteenth proceeded with its command to Washington, D. C., and participated in the grand review of Gen. Sherman’s army, May 24, 1864; left that city on the 9th of June, reaching Louisville, Ky., on the 15th of the latter month.

It was mustered out of service at Louisville, July 25th, and on the 27th of July, 1865, arrived at Jackson, Michigan, where it was paid off and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY WHO SERVED IN THE THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff.

Col. Willard G. Eaton, Otsego; com. Feb. 23, 1865; Major, May 26, 1863;

Captain Co. I, Oct. 20, 1862; 1st Lieutenant Co. I, Oct. 3, 1861; killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Lieutenant-Col. P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. May 12, 1865; Major, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865. (See Co. A.)

Adj. Alanson B. Case, Otsego; com. Jan. 20, 1863; mustered out at end of service Jan. 16, 1865. Non- Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major Alanson B. Case, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 17, 1861; promoted to 2d lieuit.

Co. B.

Sergeant Major Clark D. Fox, Otsego; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. I.

Q.-M. Sergeant Kilburn W. Mansfield, Otsego; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. A, July 4, 1862.

Com. Sergeant John Kirby, Allegan; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. A, April 25, 1865.

Company A.

Captain P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. Feb. 28, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, July 13, 1862; promoted to Major, April 25, 1865. (See Field and Staff.)

1st Lieutenant Kilburn W. Mansfield, Otsego; com. Feb. 28, 1863; 2d Lieutenant, July 4, 1862; promoted to Captain

Co. I. 2d Lieutenant John Kirby, Allegan; com. April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Carlton Barton, discharged for disability, April 30, 1865.

Edgar Barton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Clark B. Brewster, discharged by order, Sept. 8, 1865.

Henry Carmody, died of disease in New York City, Jan. 12, 1865.

Edwin Chamberlain, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John E. Case, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Delevan, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Russell Dyer, died of disease in Allegan, Oct. 1, 1862.

Abial Emmons, discharged for disability, June 25, 1862.

William Ernmons, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Philander J. Edson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Myron C. Finch, discharged by order, July 14, 1865.

Henry Gillespie, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph W. Hershaw, mustered out July 20, 1865.

Edward Howe, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Martin Harter, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Amasa Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Chauncey Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Kipp, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James H. Lewis, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Clark H. Lyman, mustered out Aug. 4, 1865.

Alvin W. Morley, discharged by order, May 20, 1865.

Henry Merchant, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Amos C. Root, died of disease on government steamer, May 7, 1865.

Jacob Schweikert, discharged by order, June 7, 1865.

Alexander W. Sprague, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Abel Stearns, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel Shepard, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Calvin Underwood, discharged for disability, May 16, 1862.

Job Underwood, died of disease at Louisville, July 6, 1862.

George B. Van Arsdale, died of disease at Pittsburgh, May 30, 1865.

I Walter Wood, discharged for disability, Sept. 17, 1862.

Milton B. Williams, discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Company B.

Captain George B. Force, Gun Plains; com. Sept. 23, 1861; res. May 31, 1862.

Captain Dewitt C. Kenyon, Ganges; com. March 19, 1864; let Lieutenant, Jan. 31, 1863; mustered out July 25, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Jacob G. Fry, Ganges; com. May 31, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, Oct. 3, 1861; res. for disability, Jari. 31, 1863.

1st Lieutenant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; com. May 12, 1865; 2d Lieutenant, Aug. 26, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865. 2d Lieutenant

Alanson B. Case, Otsego; com. May 31, 1862; promoted to 1set Lieutenant and adj. (See Field and Staff.)

2d Lieutenant Howell H. Trask, Gun Plains; com. Jan. 20, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant; res. as 2d Lieutenant

2d Lieutenant Leonard E. Perry, Gun Plains; corn, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Sergeant Spencer H. Banks, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 9, 1861; died at Corinth, Miss., June 12, 1862.

Sergeant Howell IH. Trask, Ganges; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Sergeant Dewitt C. Kenyon, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 10, 1861; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Sergeant William 0. Allen, Ganges; enl, Oct. 2, 1861; missing in action at Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863.

Sergeant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 1, 1861; veteran, Feb. 11, 1864; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. G.

Corp. Joseph Miller, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 4, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. William H1. Sherman, Gun Plains; enlisted Oct. 1, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, March 16, 1862.

Musician Edward Breen, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 17, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Musician William Martin, Ganges; enlisted Dec. 10, 1861; discharged for disability, May 27, 1862.

Elias Anway, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Edson Amidon, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Briggs, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Noah Briggs, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Linus Bathrick, discharged for disability, July 19, 1862.

William Burns, discharged Aug. 8, 1862.

Lewis Bell, discharged at end of service, March 22, 1865.

Horace S. Beach, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William H. Barnes, discharged by order, June 9, 1865.

William II. Briggs, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 21, 1864.

James W. Billings, transferred to Signal Corps, Jan. 13, 1864.

Win. B. Chase, discharged for disability, April 28, 1862.

Henry C. Curtis, discharged for disability, Jan. 15, 1864.

Geo. Curtis, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

John Curtis, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Warren Cushman, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

John Crow, mustered out July 25, 1865.

L. Y. Cady, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Cheney, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Claffy, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Orson W. Davis, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Luzerne Durand, discharged by order, July 11, 1865.

Freeman II. Day, died of disease at Lookout Mountain, June 30, 1861.

James Eggleston, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Herman P. Fisher, discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Austin Foot, died of disease at Shiloh, Tenn.

Freeland Gray, discharged for disability, June 22, 1864.

Wm. Gould, veteran; enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wallace Goodsell, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Thos. A. Hubbard, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frank Hapgood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jas. Huddlestone, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Elijah Howard, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 17, 1864.

Geo. Hamilton, discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Pembroke Hazen, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Morris A. James, mustered out July 25, 1865. John Knowlton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Daniel Lee, died ot wounds received in action, Dec. 24, 1863.

Cyrille Le Due, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Frank May, discharged for disability, May 21, 1863.

Sylvester Munger, discharged for disability, April 2, 1863.

Wirt J. Morris, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1863.

Chas E. McCarty, discharged for disability, May 22, 1862.

Geo. A. Miller, discharged for disability, May 20, 1862.

Wm. B. Miller, died of disease at Bowling Green, March 14, 1862.

Adam Mil er, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Elliott McRae, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Robert Meldrum, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Geo. H. Newcomb, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Ruloff P. Ockford, discharged for disability, July 9, 1862.

Henry B. Oliver, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Lemuel W. Osborn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edson M. Porter, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John D. Patterson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Stephen G. Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edward Penfold, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Penfold, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 12, 1863.

Milton Pratt, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 15, 1865.

James Pierce, died Qf disease in New York Harbor, April 8, 1865.

Geo. W. Russell, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863.

Irwin L. Ross, discharged for disability, June 2, 1863.

Wm. H. Ross, discharged at end of service, Jan. 18, 1865.

Leroy Root, mustered out July 25, 1865. Melvin Reed, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Seringer, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel E. Stillson, veteran, enlisted Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Albertus Simons, discharged by order, July 19, 1865.

Jos. Sinclair, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Orletus C. Thayer, discharged at end of service, April 28, 1865.

Ormenus Thayer, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Chas. T. Wilson, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Geo. F. Warner, veteran, enlisted Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wm. White, mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Woodbeck, mustered out July 25, 1863.

Company C.

Sergeant Albert G. Wetmore, Allegan; veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Co. F.

Jos. W. Buttrick, died of disease, Jan. 15, 1864.

Lewis M. Bennett, discharged at end of service, Jan. 20, 1865.

Geo. Cook, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Geo. Delabarre, discharged for disability, Oct. 21, 1865.

Leander Fox, killed in action in North Carolina, March 19, 1865.

Alden C. Hand, killed in action at Stone River.

Abram Hofmeister, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Isaac Itofmeister, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Hofmeister, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Saml. Mosier, mustered out July 25, 1865,

Isaac E. Morse, died of disease at Kalamnizoo, Feb. 15, 1862.

Chas. W. Morse, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Francis Murray, discharged by order, Jan. 14, 1864.

Andrew McGaw, discharged for disability, June 2, 1862.

Eliphalet Porter, discharged for disability, April 10, 1862.

Walter Pullman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Burtis Rutgers, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Sweezy, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Staring, discharged by order, June 2, 1865.

J. H. Tanner, died of disease at Corinth, Miss., June 7, 1862.

Salem True, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Chas. Tyler, mustered out July 25, 1865. Geo. Tyler, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Nathan G. Wilson, died of disease at Nashville, Sept. 19, 1862.

Warren W. Wilcox, veteran, entl. Jan. 18, 1861; died of disease at Jackson, Michigan, April 24, 1864.

Samuel Winger, discharged for disability, Nov. 7, 1862.

John Wynn, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joel Yerton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company D.

Lee J. Bishop, discharged for disability, May 1, 1862.

Chas. Butterfield, discharged Aug. 1, 1865.

Harvey D. Culver, discharged for disability, March 27, 1863.

Win. Sloan, discharged July 5, 1862.

Company E.

Chauncey E. Blossom, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel Caruthers, died of disease, Dec. 12, 1863.

Peter Lahman, mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Lowe, discharged May 15, 1865.

Jabez McClelland, discharged for disability, July 7, 1865.

Joseph Misner, mustered out June 26, 1865.

Bela G. Moulton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Philander Palmer, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Ebenezer E. Ross, died of disease at Washington, Oct. 26, 1862.

Alfred W. Sliter, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1862.

Thos. J. Shellman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Caleb Van Vrain, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., May 30, 1865.

James Wood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company F.

2d Lieutenant Albert G. Wetmore, Allegan, May 26, 1864; promoted 1st Lieutenant July 5, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Cisnee, mustered out May 15, 1865.

Wm. H. Drake, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Company G.

Captain George M. Rowe, Saugatuck; com. March 9, 1865; 1st Lieutenant Feb. 13, 1863; com. Major July 6, 1865, but not mustered; mustered out as Captain July 25, 1865.

Sergeant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company B.

Corp. Fredk. Severance, enlisted Nov. 18, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 15, 1862.

Wagoner Win. H. Meade, enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; discharged May 30, 1863.

John S. Black, discharged for disability, July 10, 1862.

Wm. A. Babbitt, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edwin F. Case, died of wounds, Sept. 24, 1863.

David Cornelius, died of disease in Indiana, Jan. 22, 1865.

Edward Germond, died in Andersonville prison, May 16, 1864.

Henry Hinds, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Nov. 26, 1863.

Chillon Runnels, died of disease, Jan. 15, 1864.

Wm. Starr, died of disease. Feb. 15, 1861.

Byron Teal, discharged for disability, Oct. 20, 1862.

Jeptha Waterman, discharged for disability, July 10, 1862.

Randall C. Waterman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company H.

David Barrington, discharged by order, July 18, 1865.

Wm. H. Cronk, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Elisha W. Call, discharged for disability, Jan. 3, 1863.

Albert M. Dustin, mustered out July 25, 1865. Isaac Fisher, mustered out July 29, 1865.

Henry Germond, discl. at end of service, Jan. 17, 1865.

Seth Loveridge, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James Orr, discharged by order, May 27, 1865.

John M. Pinney, discharged for disability.

Wm. H. Rumsey, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

James Shattuck, discharged for disability, July 13, 1862.

Orville Whitlock, discli. for disability, Dec. 22, 1862.

Company L

Captain Henry C. Stoughlton, Otsego; com. Oct. 3, 1861; res. Oct. 20, 1862.

Captain Willard G. Eaton, Otsego; com. Oct. 20, 1862; let Lieutenant Oct. 3, 1861; promoted to Major May 26, 1863.

Captain Clark D. Fox, Otsego; com. June 13, 1863; 1st Lieutenant Oct. 20, 1862; Sergeant Major; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863.

Captain K. W. Mansfield, Otsego; cornm. March 19, 1864; 1st Lieutenant Feb. 28, 1863; mustered out July 25, 1865.

2d Lieutenant P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. Oct. 3, 1861; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. A, July 13, 1862.

2d Lieutenant Geo. M. Rowe, Saugatuck; com. July 13, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. G, July 13, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Geo. Nelson, Otsego; com. June 13, 1863; wounded, and discharged June 1, 1864.

2d Lieutenant John H. Stephens, com. April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Sergeant Isaiah Beard, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1862.

Sergeant Clark D. Fox, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 16, 1861; appointed Sergeant-Major

Sergeant K. W. Mansfield, Otsego; promoted to 2d Lieutenant,

Co. A.

Sergeant Geo. M. Rowe, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. I.

Sergeant Geo. Nelson, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 21, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. I.

Sergeant John W. Travis, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; died of disease at Nashville, April 20, 1862.

Sergeant John H. Stephens, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 26, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Corp. Amos. Dunning, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; died of disease in Alabama.

Corp. Hugh W. Dixon, Manlius; enlisted Oct. 26, 1861; transferred to Co. A.

Corp. G. H. Slotman, Overisel; ertl. Nov. 12, 1861; discharged at end of service, May 22, 1865.

Corp. Edward M. Bissel, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps; discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Corp. Edward Stowe, Manlius; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps, Aug. 1, 1863.

Corp. Jacob M. Chapman, Manlius; enlisted Jan. 9, 1862; died at St. Louis, May 25, 1862.

Musician Clark C. Bailey, Fillmore; enlisted Dec. 3, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Musician Herbert Day, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wagoner John A. McClaire, Saugatuck; enlisted Dec. 16, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cyrus E. Ames, shot in a quarrel, Sept. 20, 1863.

Samuel Agan, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjamin T. Binn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles Barry, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles L. Bard, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjanmin B. Brush, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Boswell R. Burlinghame, died of disease at Otsego, Michigan

Isaac Brundage, died of disease at New Albany, Ind.

Erritt Brockman, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862.

Oscar Bissell, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 3, 1863.

Martin S. Brown, died of disease at Salina, Michigan, April 17, 1863.

William C. Brundage, discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1862.

Peter H. Billings, discharged for disability, Nov. 5, 1862.

Edward Bissell, discharged by order, Aug. 26, 1863.

Leander Ballard, discharged for disability, Dec. 5, 1863.

Henry L. Beach, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. T

homas Cooper, mustered out Jlly 25, 1865.

Jan. Dannenborg, died of disease, April 28, 1862.

William W. Dormer, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

James K. Dole, discharged for disability, Oct. 4, 1862.

William Dusenbury, discharged for disability, Nov. 15, 1862.

Charles 0. Edwards, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 1, 1863,

Daniel Eaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Miles B. Eaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles Francisco, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William E. Fields, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James L. Fairbanks, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frederick R. Fuller, died of disease at Louisville, Oct. 1, 1862.

Charles Garlock, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Henry Holt, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

David Hammond, discharged for disability, June 1, 1863.

John Hackhouse, discharged for disability, May 4, 1864.

Charles Hogle, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jacob Hazen, mulst. out July 25, 1865.

John Inman, mustered out July 18, 1865.

John P. Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George N. Joslyn, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William Joslyn, discharged for disability, Aug. 1, 1863.

James C. Jones, discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1863.

O. P. Kingsbury, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn.

Martin Kramer, died of dise:se at Lookout Mountain, Aug. 2, 1864.

John Kramer, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Knight, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Smith Larkin, discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Jasper Lusk, discharged for disability, Nov. 11, 1862.

Jacob Mooney, died of disease at Danville, Va., May 14, 1862.

William McKee, died of disease, April 16, 1862.

George C. Miner, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 4, 1863.

William Miner, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Andrew J. Myers, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George A. Myers, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Masterson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John McQueen, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; died in action at Bentonville, March 19, 1865.

Robert Nelson, veteran, enlisted Jan.18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Newton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Hezekiah B. Niles, discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Stephen Pratt, discharged for disability. Sylvanus S. Palmer, died of disease, May 15, 1862.

Philander Palmer, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

John W. Purdy, died of wounds, April 22, 1865.

Thomas L. Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George E. Reynolds, died of disease, July 13, 1862.

Alonzo Rouse, died of wounds, Sept. 26, 1863.

Stephen Rowe, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Peter Rauf, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Allen Smith, discharged for disability, Nov. 11, 1862.

Ward P. Smith, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

James Smith, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William Simmons, veteran, eil. Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Simmonds, discharged by order, July 14, 1865.

Perry Slaw, died of disease, May 22, 1862.

Harvey H. Sqnlier, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 31, 1864.

Norton Schermerhorn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John H. Slotman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wm. A. Upson, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Burd Vanderhoop, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

John R. Ward, discharged by order, Aug. 14, 1865.

Danl. Warne, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Wilson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Eldridge Wilson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Levi Wilson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Enos Warner, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Geo. W. Wise, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Itha Xocum, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company K.

Frank A. Beardsley, discharged by order,June 8, 1865.

Win. Gibson, died of disease at David’s Island, New York Harbor, June 28, 1865.

Robert Nelson, discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

1st Lieutenant and Q.-M. Charles H. Ruggles, Prairieville; com. March 19, 1864; 2d Lieutenant; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Q.M. Sergeant Daniel B. Hosmer, Castleton; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. D, Sept. 17, 1862.

Com. Sergeant Fitz Allen Blackman, Prairieville; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company A.

2d Lieutenant Charles H. Ruggles, Prairieville; con, Feb. 28, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and quartermaster.

Sergeant Thos. B. Dunn, Prairieville; enlisted Dec. 25, 1861; died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., July 6, 1863.

Sergeant Nathaniel P. Bunnell, Barry; enlisted Dec. 18, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Wm. L. Gunton, Thornapple; enlisted Dec. 13, 1861; discharged July 25, 1862.

Corp. Dyer Russell, Maple Grove; enlisted Dec. 14, 1861; died of disease at Allegan, Oct. 1, 1862.

Corp. Wm. J. Storms, Prairieville; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; absent sick at muster out.

Musician Anson G. Philips, Prairieville; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Robert Allen, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Noah J. Bowker, discharged for disability, April 30, 1861.

Aaron Borie, discharged July 4, 1862. Jacob Bennett, died of disease at Iuka, Ala., June 11, 1862.

James Brew, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

James Cook, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Lyman A. Cross, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 29, 1862.

Horace Castle, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Oct. 21, 1862.

Elnathan H. Case, discharged for disability, Aug. 16, 1862.

Benjamin T. Cobb, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

William Campbell, discharged for disability, Aug. 18, 1862.

Marcine B. Chamberlain, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Edward C. Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 21, 1862.

Warren Easton, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Horace J. Easton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Levi Gilespie, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Joshua P. Iart, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 30, 1862.

William S. Harris, died of disease, Dec. 31, 1862.

Harvey A. Havens, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

Benjamin L. Harper, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John P. Hart, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jay R. Lathrop, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 31, 1862.

Theodore V. Linderman, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Samuel Lightner, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James B. Miller, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

George Nickols, died of disease near Corinth, Miss., May 26, 1862.

Samuel A. Owen, discharged for disability, May 13, 1862.

David A. Randall, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

Ebenezer Rathbone, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1862.

Ira Smith, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Aaron D. Staley, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Samuel S. Tyler, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 20, 1862.

Geo. W. Tuttle, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

George S. Tuft, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

George W. Wilber, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cornelius S. Wbitcomb, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frederick W. Williams, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Company B.

Sergeant Calvin Hill, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 2, 1861; discharged Sept. 8, 1862.

Corp. Geo. W. Knickerbocker, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Leander B. Pryor, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Irwin L. Ross, Trowbridge; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; discharged July 24, 1862.

Corp. Lewis Slater, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; discharged Feb. 11, 1863.

Rollo Bishop, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 9, 1863.

Charles Bishop, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1861; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Littlejohn Baker, veteran, enlisted Feb. 13, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John D. Bishop, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Rockwell D. Corwin, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Case, died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., April 26, 1862.

Andrew J. Case, discharged at end of service, March 24, 1865.

John B. Crandall, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

William F. Edgitt, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Thomas A. Hubbard, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Richard Hecox, died of disease at Prairieville, Michigan, Jan. 18, 1862.

John C. Henry, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 18, 1863.

Newton Hubbard, discharged for disability, May 23, 1862.

Henry W. Knickerbocker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Alva J. Morehouse, died of disease at Illinois, Nov. 18, 1862.

Squire M. Nichols, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Edward Pryor, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 5, 1862.

Orville J, Pryor, died of disease at Detroit, Michigan, Feb. 17, 1865.

Robert E. Pryor, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Leonard E. Perry, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Leander B. Pryor, discharged for disability, March 7, 1863.

Orwin Potter, discharged for disability, Feb. 22, 1862.

Johnt W. Rodgers, discli. by order, June 8, 1865.

Charles H. Rodgers, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Orvis Stater, discharged at end of service, March 14, 1865.

Winton Smith, discharged May 27, 1862.

Henry Smith, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

William B. Williams, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Joseph J. Wrist, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Harrison C. Wrist, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

John Withey, discharged for disability, Feb. 1, 1863.

Francis Withey, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William Withey, killed in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Francis Young, died of disease at Kalamuazoo, Michigan, Feb. 14, 1862.

Company C.

Milo Bunce, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Isaac Burget, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James H. Durkee, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Franklin A. Durfee, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William O. Hurd, discharged by order, May 26, 1865.

Jacob Heaton, discharged by order, June 22, 1865.

George Hindmarch, died of disease at Gallatin, Dec. 19, 1862.

Horace E. Ludlow, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

John W. Pryor, died of disease, June 26, 1865.

Stephen V. Wheaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company D.

Captain Daniel B. Hosmer, Castleton; enlisted June 19, 1863; 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 17, 1862; Sergeant; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863.

Robert E. Ferguson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Company E.

George H. Durkee, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cyrus A. Morse, discharged May 15, 1865.

William McConley, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Henry P. Ralston, discharged by order, Jan. 16, 1865.

Company F.

Dewitt C. Dye, discharged Feb. 24, 1863.

Company G.

Calvin P. Angell, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Lyman C. Angell, died of disease, Dec. 2, 1864.

Richard Blucher, died of disease at Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 27, 1862.

Thomas Besinger, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

William H. Mead, discharged for disability, May 30, 1863.

Justice Mudge, died of disease at Milledgeville, Ga., Dec. 4, 1864.

George A. Willard, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 4, 1863.

Company H.

Corp. Geo. P. Coon, Orangeville; enlisted Dec. 20, 1861; discharged April 8, 1863.

Celo C. Colley, discharged for disability, Aug. 7, 1865.

Jehiel Chalker, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Joln Daggett, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 12, 1862.

George H. Ford, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864.

William H. Gilbert, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Jesse McVane, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjamin Smith, discharged at end of service, April 7, 1865.

James H. Smith, veteran, eul. January, 1864.

Company I.

Benjamin Jones, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1864.

Company K.

George W. Boen, died of disease at Savannal, Ga., Feb. 2, 1865.

Wallace Coryden, discharged by order, June 9, 1865.

William P. Sidman, discharged by order, May 6, 1865.

Jacob Young, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 7, 1865.

FOURTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, AND NINETEENTH INFANTRY.

The Fourteenth goes to Northern Mississippi-Brigaded for the War -Arduous Service in Tennessee-The Long Combat from Dallas to Atlanta-The March to the Sea-Through the Carolinas-Muster out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members-The Gallant Seventeenth-Company D, from Allegan and Barry-Off to the War-Attacking the Enemy-Brilliant Success-Heavy Loss-Battle of Antietam-Through the Winter in Virginia-Under Grant in Mississippi-Back to Kentucky-With Burnside to East Tennessee -The Campaign of the Wilderness-Hard Fight at Spottsylvania -Engineer Duty-Subsequent Services-Muster out-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County-Organization and Departure of the Nineteenth Infantry-On Duty in Kentucky -Transferred to Army of the Cumberland-Ordered to Franklin, Tenn.-The Brigade on a Reconnoissance-Attacked by Seven Brigades of Cavalry-A Long and Desperate Fight-The Enemy again and again repulsed-Ammunition exhausted-New Rebel Forces appear-Unionists compelled to surrender-Exchanged and Reorganized-Services in Tennessee-Captures a Battery at Resaca -Its Colonel killed-Averysboro and Bentonville-The CloseAllegan County Officers and Men-

Members from Barry County.

FOURTEENTH INFANTRY.

THE Fourteenth Infantry, which represented many portions of the State, was mustered into service at Ypsilanti, Feb. 13, 1862, and left for the seat of war in Northern Mississippi on the 17th of April following.

At Hamburg Landing, Miss., it was assigned to Gen. Pope’s Army of the Mississippi, and joined a brigade made up of the Tenth, Sixteenth, and Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, and the Tenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, of which it was composed during the remainder of the war, except that the Tenth Illinois gave place, in July, 1864, to the Seventeenth New York.

After the retreat of Beauregard from Corinth the brigade was employed in various duties in Northern Alabama and Mississippi until September, 1862, when, with Gen. J. M. Palmer’s division, it marched to Nashville, Tenn., and assisted to hold that place while Buell was advancing toward Louisville, Ky.

After Gen. Rosecrans assumed command of the Department of the Cumberland, and marched his forces from Kentucky to the relief of Nashville, Palmer’s division was transferred from the Army of the Mississippi to the Army of the Cumberland, and thereafter the regiments composing it operated in the Department of the Cumberland.

The Fourteenth performed arduous service until the close of the war.

It served as mounted infantry in Tennessee from September; 1863, until the spring of 1864, when it re-enlisted, and after the usual veteran furlough rejoined its brigade at Dallas, Ga., June 4, 1864.

It then participated in all the movements of the Army of the Cumberland until the fall of Atlanta.

On the 16th of November, with the brigade, it moved southward from Atlanta on the march “through Georgia,” assisted in the capture of Savannah, and thence, in January, 1865, with its command,-viz., First Brigade, Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, proceeded northward through the Carolinas.

At Averysboro’ and Bentonville, N. C., the brigade particularly distinguished itself. (See history of Thirteenth Infantry.)

After the surrender of Johnston the command marched to Washington, D. C., vid Raleigh and Richmond.

It passed in review at the National capital, May 14th, and on the 13th of June proceeded, via the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, to Parkersburg, W. Va.; going thence by steamer to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out of the service on the 18th of July, 1865.

It arrived at Jackson, Michigan, on the 21st, and on the 29th of the same month was paid off and disbanded.

MEMBERS OF THE FOURTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company A.

M. D. Hulenberg, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Eli P. Spaulding, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company B.

Nathaniel C. Austin, mustered out July 18, 1865.

James Conlan, discharged for wounds, June 5, 1865.

Moses Green, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Judson Kitchen, mustered out July 18, 1865.

John McCreery, mustered out July_8, 1865.

Company D.

Erastus N. Bates, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Ashel S. Carr, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Nicholas Mateen, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company F.

Sylvester Auway, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Geo. H. Leavitt, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Chas. H. White, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company G.

Fred. Hoffer, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Lambert Van Valkenberg, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

Company I.

Jerry Monroe, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Company B.

Harvey H. Austin, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Company D.

Thomas B. Luce, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Michael Roush, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Nelson Vanevery, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Charles W. H. Cassady, mustered out July 18, 1865. William S. Sibbs, must out July 18, 1865.

David Roush, mustered out July 18, 1865.

SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY.

This gallant command, celebrated as the “Stonewall” regiment of Gen. Wilcox’s division of the Ninth Army Corps, was organized at Detroit Barracks, in the summer of 1862, by State Inspector-General James E. Pittman.

Its original commanding officer, Col. William H. Withington, was commissioned Aug. 11, 1862, and on the 21st of the same month the regiment was mustered into the United States service for three years.

Company D embraced a large majority of the members of the regiment from Allegan and Barry Counties. Under the command of Col. Withington, the regiment left its rendezvous on the 27th of August, 1862, and proceeded directly to Washington.

Scarcely had it arrived at that place when it was assigned to Gen. Wilcox’s division, and in less than three weeks from the time of leaving Michigan its members were gallantly battling for their country at South Mountain.

On the evening of the 13th of September the regiment marched from Frederick City, Md.,-where it had bivouacked the night before with the rest of the Ninth Army Corps,-over the National turnpike in the direction of South Mountain, and about midnight rested for a few hours not far from Middletown.

Before daybreak of the 14th Middletown was passed; the base of the mountain being reached about nine o’clock A.M.

The enemy was found in force on each side of a gap, holding each crest of the mountain, and strongly posted behind stone fences and other available shelter, with his batteries in commanding positions enfilading the main road.

The regiment was then ordered to advance up the Sharpsburg road.

This movement was executed in common by the whole of Wilcox’s division, which proceeded far up towards the crest of the mountain and moved to the support of a section of Cook’s battery, which had been sent up to open on the enemy’s guns on the right of the gap.

The division was about to deploy, when the rebels suddenly opened at two hundred yards with a battery, throwing shot and shell, killing several in the regiment, and driving back the battery; the cannoniers of which, with their horses and limbers, rushed back through the ranks of the infantry, causing a temporary panic among some of the troops, that might have resulted in the loss of the guns had the enemy taken advantage of it.

The Seventeenth promptly changed front under a heavy fire, and moved out with the Seventy-Ninth New York to protect the battery, lying in line of battle until nearly four P.M., exposed to a severe fire from Drayton’s brigade of South Carolina infantry, posted in its immediate front.

Being unable to reply to this fire, and having become impatient and anxious to advance, the order to charge upon the enemy was received with enthusiastic cheers.

The regiment, being on the extreme right of Wilcox’s division, moved rapidly forward through an open field upon the enemy’s position, under a terrific storm of lead and iron from the stone fences in front and the batteries on the right; then, with cheer after cheer, sent up in defiant answer to the peculiar rebel yell, the Seventeenth gallantly advanced to within easy musket-range without firing a shot.

It then opened a murderous fire upon the enemy, and, steadily advancing the extreme right of the regiment, it swung round, obtaining an enfilading fire upon the rebels intrenched behind the stone walls.

Unable to withstand this destructive fire, the enemy broke in confusion, and the left of the regiment charged over the walls with shouts of triumph, pursuing the fleeing remnants of Drayton’s command over the crest and far down the mountain slope, gaining and holding the key-point of the battle-field.

The splendid valor and extraordinary coolness of the raw recruits of the Seventeenth in this engagement gave the regiment much celebrity, and this conflict has since been mentioned in history as one of the most brilliant achievements of the war.

The regiment suffered severely at South Mountain, having twenty-seven officers and men killed and one hundred and fourteen wounded.

Three days later, at Antietam, it was again hotly engaged, sustaining a loss of eighteen killed and eighty-seven wounded.

After following Lee’s defeated army through Northern Virginia, and camping for a while at Falmouth, the regiment crossed the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, but did not participate in the battle of that place.

It remained in the Army of the Potomac through the winter, but in the spring was ordered to Kentucky.

After a short stay in that State, it proceeded with the Ninth Army Corps to Mississippi, and joined Gen. Grant.

It was stationed at Haynes’ Bluff and Milldale, and was slightly engaged before Jackson on the 10th of June.

It soon returned to Kentucky, and moved thence with Burnside’s army into East Tennessee.

It took part in numerous movements and counter-movements for which the forces in East Tennessee became famous, and on the 16th of November was acting as the rear-guard of the army, which was falling back towards Knoxville.

While it was crossing Turkey Creek, near Campbell’s Station, the enemy attacked in force, and a sharp engagement followed.

The Seventeenth, with its brigade, steadily covered the rear of the army, having twenty-six officers and men killed and wounded during the fight.

That night the whole Union force moved into Knoxville, and from then until the retreat of the enemy, on the 4th of December, the regiment was busily engaged in the defense of that place, suffering greatly from want of rations, but gallantly performing its duty.

After the defeat of the Confederates, the marching up and down the Tennessee Valley was resumed, and was kept up, with some intervals of rest, throughout the winter.

On the 20th of March, 1864, the regiment set out with the Ninth Corps from Knoxville, and marched over the Cumberland Mountains to Nicholasville, Ky., whence it moved at once to Maryland. With the same corps the Seventeenth passed through the great campaign of 1864.

It was sharply engaged in the Wilderness on the 6th of May, having forty-six men killed and wounded.

At Spottsylvania, on the 12th of May, the regiment charged gallantly on the rebel works, but was surrounded by a superior force in the dense woods, and had twenty-three killed, seventy-three wounded, and ninety-three taken prisoners, out of two hundred and twenty-five engaged.

So small a squad remained for duty that on the 16th of May it was detailed for engineer service, though still retaining its regimental number.

It served throughout the winter of 1864-65 either in this capacity or as provost-guard.

During the Confederate attack on Fort Steadman, however (March 25, 1865), the Seventeenth advanced as skirmishers, drove back the enemy’s skirmishers, and captured sixty-five prisoners.

After the capture of Petersburg and the surrender of Lee the regiment moved north to Washington, set out for Michigan on the 4th of June, 1865, reached Detroit on the 7th, and was forthwith paid off and discharged at the latter place.

MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Surg. Abram R. Calkins, Allegan; com. June 26, 1862; res. Oct. 14, 1862.

Company D.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. White, Wayland; com. June 17, 1862; res. March 20, 1863.

Corp. Chas. Parsons, Wayland; enlisted July 31, 1862; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., April 25, 1853.

Corp. Peter J. Murphy, Wayland; enlisted July 31, 1862; mustered out June 3, 1865.

Orville Slade, Wayland; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; killed in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Daniel Ball, discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1863.

Calvin Ball, discharged for disability, April 28, 1863.

Chas. L. Burrell, promoted in U. S. C. T., Nov. 3, 1863.

Myron Burrell, tralns. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864.

Wm. M. Coleman, discharged for disability, Oct. 25, 1864.

Cornelius Devenwater, discharged for disability, Jan. 4, 1863.

Richard Dennis, died at Weverton, Md., Nov. 4, 1862.

Luther E. Ellis, discharged for disability, Jan. 15, 1863.

Joseph G. Fenner, discharged for disability, Jan. 11, 1863.

Saml. Potter, died of wounds near Jackson, Miss., Oct. 28, 1862.

Wm. Parker, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Stephen Springer, mustered out June 3, 1865. E

dward H. Schofield, discharged for disability, Dec. 7, 1862.

John Truax, discharged by order, May 10, 1865.

Henry Tomlinson, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Benj. Ward, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Martin White, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Sergeant Philo M. Lonsbury, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; absent sick at muster out.

Musician Jas. C. Leggett, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 3, 1865.

Herbert W. Lonsbury, Allegan; killed in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864.

Company I.

Hiram Bushnell, died of wounds.

Samuel Buchanan, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Alfred Cook, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Oliver P. Carmen, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Levi B. Davis, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Jas. Hibberdine, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Geo. Kitchen, discharged for disability, Nov. 3, 1862.

David V. Lily, (lied in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Frederick Leonard, discharged for disability, Jan. 1, 1863.

James V. Orton, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Samuel Parker, died of disease at Covington, Ky., April 9, 1865.

Daniel Polk, discharged by order, May 12, 1865.

Penter Ross, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Nahum Snow, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Alvin H. Stillson, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Simon Starring, mustered out June 3, 1865.

M. V. B. Smith, died of disease at Memphis, June 24, 1863.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY.

Company D.

2d Lieutenant David L. Morthland, Barry; mustered out as Sergeant, June 3, 1865.

Sergeant Wallace H. Scoville, Johnston; discharged for disability, Feb. 25, 1863.

Musician James Goodman, Hastings; discharged by order, Sept. 16, 1862.

Andrew E. Breese, discharged for disability.

David Brotherton, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Jalo W. Convin, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Charles W. Convin, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Zenas S. Clark, died of disease at Newport News, Va., March 17, 1865.

Charles D. Cowles, discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1865.

Charles Dickinson, discharged for disability, Oct. 25, 1864

Hector M. Dodge, mustered out June 3, 1865.

David Eldridge, died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1865.

W. S. Hinckley, discharged for disability, April 10, 1863. D

aniel Hoffman, discb. for disability, Jan. 6, 1863.

William H. Hoffman, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Nov. 28, 1862.

Martin Moore, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Herman W. Manford, transferred to navy.

John P. Manning, mustered out June 3, 1865.

A. Palmatier, killed in action at South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862.

Nathan F. Powers, died of disease at Big Spring Hospital, Oct. 28, 1862.

Harlan A. Poor, killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

William W. Seebore, discharged for wounds received, Sept. 14, 1862.

Charles Shoemaker, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Company H.

William H. Godsmark, discharged Dec. 31, 1862.

Jerome M. Lampman, discharged for disability, May 17, 1864.

Martin Mallet, discli. for disability, Jan. 4, 1865.

Isaac Vantyle, mustered out July 3, 1865.

NINETEENTH INFANTRY.

The Nineteenth Regiment of infantry was recruited during the summer of 1862 from the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren, and Allegan, Company B including within its ranks a large majority of those from the latter county.

The regimental rendezvous was at Dowagiac, Cass Co., where the regiment was mustered into the United States service on the 25th of August, 1862.

On the 14th of September following, under the command of Col. Henry C. Gilbert, the Nineteenth proceeded to Cincinnati, Ohio, thence to Nicholasville, Ky., and later, towards the close of the year, to Danville, Ky.

It was first assigned to duty with the Fourth Brigade, First Division, Army of the Ohio, which brigade, on the formation of the Department and Army of the Cumberland, was transferred to that army as part of the Reserve Corps.

The regiment moved from Danville early in February, 1863, and reached Nashville on the 7th, proceeding thence to Franklin, Tenn.

Immediately after, Col. Coburn’s brigade, consisting of the Nineteenth Michigan, Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana, and the Twenty-Second Wisconsin Regiments of infantry, numbering fifteen hundred and eighty-seven men, strengthened by two hundred men of the One Hundred and Twenty-Fourth Ohio Infantry, with detachments of three regiments of Cavalry, about six hundred strong, and a full battery of artillery, moved out from Franklin on a reconnaissance in force.

After a march of about four miles the enemy’s outposts were encountered, but they retired before the Union skirmishers, and the brigade bivouacked there for the night.

Resuming the march on the following day, the Union column found the enemy in force and strongly posted, at Thompson’s Station, nine miles from Franklin.

At the point where the railroad crosses the turnpike the rebels opened fire on the forces of Col. Coburn, who immediately formed his men, and ordered a section of the battery to occupy a bill on the left of the road, sending the Nineteenth Michigan and the Twenty-Second Wisconsin to support it.

The Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana, with the other guns of the battery, took position on a hill at the right.

The enemy had two batteries posted on a range of hills three-fourths of a mile in front and south of the position occupied by Coburn’s troops.

The Indiana regiments made a demonstration on the left of the enemy, to draw him out or charge his batteries, as circumstances might dictate.

This movement was made under a most galling fire from the enemy’s batteries, and when the position was reached two entire brigades of dismounted rebel Cavalry were disclosed strongly posted behind stone walls and other defenses.

As it was found impossible to advance farther under the severe and incessant fire, these regiments were ordered to return to their former position on the hill, supported by a squadron of Cavalry; but for some unexplained reason the Cavalry failed to occupy the supporting position, as intended.

No sooner had the two regiments commenced to fall back than they were pursued by two rebel regiments, firing rapid volleys into the retiring Union force, which was at the same time under fire from the enemy’s artillery.

But as soon as they reached the hill the Indianans turned upon their rebel pursuers and drove them back on the run; killing Col. Earle, of Arkansas.

The enemy rallied, charged desperately, and was again handsomely repulsed; but it soon became evident that Col. Coburn’s command had here encountered the entire Cavalry force of Bragg’s army, eighteen thousand strong, consisting of brigades commanded respectively by Gens. Forrest, Wheeler, French, Armstrong, Jackson, Crosby, and Martin, all under the command of Gen. Van Dorn.

The enemy, under Forrest, then advanced on the position occupied by the Nineteenth Michigan and its companion regiment, the Twenty-Second Wisconsin.

At the time the attack was made the section of artillery posted with these regiments hurriedly left its position, and at the same time three companies of the Wisconsin regiment, with their lieutenant-colonel (Bloodgood), abandoned the field without orders, moving off by the left flank, and joining the retreating Union Cavalry and artillery.

The Nineteenth Michigan and the remainder of the Twenty-Second Wisconsin, however, bravely poured in their fire, and held their assailants at bay fully twenty minutes. Forrest, checked in his advance, made a circuit to the east with his whole force, beyond the ground occupied by Col. Coburn, with the intention of turning his (Coburn’s) left flank.

The Nineteenth and Twenty-Second were then moved to the west side of the turnpike, leaving the Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana to protect the southern acclivity of the hill.

The four regiments had scarcely formed in line behind the crest when Armstrong’s rebel brigade charged from the east and the Texans from the south.

The battle now became terrific.

Three times the enemy charged gallantly up the hill, and thrice was he forced back with severe loss.

In one of these charges the colors of the Fourth Mississippi were captured by the Nineteenth Michigan.

The fighting became still more desperate.

The enemy, having gained possession of the hill on the east of the road, was sweeping the Northern ranks with canister, and, bravely as the Union troops fought, it soon became evident that the struggle was hopeless.

Their ammunition was nearly exhausted, and Forrest, who had already cut them off from Franklin, was advancing on their rear. Col. Coburn faced his command to the north to repel this new danger, and thus Forrest was held in check until the Union men had expended their last round of ammunition.

Then the brave band fixed bayonets, determined to charge through the enemy’s lines and escape; but just then it was discovered that still another line lay in reserve, and still another battery opened on them from an unexpected quarter.

Escape was now hopeless, and to avoid a further and useless loss of life the command surrendered. Col. Gilbert had had his horse shot under him in the early part of the fight, and throughout all the fierce engagement had borne himself most gallantly.

When he offered his sword to the Confederate commander the latter declined to receive it, with the remark that “so brave an officer, commanding so gallant a regiment, deserves to retain his arms.”

A part of the Nineteenth had escaped capture at Thompson’s Station.

This small body, with those who had been left in camp at Franklin, were sent to Brentwood, organized with the remaining fragments of the brigade, and placed under command of an officer of another regiment.

This force was surrendered to the rebel general Forrest on the 25th of March, 1863, without the firing of a gun.

The enlisted men were soon paroled and sent North; the commissioned officers were exchanged on the 25th of May following.

The regiment was reorganized at Camp Chase, Ohio, and on the 8th of June, 1863, left Columbus to engage once more in service at the front.

It reached Nashville on the 11th, and from that time was employed in ordinary camp and picket duty until July, when it formed a part of Rosecrans’ column advancing on Tullahoma.

The regiment was ordered back to Murfreesboro on the 23d of July, to do garrison duty in the fortifications at that point and along Stone River, where Company D was captured on the 5th of October by a rebel Cavalry force, under Gen. Wheeler.

After having been plundered, the men were released on parole.

About the last of October the Nineteenth was ordered to McMinnville, Tenn., where it remained engaged in the construction of fortifications and similar duty until the 21st of April, 1864, when it was ordered to join its division and march with the strong columns of Sherman into Georgia.

It reached Lookout Valley on the 30th, and moved forward with the army on the 3rd of May, being then in the Twentieth Army Corps.

Moving by way of Buzzard Roost and Snake Creek Gap to Resaca, it was, of five hundred and twelve officers and men who went into action, one hundred and thirteen were killed and wounded.

With its brigade, desperately engaged in the battle at that place on the 15th; on which occasion it gallantly charged and captured a battery of the enemy, afterwards holding the position against all efforts to retake it.

It was in that charge that Col. Gilbert received the wound from which he died at Chattanooga, on the 24th of May.

The total loss of the Nineteenth in killed and wounded was eighty-one.

The regiment was also engaged at Cassville, Ga., on the 19th of May, at New Hope Church on the 25th, at Golgotha on the 15th of June, and at Culp’s Farm on the 22d of June; having in these engagements eighty-three officers and men killed and wounded.

Joining in the pursuit of the enemy after his evacuation of the position and works at Kenesaw Mountain, the Nineteenth, then under command of Major John J. Baker, crossed the Chattahoochee and took part in the battle of Peach-Tree Creek, on the 20th of July, in which its loss was thirty-nine killed, among the latter being its commander, Major Baker.

During the remainder of the siege of Atlanta the regiment was constantly on duty, much of the time under artillery-fire; its loss during that time being eight killed and wounded.

In the early days of November, 1864, the Nineteenth was quartered in the city of Atlanta, and on the 15th of that month moved with its brigade (the Second of the Third Division, Twentieth Corps) on the storied march to Savannah; taking an active part in the siege of that city, until its evacuation on the 21st of December.

It remained near Savannah until Jan. 1, 1865, when, with the companion regiments of its command, it moved across the Savannah River into South Carolina.

It crossed the Pedee River at Cheraw on the 2d of February, arrived at Fayetteville March 11th, assisted to destroy the arsenal and other public buildings at that place, and moved thence toward Raleigh.

On the 16th the enemy was found in heavy force at Averysboro’.

Here the Second Brigade was ordered to assault the works, and carried them with great gallantry, capturing the guns and a large number of prisoners, the loss of the Nineteenth being nineteen in killed and wounded.

During the battle of Bentonville, on the 19th of March, the regiment stood in line of battle, but was not engaged.

From Bentonville the regiment moved to Goldsboro’, arriving there on the 24th of March, and then marched to Raleigh.

Here it remained until the war was virtually closed by the surrender of Johnston’s army.

Then, with its corps, it faced northward and marched through Virginia to Alexandria, where it arrived on the 18th of May.

Six days later it marched with the bronzed and battered veteran’s of Sherman’s army, on the 24th of May, through the streets of the national capital.

From that time it remained in camp near Washington till June 10th, when it was mustered out of the service and ordered to Michigan.

Covered with honor, the men of the Nineteenth returned to Jackson, and were there paid off and discharged, on or about the 15th of June, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY OFFICERS AND MEN.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Q.M.-Sergeant George L. Clark, Allegan; enlisted June 1, 1863; promoted in U. S. C.T. June 20, 1864.

Company A.

Captain Joel H. Smith, Allegan; com. July 28, 1862; res. July 11, 1864.

Herman F. Dibble, died in action at Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864.

Company B.

Captain Samuel M. Hubbard, Otsego; com. June 24, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, May 1, 1863;

2d Lieutenant, Aug. 11, 1862; wounded in action May 28, 1864; hon. discharged Nov. 30, 1864.

1st Lieutenant William T. Darrow, Allegan; com. July 28, 1862; res. Feb. 6, 1863.

1st Lieutenant John W. Duel, Allegan; com. May 8, 1865; mustered out June 10, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Augustus Lily, Allegan; com. May 1, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant May 15, 1864; discharged 2d Lieutenant, April 9, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Robert Mabbs, Allegan; mustered out as Sergeant, June 10, 1865.

Sergeant Jeremiah Dugan, Martin; enlisted Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sergeant Phineas A. Hager, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died of wounds, Aug. 8, 1864.

Sergeant George L. Clark, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; appointed q.m-Sergeant, June 1, 1863. Sergeant Julius E. Bigsby, Heath; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Sergeant John W. Duel, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Corp. Robert A. Patterson, Martin; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. David R. Anderson, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1864.

Corp. Pascal A. Pullman, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; died in action in Georgia, July 20, 1864.

Corp. George L. Baird, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1864.

Corp. David 0. Brown, Martin; enlisted Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. Joseph W. Ely, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. John J. Young, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Musician Benjamin F. Chapin; Cheshire; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; absent sick.

Musician James J. Bachelder, Martin; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Musician Martin R. Parkhurst, Heath; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

John Ailes, mustered out June 10, 1865. Emerson Allen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Judson L. Austin, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Pascal L. Austin, died in action at Thompson’s Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863.

William Anderson, discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1865.

James Billings, discharged for disability, March, 1863.

Harvey Bell, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Ilenry L. Blakeslee, died in action at Thompson’s Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863.

John H. Brinkman, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 26, 1863.

Ansel T. Baird, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward A. Baird, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Milo H. Barker, mustered out June 10, 1865.

David Bellinger, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Horace C. Beverly, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Alplieus G. Bradley, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry W. Brown, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Sidney Brundage, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Carlos Baker, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Todorus Botren, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Guilford D. Case, died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., Dec. 27, 1862.

Frederick Campbell, died in action at Altoona, Ga., May 25, 1864.

Timothy Dygert, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Henry W. Durand, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Albert French, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Edwin Griffin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jacob Gunsaul, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jerome Green, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 3, 1863.

Leander S. Goff, died in prison at Richmond, Va., March 3, 1863. J

ohn H. Howard, died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, November, 1862.

John Hogle, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Charles H. llogeboom, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Martin M. Jones, died of wounds at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1864.

Isaac M. Kinney, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Feb. 10, 1863.

Joel R. Kuper, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March, 1863.

Stephen Knapp, discharged for disability, March 27, 1865.

Thomas R. Kincaid, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Egbert Kluffman, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Neil Livingston, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Garrett Lohies, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Alfred Leonard, died of disease at Nashville, March, 1863.

W. Merchant, died of disease at Annapolis, March, 1863.

James McIntee, died of wounds at Columbia, Tenn., April 20, 1863.

Donald McLeod, discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1864.

William Manchester, transferred to 10th Inf.

James H. Martin, mustered out June 15, 1865.

George A. Martin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Lawrence Montague, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Eldridge Morris, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Thomas McCormick, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Carlton Norton, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry Noble, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Francis C. Newton, transferred to 10th Inf.

John B. Nelson, died of disease at McMinnville, Tenn., March 20, 1864.

Stephen Ostrander, mustered out June 22, 1865.

Harvey Pullman, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Erastus Purdy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Charles H. Prentiss, mustered out June 3, 1865.

George W. Platt, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Elisha Platt, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Comstock H. Platt, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1865.

Newton S. Peabody, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Feb. 1, 1863.

Vernon A. Rose, died of disease in Indiana, June 18, 1864.

John Rutgers, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Peter Starring, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Stephen Sampson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Benjamin Stephens, mustered out June 10, 1865.

S. B. Stephens, died of disease in Indiana, Feb. 13, 1863.

Charles Southworth, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1864.

John Southwell, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Solomon Springer, discharged for disability, Feb. 4, 1863.

Andrew Schoener, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Joseph A. Trutsch, mustered out May 24, 1865.

Charles L. Vahen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Norman Wilson, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 20, 1862.

William Watson, died of disease in Michigan, July 18, 1863.

Cyrus B. Wheeler, died of wounds, Aug. 3, 1864.

Henry W. Wilcox, transferred to Mississippi marines.

Company F.

Musician Charles W. Owen, Martin; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company G.

Eli B. Baker, transferred to 10th Inf.

Benjamin Brown, transferred to 10th Inf.

William C. McLeod, transferred to 10th Inf.

Company K.

A. J. Myers, discharged for disability, March 31, 1863.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company E.

William Henry, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

George Ii. Martin, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Hiram Rodgers, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 21, 1864.

George H. Snyder, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

John W. Snyder, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Henry Smith, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Walter Searles, mustered out July 15, 1865.

Company F.

William H. Allen, died July 20, 1864.

Mylon Angel, mustered out June 10, 186.5.

David N. Griffith, mustered out June 1(0, 1865.

John B. Nichols, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Thomas Pennock, discharged for disability, July 1, 1863.

Austin Smith, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 1, 1863.

David Searles, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

James Searles, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Otis P. Taller, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company G.

Alonzo P. Beaman, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

George H. Clark, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Company K.

William Harvey, mustered out June 10, 1865.

TWENTY-FIRST, TWENTY-EIGHTH, AND THIRTIETH INFANTRY.

The Big District which sent out the Twenty-First Infantry-Company C from Barry County-The Regiment joins Buell-Battle of Perryville-Battle of Stone River-Death of Captain Fitzgerald – Gallantry of Sheridan’s Division-

The Advance through Tennessee -Battle of Chickamauga-Subsequent Service in Company with the Thirteenth Infantry-Battle of Bentonville-Officers and Soldiers from Barry County-The Twenty-Eighth Infantry goes to the Front in 1864-Battle of Nashville-Ordered to North Carolina, Fight at Wise’s Forks-Subsequent Services-Muster out-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County-Thirtieth Infantry raised to protect Frontier-Its Services-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County.

TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY.

This regiment, which so nobly distinguished itself on several hard-fought fields during the war for the Union, was recruited in the summer of 1862 from the Fourth Congressional District.

The unit was a very large one, comprising the counties of Barry, Ionia, Montcalm, Kent, Ottawa, Muskegon, Oceana, Newaygo, Mecosta, Mason, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Leelenaw, Manitou, Oceola, Emmet, Mackinac, Delta, and Cheboygan.

Ionia was the place of rendezvous, and, until the regiment was organized.

J. B. Welch, Esq., was the commandant of the camp. Company C, which was led into the field by the brave Captain Leonard O. Fitzgerald, of Hastings and was Barry’s representation in the Twenty-First.

The regiment was mustered into the United States service Sept. 4, 1862, and eight days later.

The 21st consisted of one thousand and eight officers and enlisted men, commanded by Col. Ambrose A. Stevens, left Ionia, with orders to report at Cincinnati.

It was immediately pushed forward to join Gen. Buell’s forces in Kentucky, and on the 8th of October, as part of Gen. Sheridan’s division, was engaged in the battle of Perryville, where it suffered a loss of twenty-seven men killed, wounded, and missing.

With other troops of Gen. Rosecrans’ command it then marched forward to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived Nov. 10, 1862.

On the 26th of December, as part of Gen. Sill’s brigade, of Sheridan’s division, it moved forward with Gen. Rosecrans’ army to attack Bragg, then lying in front of Murfreesboro.

In the great battle of three days’ duration which ensued on the banks of Stone River, during the last day of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, the Twenty-First covered itself with glory; suffering a loss, however, of one hundred and thirty-nine brave men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Among those who relinquished their command on that field and joined the battalions gone before was Captain Fitzgerald, of Company C, who was mortally wounded on the 31st of December, and died at Nashville on the 8th of January following.

In the terrific engagement fought on the morning of December 31st, which was commenced by Cheatham’s, Cleburn’s, and McGown’s rebel divisions of Hardee’s corps, which fell unexpectedly on McCook, who commanded the right wing of the national forces, first Johnson’s and then Davis’ division was driven back in inextricable disorder.

Their defeat was almost simultaneous with the attack, and upon Sheridan’s division of McCook’s corps-composed of Sill’s, Roberts’, and Shaefer’s brigades-devolved the task of checking the impetuous onset of the victorious foe.

This single division, outflanked and surrounded by panic-stricken fugitives, must give battle to three divisions of a triumphant and exultant enemy, and must at least hold them in check until the general in command could make dispositions to meet the terrible emergency.

Most nobly did Gen. Sheridan and his division fulfill their task.

Four times they repulsed the rebel host.

Surrounded, outflanked, outnumbered, in danger of utter destruction, and pressed back into the cedar thickets in their rear, they fought on till one-fourth of their number lay bleeding and dying upon the field,-till two out of three of their brigade commanders were killed,-till every gun and cartridge-box was empty, and then they retired slowly, steadily, and in good order.

As they passed Gen. Rosecrans, while deliberately falling back to make way for reinforcements, Gen. Sheridan was heard to say to his commanding general, with touching pathos, ” Here is all that is left of us, general.”

His men were even then clamoring for ammunition, and an hour later were again in line of battle.

His division consisted of six thousand four hundred and ninety-five men.

They lost in that fearful conflict among the cedars seventeen hundred in killed, wounded, and missing, including seventy officers, two of whom were brigadiers, and the only remaining brigadier fell before nightfall.

After the defeat of Bragg’s army at Stone River, the Twenty-First remained in the vicinity of Murfreesboro, employed on picket duty and as guard for forage-trains, until June 24th, when, commanded by Col. William B. McCreery, it advanced with Rosecrans on Tullahoma.

During July it was located at Cowan and Anderson, stations on the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.

Subsequently it occupied Bridgeport, Ala., under Gen. Lytle, who succeeded to the command of the brigade after the death of Gen. Sill at Stone River.

On the 2d of September the command crossed the Tennessee River, and advanced with the corps of Major-Gen. McCook to Trenton, Ga., whence it crossed the mountains to Alpine, thence made a forced march between mountain ranges towards Chattanooga, and on the 19th of September the regiment was formed in line of battle at Chickamauga.

During the succeeding day the Twenty-First, with other regiments of Sheridan’s division, stubbornly contested the rebel advance on the field of Chickamauga, but with its shattered corps was finally compelled to fall back to Chattanooga, after sustaining a loss of one hundred and seven officers and men in killed, wounded, and missing.

Of the thirty-five missing, twenty-one were known to be wounded.

Among the wounded and captured was Col. McCreery, while Lieutenant-Col. Morris B. Wells was left dead on the field.

Gen. Lytle, the brigade commander, was also killed.

On the 5th of November this regiment, the Thirteenth and Twenty-Second Michigan Infantry, and the Eighteenth Ohio Infantry were organized as an engineer brigade, and from that time until Sherman’s victorious armies marched into the national capital, in May, 1865, the field-services of the Thirteenth and Twenty-First Michigan Infantry were performed side by side, both regiments performing engineer duty for a period of five months, and both being assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, early in November, 1864. (See history of the Thirteenth Infantry.)

At Bentonville, N. C., on the 19th of March, 1865, the regiment was heavily engaged, losing six commissioned officers and eighty-six enlisted men killed and wounded, out of two hundred and thirty present in action.

The Twenty-First participated in the grand review at Washington, D. C., May 24, 1865.

It was there mustered out of service June 8th, arrived at Detroit, Michigan, on the 13th, and on the 22d of the same month was paid and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

Chaplain Theo. Pillsbury, Hastings; com. Aug. 29, 1862; res. Dec. 15, 1862.

Com. Sergeant Horatio G. Steadman, Thornapple; enlisted Nov. 1, 1864; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Company A.

George Adgate, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Richard Benjamin, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Albert W. Dillenbeck, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Newell Hotchkiss, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Wallace Lovewell, discharged for disability, May 30, 1863.

John Rowleader, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

Company B.

Captain L. C. Fitzgerald, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; killed in action at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Perry Chance, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; res. Jan. 17, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Marion C. Russell, Hastings; con. July 30, 1862; res. Feb. 25, 1863.

2d Lieutenant James Houghtalin, Hastings; com. Jan. 17, 1863; res. June 11, 1864.

Sergeant Henry H. Striker, Baltimore; enlisted July 21, 1862; died at Danville, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862.

Sergeant Wm. H. H. Powers, Hastings; enl. July 21, 1862; discharged for disability, May 1, 1863.

Sergeant Jas. Houghtalin, enlisted July 21, 1862; promoted to 2d lieut.

Sergeant Geo. Miller, Hastings; enlisted July 26, 1862; died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 25, 1863.

Sergeant Ilor. G. Steadman, Thornapple; enlisted July 13, 1862; promoted to com. Sergeant, Nov. 1, 1864

Corp. Jas. H. Smith, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 5, 1862; died of disease, May 6, 1863.

Corp. Chas. Miller, Castleton; enlisted July 26, 1862; discharged for disability, March 31, 1863.

Corp. Jas. H. Foote, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 28, 1863.

Corp. John H. Mills, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Corp. Justus Mudge, Castleton; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; discharged by order, Oct. 2, 1862.

Corp. Wallace W. Stillson, Hastings; enlisted July 26, 1862; mustered out May 31, 1865.

Musician Robt. D. Searles, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, April 23, 1863.

Musician Leslie T. Mosely, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Wagoner Chas. Loomis, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 8, 1863.

Edson Andrus, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863.

W. H. Bennett, died of disease.

Tracy Baldwin, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 8, 1862.

Alfred Baldwin, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 30, 1864.

Daniel D. Brown, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Henry C. Bronson, discharged for disability, March 11, 1863.

Nathaniel Barbour, discharged to enlisted in marine service, March 11, 1863.

George Brown, missing at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 20, 1863.

Americus Barnum, mustered out July 5, 1865.

John Bolton, mustered out June 8, 1865.

David C. Bussell, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863; mustered out Aug. 2, 1865.

James R. Chase, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Alexander T. Cramer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Harrison Carpenter, discharged for disability, Nov. 8, 1862.

William J. Crablb, died of wounds at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1863.

Andrew M. Cure, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 19, 1863.

Henry Demund, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Vinal Dean, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863.

Philander Durkee, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

Asa B. Durkee, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Silas Foster, mustered out June 8, 1865.

John Fisher, discharged for disability, Aug. 11, 1863.

Benjamin L. Francisco, discharged for disability, Nov. 18, 1862.

Leon Fry, discharged to enlisted in marine service, Jan. 3, 1863.

David W. Fry, killed in action at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 30, 1863.

Augustus M. Fontes, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 29, 1865.

James Gibson, died of disease at New York Harbor, April 25, 1865.

Eli Gleason, missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Alfred Gibbs, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James B. Holis, mustered out June 27, 1865.

John H. Hall, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Hoel P. Hosier, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Frederick W. Harris, mustered out July 3, 1865.

Schuyler Heath, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 13, 1865.

Myron Heath, died of disease at Andersonville prison, July 31, 1864.

David D. Hall, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 26, 1863.

Thomas J. Hallock, died of disease at Crab Orchard, Ky.

Lester M. Jones, died of wounds, Jan. 2, 1863.

David Jordan, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Nelson Kilmer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Peter Kilmer, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

John A. Kelly, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 23, 1863.

Edgar C. Leonard, discharged for disability, April 27, 1863.

Francis Mead, discharged for disability, Oct. 12, 1863.

James Moulton, discharged for disability, April 7, 1863.

Francis W. Maynard, discharged for disability, June 18, 1863.

Alexander McArthur, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1862.

Eber C. Moffitt, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1862.

John Mead, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1862.

Byron H. Melroy, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 19, 1863.

Leonard Mauch, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Lewis Massacar, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Robert Mitchell, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

James D. Miller, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865.

William Miller, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Nelson J. Millard, mustered out July 7, 1865.

John Osborn, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Joseph Osborn, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Henry G. Orwing, discharged for disability, Feb. 10, 1863.

Adam Pratt, discharged for disability, July 7, 1863.

Henry D. Pierce, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Calvin H. Palmer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Allen Roush, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Thomas W. Roush, must out June 8, 1865.

George M. Reed, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Frederick Rickle, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1863.

Horatio N. Sackett, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862.

Daniel P. Sixberry, died of disease, March 3, 1865.

John Smith, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 16, 1863.

John F. Swaine, missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Silas W. Steelman, discharged for disability, July 22, 1863.

George P. Sweet, discharged for disability, Oct. 16, 1863.

W. H. S. Smoke, mustered out June 12, 1865.

James H. Sawdy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

John C. Spencer, mustered out June 26, 1865.

John Strouse, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Anthony Thompson, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Byron W. Tomlinson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Ansel S. Thrasher, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 6, 1862.

Elisha Tracy, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863.

William Varney, mustered out June 8, 1865.

George Varney, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Michael Vanderhoof, mustered out July 5, 1865.

William B. Warner, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James Williams, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Isaac B. Wooley, mustered out May 30, 1865.

Company D.

Joseph Kilmer, died of disease at Bardstown, N. Y.

Jacob Young, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Selden E. Turner, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; res. Jan. 13, 1863.

Musician George Croninger, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Feb. 15, 1861.

William E. McConnell, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Benjamin R. Ogden, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Samuel F. Rosencrans, died of disease at Stone River, Tenn., March, 1862.

Company I.

1st Lieutenant Herman Hunt, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; died of disease, Dec. 16, 1862.

Robert M. Gamble, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James M. Hale, discharged by order, April 15, 1863.

Charles D. Kellogg, died of disease at Lancaster, Pa., Feb. 3, 1862.

MEMBERS OF THE TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company C.

Almon D. Bisbee, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Reuben Fisher, died of disease in New York Harbor.

Frederick Leonard, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Feb. 12, 1865.

Company E.

William H. French, mustered out May 26, 1865.

TWENTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY.

This regiment was recruited during the summer and early autumn of 1864, and finally completed its organization by the consolidation of several partially-formed companies intended for the Twenty-Ninth Infantry.

It left Kalamazoo, under the command of Lieutenant-Col. Delos Phillips, October 26th, and arrived in Louisville, Ky., on the 29th.

On the 10th of November it was ordered to Camp Nelson to guard a wagon-train from that point to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived on the 5th of December.

The advance of Hood’s rebel army on Nashville soon brought the regiment to face the realities of war, and, under the command of Col. William W. Wheeler, it participated in the defense of that city by Gen. Thomas, from the 12th to the 16th of December, 1864, fully establishing its reputation as a gallant command, and reaching the uniform high standard of Michigan troops.

After the battle of Nashville the regiment was attached to the Twenty-Third Army Corps, which was sent to the Atlantic seaboard to constitute a part of the force concentrating in the vicinity of Wilmington, N. C., to cooperate with Gen. Sherman’s army on its approach to the coast.

The regiment was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division (Ruger’s), and arrived at Morehead City Feb. 24, 1865, and on the 2d of March marched with its division towards Kinston, joining Gen. Cox.

Meeting the enemy at Wise’s Forks, the Twenty-Eighth, commanded by Col. Wheeler, took an active part in the battles of the 8th, 9th, and 10th of March at that point.

On the 8th the regiment was engaged in heavy skirmishing during the entire day and night.

On the succeeding day the enemy pressed Cox’s lines strongly without making an assault, and at the same time attempted to turn his right, but failed on account of a prompt reinforcement, of which the Twenty-Eighth formed a part.

On the morning of the 10th the rebels made a fierce and determined charge upon the left, breaking the lines, but were finally repulsed.

The Second Brigade charged the rebels on the double-quick, driving them back, and taking over three hundred prisoners, among whom were several field-officers.

About two P.M. the enemy made a heavy and desperate onset on the left and centre of Gen. Cox’s lines, but again most signally failed by reason of reinforcements coming up so promptly from the right.

The Second Brigade, among the first to arrive, fought most gallantly for about two hours, when the enemy retired from the field, leaving his dead and wounded and a large number of prisoners.

In this spirited engagement the regiment lost seven men killed and thirteen wounded.

Continuing the march, the regiment reached Kinston on the 14th, and Goldsboro’ on the 21st.

It was then placed on guard duty along the line of the Atlanta and North Carolina Railroad.

On the 9th of April it marched again to Goldsboro’, and on the 13th arrived in Raleigh.

After the cessation of hostilities it was on duty at Goldsboro’, Raleigh, Charlotte, Lincolnton, Wilmington, and Newbern, N. C., until June 5, 1866, when it was mustered out of service.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Adj. Hiram R. Ellis, Saugatuck; com. Sept. 10, 1861; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Non-commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major John M. G. Mavers, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 20, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company D.

E. A. Lindley, died by suicide, March 6, 1865.

Henry C. Meeker, died of disease at Alexandria, Feb. 11, 1865.

Company E.

Captain Samuel S. Thomas, Allegan; com. Aug. 15, 1864; res. May 15, 1865. Sergeant

Jeremiah Walter, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 25, 1864; discharged Nov. 1, 1865.

Corp. Wm. A. Lisco, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 31, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Corp. George Cady, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 23, 1864; discharged by order, June 18, 1865.

George W. Cummings, mustered out June 5, 1866.

William Eggleston, discharged for wounds, Aug. 17, 1865.

William French, discharged for wounds, June 16, 1865.

FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS.

John Hamilton, discharged by order, Sept. 3, 1865.

Jacob Killam, mustered out Nov. 17, 1865.

Lyman Lamoreaux, mustered out June 5, 1866.

John Moore, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Ashley R. Nichols, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Alva L. Pierce, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Herman H. Palmer, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Frederick Porter, nust. out June 5, 1866.

James B. Paul, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Peter Sergeant, discharged for disability, April 26, 1865.

Aaron Van Patten, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Allen N. Wait, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Ira Woodstock, died of disease at Alexandria, February, 1865.

Company H.

James G. Lindsley, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 19, 1865.

Company I

Sergeant Charles W. Hoskins, Hopkins; enlisted Sept. 12, 1864; discharged by order, April 7, 1865.

Corp. Lewis H. Fountain, Hopkins; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Henry Bryant, mustered out Oct. 24, 1865.

Company K.

1st Lieutenant Jeremiah B. Haney, Leighton; com. Oct. 18, 1864; res. Nov. 8, 1865.

2d Lieutenant William Duryea, Lee; com. Oct. 18, 1864; res. July 6, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company B.

Sergeant Isaac J. Brooks, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 2, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1863.

Corp. Charles J. Hanley, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; died of disease at Nashville, Jan. 8, 1865.

Emanuel Briggs, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 14, 1865.

Levi Briggs, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Nov. 12, 1864.

Charles Edwards, discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1865.

Isaac Green, mustered out April 4, 1865.

William S. Hyde, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

S. T. Lazarus, mustered out June 5, 1866.

C. R. Palmer, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

Ephraim Trimm, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 13, 1865.

John E. Wilcox, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

Company C.

Theodore Steinkram, mustered out June 5, 1866.

George W. Howell, mustered out June 5, 1866.

F. Havens, discharged at end of service, April 12, 1866.

Company D.

Dallas Downs, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company E.

John Sell, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company K.

David Pott, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., July 10, 1865.

THIRTIETH INFANTRY.

On account of the numerous attempts made by the enemy in Canada to organize plundering raids against our northern border, authority was given by the War Department to the Governor of Michigan, in the autumn of 1864, to raise a regiment of infantry for one year’s service, especially designed to guard the Michigan frontier.

Its formation, under the name of the Thirtieth Michigan Infantry, was begun at Jackson in November, 1864, and was completed at Detroit on the 9th of January, 1865.

To this regiment Allegan and Barry Counties furnished between sixty and seventy men, who were scattered among various companies.

When the organization was completed, the companies were detached and stationed at different points along the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers,-at Fort Gratiot, St. Clair, Wyandotte, Jackson, Fenton, Detroit, and Detroit Barracks.

But the speedy collapse of the Rebellion put an end to Canadian raids, and the regiment, although the men were ready for service, had no active duty to perform.

It remained on duty until the 30th of June, 1865, and was then mustered out.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Non-commissioned Staff.

Principal Musician Chas. Barton, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 21, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company A.

Corp. Oliver Westfall, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Henry H. Saunders, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Addison Childs, Otsego; enlisted Dec. 5, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Thos. Baxter, Wm. F. Cole, Clas. Davey, Thos. Jackson,

Samuel G. Mills, Win. G. Stearns, Michael Shaughnessy,

Harvey Sutton, John Shea, Ebenezer Warren, Chas. W. Wood, Wm. E. Yale,

Merrick Zautz, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company B.

Arnson A. Culver, Daniel Wasker, Doctor M. Wasker, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company C.

Mathew J. Allegan, Chas. K. Bowlin, Melvin Eastwood, Harvey McDonald, Jesse Van Camp, Sr., Jesse Van Camp, Jr., L. Van Camp, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company E.

Wm. Curry,

Birney Hathaway, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company F.

Wm. J. Durand, Wm. W. Freese, John McEwen, Edward Norman, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company G.

Leander Fuller, Milford Roosa, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company H.

Sergeant Saml. P. Spaulding, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 19, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Sergeant James R. Londray, Gun Plain; enlisted Nov. 26, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. E. M. T.Silliman, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 19, 1861; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Jacob Hildebrand, Martin; enlisted Dec. 28, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Wm. A. Bratt, Frederick Bless, Franklin Burlingame, Thos. Carroll, Ralph B. Clark, Nelson Degraff, Marshall H. Ensign, Frederick Green, Gregory Navarre, Sylvester D. Randall, Sylvanus H. Randall, Orlando Ryan, Chas. Williams, Patrick Walch, all mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company K.

Sergeant James Shippie, Overisel; enlisted Dec. 24, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865. Wm. P. Hunter, Chas. Maxon, Andrew J. Parsons, mustered out June 30, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company F.

William P. Fifield, Theodore A. Healey, Silas N. Miller, John H. Rook, Asa D. Rook, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company I.

1st Lieutenant Geo. M. Brooks, Orangeville; com. Jan. 9, 1865; mustered out June 30, 1865.

FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS.

Organization of the Regiment-Departure for the Front-Service by Detachments-Building Bridges, etc.-Difficulties regarding Pay -Fight at Lavergne-The Regiment defeats Wheeler’s and Wharton’s Brigades-Service in the Summer of 1863-Placed on a Footing with Regular Engineers-Building Bridges in the Winter -Erecting Block-Houses-Importance of the Engineers’ Services -Close of Original Term-The March through Georgia-Through the Carolinas-A Detachment left in Tennessee-It rejoins the Regiment-Closing Services-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members.

THIS regiment, every company of which contained men from Allegan and Barry Counties, was organized under the.law of Aug. 3, 1861, authorizing the President to receive into service five hundred thousand volunteers.

Its original members rendezvoused at Marshall during the months of August and September, 1861, remaining there in camp of instruction, busily preparing for their duties in the field, until the 17th of December, 1861.

It was then, with an aggregate force of one thousand and thirty-two men and officers, commanded by Col. William P. Innes, transferred by rail to Louisville, Ky., joining there the army commanded by Major-Gen. Buell.

From this time it began a series of varied services, principally by detachments.

One of these detachments, then under Gen. O. M. Mitchell, was the first Union force to enter Bowling Green, Ky., after its evacuation by the enemy, and another was at the battle of Chaplain Hills.

During the spring and summer of 1862 the regiment was mostly employed in the repair or reopening of the railroads between Nashville and Chattanooga, Nashville and Columbia, Corinth and Decatur, Huntsville and Stevenson, and Memphis and Corinth, and twice assisted in reopening the road between Louisville and Nashville.

In the month of June, 1862, alone, it built seven bridges on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, each from eighty-four to three hundred and forty feet in length-in the aggregate nearly three thousand feet-and from twelve to sixty feet in height.

After the battle of Pittsburg Landing it was engaged at that point eight weeks in the construction of steamboat-landings, etc., with only one day’s rest.

Serious difficulties existed in the regiment during the first months of its service, owing to a misunderstanding as to the pay the men were to receive, it having been found after their organization that there was no law by which they could receive the pay expected.

This trouble was finally remedied by an act of Congress, which act also proposed to increase the regiment’s strength from ten to twelve companies of one hundred and fifty men each, forming three battalions, each commanded by a major.

Half the men, as artificers, drew seventeen dollars per month, and the others thirteen dollars per month.

On the 1st of November, 1862, the regiment was encamped at Edgefield, Tenn., when the alterations and casualties to that date aggregated as follows:

Died of disease, seventy-five;

died of wounds received in action, two;

killed in action, one;

wounded in action, seventeen;

discharged, one hundred and twenty-four;

taken prisoners, fifteen;

deserted, twenty;

recruits received, sixty-seven.

Until June 29, 1863, the regiment was stationed at Edgefield and Mill Creek, near Nashville, at Lavergne, Murfreesboro, and Smyrna, and at a point near Nashville on the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad.

During this time the regiment built nine bridges, besides a number of magazines and buildings for commissary, quartermaster, and ordnance stores, and also repaired and re-laid a large amount of railroad track.

At Lavergne, Tenn., on the 1st of January, 1863, it was attacked by the rebel Gens. Wheeler and Wharton, who, with a force of over three thousand Cavalry and two pieces of artillery, were compelled to retire with loss, the loss of the regiment in this action being but one man killed and six wounded.

On the 29th of June, 1863, the regiment moved south from Murfreesboro and during the two succeeding months was engaged repairing and opening the railroad from Murfreesboro, Tenn., to Bridgeport, Ala.

Of five bridges completed in July, the one over Elk River was four hundred and sixty feet in length; that over Duck River, three hundred and fifty feet long.

During September and October detached companies were employed in building an immense bridge over the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Ala., constructing commissary buildings at Stevenson, Ala., and building and repairing bridges, etc., on the lines of the Nashville and Chattanooga and the Nashville and Northwestern Railroads; the headquarters of the regiment being at Elk River Bridge, Tenn.

By an act of Congress passed in 1862, regiments and independent companies which had been ” mustered into the service of the United States as volunteer engineers, pioneers, or sappers and miners” were ” recognized and accepted as volunteer engineers, on the same footing, in all respects, in regard to their organization, pay, and emoluments, as the corps of engineers of the regular army of the United States.”

The standard of organization thus established allowed the regiment twelve companies of one hundred and fifty enlisted men each, viz., two musicians, ten sergeants, ten corporals, sixty-four artificers, and sixty-four privates.

The alterations and casualties for the year, to Nov. 1, 1863, were:

Died in action or of wounds, six;

died of disease, fifty-eight;

discharged for disability, one hundred and eighty-nine;

discharged for other causes, fourteen;

deserted, twenty-seven;

officers resigned, ten;

joined as recruits, three hundred and seventy-two;

aggregate strength, nine hundred and sixty-five.

In the months of November and December, 1863, and January and February, 1864, the regiment was engaged in building trestle-work and bridges on the line of the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad, and in the construction of store houses and other buildings at Chattanooga, Tenn., and Bridgeport, Ala., for the quartermaster, ordnance, and other departments of the army.

At the same time one battalion was engaged at Chattanooga in refitting saw-mills, where it continued during the months of March, April, and May, employed in running saw-mills, getting out railroad-ties, building hospital accommodations, and working on the defenses.

Detachments from the other battalions were engaged erecting block-houses on the lines of the Tennessee and Alabama, the Nashville and Chattanooga, and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads.

Two companies were at Bridgeport, Ala., building artillery block-houses.

Two companies were at Stevenson, Ala., completing its defenses, while another battalion was stationed on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, building block-houses at various points between Decatur and Stevenson.

The major portion of the regiment was finally concentrated upon the line of the Atlantic and Western Railroad during the summer months of 1864, where it built and repaired railroads, block-houses, etc.

The task allotted to this regiment during the fierce campaign of Sherman’s army, in 1864, was one of great magnitude, and most nobly did its members fulfill their duty.

But for such men as composed the Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, and the rapidity with which they repaired the railroad right up to the enemy’s skirmish-line, the more than one hundred thousand Union soldiers in front would many times have gone to sleep without their usual rations of “hard tack, sow belly, and coffee.”

As Johnston’s army fell back from one chosen position to another before the fierce attacks and flank movements of Sherman’s veterans, the railroad was invariably destroyed by the enemy, and in a manner, too, that would seem to require days to repair it.

Imagine, then, the surprise and chagrin of the “Johnnies,” when, in the course of a very few hours, a locomotive bearing the legend “United States”,

At the close of the Atlanta campaign, headquarters of the regiment were established in the latter city.

The alterations and casualties for the year were reported as follows:

Died of disease, one hundred and twelve; transferred thirty-six; discharged for disability, etc., fifty; re-enlisted as veterans, one hundred and forty-eight.

On the 31st of October, 1864, the original term of the regiment expired, and such officers as desired to leave the service were mustered out, as were also the enlisted men whose terms had expired.

The re-enlisted veterans, together with the recruits who had joined the regiment, enabled it to maintain its organization entire and nearly its full strength.

From the 1st to the 15th of November, 1864, the regiment, with the exception of Companies L and M, was stationed at Atlanta, Ga., being employed in constructing defenses, destroying rebel works, depots, rolling-mills, foundries, gas-works, and other rebel property, and in tearing up and rendering useless the various railroad-tracks in the vicinity.

After the complete destruction of Atlanta, the regiment set out on the morning of November 16, with the Fourteenth Army Corps, as part of the engineer force of Gen. Sherman’s army; going to Sandersville, Ga., and thence with the Twentieth Army Corps, to Horse Creek, where it received orders to join the Seventeenth Army Corps, with which it continued on to Savannah, Ga., reaching there Dec. 10, 1864.

During this march the regiment was required to keep pace with the movements of the army, traveling over twenty miles a day, and meanwhile was engaged tearing up railroad-tracks, twisting rails, destroying bridges, repairing and making roads, building and repairing wagon-bridges, etc.

On the 10th and 11th of December the regiment built a dam across the Ogechee Canal under the fire of rebel batteries.

From that time until after the evacuation of Savannah by the enemy, the regiment was constantly at work tearing up railroad-track and destroying the rails of the several railroads leading out of the city, and in constructing long stretches of corduroy-road for the passage of army-trains.

On the 23d of December it moved into the city, and five days later commenced work on the fortifications laid out by direction of Gen. Sherman.

These works, constructed by and under the supervision of this regiment, were over two miles in length, and included several strong battery-positions and lunettes.

The regiment was again put in motion on the 3d of January, 1865; marching to Pooler Station, converting the railroad into a wagon-road, and then returning to Savannah.

It embarked on board transports for Beaufort, S. C., January 26, 1865, and on the 31st started with the victorious Military Railroad,” driven by a greasy Northern mechanic, would dash up in their very midst, as it were, saluting them with several toots, and then a prolonged shrill whistle.

The salute, however, as well as the cheers from the “Yanks,” usually, and very quickly, too, received a response in the shape of shells from a rebel battery.

Afternoon and night of Nov. 15, 1864. army on its march to Goldsboro’, N. C.

It moved with the Fifteenth Army Corps to Banbury, S. C., thence with the Twentieth Army Corps to Columbia, S. C., thence with the Seventeenth Corps to Fayetteville, N. C., and thence with the Twentieth Army Corys to Goldsboro’, N. C., where it arrived March 23, 1865.

It is estimated that during this campaign, besides making and repairing a great distance of corduroy-road, the regiment destroyed and twisted the rails of thirty miles of railroad-track and built eight or ten important bridges and crossings.

At Edisto the bridge was constructed under fire from the enemy’s sharpshooters.

At Hughes Creek and at Little and Big Lynch Creeks the bridges and approaches were built at night.

At the last-named stream the men worked in water waist-deep.

A foot-crossing was made there in one night, nearly a mile in length, and the next day the space was corduroyed for the heavy army-trains and artillery to pass over.

The regiment destroyed factories and rebel army supplies at Columbia, rebel ordnance and stores at Cheraw, and the old United States arsenal at Fayetteville, N. C., etc.

Companies L and M, which had been detached from the regiment early in the summer of 1864 and placed upon the defenses at Stevenson, Ala., having completed those works, which consisted of a system of eight block-houses, were retained in the Army of the Cumberland.

They assisted to fortify and defend the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad for some weeks, and on the 28th of November, 1864, were moved to Elk River Bridge.

For some time after that, when not interrupted by Hood’s rebel army, they were engaged in building block-houses between that bridge and Murfreesboro, Tenn.

During the most of the month of December a portion of the Engineers and Mechanics was engaged in completing and repairing Fort Rosecrans, Murfreesboro, Tenn., while the rebels, under Hood, were investing Nashville.

A detachment, consisting of Company L of this regiment, with several companies of an Illinois regiment which had been sent out to bring through from Stevenson, Ala., a railroad-train of supplies, was captured Dec. 15, 1864, after several hours’ hard fighting.

On the 1st of March, 1865, Companies L and M left Murfreesboro, Tenn., to rejoin their regiment, and proceeding by rail, via Louisville, Indianapolis, Crestline, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia, to New York, they then took steamer to Beaufort, N. C., thence by rail to Newbern, and finally joined their comrades at Goldsboro’, N. C., March 25, 1865. Gen. Sherman’s army began its last campaign April 10, 1865.

By breaking camp at Goldsboro’ and moving rapidly to the northward, Johnston’s fleeing forces were pursued to, through, and beyond Raleigh.

The Engineers and Mechanics marched with the Twentieth Army Corps, but proceeded no farther than Raleigh, where they remained until after Johnston’s’ surrender on the 30th April the regiment moved out on its homeward march with the Seventeenth Army Corps.

It crossed the Roanoke River at Monroe, and, passing through the cities of Petersburg, Richmond, and Alexandria, Va., arrived at Washington, D. C.  April 26, 1865.

During the latter part of May, 1865, it participated in the grand review of two hundred thousand veteran soldiery held at the nation’s capital, May 23 and 24, 1865, and then went into camp near Georgetown, D. C.

Early in June the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., thence to Nashville, Tenn., where it was employed upon the defenses until September 22d, when it was mustered out of the United States service.

It arrived at the designated rendezvous, Jackson, Michigan, September 25th, and on the 1st day of. October, 1865, was paid off and disbanded.

The battles and skirmishes which by general orders it was entitled to have inscribed upon its colors were those of Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862; Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862; Lavergne, Tenn., Jan. 1, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 6, 1863; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to Sept. 2, 1864; Savannah, Ga., Dec. 11 to 23, 1864; Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company A.

Charles R. Averill, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Edward Averill, discharged by order, July 18, 1865.

Cvrus E. Babbitt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Hiram Bisby, died of disease at Willets’ Point, N. Y., May 14, 1865.

Theodore Crapey, discharged by order June 6, 1865.

William Degoit, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

David Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Henry Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Samuel Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

0. L. Gleason, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Cyrus E. Goodspeed, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

George H. Goodspeed, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 9, 1865.

Russell H. Jones, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Hugh Johnson, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Riley Miller, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Jefferson Reed, died of disease at Goldsboro’, N. C., March 28, 1865.

William M. Shepherd, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

J. M. Sterling, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Mathias Van Tassell, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company B.

Philip Bovee, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Walter Curtis, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 8, 1865.

Lyman M. Henderson, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 4, 1865.

Myron Heffron, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Elisha Poland, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

George R. Roach, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Myron Sullivan, disch by order, June 6, 1865.

Michael Strayer, discharged by order, May 22, 1865.

William E. Ticknor, died of disease in Indiana, May 17, 1864.

Company C.

Augustus P. Howe, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

William H. Wallace, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company D.

Corp. George H. Fausler, died of disease in Kentucky, Feb. 7, 1863.

David F. Ayers, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Theodore M. Ayers, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Richard Boyle, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Jan. 26, 1865.

Leaider Brewer, discharged for disability, Dec. 11, 1865.

Andrew E. Bates, veteran, enlisted Jan. 3, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Joseph Douglass, discharged for disability, Jan. 18, 1863.

William Everhardt, died of disease at Nashville, March 28, 1863.

Moses H. Fausler, died of disease at Nashville, May 3, 1862.

Samuel Hunter, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

John C. Hirspool, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Leonard T. Kinner, died of disease, March 11, 1862.

Henry Leslie, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Hezekiah Mason, disch by order, June 6, 1865.

Lyman Mathews, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Leroy Root, discharged for disability, July 8, 1862.

Andrew J. Ross, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John Parsons, discharged for disability, March 9, 1863.

Edgar A. Thompson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 3, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Witherell, discharged for disability, June 20, 1865.

Company E.

1st Lieutenant John W. Spoor, Allegan; com. Nov. 3, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, Jan. 1, 1864; Sergeant; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Philip J. Coon, Wayland; enlisted Sept. 11, 1861; discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Amasa B. Carpenter, died of disease, Feb. 25, 1863.

Marshall Darrow, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Francis M. Filkins, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

James Goodspeed, died of disease at Alexandria, May 8, 1865.

Cyrus E. Hollister, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Lucius F. Hill, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Minot Hoyt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Isaac N. Hoyt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Charles W. King, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Curtis Murray, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Chester D. Walchl, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company F.

Ambrose Mudge, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Jacob W. Ridgely, died of disease in Tennessee, March 11, 1865.

Company G.

Gilbert Eagle, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Henry H. Jennings, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Albert H. Lillie, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William Osman, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Frank F. Russell, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Henry Starring, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Charles Stratton, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Osmer Eaton, Otsego; cornm. Jan. 1, 1864; discharged at end of service, Oct. 26, 1864.

Albert Brundage, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

David Fargo, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Perly Mann, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

George Robbins, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Parker Truax, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Aaron Wing, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Company L

Ephraim Prindle, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

James B. Yeamans, discharged by order, June 29, 1865.

Company K.

Clement C. Bement, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 10, 1864.

John Dean, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Ira S. Harriman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John B. King, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Francis P. Williams, discharged for disability, June 18, 1862.

Robert Williams, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company L.

Sergeant Cornelius Engles, Otsego; enlisted Jan. 1, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Augustus Dean, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William Heydenberg, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Sanford Scott, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company M.

John W. Leoply, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William F, Leoply, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company A.

William Scott, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

Company B.

Charles Dowse, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 24, 1862.

William C. Goodyear, discharged for disability, Dec. 19, 1863.

Company C.

Sergeant Zophar Sidmore, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, April 17, 1863.

Sergeant Andrew J. Beers, Irving; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 1, 1864; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. L.

Corp. Joseph L. Hewett, Irving; enlisted Sept. 17, 1861; discharged by order, July 14, 1863.

Musician Jonathan R. Russell, Thornapple; enlisted Oct. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 2, 1862.

George H. Brownson, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1863.

Nathaniel Birdsall, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William H. Bayless, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Eliphalet R. Cartwright, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

James Curtis, discharged for disability, Sept. 9, 1862.

Benona A. Cotant, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 15, 1863.

James Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James W. Cutler, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Oliver Cheeney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Darmat, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Frederick A. Fuller, discharged at Nashville, Tenn.

James M. Flanigan. veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Alson Gray, discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Oliyer P. Hewitt, discharged for disability, March 7, 1862.

William Hazen, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Abner Hall, died of disease-at Nashville, Tenn., March 29, 1864.

Solomon Hardenburgh, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 15, 1864.

T homas Haney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865. H

iram Jones, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Horatio Morgridge, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John MeOmber, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 15, 1864.

Orson Myers, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 17, 1864.

Daniel S. Mead, died of disease at Hastings, Michigan, Feb. 5, 1864.

Liberty Marble, discharged for disability, March 3, 1863.

William Morgan, discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1863.

John H. McLellan, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Theodore R. Mattison, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Francis Nye, veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George W. Osborn, discharged for disability, July 25, 1862.

William Roberts, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Walter Robinson, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

Mathias Reiser, died of wounds at Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 25, 1863.

David H. Sanford, discharged for disability, April 30, 1862.

Samuel Sweet, discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1862.

Norman Seaver, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Ezra Sweet, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Charles W. Sheldon, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Edwin B. Sidmore, veteran, enlisted Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Abel Shepard, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles 11. Stone, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Washington Topping, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jefferson Turner, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Alonzo Van Horn, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William D. Vaughan, discharged for disability, July 28, 1862.

William Vester, discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1863.

John Vredenburgh, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Watson E. Woodruff, discharged for disability, June 3, 1863.

Amos W. Warner, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

James C. Woodruff, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

John Weisert, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Oscar H. Young, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company D.

James H. Gault, died of disease at Ypsilanti, Michigan, May 25, 1862.

Matthew A. Patrick, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1865.

Roswell Webster, discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Company F.

Samuel Gibbs, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Robert Holliday, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Johnson, discharged by order, Aug. 4, 1865.

Albert B. Sayles, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company G.

Edwin M. Bowman, died of disease at Town Creek, Ga., Nov. 24, 1864.

Lewis C. Bugby, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 16, 1865.

Andrew E. Breese, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Stephen E. Crandall, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Haugh, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Wilson F. Hart, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Southern Monroe, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Levi Palmatier, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company H.

Stephen Downs, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Lewis Ives, discharged for disability, April 26, 1862.

Company K.

John Jacobs, veteran, enlisted Dec. 31, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. H. Miller, discharged for disability, Feb. 18, 1863.

John Vandermere, died of disease at New York Harbor, May 4, 1865.

Company L.

Andrew J. Beers, 1st Lieutenant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CAVALRY.

The First Cavalry goes to Virginia in October, 1861-Winters in Maryland-Its Battles in 1862-Assigned to the “Michigan Brigade”-Defeats Hampton’s Legion-The New Battalion-Loss in the Wilderness-At Trevillian-At Front Royal, Winchester, and Cedar Creek-In at the Death of the Rebellion-Ordered to the Rocky Mountains-Disbanded in March, 1866-Allegan County Soldiers-Barry County Soldiers-The Second Cavalry goes to St. Louis-Operates on the Mississippi-Services around Corinth Philip H. Sheridan its Colonel-Ordered to Kentucky-A March to East Tennessee-Then to Middle Tennessee-A Fight with Forrest -More Fighting in Middle and East Tennessee-Re-enlistment Resisting Hood’s Advance in the Fall of 1864-Closing Services Officers and Soldiers from Barry County-From Allegan County Allegan County’s Representation in the Third Cavalry-Operations on the Mississippi and around Corinth-A Gallant Achievement Battle of Iuka-Fights in the Winter of 1862-63-Fighting Guerrillas in 1863-Description of that Kind of Warfare-Re-enlistment -Subsequent Services-Ordered to Texas-Mustered out-Officers and Men from Allegan County-Soldiers from Barry County.

FIRST CAVALRY.

The First Regiment of Michigan Cavalry was organized during the summer of 1861, and left its rendezvous at Detroit for the seat of war in Virginia, under the command of Col. T. F. Brodhead, on the 29th of September of the same year.

Among its original members were several from Allegan County, and before the close of the war some fifty men had joined its ranks from the counties of Barry and Allegan.

The regiment passed the winter of 1861-62 in camp near Frederick, Md., and in the following spring entered upon active service on the Upper Potomac, in the Shenandoah Valley, and near the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge.

It was in battle at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862; at Middletown, Va., March 15th; at Strasburg, March 27th; at Harrisonburg, April 22d; at Winchester again, May 24th; at Orange Court-House, July 16th; at Cedar Mountain, August 9th; and at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862.

In the last-named battle Col. Brodhead was mortally wounded, and the regiment lost twenty men killed and wounded, seven prisoners, and one hundred and six missing.

To Nov. 1, 1862, ten others had died of wounds received in action, and sixty of disease.

After passing another winter near Frederick, Md., the regiment again entered the field, and during the early part of 1863 performed picket duty along the line of Union defenses extending from Edward’s Ferry to the mouth of the Occoquan.

On the 27th June it moved northward in the Gettysburg campaign, and for fifteen days it was almost constantly engaged in conflicts with the enemy.

The First formed part of the celebrated “Michigan Cavalry Brigade,” of which Gen. Custer was so long the commander, and which contributed very largely to the renown of that distinguished Cavalry leader.

At Gettysburg, on the 3d of July, 1863, the First met and charged Hampton’s Legion, consisting of three regiments of rebel Cavalry, and defeated it in six minutes, having eleven officers and eighty men killed and wounded out of three hundred who went into the action.

In September, 1863, the War Department authorized the consolidation of the twelve companies into eight and the raising of a new battalion of four companies.

These were speedily raised, and the new battalion was mustered into service at Mount Clemens, in December, 1863.

This battalion went to Camp Stoneman, near Washington, in December, 1863, and remained there until the spring of 1864.

Meanwhile, the two old battalions re-enlisted, came home on veteran furlough, and joined the new levies at Camp Stoneman.

The three battalions went to the front together, and in the latter part of March, 1864, joined Gen. Sheridan’s Cavalry corps at Culpeper, Va., being still a part of the “Michigan Cavalry Brigade.”

The regiment had ten men killed and twenty wounded in the battle of the Wilderness.

It was engaged at Hanovertown, on the 27th of May, and at Hawes’ Shop on the 28th, where fifteen of its members were killed and wounded, and at Old Church on the 30th, where fifteen were killed and wounded.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with other Cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought, dismounted, in advance of the infantry; having eighteen men killed and wounded.

It shared the fortunes of the brigade throughout the summer; having fifty-one men killed and wounded at Trevillian Station (where six commissioned officers were killed), eleven killed and wounded at Front Royal in the Shenandoah Valley, thirty-two at Manchester, and twenty-seven at Cedar Creek.

During the six months closing on the 1st of November, 1864, the regiment had eighty-two men killed or mortally wounded in action, and one hundred and two less seriously wounded, while only thirty-three died of disease.

After being in quarters with the brigade near Winchester through the winter, the First went with it in Sheridan’s great raid in March, 1865, and was warmly engaged in the closing scenes of the Rebellion.

After this the regiment moved into the edge of North Carolina, then returned to Washington, and immediately after the review of the Army of the Potomac, on the 23d of May, 1865, was sent by rail and steamer to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., whence it was ordered across the Plains.

There was much dissatisfaction, but most of the regiment set out on the march; reaching Camp Collins, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, on the 26th of July.

Its headquarters remained there until about the 1st of November, when it was moved to Fort Bridger.

There it was consolidated with those men of the Sixth and Seventh Michigan Cavalry who had the longest time to serve; forming an organization known as the First Michigan Veteran Cavalry.

Company K was distributed among several other companies.

After the consolidation eight companies were sent to Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, while four remained at Fort Bridger.

The regiment garrisoned those two stations until the 10th of March, 1866, when it was mustered out, paid off, and disbanded.

The men were given their choice,-to be disbanded in Utah then, or to remain till June and then be marched to Fort Leavenworth, without horses or tents.

All but about seventy made the former choice.

The commutation paid them in lieu of transportation, however, was not enough to carry them home, and, on representation of the injustice to Congress, that body voted three hundred and twenty-five dollars to each member of the regiment, minus the amount already paid as commutation money.

This gave each member about two hundred and ten dollars extra, which was duly paid them by the government.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Company A.

John Rutan, (lied of disease at Alexandria, Va., June 10, 1862.

Company B.

Robert W. Martin, mustered out May 14, 1866.

Amos Ruland, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company C.

Miles Wright, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company E.

George Brown, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Aretus E. Black, mustered out March 10, 1866.

James H. Birkhead, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Henry L. Monteith, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Florence Sullivan, mustered out Dec. 5. 1865.

Company F.

Hiram O. Miller, mustered out March 25, 1866.

Company G.

Darius J. Cushman, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Darwin E. White, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company H.

Thomas Hoagland, mustered out.

Origen Hamilton, mustered out.

Company I.

2d Lieutenant Orrin M. Bartlett, Gun Plain; cor. March 7, 1865; killed in action at Five Forks, Va., April 1, 1865.

1st Sergeant Nahum Gilbert, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, July 14, 1863.

Corp. Charles W. Belcher, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; missing in action at Brandy Station, Oct. 11, 1863.

Corp. Otis A. Cackler, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 7, 1862.

MusicianThomas Jeffs, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; veteran, Dec. 21, 1863; transferred to Co. L; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Saddler William J. Monteith, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; veteran, Dec. 21, 1863; transferred to Co. L; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Company K.

Franklin J. Church, mustered out.

Company L.

Jefferson Brown, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

William Brown, mustered out by order, June 7, 1865.

Horace Dunning, discharged by order, Sept. 12, 1864.

Isaac Furgeson, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Nelson Russ, mustered out Nov. 14, 1865.

Friend Reed, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Thomas Schlayer, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

David C. Smith, discharged at end of service, Aug. 22, 1865.

Company M.

Barzillai Houston, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Johnson Mellott, mustered out July 24, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company D.

Andrew L. Barnum, died in action at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.

Company E.

William D. Mathews, must out March 2, 1865.

Rollin C. Norton, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company F.

Grant H. Van Voorhies, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Company G.

William M. Davis, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company K.

Alfred Train, mustered out March 25, 1866.

Company L.

Clinton J. Williamson, died of disease at Fort Kearney, July 23, 1865.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CAVALRY.

SECOND CAVALRY.

Allegan and Barry Counties were both represented by good men in the Second Cavalry.

The companies comprising this fine regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids early in the fall of 1861.

On the 28th of November, 1861, the Second proceeded to St. Louis, Mo., where it was encamped at Benton Barracks until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined the forces organizing under Gen. John Pope to operate against New Madrid and Island No. 10.

After the capture of those rebel strongholds the regiment proceeded with Pope’s ” Army of the Mississippi,” via the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Hamburg Landing, Tenn.

It was engaged in the battle of Farmington, Miss, May 5, 1862, and in the subsequent siege of Corinth during the remainder of that month.

It pressed closely upon Beauregard’s retreating columns when they fled south from Corinth, and fought them at Boonville, Blackland, and Baldwin, Miss.

Thereafter, throughout the summer of 1862, the regiment was actively employed on various duties in Northern Mississippi and Western Tennessee.

Its colonel was then Philip H. Sheridan, now lieutenant-general, who had recently been detailed fiom duty as a captain in the regular army to receive the colonelcy lately vacated by the promotion of Gen. Gordon Granger.

Col. Sheridan commanded a brigade, consisting of the Second Michigan, Second Iowa, and Seventh Kansas Cavalry, and at its head made numerous excursions through the country around Corinth, to keep down guerrillas and learn the movements of the enemy.

Early in the autumn, however, Col. Sheridan was made a brigadier-general of volunteers and transferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and about the same time the Second Cavalry was sent to Kentucky.

In December, 1862, and January, 1863, it was engaged in a movement into East Tennessee, the men being in the saddle twenty-two days and taking part in several sharp skirmishes.

Soon afterward it moved into Middle Tennessee, and for several months its headquarters were at or near Murfreesboro, while it was almost constantly engaged in scouts and raids through that region.

On the 25th of March, 1863, it had a sharp encounter with a large rebel force under Gen. N. B. Forrest, killing and wounding many and capturing fifty-two prisoners.

The Second had seven men killed and wounded.

On the 4th of June it had another brisk skirmish between Franklin and Triune, Tenn., five of its men being killed and wounded.

When the army advanced from Murfreesboro in June, 1863, the Second accompanied it in the Cavalry division, driving the enemy from Shelbyville, Middletown, and other points.

In the autumn it was engaged in scouting around Chattanooga, at one time being part of a force which chased Gen. Wheeler’s Cavalry one hundred and ninety-one miles in six days (October 3d to 8th, inclusive).

In November it marched into East Tennessee, and on the 24th of December it participated in an attack on a large force of the enemy at Dandridge, Tenn., having ten men killed and wounded.

On the 26th of January, 1864, the Second with other forces attacked a brigade of rebel Cavalry on Pigeon River, capturing three pieces of artillery and seventy-five prisoners, and having eleven of its own men wounded.

Three hundred and twenty-eight of the men re-enlisted as veterans, and in April went home on veteran furlough.

The rest of the regiment accompanied Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, having several sharp skirmishes with the enemy, but being ordered back from Lost Mountain to Franklin, Tenn., where it was rejoined by the veterans in July.

During the summer and autumn the Second was busily engaged in marching through Middle Tennessee, fighting with the horsemen of Forrest and other rebel generals.

On the 5th of November, 1864, the regiment was attacked at Shoal Creek, Ala., by a large Confederate force (a part of Hood’s army, then advancing against Nashville), and was forced back with heavy loss.

It steadily fell back, skirmishing almost constantly with the enemy, and at Franklin, on the 30th of November, it resisted his advance all day, having eighteen officers and men killed and wounded.

After Hood’s defeat before Nashville, the Second pressed hard on his rear, and at Richland Creek, on the 24th of December, charged repeatedly, driving the foe sixteen miles, and having seven men killed and wounded.

After Hood’s final retreat from the State the regiment remained mostly in Middle Tennessee until March 11, 1865, when it set out on a long raid through Northern Alabama to Tuscaloosa, and thence through Talladega to Macon, Ga., where it arrived on the 1st day of May, 1865.

After remaining in Georgia on garrison duty until the 17th of August, the regiment was mustered out and sent home, arriving at Jackson on the 25th of August, 1865, where it was paid off and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Marshall J. Dickenson, Vermontville; c, m. July 31, 1865, but not mustered; Major Sept. 13, 1863; Captain Co. B, May 17, 1862; 2d Lieutenant Sept. 2, 1861; mustered out as major, Aug. 17, 1865.

Company B.

Captain Marshall J. Dickenson. (See Field and Staff.)

Captain Isaac Griswold, Vermontville; com. Jan. 31, 1865, but not mustered; 1st Lieutenant Oct. 1, 1864; mustered out as 1st Lieutenant Aug. 17, 1865.

Company C.

Captain Martin L. Squier, Vermontville*; com. Oct. 22, 1864; 1st Lieutenant March 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant April 15, 1863; sergeant; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Musician Augustus Atkins, died of disease in Iowa, July 26, 1862.

James W. Hotchkiss, discharged for disability, Sept. 11, 1862.

James R. Shadden, mustered out July 26, 1865.

Herman E. Wood, discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Company F.

Philip Arthur, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Lorenzo Livingston, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Charles I. McMurray, discharged for disability.

Julius Otto, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Company G.

James Heaton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864.

Company H.

Henry Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company L

Franklin Austin, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Myron S. Cook, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Highland Honeywell, discharged at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864.

George Henshaw, discharged at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864.

Richard Hoffenden, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Frank M. Osgood, discharged by order, May 23, 1865.

Samuel N. Woodman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864.

Company L.

John Lamaure, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE SECOND CAVALRY.

Company I

Corp. Alonzo Mapes, Martin; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; sick in hospital.

Corp. Joseph Lindsley, Otsego; enlisted Sept. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, July 31, 1862.

Albert Brewer, discharged for disability, March 22, 1862.

John C. Bugbee, died of disease at Benton Barracks, Feb. 13, 1862.

Leonard Camhout, discharged for disability, July 31, 1862.

William Fessenden, died of disease at Stevenson, Ala., Nov. 22, 1863.

Elick Elickson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Seward Harrington, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Stillman Shepherd, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

THIRD CAVALRY.

This regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids in the summer of 1861, and was there mustered into the United States service, November 1st of the same year.

Company A, which proceeded to the front under the command of Captain Gilbert Moyers, was an Allegan County company, and the same county was also represented in every other company of the Third.

Barry had but few men in the regiment, and they were scattered among Companies E, K, L, and M. Under the command of Lieut Col. Robert H. G. Minty, previously major of the Second Michigan Cavalry, the regiment left its rendezvous Nov. 28, 1861, and proceeded to Benton Barracks, Mo., where Col. John K. Mizner soon after assumed command.

It remained at St. Louis until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined Gen. John Pope’s “Army of the Mississippi,” and actively participated in the operations which resulted in the capture of the rebel strongholds Island No. 10 and New Madrid.

With Gen. Pope’s army it then proceeded, via the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Pittsburg Landing, where it arrived soon after the battle of Shiloh, and took an active part in the advance of Gen. Halleck’s army upon Corinth, Miss.

Immediately after the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard the Third was ordered to Booneville, Miss., to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy.

While in the performance of this duty a small detachment of the regiment was sent out in advance, under Captain Botham.

It ran on to a rebel force of all arms, drove them from their position, halted, and bivouacked for the night.

The following morning, while eating breakfast, a Union scout discovered the enemy in the vicinity.

The men left their breakfast half eaten, mounted, and hurried forward.

They soon found a small body of rebel Cavalry, who fled before them.

The Union horsemen advanced at a rapid pace, and soon came upon an entire regiment of rebel Cavalry drawn up to dispute their further progress.

There was no time for consideration.

If the little command had then retreated, it would have been attacked and crushed by the elated Confederates.

Captain Botham knew it was essential for Cavalry to get the advantage of its own momentum in a combat, and accordingly shouted the order to charge.

The detachment dashed forward at the top of its speed, burst through the Confederate lines, and then turned and charged back.

The enemy was so demoralized by these movements that no attempt was made to follow.

How many of the foe were killed and wounded was not known, but it was certain that at least eleven were dismounted, for eleven of their horses accompanied the Union force on its returning charge.

After retreating a short distance, Captain Botham halted and sent a dispatch to camp.

About four o’clock in the afternoon he was relieved by the Second Michigan Cavalry, under the command of Col. Philip H. Sheridan.

The latter drove back the enemy four or five miles, and then rejoined the main army.

The regiment was actively engaged in the usual Cavalry duty of picketing and scouting throughout the whole season.

Through the month of August it was at Tuscumbia and Russellville, Ala. On the approach of Price’s rebel Cavalry it returned to the vicinity of Corinth. At Iuka, Miss., on the 19th of September, 1862, while in command of Captain L. G. Wilcox,-Col. Mizner being chief of Cavalry,-the regiment was actively engaged, and was specially mentioned in Gen. Rosecrans’ report of that battle.

When Price and his defeated rebel army retired from the field the Third hung on his flanks and rear for many miles; becoming several times hotly engaged, and causing him repeatedly to form line of battle to check the Union advance.

At the close of the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, the regiment had lost one hundred and four men who died of disease, seven killed in action, forty-five wounded in action, and fifty-nine taken prisoners.

Its battles and skirmishes to that date were New Madrid, Mo., March 13, 1862; siege of Island No. 10, Mo., March 14th to April 7th; Farmington, Miss., May 5th; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10th to 31st; Spangler’s Mills, Miss., July 26th; Bay Springs, Miss., September 10th; Iuka, Miss., September 19th; Corinth, Miss., October 3d and 4th; and Hatchie, Miss., October 6th.

It advanced with Gen. Grant’s army into Mississippi in November and December, 1862, and engaged the enemy at Holly Springs, November 7th; at Hudsonville, November 14th, where it captured an entire rebel company; at Lumkin’s Mill, November 29th; and at Oxford, December 2d; and shared in the defeat of the Union Cavalry at Coffeeville, December 5th.

The following winter it was on active duty in North Mississippi and West Tennessee.

During the year 1863 the Third Cavalry was principally engaged in the arduous service of driving out the numerous bands of guerrillas which infested Western Tennessee and Northern Mississippi, and repelling the incursions of Confederate forces from other quarters; its camp being most of the time at Corinth, Miss.

There were few very severe battles in this kind of warfare, and few opportunities for winning martial glory amid the shock of charging squadrons, but it tested to the utmost the endurance, the fortitude, and the patriotism of the hardy sons of the West.

Day and night, in sun and rain, the Cavalry was kept in motion.

Often, when all the camp lay locked in the deep slumbers of two o’clock in the morning, the silence would suddenly be broken by the stirring sounds of the bugle, and a moment later the officers would be heard going from tent to tent, arousing the half-awakened men with the orders, “Turn out here, Company B.” “Turn out, Company F.” ” Get ready to march with three days’ rations.”

“Lively now; lively, I say.”

Then would follow a hurried drawing of rations, the filling of haversacks and saddle-bags with coffee, pork, and ” hard tack,” and perhaps the cooking of a hasty meal for immediate consumption.

Presently the bugles would sound ‘ Boot and Saddle,” the horses would be speedily equipped, mounted, and ridden into line, the voices of a dozen captains would be heard in succession commanding “Fours Right-Column Right-March!” and away into the darkness would go the Third Michigan, or the Seventh Kansas, or the Third Iowa, or any two of them, or all of them, as the occasion might seem to require.

Nobody would know where they were going except the field-officers, and very frequently they didn’t; but all sorts of rumors would pass rapidly among the boys: “Forrest is coming to attack the camp ” “Roddy is out here ten miles;” ” Chalmers is raising the devil over at Holly Springs,” etc.

A ride would follow, perhaps lasting two or three hours, perhaps extending through three or four days and half as many nights, and sometimes embracing a period of one, two, or three weeks, during which the bold riders were generally compelled to live upon the country they traversed.

In that half-cleared country there was seldom an opportunity for the dashing charge which one naturally associates with the idea of Cavalry service; but whenever they met the foe, which was quite frequently, both sides dismounted, and a lively skirmish with carbines against shot-guns ensued, which lasted until one party or the other retreated.

The retreating party was usually, though not always, the rebels, for notwithstanding the best Confederate troops, after the battle of Corinth, in October, 1862, were taken away to other sections, leaving only undisciplined bands of what was called ” shot-gun Cavalry” in Northern Mississippi and Western Tennessee, the ” chivalry” fought well.

In such tasks the Third Michigan Cavalry was engaged throughout 1863, taking part in sharp fights (and generally defeating the enemy) at Clifton on the 20th of February; at Panola, Miss., on the 20th of July; at Byhalia, Miss., on the 12th of October; at Wyatt’s Ford, Miss., on the 13th of October.

At Grenada, Miss., also, on the 14th of August, the Third led the Union advance, and, after a vigorous fight, drove back the enemy, captured the town, and destroyed more than sixty locomotives and four hundred cars, gathered there by the Confederate authorities.

In the latter part of January, 1864, the regiment being then in winter-quarters at Lagrange, Tenn., three-fourths of the men re-enlisted, and the command became the Third Michigan Veteran Cavalry.

After the men had enjoyed their veteran furlough the command went to St. Louis in March, 1864, and in the latter part of May proceeded, dismounted, to Little Rock, Ark.

It was not mounted until the 1st of August, when it resumed the work of chasing guerrillas, scouting for information, etc., with an experience similar to that already described.

From November, 1864, to February, 1865, the Third was in garrison at Brownsville Station, on the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad, where the men built such a fine16 I appearing set of quarters and stables that the place was commonly called Michigan City, instead of Brownsville Station.

In March, 1865, the regiment, as a part of the First Brigade, First Division, Seventh Army Corps, proceeded to New Orleans, and in April continued its course to Mobile.

After the capture of that place the Third was on outpost duty in that vicinity until the 8th day of May, when it marched across the country to Baton Rouge, La.

In June it set out for Texas by the way of Shreveport, and on the 2d of August arrived at San Antonio, in that State.

Its headquarters remained at San Antonio until the 15th of February, 1866, while successive detachments were scouting the country, protecting the frontier against Mexicans and Indians.

In February, 1866, the regiment was dismounted, mustered out, and sent home; being paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan, on the 15th of March, 1866, after a service of four years and a half unsurpassed as to hardship and fidelity by that of any other regiment in the army.

It is claimed to have captured during the time over two thousand five hundred prisoners, besides those taken in co-operation with other regiments.

OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Gilbert Moyers, Allegan; com. Aug. 13, 1862; Major, Feb. 27, 1862; res. Dec. 2, 1864. (See Co. A.)

Major James G. Butler, Allegan; com. July 4, 1865; Captain, Sept. 7, 1864; 1st Lieutenant and q.m., Sept. 15, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, May 25, 1862; com. Sergeant, Sept. 2, 1862; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company A.

Captain Gilbert Moyers, Allegan; com. Aug. 28, 1861; promoted to Major, Feb. 27, 1862. (See Field and Staff.)

Captain Thomas Dean, Allegan; com. Oct. 26, 1864; 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1863; 2d lieut., Oct. 1, 1862; enlisted Sept. 1, 1861; res. Oct. 17, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Horace H. Pope, Allegan; com. Aug. 28, 1861; transferred 1st Lieutenant to Co. I, Feb. 27, 1862. 1st Lieutenant

Isaac Wilson, Saugatuck; com. Feb. 27, 1862; 2d Lieutenant Sept. 7, 1861; promoted to Captain Co. K, Oct. 1, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Nathan V. Btuck, Allegan; com. Oct. 26, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 13, 1864; res. June 2, 1865.

1st Sergeant Frank W. Mix, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 1, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. G, March 26, 1862.

Q.M.-Sergeant George R. Stone, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 6, 1861; discharged by order, Jan. 15, 1863, for promoted in 4th Cavalry.

Sergeant Nelson 0. Moon, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862.

Sergeant Robert W. Helmer, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; discharged for promoted June 27, 1863.

Corp. Martin C. Garver, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; died in Tennessee of accidental wounds.

Corp. Nathan V. Buck, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864, Sergeant; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Corp. William W. Pullen, Allegan; enl Sept. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, July 14, 1862.

Corp. Stephen Odell, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 9, 1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864; Sergeant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Corp. William Lawrie, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, July 24, 1863.

Musician Osteen G. Pike, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; discharged for disability, June 14, 1862.

Farrier Solomon Stanton, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Wagoner William Fisher, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; discharged for disability, Nov. 10, 1862.

Joseph Agan, died of disease in Tennessee.

Samuel Andrews, mustered out Aug. 25, 1865.

James Alger, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864: mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George D. Bronson, died of disease in Arkansas, March * 1862.

William Bignall, died of disease in Arkansas, Nov. 23, 1864.

Charles Billings, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Lewis Blaisdell, discharged by order, June 2, 1865.

Edgar Blaisdell, mustered out June 7, 1865.

Lorenzo Brown, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Elijah Brown, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Morris Burr, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George Bowman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Benjamin F. Briggs, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Reuben D. Barker, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Daniel Collins, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George Cody, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Joshua Cornwell, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1862.

Lucius T. Cobb, discharged for disability, Jan. 23, 1863.

John Cummins, discharged for disability, March 28, 1864.

William A. Cheney, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Ralph Cass, died of disease at Cairo, Ill., July 20, 1864.

William Colon, died of disease at Austin, Texas, July 29, 1865.

Warren K. Carman, died of disease at San Antonio, Texas, Oct. 4, 1865.

Andrew Cochrane, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

James K. Dale, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Seymour Dye, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Horatio E. Emery, veteran, enlisted Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Frederick Edwards, died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 25, 1862.

A. H. Esterbrook, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Albert Fenn, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Theo. Flitcraft, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Joseph Gray, mustered out June 7, 1865.

John Garrison, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Hiram N. Goodell, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Kneeland Graves, died of wounds, April 25, 1863.

Horace P. Haight, died of disease, March 2, 1862.

Washington Howe, died of disease on steamer, June 15, 1865.

Wesley E. Howe, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Jacob Herringer, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Henry Hoak, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Charles H. Jones, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Morris Kent, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Theo. Kleeman, discharged for disability, Nov. 9, 1862.

Bertrand Loomis, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., March 27, 1864.

Isaac Laws, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., July 15, 1864.

Oliver Martin, died of disease at Monterey, Michigan, Sept. 12, 1864.

William H. McCormick, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

William McMillan, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Christopher Martin, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William E. Martin, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John Mocklencute, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged for promotion, March 21, 1865.

Morgan Maybee, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged for promotion, June 5, 1865.

Thomas McQueeny, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Martin Millis, discharged for disability, Feb. 16, 1865.

Bernard McKerney, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 6, 1863.

John Pangburn, died of disease, Sept. 24, 1862.

Alonzo Prentiss, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, July 6, 1864.

Edward Phelan, discharged for disability, March 28, 1864.

George Pierce, discharged for disability, Dec. 24, 1862.

Benjamin C. Palmer, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 18C4.

Benjamin F. Parker, veteran, eul. Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1865.

John Priest, veteran, enlisted Feb. 27, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Charles F. Peck, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Washington Pound, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John Piersons, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Freeman Ross, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Martin V. Reed, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Lyman Reed, discharged for disability, Aug. 26, 1862.

Miles Reed, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1862.

William Rull, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1862.

Charles Ruber, died of wounds at Memphis, Feb. 15, 1864.

Stephen D. Stone, discharged for disability, Oct. 12, 1862.

Edward Slocum, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Seely Squires, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged by order, Oct. 22, 1865.

John Stone, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William L. Stannard, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John H. Sage, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866. Henry Starring, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Edmund Starring, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., April 13, 1864.

Thomas J. Stilson, died of disease at Cairo, Ill., Aug. 8, 1864.

Charles Tiefenthal, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Frederic Wiseman, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Seth H. Winn, discharged for disability, Nov. 10, 1862. /

Ralph Winn, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David White, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; 2d Lieutenant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Alonzo Wilcox, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Emmett Ward, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Edward Warren,mustered out Feb. 12, 1866. Albert Wilson, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Joshua C. Young, died of disease at New Madrid, Mo., March 8, 1862.

Company B.

2d Lieutenant David White, Saugatuck; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company C.

1st Lieutenant Frank W. Mix, Saugatuck; comm. May 25, 1862; promoted to Captain in 4th Cavalry. Aug. 13, 1862. (See Co. G.)

Company D.

Chas. Hartwell, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Jas. G. Butler, com. May 25, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and q.m., Sept. 15, 1862.

Chas. H. Allen, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Wm. Ballinger, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Almon J. Boyles, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Aug. 2, 1864.

Mortimer Culver, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Columbus Greenman, discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Wm. Orr, discharged by order, Jan. 8, 1865.

John H. Rhodes, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Solomon Staunton, mustered out Sept. 23, 1865.

Company F.

Captain Jas. G. Butler, com. Sept. 7, 1864; promoted to Major, July 4, 1865.

Dennis Considine, mustered out Feb. 12,18t6.

Clias. Deval, discharged for disability, Nov. 1, 1864.

Spencer Deval, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Aug. 16, 1864.

Clias. Gleason, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John L. Simpkins, discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Company G.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. Campion, Allegan; com. Nov. 17, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

2d Lieutenant Frank W. Mix, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. C, May 25, 1862.

Company H.

James Burnham, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Ephraim Gleason, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Adolphus Haire, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, July 24, 1864.

John Muunger, mustered out Sept. 23, 1865.

Geo. G. Manning, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Harmon Vosburgh, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company I.

Captain Horace H. Pope, com. June 11, 1862; 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 27, 1862; resigned Nov. 7, 1864.

John Frank, discharged for disability, Sept. 18, 1862.

Israel McCall, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864.

Company K.

Captain Isaac Wilson, Saugatuck; com. Oct. 1, 1863; honorably discharged June 6, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Chas. W. Tenny, Allegan; com. Nov. 8, 1865; 2d Lieutenant, Jan. 2, 1865; sergeant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Stephen M. Finch, died of disease at Chicago, Dec. 18, 1864.

Company L.

Nelson Beer, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Thos. C. McGinley, mustered out Aug. 11, 1865.

Company M.

Ezra D. Barlow, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David Barney, mustered out May 25, 1865.

Robert Buchan, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Henry Earl, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David Fox, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Albro Gardner, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

James Jones, died of disease in Arkansas, Aug. 29, 1864.

Myron Lighthieart, discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1865.

Silas B. Pike, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Samuel Reed, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William Shoemaker, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Absalom Walker, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company E.

Francis A. Benson, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., June 28, 1864.

William F. Benson, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company K.

James Ward, veteran, enlisted Jan. 20, 1864; mustered out June 2, 1865.

Company L.

William Ransom, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company M.

Leonidas Wright, died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 2, 1862.

FOURTH CAVALRY.

The Regiment recruited by Col. Minty-Company L, under Captain Pritchard, from Allegan-Other Allegan and Barry Men-Fighting Qualities of the Fourth-It moves to Kentucky in September, 1862 -Chasing John Morgan-Capture of Franklin, Tenn.-Battle of Stone River-Expedition to Harpeth Shoals-Charging and routing a Confederate Brigade-The Battle of Shelbyville-Col. Minty’s Report-In Advance of Rosecrans’ Army-The Battle in Lookout Valley-Seven thousand Infantry and Cavalry fought all Day by Minty’s Brigade-Full Report by Col. Minty-Covering the Retreat from Chickamauga-Fighting Wheeler’s Cavalry-All but One Hundred and Twenty-Eight Horses worn out by Service-The Regiment remounted at Nashville-Forward to Atlanta-Fight at Tanner’s Bridge-Gallant Service near Kingston-Continuous fighting Brilliant Conflict at Lattimore’s Mill-Repulsing an Overwhelming Force-A Rebel Correspondent praises Yankee Valor-Minty’s Reports-Advancing and Fighting-In the Trenches as Infantry Mounted and off under Kilpatrick-Defeating the Rebel Horse at Fairburn-March to Lovejoy’s-Surrounded by Confederates of all Arms-Cutting out-Minty’s Brigade on the Advance-A Splendid Charge-The Cincinnati Commercial’s Report-In Pursuit of Hood -Routing the Enemy at Rome-A Corporal’s Gallant Defense of a Block-House-The Regiment remounted at Louisville-Once more to the Front-Wilson’s Great Raid through Alabama-Dangers of the March-Arriving at Selma-Its Strong Defenses-The Fierce Attack-Splendid Success-Forward into Georgia-Capture of Macon-Pursuit of Jefferson Davis-Surprising his Camp-Particulars of his Capture-A Stalwart Mother-in-law-” Don’t shoot him” An Unfortunate Rencontre-A Lucky Scamp-A Special Escort to Washington-The Regiment disbanded-Officers and Soldiers from Allegan County-From Barry County.

THE Fourth Michigan Cavalry, which gained such renown in the Department of the Cumberland during the war for the Union, was recruited and organized during the summer of 1862 by Col. Robert H. G. Minty, previously lieutenant-colonel of the Third Cavalry.

It rendezvoused at Detroit, and was there mustered into the United States service, Aug. 29, 1862.

Of its twelve companies, of one hundred men each, Company L, which took the field under the command of Captain Benjamin D. Pritchard, was recruited almost entirely from Allegan County, while the same county was also represented in the field and staff, non-commissioned staff, and Companies A, C, D, E, F, and G. Barry’s representation of less than thirty men was distributed among eight companies.

During its whole term of service it proved a most reliable and gallant regiment.

It was justly proud of its fighting reputation, and accomplished an unusual amount of duty.

In fact, the fighting of the Fourth seems to have been so uniformly vigorous and effective that much difficulty is found in particularizing those engagements in which it was most distinguished.

On the 26th of September, 1862, the regiment left Detroit for the seat of war in Kentucky, receiving its arms at Jeffersonville, Ind.

It at once crossed the Ohio River, and was soon engaged with the redoubtable guerrilla Gen. John H. Morgan.

It was in the advance on the attack on Morgan at Stanford, Ky., Oct. 14, 1862, and pursued him as far as Crab Orchard.

It also led in the attack on Lebanon, Ky., on the 9th of November, five hundred and forty-three of its men pushing in Morgan’s pickets at a gallop, entering the town two miles in advance of the infantry, and driving out the guerrilla leader with seven hundred and sixty followers.

After a short stay at Nashville the regiment marched, on the 13th of December, to Franklin, Tenn., drove out the rebels, thirteen hundred strong, killed, wounded, and captured a number of them, and also captured their colors.

On the 26th of December it moved in advance of the army towards Murfreesboro, and began the fighting at Lavergne.

At Stone River, on the 31st, it charged the enemy three times, each time driving a brigade of rebel Cavalry from the field, and having ten of its own men killed and wounded.

The Fourth was the first regiment to enter Murfreesboro on the morning of Jan. 5, 1863, and from the 9th to the 19th of the same month it was engaged in an important Cavalry expedition to Harpeth Shoals, by which Wheeler’s, Forrest’s, and Wharton’s mounted rebels were driven beyond Harpeth River.

In this movement the men suffered terribly from lack of supplies, cold weather, and constantly wet garments.

During the month of February the regiment was constantly on the move, and captured one hundred and forty-five prisoners, including two colonels and fourteen other commissioned officers.

Numerous other expeditions were made from Murfreesboro during the spring of 1863, in all of which more or less prisoners were taken and stores destroyed.

On the 22nd of May following, the regiment, with two companies of United States Cavalry, charged into the camp of the Eighth Confederate, First Alabama, and Second Georgia Cavalry, at Middleton, Tenn., and after a sharp engagement routed them, taking fifty-five prisoners and destroying their camp.

The colors of the First Alabama were captured by the Fourth Michigan, and are now in the office of the State adjutant-general.

At Shelbyville, Tenn., on the 27th of June, 1863, the success attending the brigade commanded by Col. Minty was mainly accomplished by the brilliant and tenacious fighting of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, then commanded by Major Frank W. Mix. Col. Minty, in his report of this battle, says: – Gen. Benjamin D. Pritchard was born in Nelson, Portage Co., Ohio, in 1835.

He received an academical course of instruction in the public schools, and at the Western Reserve College, in his native State, where he continued to reside until 1856, when he became a resident of Allegan, Michigan

Engaging in the study of law, he completed his course in the law department of the University of Michigan in 1860, and soon after formed a law-partnership with Hon. William B. Williams, late member of Congress, and now commissioner of railroads.

He recruited Company L of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry in the summer of 1862, and was commissioned its captain August 13th of the same year.

From that time until the close of the war he performed most gallant and efficient service, which is described at length in the accompanying history of his regiment.

He was brevetted a brigadier-general of United States Volunteers, to rank from May 10, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services in the capture of Jeff Davis, and was mustered out of service with his regiment July 1, 1865.

He again resumed his law-practice with Mr. Williams, and in 1866 was elected, on the Republican ticket, commissioner of the land-office of the State, and was re-elected in 1868.

In 1878 he was elected State treasurer by the Republicans, over Alex. McFarlan, Democrat, and Herman Goeschel, National. Gen. Pritchard is still a resident of Allegan, and, besides attending to his professional duties, is president of the First National Bank of that village.

At Shelbyville I found myself, with a force of fifteen hundred men, in front of formidable breastworks, with an abatis of over one fourth of a mile in width in front of them, behind which Gens. Wheeler and Martin had an opposing force of four thousand men and three pieces of artillery.

I detached the Fourth Michigan, in command of Major Mix, well to the right, with orders to force their way through the abatis, and assault the works, and if successful to turn to the left and sweep up the entrenchments, promising that so soon as I heard their rifles speaking I would make the direct assault on the Murfreesboro and Shelbyville pike.

They did their work so well that as I entered the works on the main road they joined me from the right, having carried the works and taken prisoners from six different regiments.

The fruits of that day’s work were the whole of the enemy’s artillery and six hundred prisoners, while over two’hundred dead bodies were afterwards taken out of Duck River, into which I had driven Wheeler and his entire command.”

After two or three minor skirmishes the regiment entered Chattanooga, Tenn., on the 11th of September, 1863.

On the 13th, Col. Minty’s command-viz., the Fourth United States, Fourth Michigan, and Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry regiments, and one section of the Chicago Board of Trade battery-marched from Chattanooga and reported to Major-Gen. Crittenden, commanding the Twenty-First Army Corps, at Gordon’s Mills.

The brigade was ordered to cross Mission Ridge into Lookout Valley on the 14th, and on the three succeeding days was employed in learning the enemy’s whereabouts.

On the 18th it was warmly engaged with a large force of the enemy’s infantry, the combat being thus described in Col. Minty’s report:

“At six A.M. of September 18th I sent one hundred of the Fourth United States Cavalry towards Leet’s, and one hundred from the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania towards Ringgold.

At about seven A.M. couriers arrived from both scouts, with information that the enemy was advancing in force.

I immediately strengthened my pickets on the Lafayette road, and moved forward with the Fourth Michigan and one battalion of the Fourth Regulars and the section of artillery, and took up a position on the eastern slope of Pea Vine Ridge, and dispatched couriers to Major-Gen.

Granger, at Rossville; Col. Wilder, at Alexander’s Bridge; Gen. Wood, at Gordon’s Mill; and Gen. Crittenden, at Crawfish Springs.

The enemy’s infantry in force, with about two hundred Cavalry, advanced steadily, driving my skirmish-line back to my position on the side of the ridge.

The head of a column getting into good range, I opened on them with the artillery, when they immediately deployed and advanced a strong skirmish-line.

At this moment I observed a heavy column of dust moving from the direction of Graysville towards Dyer’s Ford.

“I sent a courier to Col. Wilder, asking him to send a force to hold the ford and cover my left, and sent my train across the creek.

As the force from Graysville advanced I fell back until I arrived on the ground I had occupied in the morning.

Here Col. Miller, with two regiments and two mountain howitzers, reported to me from Col. Wilder’s brigade.

I directed Col. Miller to take possession of the ford, and again advanced and drove the rebel skirmish-line over the ridge and back on their line of battle in the valley, where a force was in position which I estimated at seven thousand men, thirteen sets of regimental colors being visible.

“The rebel line advanced, and I was steadily driven back across the ridge.

My only means of crossing the creek was Reed’s bridge, a narrow, frail structure, which was covered with loose boards and fence-rails, and a bad ford about three hundred yards higher up.

I masked my artillery behind some shrubs near the ford, leaving one battalion of the Fourth United States to support it, and ordered the remainder of that regiment to cross the bridge, holding the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania in line to cover the movement. ”

Before the first squadron had time to cross, the head of a rebel column carrying their arms at ‘right shoulder shift,’ and moving at the double-quick, as steadily as if at drill, came through the gap not five hundred yards from the bridge.

The artillery opening on them from an unsuspected quarter evidently took them by surprise, and _.. 4.

I immediately checked their advance, again causing them to deploy immediately checked their advance, again causing them to deploy.

The Fourth Michigan followed the Fourth United States, and the Seventh Pennsylvania the Fourth Michigan, one squadron of the Fourth United States, under Lieutenant Davis, most gallantly covering the crossing of the Seventh Pennsylvania.

One squadron of the Fourth Michigan, under Lieutenant J. H. Simpson, on picket on the Harrison road, was cut off by the rapid advance of the enemy.

They made a gallant resistance, and eventually swam the creek without the loss of a man.

The artillery crossed the ford in safety, and I placed it in position to dispute the crossing of the bridge, from which Lieutenant

Davis’ men had thrown most of the loose planking.

“Here I was soon hotly engaged, and was holding the rebels in check, when I received a note from the officer in charge of my wagon-train (which I had sent back to Gordon’s Mill), stating, ‘ Col. Wilder has fallen back from Alexander’s Bridge; he is retreating towards Gordon’s Mill, and the enemy is crossing the river in force at all points.’

I sent an order to Col. Miller to join me without delay, and on his arrival I fell back to Gordon’s Mill, skirmishing with the enemy, who followed me closely.

“With less than one thousand men, the old ‘ First Brigade’ had disputed the advance of seven thousand from seven o’clock in the morning until five o’clock in the evening, and during that time fell back only five miles.

“On arriving at Gordon’s Mill my men were dismounted, and with Col. Wilder’s brigade of mounted infantry, and a brigade from Gen. Van Cleve’s division, repulsed a heavy attack about eight o’clock P.M.

We lay in position all night within hearing of the enemy, and were without fires, although the night was bitterly cold.

At break of day Gen. Palmer’s division relieved us.

I then moved to the rear and procured forage for our horses and rations for the men, who had been entirely without since the previous morning.”

During the 18th the regiment lost fourteen men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Among the wounded was Captain Pritchard, then in command of a battalion.

The next day it fired the first shots in the disastrous battle of Chickamauga, and subsequently protected the left and rear of Rosecrans’ army and the trains moving to Chattanooga.

On the 20th, while assisting to hold the enemy in check until the shattered Union forces could retire from the field, Minty’s brigade attacked and defeated Scott’s rebel brigade of Cavalry and mounted infantry, driving it back across the creek.

The regiment bivouacked on the ground it had held, but the next day was compelled to share in the general retreat.

On the 30th of September it was driven by Wheeler’s rebel Cavalry near Cotton’s Ferry, on the Tennessee; but from the 1st to the 3d of October the tables were turned, and the Fourth had the pleasure of following its late pursuers with ardor and success.

By the 1st of November, 1863, the service of the regiment had been so severe that only three hundred of the men were mounted.

This battalion was actively engaged on picket and scout duty in Southeastern Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Alabama throughout the winter; the number of mounted men being reduced by the latter part of March, 1864, to one hundred and twenty-eight.

Meanwhile, the dismounted men had been employed in various duties in the same locality, and also in Middle Tennessee.

The regiment, except the one hundred and twenty-eight mounted men, set out for Nashville on the 28th of March, 1864, where, under the supervision of Captain Pritchard, the men received new horses and equipments, and were armed with Spencer carbines.

On the 14th of April, under the command of Major F. W. Mix, the regiment joined the Second Cavalry Division at Columbia, Tenn.

Thence it advanced with eight hundred and seventy-eight men into Captain Pritchard led the advance battalion in this assault.

In Georgia, where the Cavalry began its arduous and dangerous labors in co-operation with Gen. Sherman’s army, which was then advancing on Atlanta.

On the 15th of May the command attacked the enemy’s Cavalry at Tanner’s Bridge, nine miles from Rome, Ga., routing and pursuing them seven miles, when, meeting a superior force with artillery, it retired; this regiment having lost in the affair ten wounded and missing.

From Woodland, on the 18th, seven companies, under Captain Pritchard, were sent toward Kingston on a reconnoissance.

Meeting the enemy’s Cavalry, the detachment drove them several miles, until at length it was stopped by the rebel infantry.

The opposing horsemen then threw themselves on the flanks and rear of the Michigan men, but the latter drew their sabres and cut their way out, with a loss of twenty-four in killed, wounded, and missing.

Crossing the Allatoona Mountains and Etowah River, Col. Minty’s command moved on to Dallas, where it was warmly engaged, and captured many prisoners.

It also participated in all the flank movements which forced Gen. Johnston’s rebel army back from one stronghold to another, resulting in the engagements at New Hope Church and Big Shanty.

On the 9th of June the regiment assisted in driving the enemy’s Cavalry, supported by infantry, to the base of Kenesaw Mountain, capturing a number of prisoners, and on the 12th again encountered the enemy at McAfee’s Cross-Roads, where a line of rebel entrenchments was carried.

Skirmishing with the enemy’s Cavalry was daily continued until the 20th of June, 1864, on which day, at Lattimore’s Mill, on Noonday Creek, two battalions of the Fourth performed one of the most brilliant feats of the war.

A small detachment of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry had crossed the creek, and, becoming hotly engaged with a superior force of the enemy, Captain Pritchard, with two battalions of the Fourth Michigan, was ordered across to its support.

This force had scarcely reached the position assigned it when a whole rebel division, eight times their own number, swept down upon the Pennsylvania and Michigan men, with the evident purpose of driving them back across the creek.

They did not, however, propose to go immediately, so, dismounting and availing themselves of the protection afforded by the inequalities of the ground, they met their assailants with terrific and continuous volleys from their Spencer carbines.

Again and again did the rebels bear down upon them, making desperate efforts to destroy the little force of Unionists, but being as often repulsed.

At length, after holding their ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for more than two hours, they retired slowly and in good order at the command of Col. Minty.

The following extract from a letter published in the Memphis Appeal, at Atlanta, Ga., June 25, 1864, gives the rebel version of this fight, and shows very plainly the gallantry of Minty’s brigade and the immense preponderance of the rebel force: “On the 20th instant two divisions, Kelly’s and Martin’s, and one brigade, Williams’, of our Cavalry, went round to the left flank and ‘The Memphis Appeal was published at half a dozen different places, to which it was successively driven by the victorious Unionists. rear of Sherman’s army, it was said to capture a brigade of Yankee Cavalry situated at McAfee’s.

We succeeded in getting to the right place, where the enemy, Minty’s brigade, was vigorously attacked by Williams’ and a portion of Anderson’s brigade.

After a sharp conflict the enemy was driven from the field, Ilannon’s brigade having come up and attacked them on the flank.

The Yankees fought desperately and fell back slowly, with what loss we are unable to ascertain, as they carried off their wounded and most of their dead.

To one who was an eye-witness, but not an adept in the ‘art of war,’ it seemed very strange that the whole Yankee force was not surrounded and captured.

Dibrell’s brigade was drawn up a few hundred yards from and in full view of the battle-ground, with Martin’s whole division immediately in the rear.

This is one of the best fighting brigades the Yankees have, and to have captured or routed it would have added a bright feather to the plume of the successful hero accomplishing the feat.

After he (Minty) had been driven from his first position, Martin’s whole division was brought up, and lost several men of Allen’s brigade.

Brig.-Gen. Allen had his horse shot.

The Eighth Confederate and Fifth Georgia of Anderson’s brigade lost several killed and wounded.

Williams’ Kentucky brigade also lost several good soldiers.”

Col. Minty, in his report, after quoting this statement, added:

“According to the above, there was the following rebel force in the field: Kelly’s and Martin’s divisions, consisting of the brigades of Anderson, six regiments; Hannon’s, five regiments; Allen’s, five regiments; and Johnson’s, five regiments; and the independent brigades of Williams and Dibrell, composed of five regiments each; say in all, thirty-one regiments, of which the Fifth Georgia numbered over eight hundred.

The entire force I had engaged was, of the Seventh Pennsylvania one hundred and seventy men, and of the Fourth Michigan two hundred and eighty-three; in all, four hundred and fifty-three.

These few men held their ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for over two hours, and when I ordered them to fall back, they retired slowly, in good order.

I beg to call the attention of the general commanding to the heavy loss sustained by this small force.

In a loss of over twelve per cent., the very small proportion reported missing shows how steadily and stubbornly they fought.”

In a note appended to this report, Col. Minty said: “My loss in this engagement was two officers and sixty-five men.

The Marietta (Ga.) papers acknowledge a loss of ninety-four killed and three hundred and fifty-one wounded.

Two battalions of the Fourth Michigan repulsed three sabre charges made by the Eighth Confederate and Fifth Georgia, numbering over one thousand men, and one battalion led by Captain Hathaway repulsed a charge made by Williams’ Kentucky brigade by a counter-charge.”

Of the two hundred and eighty three officers and men of the Fourth engaged at Lattimore’s mill, thirty-seven were killed and wounded, and three were reported missing, Lieutenant T. W. Sutton being among the killed.

Having crossed the Chattahoochee River, the regiment, under the command of Major F. W. Mix, participated in a constant succession of raids and fights until the 1st of August, 1864, during which many miles of railroad-track and many bridges were destroyed, thus impeding the operations of the enemy and facilitating those of Gen. Sherman, who had steadily advanced to the front of Atlanta.

From the 1st to the 14th of August it was employed as infantry, occupying a portion of the trenches before the besieged city. Col. Minty’s brigade then received orders to report to Gen. Kilpatrick.

At one o’clock on the morning of the 18th the command broke camp, and quietly moved out to the rendezvous of the expedition at Sandtown, arriving there at six A.M.

The movement was commenced under cover of darkness, to prevent, if possible, any information being obtained by the enemy, yet a rebel letter captured on the 20th, dated at Atlanta on the 18th, gave the number of Minty’s command and the destination of the raiders.

Gen. Kilpatrick’s force consisted of the Third Cavalry Division, commanded by himself in person, and Minty’s and Long’s brigades of the Second Cavalry Division, in all some five thousand men, with two sections of the Chicago Board of Trade Battery.

On the evening of the 19th the combined forces moved out toward the West Point Railroad, which was reached near Fairburn, where the first rebel assault was made.

Ross’ and Ferguson’s brigades of rebel Cavalry struck the Union column on the left flank with so much force as to cut the Seventh Pennsylvania in two, but it was immediately reinforced by the Fourth Michigan, when a vigorous and irresistible attack was made on the enemy, driving him from the ground in great disorder.

The rebels were pursued to Flint River, and finally into the town of Jonesboro’, two thirds of the town being destroyed by fire.

While this was being done the rebel Cavalry was reinforced by a brigade of infantry.

Kilpatrick’s main object being to destroy the railroad rather than to whip the enemy, except when necessary in the execution of his purpose, he left Jonesboro’ and marched directly toward Lovejoy’s Station, on the Macon road.

At a point one and one-half miles from the station the command began destroying the railroad.

In the mean time the enemy was hurrying forward heavy bodies of troops by rail from Atlanta and Macon, and ere much time had elapsed Kilpatrick was surrounded by from eighteen to twenty thousand rebel troops of all arms, commanded by Gens. Cleburn, Reynolds, Jackson, Armstrong, Ferguson, and Ross.

The position of Gen. Kilpatrick’s force and the overpowering numbers opposing him rendered his condition most critical, leaving him to choose between surrender and the imminent prospect of destruction in the effort to extricate himself.

He chose the latter alternative, and Minty’s brigade was instantly formed in a line of regimental columns to lead the charge.

The Seventh Pennsylvania was on the right, the Fourth Michigan in the centre, and the Fourth United States on the left, with Long’s brigade in the rear, and the Third Division, under Kilpatrick, on the left of the road.

The advancing enemy was immediately charged upon by Minty’s men, who, with drawn sabres, burst through the ranks of the rebels like a whirlwind, chasing them off the field, opening the way for the safe passage of other commands and the accomplishment of the objects of the expedition.

A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial described this charge of Minty’s brigade as follows:

“While the various regiments were being maneuvered into position to meet the onslaught of the rebels, who were sweeping down upon them, the men had time to comprehend the danger that surrounded them,-rebels to the right of them, rebels to the left of them, rebels in rear of them, rebels in front of them; surrounded, there was no salvation but to cut their way out.

Visions of Libby prison, Andersonville, and starvation flitted through their imagination, and they saw that the deadly conflict could not be avoided.

Placing himself at the head of his brigade, the gallant and fearless Minty drew his sabre, and his voice rang out clear and loud: ‘Attention, column! Forward, regulate by the centre regiment, trot, March!-gallop, march!’ and away the brigade went with a yell that echoed away across the valleys.

“The ground from which the start was made, and over which they charged, was a plantation of about two square miles, thickly strewn with patches of woods, deep water-cuts, fences, ditches, and morasses.

At the word away went the bold dragoons at the height of their speed.

Fences were jumped, and ditches were no impediment.

The rattle of the sabres mingled with that of the mess-kettles and frying-pans that jingled at the side of the pack-mule brigade, which was madly urged forward by the frightened darkies who straddled the animals.

Charging for their lives and yelling like devils, Minty and his troopers encountered the rebels behind a hastily constructed barricade of rails.

Pressing their rowels deep into their horses’ flanks, and raising their sabres aloft, on, on, on, nearer and nearer to the rebels they plunged.

The terror-stricken enemy could not withstand the thunderous wave of men and horse that threatened to engulf them.

They broke and ran just as Minty and his men were urging their horses for the decisive blow.

In an instant all was confusion.

The yells of the horsemen were drowned in the clashing of steel and the groans of the dying.

On pressed Minty in pursuit, his men’s sabres striking right and left, and cutting down everything in their path.

The rebel horsemen were seen to reel and pitch headlong to the earth, while their frightened steeds rushed pell-mell over their bodies.

Many of the rebels defended themselves with almost superhuman strength; but it was all in vain.

The charge of Federal steel was irresistible.

The heads and limbs of some of the rebels were actually severed from their bodies.

It was, all admit, one of the finest charges of the war.

The individual instances of heroism were many.

Hardly a man flinched, and when the brigade came out more than half the sabres were stained with human blood.”

The command reached Lithonia on the 21st; having made a circuit around Atlanta and the rebel armies, and having been in the saddle, and almost constantly engaged, since early in the morning of the 18th.

After the fall of Atlanta the regiment moved northward, and on the 4th of October, 1864, joined its division-the Second-at Marietta, Ga., with which it started in pursuit of Hood’s rebel army, then on its way into Middle Tennessee; having had numerous skirmishes with its rear-guard.

One of the sharpest of these encounters occurred near Rome, Ga., on the 13th of October.

A body of Union troops was occupying Rome, and a force of mounted rebels undertook to drive it out.

While a brisk skirmish was going on, Minty’s brigade crossed the Oostenaula River and made a sabre charge on the flank of the Confederates.

The latter fled in the utmost confusion.

The Unionists rode over a rebel battery, captured it in an instant, and then pursued the enemy several miles, capturing many prisoners, and sabring those who resisted.

The Fourth Michigan alone took one hundred and twenty-eight prisoners, which was about the number of the mounted men in the regiment; nearly all the horses having been worn out by the severity of the service.

The regiment, in pursuit of Hood’s forces, then re-crossed the Oostenaula and marched, vid Rome, Kingston, Adairsville, Resaca, Summersville, and Galesville, Ala., to Little River, where, on the 20th, it engaged Wheeler’s Cavalry; forcing the enemy to retire.

Meanwhile the dismounted men, whose horses had been killed and worn out by the arduous service of the past six months, were sent to the rear from time to time, and employed in garrisoning block-houses on the line of the Nashville and Huntsville Railroad.

On the 17th of September, 1864, Corp. Charles M. Bickford and seventeen men of the regiment, stationed in a block-house, were attacked by Wheeler’s rebel Cavalry, a force of several thousand, with artillery, but, although the assailants shelled the blockhouse for over five hours, they could not compel the gallant little squad to surrender, and finally retired, after having eight men killed and sixty wounded.

The corporal was promoted to be a commissioned officer, and the names of his men were honorably mentioned in general orders.

After the fight at Little River, before mentioned, the mounted men of the regiment, then numbering but about one hundred, transferred their horses to the Third Brigade, and proceeded to Louisville, Ky.

The dismounted men also concentrated at the same point.

They remained there until the latter part of December, 1864, being in the mean time remounted and furnished with new Spencer seven-shot carbines.

On the 28th of December, commanded by Lieutenant-Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard, the Fourth again moved southward, with twenty-six officers and six hundred and ninety-six enlisted men.

It proceeded by way of Nashville to Gravelly Springs, Ala., where it remained until the 12th of March, 1865.

Here its members suffered severely for want of rations, and were obliged to live on parched corn for several days.

On the latter day the regiment broke camp, and set out on Gen. Wilson’s great Cavalry movement through Alabama and Georgia.

Four divisions of Cavalry stretched in an almost interminable line as the command made its way southward over mountains, rivers, creeks, and swamps, building miles of corduroy-roads, etc.

It crossed the Black Warrior River on the 29th of March by swimming the horses, losing one man and from thirty to forty horses.

During the night the Locust was crossed in the same manner, and on the 31st Shades Creek and the Cahawba River was crossed by passing the accompanying battery over the railroad bridge, which was temporarily floored with ties; five or six horses and mules being killed by falling nearly a hundred feet from the bridge to the river.

The enemy’s Cavalry under Forrest was encountered and defeated at Mulberry Creek on the 1st of April, and on the 2d, Minty’s brigade, being in the advance, started at four A.M. on the direct road to Selma; arriving in front of that place at two o’clock P.M.

This, the chief city of Central Alabama, was surrounded by two lines of bastioned entrenchments.

The works were found to be stronger and more perfect than those at Atlanta; consisting of an inner line of redans and redoubts, mounted with 12-pounder howitzers and 20-pounder Parrots.

The main and outer line, which extended entirely around the city from river to river, consisted of twenty-five redoubts or bastions connected by curtains, the parapet being about twelve feet high and surrounded by a ditch and well-built palisade, in front of which was swampy ground, partially covered with abatis.

These works were defended by Gen. Forrest with a force estimated at nine thousand.

The Second Division, in which was the Fourth Michigan, was ordered to assault the works on the Summerville road, and the Fourth Division those on the Plantersville road.

About the time the assault was to take place, the rebel Gen. Chalmers attacked the rear of the Second Division.

Three regiments were detached to oppose him; the remainder, including the Fourth Michigan, swept forward to the assault.

Besides the men holding the horses, the force resisting Chalmers, and other detachments, there were about fifteen hundred men of the Second Division in the assaulting column.

These moved forward under a terrific fire from the breastworks, which was followed by a swift succession of volleys from the Spencer carbines of the Unionists steadily aimed at the top of the parapet.

Col. Long, the division commander, was shot in the head at the beginning of the assault, and Col. Minty,* of the Fourth Michigan, assuming command, led the division against the works.

Increasing their pace, the Unionists dashed forward with resounding cheers, swarmed into the ditch and over the breastworks, killed, captured, or drove away the rebels almost in an instant, and took possession of the enemy’s main line in twenty minutes after the first advance.

Three hundred and twenty-four out of the fifteen hundred assailants were killed and wounded in this brief period.

The inner line of works was also taken by the Second Division by the time the Fourth Division arrived at the outer line.

The result of the whole operation was the capture of one hundred pieces of artillery, two thousand eight hundred prisoners, and an immense amount of ammunition and stores.

On the 7th of April the command moved eastward; passing through Montgomery and Columbus into Georgia.

A portion of Minty’s brigade,-the Fourth Michigan and Third Ohio, commanded by Lieutenant-Col. Pritchard, marched all the night of the 17th of April to save the double bridges over the Flint River, reaching them early in the morning of the 18th, when a gallant sabre charge was made by one battalion of the Fourth Michigan, which carried the bridges and captured every man of the rebel force left to destroy them.

The Second Division, which was in the advance, after a rapid march of twenty-seven miles on the 20th of April, was met some twelve or fifteen miles from Macon, Ga., by a rebel officer with a flag of truce, who informed Col. Minty that an armistice had been stipulated between the contending armies, and requested him not to enter Macon. Col. Minty immediately reported the matter to Gen. Wilson, and awaited orders.

The general replied that he had no notification of any armistice existing and that he should not stay out of Macon; and ordered Col. Minty to move forward.

Thereupon Col. Minty said to the rebel officer, ‘ I will give you five minutes start (taking out his watch) in returning to Macon, and you had better make good use of it.”

The officer and his escort set out on the gallop.

Col. Minty sat on his horse, watch in hand, until the five minutes had elapsed, when he returned the watch and gave the order:

” Forward! Gallop, March!”

The division dashed forward, in thundering column, toward Macon.

Over hill and down dale it pursued its headlong course.

The flag-bearers were run down and passed; some small detachments stationed along the road were swept away like chaff, and at six p.M. the division dashed forward.

It is reported that Col. Minty was the first man to get inside the enemy’s works alive.

In this charge the Fourth United States and Third Ohio were at first repulsed, but the Fourth Michigan, under Lt.-Col. Pritchard, pressed steadily onward, and were the first to leap over the works.

On into Macon, where it received the unconditional surrender of Gen. Howell Cobb and about two thousand men, with sixty-two pieces of artillery.

Being there officially notified of the surrender of the rebel armies under Lee and Johnston, Gen. Wilson stayed the farther advance of his corps.

Gen. Cobb was highly indignant at the unceremonious manner in which the Union officers possessed themselves of Macon, and gave it as his opinion that when the matter was referred to the proper headquarters the Union troops would be ordered to withdraw.

On the other hand, Gen. Wilson replied in most emphatic language that when his troops left the city, under such circumstances, there would not remain one brick upon another.

On the 7th of May the Fourth Michigan, four hundred and forty strong, under Lieutenant-Col. Pritchard, left Macon for the purpose of capturing Jefferson Davis and his party, who were known to be making their way toward the coast.

Having struck the trail of the fugitives at Abbeville on the 9th of May, Col. Pritchard selected one hundred and fifty-three of his best-mounted officers and men, and moved rapidly by a circuitous route to intercept them.

At Irwinsville, at one o’clock in the morning of the 10th of May, the colonel learned that a train, which probably belonged to Davis, was encamped a mile and a half distant.

Moving out into the vicinity of the camp, he sent Lieutenant Purinton, with twenty-five men, to wait on the other side of it.

At daybreak Col. Pritchard and his men advanced silently, and without being observed, to within a few rods of the camp, then dashed forward and secured the whole camp before the astonished inmates could grasp their weapons, or even fairly arouse themselves from their slumbers.

A chain of mounted guards was immediately placed around the camp, and dismounted sentries were stationed at the tents and wagons.

While this was going on, Corporal George M. Munger, of Company C, and Private Andrew Bee, of Company L, observed two persons in women’s dress moving rapidly away from one of the tents.

“That ought to be attended to,” said one of the soldiers.

Yes,” replied the other; and Munger immediately rode around in front of the two persons and ordered a “Halt!”

“This is my mother-in-law,” said one of them; “she is going after some water; can’t you let her pass?”

Her companion, a tall person, much bent, wrapped in a woman’s “water-proof,” with a shawl over the head and a pail in one hand, remained silent.

“No, you can’t pass,” replied Munger.

At that moment other soldiers rode up, and the hitherto silent personage, seeing that further disguise was useless, straightened up, dropped the pail, threw off the water-proof and shawl, and disclosed a tall, thin, sharp-faced, sour-looking man, with gray hair, gray whiskers under his chin, and one blind eye.

No one at first seemed to recognize in this forlorn fugitive the renowned chief of the defunct Confederacy.

Mrs. Davis, however (for she was his companion), had her wifely fears aroused by the grim faces and clanking arms around her, and threw her arms around her husband’s neck, exclaiming, “Don’t shoot him! Don’t shoot him!”

“ I’ll Let them shoot,” said Davis, “if they choose; I may as well die here as anywhere.”

But no one was inclined to be his executioner, and the squad, with the two prisoners, moved back toward the tents.

Mrs. Davis, when questioned, admitted that her companion was the ex-President of the Confederacy.

Meanwhile Col. Pritchard had taken the greater part of the force and gone to the assistance of Lieutenant Purinton, in whose front heavy firing was heard.

It proved to come from a most unfortunate rencontre with a detachment of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, which was also in pursuit of Davis, and the advance-guard of which began firing on Purinton’s men before ascertaining who they were.

After this error was discovered (which was not until several men had been killed and wounded), Col. Pritchard returned to camp and discovered that, besides Davis, his wife, and four children, his command had also captured two of his aides de-camp, his private secretary, several other Confederate officers, thirteen private servants, waiting-maids, etc., making a total of about thirty persons.

As he rode up, Col. Pritchard was accosted by Davis, who asked if he was the officer in command.

The colonel said he was, and asked how he should address his interlocutor. “Call me what or whoever you please,” said the rebel chieftain.

“Then I shall call you Davis,” replied Pritchard.

After a moment’s hesitation the former admitted that that was his name.

He then suddenly drew himself up with great dignity and exclaimed, “I suppose you consider it bravery to charge a train of defenseless women and children; but it is theft; it is vandalism.”

Without stopping to inquire whether the distinguished prisoner considered himself a woman or a child, the colonel set out with his command for Macon, joining the rest of the regiment on the way.

The lucky man of the expedition was one Michael Lynch, (A worthless, quarrelsome, unprincipled fellow.) and deserter from the Confederate army, who had enlisted in the Fourth Michigan.

He secured a pair of saddle-bags containing five thousand dollars in Confederate gold.

Although vigilant search was made for it by the officers, he managed to conceal it, got out of camp with it, and buried it.

He was strongly suspected from various circumstances of being the person who had it, and the acting adjutant-general of the brigade endeavored to persuade him to give it up, saying it would certainly be found, and then he would lose it, but if he would give it up he (the officer) would use his influence to have it, or a part of it, given back to him.

“Well now, captain,” said Lynch, with great apparent frankness, “I haven’t got that money, but if had it I shouldn’t be green enough to give it up.”

“Why, what could you do with it?” queried the officer.

“What could I do with it?” replied Lynch; “why, I would bury it, and after I was discharged I would come back and dig it up.

But then I haven’t got it.”

And this was precisely what he had done, and what after his discharge he did do.

From Macon, Col. Pritchard, with twenty-five officers and men, was ordered to Washington, as a special escort for Davis and his party.

While this party went to Washington (giving Mr. Davis into the custody of the commandant at Fortress Monroe), the rest of the regiment returned, by way of Atlanta and Chattanooga, to Nashville, where it was mustered out and paid off on the 1st of July, 1865.

It reached Detroit on the 10th of the same month.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Those marked with an asterisk were present at the capture of Davis.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Benj. D. Pritchard,* Allegan; com. Nov. 26, 1864; bvt. brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. May 10, 1865, “for faithful and meritorious services in the capture of Jeff. Davis;” mustered out. with regiment, July 1, 1865.

Major Frank W. Mix, Allegan; com. Feb. 18, 1863; Captain Aug. 13, 1862; 1st Lieutenant 3d Cavalry., May 25, 1862; res. Nov. 24, 1864.

1st Lieutenant and Q.-M. Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. March 18, 1863; promoted Captain Co. A, Aug. 25, 1864.

1st Lieutenant and Q.M. Perry J. Davis,* Allegan; com. Aug. 23, 1864; bvt. Captain U. S. Vols. May 10, 1865, “for meritorious services in the capture of Jeff. Davis;” mustered out July 1, 1865.

Noncommissioned Staff.

Com.-Sergeant Harlan P. Dunning, Allegan; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Principal Musician John B. Champion, Allegan; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company A.

Captain Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. Aug. 25, 1864; 1st Lieutenant and q.m. March 18, 1863; mustered out July 1, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Thos. J. Parker, Allegan; com. Feb. 18, 1863; 2d Lieutenant Co. L, Aug. 1, 1862; res. Dec. 21, 1864.

Madison Bipler, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

Gilbert Haight, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Marion Hicks, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 12, 1864.

Daniel Hendrick, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 4, 1864.

John Nero, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company C.

Peter Semyn, died of disease at Nashville, July 21, 1865.

Andrew I. Shepherd, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company D.

2d Lieutenant Chas. W. Fisk, Allegan; com. Dec. 6, 1863; Sergeant Co. L; promoted 1st Lieutenant Co. H, Aug. 1, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company E.

Geo. W. Banks, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

Sherman Egan, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company F.

Captain John H. Simpson, Allegan; com. Dec. 10, 1864; 1st. lieutenant Aug. 23, 1863; 2d Lieutenant March 31, 1863; Sergeant Co. L; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company G.

Timothy C. Green, mustered out. Hiram Comstock, died of disease at Chattanooga, June 13, 1864.

Company L.

Captain Benj. D. Pritchard, Allegan; com. July 25, 1862; promoted Lieutenant-col. Nov. 26, 1864.

1st Lieutenant Isaac Lamoreaux, Allegan; com. Aug. 4, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. March 1, 1863; apt. Q.M., March 18, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Thos. J. Parker, Allegan; com. Aug. 1, 1862; promoted 1st Lieutenant, Co. A. 2d Lieutenant

Samuel F. Murphy, Allegan; com. Jan. 18, 1865; mustered out July 1, 1865.

1st Sergeant John F. Beebe, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Q.M. Sergeant John H. Simpson, Allegan; enlisted July 26, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company F.

Com.-Sergeant Orson D. Dunham, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, March 18, 1863.

Sergeant Chas. W. Fisk, Allegan; enlisted July 31, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company B.

Sergeant Hiram B. Hudson, Allegan; enlisted July 21, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sergeant Francis L. Hickock, Allegan; enlisted July 28, 1862; discharged by order, June 7, 1865.

Sergeant Silas F. Stauber, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; discharged for promotion, May 22, 1864.

Sergeant Samuel F. Murphy, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862q promoted 2d Lieutenant

Sergeant Chas. Carter, Allegan; enlisted July 30, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 1864.

Corp. Samuel S. Baldwin, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; discharged Feb. 16, 1863.

Corp. Horatio N. Price, Allegan; enlisted July 21, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, March 5, 1863.

Corp. Alex. Hurd, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; Wagoner; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Corp. Elijah Wilcox, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, Feb. 20, 1863. 17

Corp. Chas. L. Knight, Allegan; enlisted July 26, 1862; sergeant; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Corp. Alvah C. Fisk, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 2, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Farrier Wm. Pulcipher, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; died at Bowling Green, Ky.

Farrier Jesse S. Penfield, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Saddler Wilts H. Williams, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Teamster Jonathan Brewer, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863.

Wagoner Jos. Hofmaster, Allegan; enlisted July 25, 1862; quartermaster-sergeant; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Allen Ash, mustered out July 1, 1865′

Jacob I. Bailey, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Bentley, discharged by order, June 19, 1865.

Wm. H. Baker, discharged for disability, Oct. 19, 1863.

Bradley M. Bates, discharged for disability, June 5, 1863.

Henry C. Braman, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

David Beck, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Miles Bidwell, died of disease at Allegan, Feb. 2, 1865.

Alonzo C. Burnham, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Andrew Bee, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Elijah Cummins, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Benj. K. Colt,* Sergeant, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edward R. Crawford, died of disease in Michigan, Jan. 28, 1863.

David V. Davidson, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Dec. 1, 1862.

Herbert H. Davidson, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., March 5, 1863.

John C. Everts, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863.

Henry C. Edgerton, discharged by order, May, 1865.

Andrew T. Foote, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 10, 1863.

Alexander Fry, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

Leander J. Fields, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1862.

Jas. M. Flowers, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Chas. H. Gurney, discharged Dec. 10, 1862.

Lewis C. Goodrich, discharged for disability, March 11, 1863.

Martin J. Guyot, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1862.

Abner B. Hughes, died of disease at New Albany, Ind., June 13, 1863.

Edwin C. Hughes, died in action at Sumumerville, Ala., April 2, 1862.

David H. Hall, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1863.

Jas. Holdsworth, discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

John Harrington, mustered out July 1, 1865.

David H. Haines, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Hiram B. Hudson, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Otis L. HIalton, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Keyser, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Jacob Keyser, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., Feb. 14, 1863.

Walton Kibbey, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 7, 1863.

Gordon N. Kenyon, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edgar Lindsley, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John W. Lindsley, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edward Lane,* mustered out July 18, 1865.

John McLoughrey, died in action at Stone River, Dec. 29, 1862.

Chas. C. Marsh,* corp., mustered out July 1, 1865.

Alonzo Miller, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Win. Mann,* mustered out July 1, 1865.

E. L. G. Myers, discharged by order, July 27, 1865.

Albert Miller, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863.

Geo. W. Moore, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Francis Merchant, died of disease.

Geo. F. Nichols, died of disease at Nashville, July 10, 1863.

Jos. Naregang, died of disease at Murfreesboro, April 27, 1863.

Geo. Noggle, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Win. M. Oliver, corp., mustered out July 1, 1865.

Peter Passenger, mustered out July 1, 1865.

David D. Parkhurst, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Charles Pettit, died of disease in Kentucky, Nov. 3, 1862.

Horatio N. Price, died of disease at Murfreesboro, March 5, 1863.

Edward W. Pardee, died of disease at Nashville.

Edward Reed, mustered out July 1, 1865.

William G. Rowe, mustered out July 1, 1865. J

oseph Richie, discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1863.

Jonathan D. Squires, discharged for disability, Oct. 19, 1863.

Charles F. Smith, died of disease in Ohio, Feb. 1, 1863.

Edward F. Safford, died of disease at Nashville, June 15, 1863.

Leland H. Shaw, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Ferdinand Sebright, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Gilbert Stone, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Henry Smith, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Joseph Stewart, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Isaac C. Seely, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Charles F. Tubah, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Ira Tuttle, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

Salem True, discharged for disability.

E. S. Finley, discharged for disability, July 18, 1863.

Frederick Woodham, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Wilson, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Daniel Willis, mustered out July 1, 1865.

William West, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sylvester Wedge, mustered out July 1, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE FOURTH CAVALRY.

Company A.

Levitt D. Faulkerson, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company C.

Simon Cooper, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

John D. Rockwood, died of disease.

Company D.

Watson S. Williams, mustered out. Aug. 15, 1865.

Company H.

Lucius Bates, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Milo D. Cooper, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Horace Freeman, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 4, 1863.

John W. Holmes, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Madison A. Hoose, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Ira Leach, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1862.

Newell Nichols, discharged for disability, Feb. 22, 1863.

Owen A. Nichols, discharged for disability, July 14, 1863.

J. P. Reynolds, transferred to Yet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Chester Savacool, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company I.

Hiram Lamb, discharged Feb. 8, 1865.

Company K.

Byron R. Purdy, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Herman C. Purdy, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Company L.

Ira D. Brooks, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Benjamin F. Carpenter,* mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Albert D. Carpenter, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Rooney G. Flowers, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company M.

Samuel H. Hubbard, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company I, of the Fifth, from Allegan County-The Regiment assigned to the Michigan Brigade in the Spring of 1863-Battles in the Summer of 1863-Casualties-Winter-Quarters in 1863-64-Kilpatrick’s Raid to Richmond-Col. Dahlgren’s Expedition-Back to North Virginia-Reorganization of Sheridan’s Command-Battle of the Wilderness-Sheridan’s Raid to Richmond-The Dash into Beaver Dam-Battle with Stuart at Yellow Tavern-Stuart routed and slain-Before Richmond-Battle on the Chickahominy-Especial Gallantry of the Michigan Brigade-Return to the Army of the Potomac-Fight at Hawes’ Shop-Old Church Tavern and Cold Harbor-Battle of Trevillian Station-Brilliant Victory-Fight at Louisa Court-House-In the Shenandoah Valley, Middletown, Front Royal, etc.-Victories at Opequan and Winchester-Casualties during the Year-Winter-Quarters-Sheridan’s Great Raid to the Army of the Potomac-Dealing the Death-Blow to Rebellion-Ordered West-Men with Two Years to serve transferred-Regiment mustered out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members -The Allegan and Barry Representation in the Sixth Cavalry-Its Battles and Casualties in 1863-Kilpatrick’s Richmond Raid-The Wilderness-Beaver Dam, Meadow Bridge, and Ilawes’ Shop-Trevillian Station-The Shenandoah Campaign-The Great Ride to Richmond-Closing Scenes-Ordered to the Rocky MountainsPowder River Expedition-A Guard “corralled”-The Regiment mustered out-Barry County Soldiers-Allegan County SoldiersFormation and Departure of the Sixth Cavalry-Assigned to the Michigan Brigade-Its Battles in 1863 —Its Battles in 1864-The Brilliant Close in 1865 —Its Frontier Service-The Muster out-The Barry County Members-The Allegan County Members.

FIFTH CAVALRY. COMPANY I, of this regiment, was wholly an Allegan County organization.

It was recruited by ex-Congressman, This celebrated body was composed of the First, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Cavalry.

It was organized in the fore-part of 1863^ and I William B. Williams, of Allegan, in the summer of 1862, and under his command proceeded to Detroit, Michigan, the regimental rendezvous, in August of the same year.

The regiment was first commanded by Col. J. T. Copeland, and was mustered into the United States service Aug. 30, 1862.

It was subjected to a long delay in procuring arms and equipments; a spirit of discontent prevailed in consequence, and numerous desertions occurred.

The regiment finally left the State for Washington on the 4th of December, 1862, only partly armed, but otherwise fully equipped and well mounted.

Down to that date it had carried on its rolls the names of one thousand three hundred and five officers and enlisted men.

Upon its arrival at the seat of war it was assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, otherwise known as the Michigan Cavalry brigade. (See note at beginning of chapter.)

It was engaged with the enemy at Hanover, Va., June 30, 1863; at Hunterstown, Pa., July 2d; Gettysburg, Pa., July 3d, where it was hotly engaged, charging the enemy repeatedly and losing heavily.

It was also in conflicts of more or less importance at Monterey, Md., July 4th; Cavalryetown, Md., July 5th; Smithtown, Boonsboro’, Hagerstown, and Williamsport, Md., July 6th; Hagerstown and Williamsport, Md., July 10th; Falling Waters, Md., July 14th; Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19th; Kelly’s Ford, Va., September 13th; Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14th; Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th; White’s Ford, September 21st; Jack’s Shop, Va., September 26th; James City, Va., October 12th; Brandy Station, Va., October 13th; Buckland’s Mills, Va., October 19th; Stevensburg, Va., November 19th; and Morton’s Ford, Va., Nov. 26, 1863.

Sixty-four men were killed and wounded during the year 1863, besides one hundred and twenty-one reported missing in action, many of whom were killed.

Other reports of alterations and casualties show that from the time the regiment was organized until the close of 1863 forty men died of disease, sixty-eight were discharged for disability, twenty-one by sentence of general court-martial, fifteen by order, two for promotion, one hundred and seventy-seven deserted, twenty officers resigned, one officer was dismissed, and the total number of recruits received was thirteen.

During the winter of 1863-6-1 the Fifth had its quarters at Stevensburg, Va., and was employed mostly on picket duty along the Rapidan.

In the latter part of February, 1864, it took part in the raid made by the Cavalry under Kilpatrick to the outer defenses of Richmond.

The main body of the regiment T. continued in service as a brigade until the close of the war; being commanded successively by Gens. Kilpatrick and Custer, and gaining, whether rightly or wrongly, the highest reputation of any Cavalry brigade in the service.

As three of the regiments of which the brigade was composed follow each other consecutively, and as all of them contained a considerable representation from Allegan and Barry Counties, we have grouped them together under the general title given above.

As there are numerous matters, however, which concern the regiments separately, we have furnished separate sketches of these bodies; giving the fullest description of the operations of the brigade in the history of the Fifth Regiment, which had the largest representation from these counties.

The fifth crossed the Rapidan, marched thence, via Spottsylvania and Beaver Dan Station to Hungary Station, and moved down the Brook turnpike to within five miles of the city of Richmond.

Being attacked on the 2d of March by a superior force of the enemy, the Union Cavalry was compelled to fall back on Gen. Butler’s forces, stationed at New Kent Court-House.

A detachment of the regiment had also accompanied the forces commanded by the gallant Col. Ulric Dahlgren.

They moved down the James River to within five miles of the rebel capital.

The detachment of the Fifth, being in front, charged the enemy’s works and captured his first line of fortifications.

Following up its advantage, Dahlgren’s command pushed back the enemy from one line to another, until a point was reached within two miles of the city, when it was found impossible to advance farther with so small a force.

Meanwhile the rebels were gathering from all points, and in the endeavor to extricate itself from its perilous position the detachment of the Fifth became separated in the night, which was rainy and very dark, from the main portion of Dahlgren’s command.

On the following day this detachment cut its way through a strong rebel force posted at Old Church, and succeeded in rejoining the regiment near White House Landing.

At Yorktown, Va., on the 11th of March, the regiment embarked on board transports for Alexandria, whence it marched to Stevensburg, arriving there on the 18th of April, 1864.

Here a reorganization of the Cavalry forces, under Gen. Sheridan’s command, took place, and the Michigan Cavalry Brigade was thenceforth known as the First Brigade of the First Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.

On the 5th of May the brigade, commanded by the fiery Custer, again crossed the Rapidan, and soon became engaged in the great battle of the Wilderness; fighting mounted, the first three days, against the forces led by the renowned rebel Cavalry leader, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.

On the 9th of May the Cavalry corps set out, under Gen. Sheridan, on his great raid toward Richmond.

Three divisions, numbering full twelve thousand men, turned their horses’ heads to the southward; the blue-coated column, as it marched by fours, extending eleven miles along the road, from front to rear.

On the route they overtook a large body of Union soldiers, who had been taken prisoners at Spottsylvania, released them, and captured the rebel guard.

Toward evening, the same day, the Michigan brigade, followed closely by the rest of the column, dashed into the rebel depot at Beaver Dam Station, scattering, almost in an instant, the force stationed for its defense.

All night long the men were busy destroying the immense amount of rebel supplies accumulated at Beaver Dam, worth millions of dollars, consisting of three long railroad trains, with locomotives, stores of goods of various kinds, and one hundred loaded army-wagons, the flames of which rose in lurid columns through the darkness amid the cheers of the exultant soldiers.

At daybreak the next morning the command moved forward, and after tearing up the railroad-track at Negro Foot Station it reached “Yellow Tavern,” ten miles from Richmond, on the 11th of May.

There Gen. Stuart had assembled a large force of rebel Cavalry and a severe battle ensued.

The Fifth Cavalry fought dismounted, and charged’ the enemy’s position under a heavy fire; routing him after a most stubborn resistance.

The rebels lost heavily in this engagement, including their commanding officer, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, who was mortally wounded by a private of this regiment.

Having brushed aside all the forces opposed to it, the Union column pursued its way “on to Richmond” unmolested.

The next day the command arrived within a mile and a half of Richmond, but found fortifications in front on which Cavalry could make no impression.

Gen. Sheridan then turned his course toward the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge.

The rebels had destroyed the bridge, and a large force of them disputed his further progress.

The approaches to the stream led through a swamp, along which not more than four men could ride abreast, and a well posted battery on the opposite side cut down the head of the Union column, completely checking its advance.

The leading brigade vainly endeavored to force a passage.

The next one likewise failed. Gen. Sheridan then sent for Custer and his Michigan brigade, which at once hastened to the front.

There the youthful general dismounted the Fifth and Sixth Michigan, and sent them forward into the swamp as flanking-parties, while with drawn sabres the First and Seventh Michigan breathlessly awaited the order to charge.

The dismounted men drove the enemy from their first position, advanced through water waist-deep to the railroad-bridge, crossed it on the ties, and then plied their Spencer rifles on the rebel cannoniers with such effect that the latter were obliged to turn their guns on these assailants to prevent being entirely enfiladed.

The moment they did so Custer gave the order to “Charge,” and the two mounted regiments, with brandished sabres and ringing cheers, dashed forward at the top of their horses’ speed.

The rebels had barely time to limber their guns and retreat; leaving the road again open for the advance of the whole corps.

The command then proceeded, via Malvern Hill, Hanover Court-House, White House, Ayelitt’s and Concord Church, to Chesterfield Station, where it joined the main Army of the Potomac.

On the 28th of May the regiment was hotly engaged near Hawes’ Shop, where it aided in driving the enemy from their position after a desperate hand-to-hand fight.

The loss of the regiment in this action was very severe.

Moving to Old Church Tavern on the 30th, it was engaged with its brigade in the routing of Young’s rebel Cavalry.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with other Cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought dismounted in advance of the infantry, and, although losing heavily, succeeded in capturing many prisoners.

The Michigan brigade soon after set out under Gen. Sheridan to join Gen. Hunter, who was moving from the Shenandoah Valley to Lynchburg.

On the 11th of June the command met at Trevillian Station a large force of the enemy, both infantry and Cavalry.

During that day and the next there ensued one of the severest Cavalry fights of the war, the Union Cavalry mostly fighting dismounted.

The Michigan brigade did most of the fighting the first day, and lost heavily.

The brigade battery was three times captured by the enemy, and as many times recaptured by the determined efforts of the Michigan men.

The rebels were finally driven from the field and pursued several miles; six hundred prisoners, fifteen hundred horses, one stand of colors, six caissons, forty ambulances, and fifty wagons being captured by the victorious Unionists.

Moving subsequently in the direction of Louisa Courthouse, the regiment encountered a column of the enemy, but cut its way through with considerable loss in prisoners. Gen. Hunter failed to make the passage of the mountains.

Gen. Sheridan, in consequence, then marched his troops to White House Landing, and soon after joined the Army of the Potomac, south of Petersburg.

After serving on picket and scout duty in front of Richmond and Petersburg during the month of July, 1864, the Michigan brigade was taken on transports to Washington, D. C., early in August, and thence marched to the Shenandoah Valley.

Here it followed Custer in many a desperate charge, fully sustaining its old renown.

At Middletown the Fifth Cavalry was attacked by a strong force of the enemy, but repulsed them, capturing sixty-five prisoners.

Again, on the 19th of August, while a squadron of the regiment were scouting to the front, they were attacked by a greatly superior force of the enemy under the guerrilla leader Moseby, and being overpowered were driven into camp with a loss of sixteen men killed.

It was also engaged at:

 

  • Front Royal. August 16th;
  • Leetown, August 25th;
  • at Shepardstown, August 25th;
  • Smithfield, August 28th;
  • Berryville, September 3d;
  • Opequan Creek, September 19th, where the Michigan brigade utterly routed the enemy’s Cavalry and broke their infantry lines, capturing two battle-flags and four hundred prisoners; Winchester, September 19th; Luray, September 24th;

 

Woodstock, October 9th; and Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864, where Custer’s command charged the enemy’s main line; driving it back in confusion and capturing a large number of prisoners.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had seventy-six men killed, one hundred and seventeen wounded in action, fourteen missing in action, one hundred and ninety-four taken prisoners, two hundred and nine recruits joined the regiment, while but thirty-three men died of disease and but two desertions were reported.

The Michigan brigade went into winter-quarters near Winchester, Va., in December, 1864, and remained until the latter part of February, 1865.

On the 27th it broke camp, and with the Cavalry corps commanded by Gen. Sheridan started on a long and rapid march up the Shenandoah Valley, past Staunton, over the mountains, and down the James River to the Army of the Potomac.

The command met with but little opposition, dispersed all forces opposed to it, destroyed much property on the line of the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, locks, mills, and aqueducts on the James River Canal, and on the 19th of March joined the forces assembled to give the last blow to Lee’s rebel army.

On the 30th and 31st days of March and 1st of April, 1865, the Michigan brigade was warmly engaged at Five Forks.

During these three days of battle it was in the advance, and on the extreme left of the Union armies, fighting dismounted,-and finally succeeded, with the rest of Sheridan’s corps, in capturing the enemy’s line of defense, and several thousand prisoners.

From this time until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, April 9, 1865, it was constantly engaged with the enemy, and, being in the advance, the flag of truce to negotiate the surrender was sent through its lines.

After the surrender of Lee this regiment moved with the Cavalry corps to Petersburg, Va.

Soon afterward it made an incursion, with other forces, into North Carolina; thence it marched to Washington, D. C., participated in the review of the Army of the Potomac, May 23, 1865, and immediately thereafter, with the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, was ordered to the Western frontier.

The Fifth was sent by rail and steamboat to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., where the men having two years or more to serve were transferred to the First and Seventh Michigan Cavalry Regiments.

On the 22d of June the regiment, as an organization, was mustered out of service.

It arrived in Detroit, Michigan, July 1, 1865, and was there paid off and disbanded.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company I.

Captain Win. B. Williams, Allegan; com. Sept. 3, 1862; resigned June 11, 1863.

Captain Geo. N. Dutcher, Saugatuck; com. June 13, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, Nov. 2, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Geo. W. Lonsbury, Allegan; com. July 15, 1864: 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 1, 1863 (previously sergeant); promoted to Captain Co. M, Nov. 10, 1864; bvt. Major, March 13, 1865, “for gallant and meritorious services during the war;” mustered out June 22, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Geo. N. Gardner, Saugatuck; enlisted April 14, 1865; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Q.-M. Sergeant L. L. Crosby, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 12, 1862; transferred to Signal Corps, April, 1864.

Com. Sergeant Hannibal Hart, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 18, 1862; discharged for wounds, June 14, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. C. Weeks, Allegan; enlisted July 22, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Hiram R. Ellis, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 19, 1862; discharged for promotion, Aug. 29, 1864.

Sergeant Geo. W. Earl, Gun Plains; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Martin Baldwin, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Wm. A. Piper, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; discharged for disability, Dec. 12, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. White, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. L, May 2, 1865.

Sergeant Geo. H. Smith, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Sergeant Irving Batchelor, Gun Plains; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Corp. David P. Taylor, Ganges; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; died of accidental wounds, March 27, 1863.

Corp. Austin A. Andrews, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Corp. Herman Garvelink, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; killed in action at Hawes’ Shop, May 28, 1864.

Corp. Louis Hirner, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; killed in action at Yellow Tavern, May 11, 1864.

Farrier Mortimer Andrews, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Farrier Geo. Masson, Gun Plain; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

Saddler Jacob E. Miner, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; absent sick at City Point, Va.

Teamster John Cook, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 16, 1863.

Wagoner Dewitt C. Sanford, Gun Plain; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Feb. 13, 1863.

Samuel Atkins, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Oriss Buchanan, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Caleb Bennett, discharged by order, July 12, 1865.

E. J. Burlingame, missing in action at Richmond, March 1, 1864.

Hendrick Cook, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

George Canouse, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

Elliott Chase, died of disease at Detroit, Oct. 19, 1862.

Lawrence L. Crosby, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April, 1861.

James Collins, died in Andersonville prison-pen, July 9, 1864.

David Cummings, died a prisoner of war, of disease, Aug. 15, 1864.

Daniel C. Collier, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Samuel Clark, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Gabriel Cole, (Medal of Honor) mustered out June 23, 1865.

Robert Dyer, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Russell Dyer, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

Seth Dyer, discharged by order, July 17, 1865.

James Dyer, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

George Drury, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

William Drury, missing in action, Oct. 1(, 1864.

Benjamin S. Dalrymple, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Abner Emmons, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Orliter P. Eaton, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Lafayette Fox, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Cornelius Gavin, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Vernon Groucher, mustered out June 23, 1865.

William Goodman, died of disease, a prisoner of war, July 24, 1864.

George H. Hicks, died in action at Smithfield, Va., Aug. 29, 1864.

Hannibal Hart, discharged by order, Jan. 14, 1864.

George Hodgetts, transferred to 7th Michigan Cavalry.

John Will, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Morgan B. Hawks, mustered out June 23, 1865.

James Kitchen, discharged at end of service, Aug. 20, 1865.

Morgan D. Lane, transferred to Signal Corps, April 23, 1864,

William McWilliams, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864.

H. W. Mann, (lied in action at Shepardstown, Va., Aug. 25, 1864.

Gottlieb Miller, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 1, 1864.

Charles E. Moses, died of disease, a prisoner of war, Sept. 29, 1865.

John E. Murphy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

George E. Munn, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Orlando C. Masson, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

Franklin Miller, mustered out June 23, 1865.

William Neuhof, discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

M. A. Powell, discharged by order, Feb. 2, 1865.

George Pullman, died of disease, a prisoner of war, April 12, 1864.

Giles A. Piper, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Albert Rynick, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Raphael Ross, trans to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1861.

Caspar Robb, discharged by order, July 11, 1865.

Jacob Rinehart, discharged by order, July 12, 1865.

Joseph Slagel, discharged by order, Dec. 24, 1863.

Samuel Shaver, mustered out June 23, 1865.

David H. Seaman, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

George Shuport, mustered out June 23, 1865.

George Shepard, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 1, 1864.

Marcus C. Thompson, Died of disease, a prisoner of war, Sept. 4, 1864.

George W. Thompson, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Henry Warner, discharged for wounds.

Homer Watson, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Henry Zoneman, mustered out June 23, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY.

William H. Cook, Co. L, of this regiment, was from Barry County. He was last reported as missing in action at Trevillian Station, Va., June 11, 1864.

SIXTH CAVALRY.

Allegan County had but few members in the Sixth Cavalry, but Barry was represented in all its companies except I; Company K being almost exclusively from that county.

The regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids.

Its ranks were rapidly filled, and it was mustered into the United States service, under the command of Col. George Gray, on the 13th of October, 1862.

Mounted and equipped, but not armed, carrying on its rolls the names of one thousand two hundred and twenty-nine officers and men, it left the regimental rendezvous on the 10th of December following, and proceeded to the seat of war in Virginia.

It was soon assigned to the Second Brigade of the Third Division of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac (the Michigan Cavalry Brigade), of which a somewhat extended notice has been given in the sketch of the preceding regiment, to which the reader is referred for details.

Before the beginning of its first campaign Company K, by reason of discharges and resignations, had lost all its original commissioned officers except Lieutenant Pendill.

The regiment fought at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 1863; at Hunterstown and Gettysburg, Pa., and Monterey, Cavalryetown, Smithtown, Boonsboro’, Hagerstown, Williamsport, 7 and Falling Waters, Md., in July of the same year; at Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19, 1863; at Kelly’s Ford, Culpeper Court-House, Raccoon Ford, White’s Ford, and Jack’s Shop, Va., in September, 1863; at James City, Brandy Station, and Buckland’s Mills, Va., in October, 1863; and at Stevensburg and Morton’s Ford, Va., in November of the same year.

At Gettysburg and Falling Waters it particularly distinguished itself.

Its principal casualties from the time it entered the service until Nov. 1, 1863, were reported as thirty-six killed in action, seventy-five missing in action, and forty-five who died of disease.

During the winter of 1863-64 it was quartered at Stevensburg, Va.

In the latter part of February it started for Richmond, forming part of Gen. Kilpatrick’s raiding force.

It participated in all the hard riding, skirmishing, etc., attendant upon that unsuccessful expedition, and, with others of the command, succeeded in joining the Union forces at New Kent Court-House.

Thence it moved down the Peninsula, proceeded on transports to Alexandria, and then marched to its former camp at Stevensburg.

On the 18th of April the Michigan brigade was transferred to the First Cavalry Division, and thereafter until the close of the war was known as the First Brigade of the First Division Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.

Companies I and M, which had been operating in the Shenandoah Valley during the year 1863, rejoined the regiment on the 3d of May, 1864, and on the 6th of that month the Michigan brigade was in the midst of the terrible battles going on in the Wilderness.

As victors, it emerged into the open country on the 8th of May, and on the morning of the 9th started with Sheridan’s corps on a raid to the rear of the rebel armies, the brigade leading this splendid body of twelve thousand veteran Cavalrymen.

The Sixth assisted in destroying the immense rebel depot of supplies at Beaver Dam Station, fought in the thickest of the battle at Yellow Tavern, and gained imperishable honor at the crossing of the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge.*

Again, at Hawes’ Shop, on the 28th of May, 1864, the regiment took part in a decisive charge on the enemy’s lines.

After a severe conflict the rebels were forced to retire, leaving their dead and wounded on the field.

The Sixth lost heavily in this engagement.

Of its members present, one-fourth were either killed or wounded in less than ten minutes.

Engaging in the raid of Sheridan’s forces towards Gordonsville, the regiment, on the 11th of June, participated in the battle of Trevillian Station, charging the enemy repeatedly, and capturing many prisoners, most of whom, however, were recaptured.

From the time it crossed the Rapidan, on the 5th of May, until it passed the James, on the 28th of June, the regiment lost twenty-nine men killed, sixty wounded, and sixty-four missing.

Early in August the Michigan brigade, with others of Sheridan’s command, was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley, where it took an active part in all the skirmishes, battles, marches, and counter-marches that occurred during this part of the Shenandoah campaign.

The actions in which the Sixth participated in the valley may be summarily catalogued as those of Front Royal, Leetown, Smithfield, Opequan Creek, Winchester, Luray, Port Republic, Mount Crawford, Fisher’s Hill, Woodstock, and Cedar -Creek.

In December, 1864, it went into winter quarters near Winchester.

Its total list of killed to November 1st amounted to fifty-five, while forty-four of its members had died of disease.

During the last days of February, 1865, the regiment began its final Virginia campaign.

After a long and eventful march under Sheridan, during which it helped to defeat the rebel Gen. Rosser at Louisa Court-House, to break up the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and to destroy the locks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, it reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, and immediately took part in the succession of brilliant triumphs which ended at Appomattox Court-House on the 9th of April, 1865.

After the surrender, the rebel Gen. Pickett, who was taken prisoner in one of these engagements, spoke of a charge made by this regiment which he witnessed as being the “bravest he had ever seen.”

After participating in the grand review held at Washington, D. C., May 23, 1865, the Michigan brigade was ordered, vid the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers, to Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

At that point the Sixth received orders to cross the Plains.

These orders produced much dissatisfaction among its members, as they, with all other volunteers, had supposed that with the collapse of the Rebellion their services would no longer be required.

Remembering, however, their noble record as a regiment, adhering firmly to the high degree of discipline and faithful observance of orders which had ever distinguished them, its members marched forward by way of Fort Kearney and Julesburg to Fort Laramie.

At the latter point the regiment was divided into detachments by order of Gen. Connor.

One was to form a part of the “left column, Powder River expedition,” one was to remain at Fort Laramie, while another was to escort a train to the Black Hills.

The Powder River detachment, on reaching that stream, found that the Indians, of whom it had been sent in pursuit, had managed to escape.

The troops then built the fort since known as Fort Reno.

On this expedition Captain O. F. Cole, of Company G, lost his life; having needlessly ridden a long distance from the column, he was surprised by Indians and shot to death with arrows.

From Fort Reno a small detachment was sent out as a train-guard to Virginia City, Montana.

Meeting a large war party of Arapahoe Indians, the guard was “corralled” that is, surrounded and stopped-by them for twelve days.

‘Gen. Connor was finally apprised of their condition, when reinforcements were sent to their relief.

Sergeant Hall, of Company L, and Private Evans, of Company F, were the brave men who succeeded in conveying the intelligence to Gen. Connor.

They traversed a distance of fifty miles through a wild and to them unknown country, swarming with hostile savages, and thereby saved the detachment.

On the 17th of September, in pursuance of orders issued by Major-Gen. Dodge, the men of the Sixth whose term of service did not expire before Feb. 1, 1866, were consolidated with the First Michigan Cavalry, and the rest of the regiment was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

It was there mustered out of service Nov. 24, 1865, and on the 30th of the same month it arrived at Jackson, Michigan, where its members received final pay and discharge-papers.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Field and Staff.

Q.-M. W. H. Jewell, Assyria; com. Dec. 11, 1864; mustered out Nov. 7, 1865. (See Co. K.)

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp. Steward Benj. R. Rose, Carlton; enlisted Nov. 1, 1863; discharged by order from Co. K, May 3, 1865.

Company A.

Andrew L. Barnum, died in action at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.

Company B.

Peter Dunham, discharged by order, Dec. 4, 1865.

Myndert Yemans, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company C.

Thomas Cowell, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1864.

Andrew J. Fisher, discharged at end of service, Feb. 17, 1866.

Simson D. Inman, mustered out Feb. 17, 1866.

George M. Jenkins, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1864.

Company D.

John P. Mallin, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Andrew Rogers, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Company E.

Wilson Perkins, died in action at Beaver Pond Mills, Va., April 4, 1865.

Joseph Snith, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Company F.

Robert McNee, transferred to Yet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863.

Asa Smith, mustered out.

Company G.

Daniel Bowerman, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Orrin Clark, mustered out Feb. 10, 1866.

George W. Cline, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

James V. Judd, discharged Oct. 1, 1863.

Company H.

Hiram F. Lawrence, mustered out Feb. 17, 1866.

Thomas Mayo, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Oct. 9, 1864.

Oliver S. Reed, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company K.

1st Lieutenant Peter Cramer, Woodland; com. Aug. 26, 1862; res. Feb. 18, 1863. 2d Lieutenant

Lewis H. Jordon, Irving; com. Sept. 25, 1862; discharged March 6, 1863. 2d Lieutenant

Cortez P. Pendill, Prairieville; com. March 16, 1863; enlisted as 1st Sergeant, Aug. 26, 1862; res. for disability, Sept. 16, 1S64.

Q.-M. Sergeant Chas. W. Taylor, Maple Grove; enlisted Aug. 26, 1862; discharged.

Com. Sergeant H. C. Hendershott, Irving; enlisted Oct. 11, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. H. Jewell, Assyria; enlisted Sept. 2, 1862; promoted to regimental quartermaster.

Sergeant Lorenzo D. Cobb, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company  L.

Sergeant Parley H. Rice, Hope; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Sergeant John C. Dillon, Maple Grove; enlisted Aug. 29, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 28, 1865.

Sergeant Selden E. Norton, Castleton; enlisted Aug. 26, 1862; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Jas. K. Francisco, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 2, 1862; died of wounds, Sept. 26, 1864.

Corp. Mathew Baird, Hope; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Corp. John L. Williams, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out July 7, 1865.

Corp. Clifton G. Barnum, Carlton; enlisted Aug. 27, 1862; died of disease at Fairfax, Va., April 18, 1863.

Corp. Henry C. Rice, Hope; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Corp. Presley W. Haskinson, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Corp. Milo 0. West, Hope; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; died of disease, Aug. 24, 1864.

Musician John J. Cobb, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Musician Myron Paul, Thornapple; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Farrier Aaron J. Walker, Irving; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Farrier Jeremiah Baribaugh, Castleton; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Teamster Anson Cary, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 18, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 186:3.

Teamster Samuel Barton, Irving; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Wagoner David R. Trego, Irving; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 3, 1864.

Jacob Alverson, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Clifren Bowerman, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

W. H. Brown, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

David Brown, died of disease, Jan. 8, 1864.

Munson Buck, missing in action at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 1863.

John Beach, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Amos Beach, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Stephen P. Barnum, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

William E. Bolton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

George H. Brownell, died of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa.

Frederick Bergman, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Josiah L. Campbell, discharged for disability, Jan. 2, 1863.

Myron Chamberlain, discharged for disability, Sept. 6, 1863.

Norman E. Clark, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Emerson Cartwright, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Austin W. Clark, mustered out Nov. 19, 1865.

Marquis A. Dowd, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John A. Dennis, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

George W. Dart, discharged for disability, Feb. 11, 1863.

Edward Dacons, died of disease, Jan. 13, 1865.

Amos J. Eggleston, discharged for disability, Sept. 30, 1863.

Joseph Fishburn, died of disease at his home, Nov. 11, 1864.

William Gordon, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

Adam Hart, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

Benjamin lHeath, discharged for disability.

Frederick Hart, discharged for disability, May 15, 1865.

James H. Hunt, mustered out June 12, 1865.

John Irwin, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Van Rensselaer Jones, discharged for disability, July 21, 1863.

Lyman C. Jayquays,* mustered out June 30, 1866.

Ira Kelsey, died at Newby’s Cross-Roads, Va., July 24, 1863.

Dewitt C. Kenyon, mustered out June 29, 1865.

Jeremiah Killmer, mustered out Nov 24, 1865.

Jefferson Kelley, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Jacob Kabler, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Franklin R. Lewis, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Samuel Murdock, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Hiram McCartney, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., March 29, 1864.

Justin W. Miles, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Edwin Meads, discharged for wounds, April 6, 1864.

John A. Miller, discharged for wounds, Oct. 5, 1864.

Archibald Murdock, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct.12, 1865.

Mark Norris, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Mason Norton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Levi Presley, mustered out March 26, 1866.

George M. Payne, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Samuel Presley, discharged for disability.

Jonathan Smith, died at Newby’s Cross-Roads, Va., July 24, 1863.

Albert H. Sidman, discharged for disability.

Justice Smith, reported missing in action, but returned.

Stephen A. Stanley, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Robert W. Slhriner, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Russell K. Stanton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Justin A. Smith, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Eber A. Stanley, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Elisha Skillman, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

James A. Vandechoten, mustered out June 13, 1865.

L. F. Vester, died of disease at Baltimore, Md., Sept. 22, 1864.

David Way, Jr., died of disease.

Orville Wheeler, died of disease in Michigan, Nov. 28, 1864.

Joel 0. Wheeler, discharged for disability, Jan. 2, 1863.

Lycurgus J. Wheeler, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 3, 1864.

William R. Wheeler, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Oscar White, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Henry A. Ward, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company L.

2d Lieutenant Lorenzo D. Cobb, Yankee Springs; com. Dec. 10, 1864; mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

Martin Babcock, mustered out Aug. 12, 1865.

Jeremiah Crandall, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Alfred Fraine, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.; mustered out March 25, 1866.

Charles Furness, mustered out July 6, 1865.

Calvin C. Norton, transferred to 1st Michigan Cay., Nov. 17, 1865.

Charles Terry, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company M.

Sergeant Silas M. Smith, Irving; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; must out Nov. 24, 1865.

J. Q. A. Briggs, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry… ‘ Or Jaques.

I. Johnson N. Bowen, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Deloss D. Bassett, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Alfred Flanders, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Daniel Hewitt, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John Klock, died of disease at tarper’s Ferry, Va., Aug. 1, 1864.

William C. Kelly, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 15, 1864.

Robert McNee, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

1st. Lieutenant and Adj. Elliott M. Norton, Wayland; com. Jan. 4, 1865; 2d Lieutenant Co. H, Jan. 1, 1864; transferred to Vet. Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865; mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company A.

Merritt C. Mosher, missing in action at Todd’s Tavern, Va., May 6, 1864.

Company B.

Sergeant E. M. Norton. (See Field and Staff.)

Edwin E. Whitney, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company I.

Peter J. Alden, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John Madison, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company K.

Versal P. Fales, must out June 2, 1865.

Justus German, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Henry F. Haney, mustered out Oct. 24, 1865.

Origen Hamilton, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Elisha Inman, supposed killed by guerrillas.

Wells T. Latourette, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

SEVENTH CAVALRY.

This regiment numbered among its members sixty officers and men from Barry County, and less than a dozen from the county of Allegan, these being scattered among all its companies, except G and L.

The rendezvous was at Grand Rapids, where the regiment was organized during the fall of 1862 and the ensuing winter.

Two battalions left Grand Rapids for the seat of war in Virginia, Feb. 20, 1863, and were joined by the third battalion in May following, Col. William D. Mann being in command of the regiment.

The Seventh was assigned to the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, so often mentioned already, and until the close of the war participated in all its glory and renown.

It took part in minor actions at Thoroughfare Gap, Va., May 21, 1863; at Greenwich, Va., May 30th, and at Hanover, Pa., on the 30th of June.

On the 3d of July at Gettysburg it was very hotly engaged, charging the enemy repeatedly, and having fifty-seven of its men killed and wounded, besides twelve missing and twelve taken prisoners.

It was also engaged at Smithtown, Md. July 6th; at Boonsboro’, Md., July 6th and 8th; at Hagerstown, Md., July 6th and 10th; at Falling Waters, Md., July 14th; at Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19th; at Kelly’s Ford, Va., September 13th; at Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14th; at Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th; Brandy Station, Va., October 13th, and others.

Ninety-two men were killed and wounded in action, forty-six were reported missing in action, many of whom were killed, and down to Nov. 1, 1863, the date of making that report, fifty of its numbers had died of disease.

During the winter of 1863-64 the Seventh was mostly employed on picket duty in front of the Army of the Potomac, but resumed more active service on the 28th of February, 1864, when it marched with its brigade on the “Kilpatrick raid.”

Arriving before Richmond on the 31st of February, it was placed on picket the following night.

Here it was attacked by a superior force of the enemy, and, being unsupported, was driven back.

Forty-four men were reported missing, among whom was the commander of the regiment, Lieutenant-Col. A. C. Litchfield, The command soon marched to Yorktown, whence it proceeded by transports to Alexandria, Va.

Having crossed the Rapidan with the Army of the Potomac on the 5th of May, the regiment set out on the 9th in Gen. Sheridan’s movement against the enemy’s communications.

On the 11th it was in the battle of Yellow Tavern; charging the enemy’s Cavalry and driving it from the field, and having eighteen of its own men killed and wounded.

The operations of the Michigan Cavalry Brigade on that raid have been mentioned in the sketch of the Fifth Cavalry, previously given, and the Seventh took its full share in them all.

After rejoining the army it attacked the rebel Cavalry on the 27th of May, charging and driving one of their brigades several miles, and capturing forty-one men.

The next day it was in a fight at Hawes’ Shop, where fourteen of its men were killed and wounded.

It also took part in the attack on the enemy’s works at Cold Harbor on the 30th of May, fighting dismounted in advance of the infantry.

With the rest of the Michigan brigade and other regiments, it then moved, under Gen. Sheridan, towards Gordonsville, and on the 11th and 12th of June had a hard Cavalry fight at Trevillian Station, losing twenty-nine killed and wounded during the conflict.

On the first day of the fight a small squad of the Seventh recaptured from a large force of the rebels a piece of artillery which had been taken from a Union battery.

The command then returned to the main army, and on the 31st of July the Michigan brigade set out for Washington and the Shenandoah Valley.

On the 16th of August the Seventh Cavalry was in the battle of Crooked Run, where it had twelve men killed and wounded, and where, according to the official report, “one battalion charged a brigade of rebel Cavalry, routing them and capturing nearly a hundred prisoners.”

On the 25th of August it was engaged near Shepherdstown, with slight loss.

On the 29th, its division being attacked by infantry in force, it covered the retreat to Smithfield, having fourteen killed and wounded.

On the 19th of September the regiment was warmly engaged in the battle of Opequan Creek.

It charged across that stream, drove the enemy from the bank, advanced and aided in driving him at headlong speed through the town of Winchester.

Twenty-three officers and men were killed and wounded in the Seventh; among the mortally wounded being its commander, Lieutenant-Col. Melvin Brewer.

Five days later the regiment was in another combat at Luray, driving the enemy back in great confusion, and capturing sixty prisoners.

On the 9th of October the Seventh took part with its corps in routing the rebel Cavalry under Gen. Rosser.

Ten days later, at Cedar Creek, while the regiment was on picket, the enemy, by a sudden attack, broke through the line of the Union infantry and struck it in the rear.

It made good its retreat, however, without serious loss.

When Sheridan galloped up from Winchester and retrieved the fortunes of the day, the Seventh Michigan Cavalry took an active part in the conflict, and in the final charge which drove the foe in confusion from the field it captured about one hundred prisoners.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had had no less than one hundred and fifty-nine officers and men killed and wounded, a very heavy loss for a Cavalry regiment.

The Seventh remained in camp near Winchester most of the time until the 27th of February, 1865, when it moved up the Shenandoah Valley, with its corps, to take part in Gen. Sheridan’s celebrated march to the James River.

On the 8th of March the regiment aided in routing a portion of Rosser’s Cavalry near Louisa Court-House, and capturing the town.

After destroying a large part of the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and the locks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, the command reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, and was soon, with, the Cavalry corps, established on the left of the Army of the Potomac.

The Seventh took an active part in the battle of Five Forks, and was engaged with the enemy almost till the moment of Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.

After a short stay in North Carolina the Michigan brigade returned to Washington, and thence proceeded to Fort Leavenworth, whence it was ordered to cross the Plains and operate against the hostile Indians.

There was much bitterness felt by the men at this extension of their service to another field from what was originally intended.

Nevertheless, they crossed the Plains to the Rocky Mountains, and were employed until November in guarding the overland stage-route from the Indians.

About the 1st of November the regiment transferred two hundred and fifty men, whose term extended beyond March 1, 1866, to the First Michigan; the remainder of the regiment returning to Fort Leavenworth, and being there mustered out of the service.

It was paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan, on the 25th of December, 1866.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Field and Staff.

Surg. Wm. Upjohn, Hastings; com. Nov. 1, 1863; mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

1st Lieutenant and Com’y James W. Bentley, Hastings; com. Oct. 15, 1862; mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Hosp. Steward George A. Smith, Hastings; appointed Nov. 14; 1862; discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Company A.

Henry Allen, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Marshall Billinger, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

James Barber, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Charles Cook, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Edgar A. Clark, died of disease at Little Blue, Neb., July 5, 1865.

Edward H. Harvey, discharged by order, Dec. 22, 1864.

Alexander McNeal, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Edgar Nye, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Company B.

Alfred Dyvis, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company C.

James Thomas, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Company D.

James F. Saddler, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Company E.

James Dawson, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Charles E. Hyde, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 7, 1863.

Jacob D. Hendrick, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 2, 1866.

Company F.

Sergeant Harmon Smith, Prairieville; promoted 2d Lieutenant Dec. 12, 1865; mustered out as Sergeant Dec. 15, 1865.

James Blanchard, died of disease in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 15, 1864.

Charles 11. Bergnman, mustered out March 10, 1866.

John L. Chandler, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Eugene Cooper, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

R. Cone, died of disease at Jackson, Michigan, May 18, 1864.

Daniel Eldridge, mustered out March 10, 1866.

James Henry, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Isaac 0. Howe, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Nov. 17, 1864.

Charles J. Jenner, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Robert A. Kelly, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Thomas H. McLeod, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Alexander F. McIntosh, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

John M. Peck, died of disease.

Peleg T. Phelps, died of disease at York, Pa., Aug. 27, 1864.

O. F. Ralph, died in action at Falling Waters, Md., July 14, 1863.

Norman Ruggles, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1863.

Joseph F. Trenchard, discharged for disability, June 24, 1865.

Joy S. Terry, discharged for disability, Oct. 13, 1863.

Peter Wilbert, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1863.

George L. Wilcox, mustered out July 11, 1865.

Job J. Williams died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 25, 1863.

Company H.

W. C. Bush, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Edwin Bissell, mustered out June 2, 1865.

Perry G. Fisher, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Byron Fisher, mustered out June 24, 1865.

Robinson Norwood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Milton F. Nottingham, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Loski 0. Peck, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. March 10, 1866.

William Shean, died of disease at Brandy Station, Va., March 10, 1864.

Irvin Teneyck, missing in action at Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 19, 1864.

Company I.

Robert Strong, discharged April 24, 1863.

Company K.

Q.M.-Sergeant Fitch M. Searles, Orangeville; enlisted Dec. 27, 1862; mustered out Jan. 26, 1865.

Corp. William W. Bitgood, Orangeville; discharged for disability, Aug. 3, 1863.

Blacksmith Jesse G. Sprague, Hastings; transferred to Inv. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Jsmes Campbell, missing in action at Boonsboro’, Md., July 8, 1863.

Oliver Chalker, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Frederick Hahn, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Edward Leslie, mustered out July 12, 1865.

Colburn Osgood, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Hugh Smith, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

John L. Young, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Company M.

Erastus Havens, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

MEN FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY, Michigan in the Seventh Cavalry.

D. Eldridge, discharged for disability, Nov. 6, 1863.

Company F.

Irving Jambs, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company H.

Samuel B. Delaney, mustered out March 20, 1866.

George R. McHenry, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Sidney R. Prentiss, died of disease at Baltimore, Sept. 24, 1864.

Company I.

William H. Kirshner, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Nelson J. Kendall, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

 

Company K.

Joseph Staley, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company M.

John Will, transferred to lbt Michigan Cavalry.

EIGHTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY, Etc.

Organization of the Eighth

Company F from Allegan County-Officers from the Two Counties-Service in Kentucky —Routing Morgan at Buffington’s Island —Hard Marching-Services in East Tennessee-Back to Kentucky on Foot-Remounted-Joins Sherman at Kennesaw-Services in the Atlanta Campaign-Surrounded, but breaks out-Afterwards surprised and routed-Those who escaped sent to Nashville-Fighting Hood-The End-Officers and Soldiers from Allegan County —From Barry County-The Tenth Cavalry-On Duty in Kentucky and Tennessee-Engagement at Carter’s Station-At Butt’s Gap —The Summer of 1864 –Routing and Killing Morgan-Expedition to Saltville, Va.-Expedition into North Carolina-Hard Marching and Fighting at Henry Court-House-Victory at Salisbury, N. C. —Barry County Soldiers-

Allegan County Soldiers in the Eight Cavalry.

This regiment, the rendezvous of which was at Mount Clemens, was recruited during the fall of 1862 and the winter following, but did not take the field until May, 1863, when, with one thousand one hundred and seventeen officers and men, it proceeded to Kentucky.

Allegan and Barry Counties were well represented in the Eighth; the former county furnishing almost all of Company F, which was recruited by Captain (afterwards Col.) Elisha Mix, of Manlius.

Asst.-Surg. Samuel D. Toby, of Ganges; Adjt. Homer Manvel, of Saugatuck;

Second Lieutenant Miles Horn, of Otsego;

Captain John E. Babbitt, of Allegan County; and First Lieutenant Adrian L. Cook, of Hastings, were also conspicuous officers of this regiment.

Martin Cook, of Allegan, was a hospital steward. From Covington, Ky., the regiment entered upon active service on the 1st of June, 1863, and between that time and August 10th, in that year, marched twelve hundred and forty-two miles, exclusive of over sixteen hundred miles marched by detachments of the regiment while scouting, etc.

It was first engaged with the enemy on the Triplet, Kentucky, and Salt Rivers, and at Lebanon, Ky.

When the rebel Gen. John H. Morgan made his celebrated raid through the States of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, the Eighth was one of the foremost in the chase, and, hanging closely on his flanks and rear, at length brought him to bay at Buffington Island, Ohio.

Here, on the 19th of July, 1863, it immediately attacked and routed his forces; capturing two hundred and seventeen prisoners, besides killing and wounding many others.

Twice during this pursuit of Morgan the regiment marched forty-eight hours, halting but twice on each occasion, and then only for a few minutes.

At another time the chase was kept up for twenty-four hours, without stopping to feed and rest but once.

From Buffington Island the regiment returned to Kentucky, where it fought and defeated Scott’s rebel Cavalry.

In August it advanced with the Union forces into East Tennessee.

At Calhoun and Athens, Tenn., on the 26th and 27th of September, the brigade to which it was attached was attacked and defeated by a rebel force of some ten thousand men, commanded by Forrest and Wheeler.

The Unionists retreated to Loudon; the Eighth having suffered a loss of forty-three men, killed and wounded, besides several missing.

Until the early part of February, 1864, the regiment was very actively engaged marching and skirmishing up and down the valleys of the Tennessee and Holston Rivers.

It had also engaged in all the operations termed the “siege of Knoxville,” pursued Longstreet’s retreating army, and fought him at Bean’s Station, Dandridge, and Strawberry Plains.

On the 3d of February the regiment moved to Knoxville, transferred its horses to the quartermaster’s department, and thence marched on foot to Mount Sterling, Ky., a tedious tramp of more than two hundred miles over the Cumberland Mountains.

It was there remounted, and on the 28th of June joined Gen. Sherman’s army in front of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. On the march from Mount Sterling the regiment had scoured the country bordering the railroad; capturing one hundred and forty prisoners.

Forming part of Gen. Stoneman’s Cavalry force, it covered the right of Gen. Sherman’s infantry during the crossing of the Chattahoochee and the advance on Atlanta.

It participated in the Campbelltown and Macon raids in July, 1864, and a detachment of the Eighth succeeded in capturing and destroying three railroad-trains loaded with rebel stores.

In the latter raid, at Clinton, Ga., July 31st, the forces commanded by Gen. Stoneman were surrounded by a superior force of the enemy, and he ultimately surrendered, but prior to that time the Eighth, having obtained permission, charged through the enemy’s ranks and endeavored to reach the Union lines near Atlanta.

On the 3d of August, however, being heavily worn out with service, having been in the saddle with little or no rest or sleep for seven days and eight nights, it was surprised and routed by the enemy with heavy loss; losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, mostly taken prisoners.

The remainder of the regiment was employed on picket duty until the middle of September, 1864, when it was ordered to Nicholasville, Ky., and then back to Nashville, where it arrived on the 26th of October.

The Eighth was engaged through the month of November, skirmishing with the Cavalry advance of Hood’s army, being several times surrounded by the enemy, but always managing to cut its way out.

After Hood was defeated at Franklin and Nashville and driven out of Tennessee, this regiment had no service more severe than that of suppressing the guerrilla bands who still infested the country.

In July the Eleventh Cavalry was consolidated with the Eighth, the combined regiment retaining the latter name.

It was mustered out of the United States service at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1865, and was soon after paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Col. Elisha Mix, Manlius; com. Dec. 3, 1864; Lieutenant-colonel., April 16, 1864; Major, March 2, 1863; mustered out with regiment, Sept. 22, 1865. (See Co. F.)

Asst.-Surg. Samuel D. Toby, Ganges; com. July 20, 1864; mustered out July 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant and Adj. Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp.-Steward Martin Cook, Allegan; enlisted March 15, 1865; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company A.

Z. W. Hopkins, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Gordon B. Rust, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company B.

David M. Austin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

James Fuller, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Delos W. Hare, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles O. Hicks, missing in action in Tennessee, Nov. 23, 1864.

William Jones, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William Pratt, mustered out June 10, 1865.

James B. Rhodes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William 11. Rhodes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William II. Randall, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Truman Smith, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles C. Wallen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Edwin C. Wallen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Fernando Yemens, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company C.

Sylvester Farnsworth, mustered out June 6, 1865.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Miles Horn, Otsego; com. Jan. 1, 1863; died of disease at Kalamazoo, Sept. 8, 1865.

W. D. Austin, mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Frederick E. Grant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles H. Harper, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Joseph L. Payne, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Elisha E. Pratt, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Whitney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Hiram Winters, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company F.

Captain Elisha Mix, Manlius; com. Nov. 1, 1862. (See Field and Staff.)

1st Lieutenant John E. Babbitt, com. Nov. 1, 1862; promoted to Captain Co. I, Aug. 31, 1863.

Q.M.-Sergeant Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 28, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company H.

Sergeant John McDowell, Casco; enlisted Dec. 4, 1862; died in Andersonville prison, June 28, 1864.

Sergeant Miles Horn, Otsego; enlisted Jan. 1, 1863; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company E.

Sergeant Byron Teal, Cheshire; enlisted Nov. 22, 1862; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Richard A. Follett, Ganges; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862.

Corp. Timothy S. Cook, Casco; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862; transferred to navy, May 12, 1864.

Corp. James Buyce, Casco; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862; died of disease at Paris, Ky., April 12, 1864.

Corp. Stephen Fairbanks, Fillmore; enlisted Dec. 29, 1862; died of disease at Allegan, Jan. 21, 1865.

Teamster Elisha J. H. Walker, Ganges; mustered out June 19, 1865.

Teamster John Wilson, Otsego; discharged.

Farrier Charles E. Tompkins, Otsego; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Sol. J. Andrews, died of disease at Chattanooga, Aug. 8, 1864.

John Avery, discharged July 28, 1863.

Samuel Brown, discharged for disability, July 16, 1861.

W. Bidwell, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1864.

Charles D. Bristol, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

J. E. Brinkhart, died of disease in Iowa.

Walter Billings, discharged for disability, June 15, 1865.

Randall Billings, mustered out June 30, 1865.

John Blossom, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Bailey, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Buchanan, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jacob R. Boas, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jay F. Barker, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Cushman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jacob Corwin, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Charles Emmons, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Engles, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Seneca L. Everts, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Isaac Foster, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Michael Gilligan, discharged for disability, June 15, 1865.

Charles Hawkins, discharged.

William H. Howe, died of disease at Annapolis, March 23, 1865.

Juhn C. Haines, died of disease at Nashville, March 28, 1865.

Norman P. IIaines, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Lewis Huntley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Seth Hinds, mustered out May 25, 1865.

George E. Kinney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Kinney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John A. Kinney, killed on Mississippi River steamer (Sultana), April 27, 1865.

Edward Lindsley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865. J

oseph B. Morris, discharged by order, May 18, 1865.

Thomas J, Mills, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Matthew Orr, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Parrish, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles Powers, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Stephen Powers, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1863.

William Pryor, died of disease in Tennessee, Aug. 9, 1864.

Harold Sherman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Thompson, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug 23, 1864.

Reuben Thomas, discharged by order, July 3, 1865.

EIGHTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY,

John M. Weaver, discharged by order, July 30, 1864.

Nathaniel Wellman, discharged for disability, May 27, 1865.

John J. Willerton, missing in action on raid to Macon, Ga., Aug. 4, 1864.

James Wasson, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; com. Nov. 20, 1864; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and adjt.

Charles W. Holmes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Samuel W. Kendall, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles J. Seigner, died of disease in Indiana, Jan. 28, 1865.

James Stanton, died of disease in Tennessee, March 25, 1865.

Richard Williams, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Company L

Captain John E. Babbitt, honorably discharged, Dec. 27, 1864.

James T. Bentley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James Bassett, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Collins, mustered out June 13, 1865.

Philo L. Edson, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Enoch Howe, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Timothy V. Haight, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

eorge W. Knapp, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Martin Munzer, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Marshall Meriker, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George W. Lawrence, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Theodore Larkins, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Jan. 22, 1865.

George E. Patten, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Reuben A. Putnam, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Orville J. Whitlock, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Sergeant Charles D. Gray, 2d Lieutenant; promoted April 25, 1865; not mustered; died of wounds at Pulaski, Tenn., April 30, 1865.

Warren Collins, died of disease at Annapolis, March 8, 1865.

Joseph Simmers, died in Andersonville prison-pen.

William Tudehope, discharged by order, May 31, 1865.

Samuel S. Thomas, discharged for promotion, Sept. 26, 1864.

Company L.

Isaac A. McCarthy, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James H. Smith, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company M.

Hiram Annis, mustered out May 17, 1865.

Benjamin Ross, died of disease at Chattanooga, June 28, 1864.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company A.

Russell E. Benedict, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 23, 1865.

Reuben W. Norton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company B.

Frank 0. Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company D.

William H. Eaton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company E.

Isaac Albrougli, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Berringer, discharged by order, Sept. 21, 1865.

Company G.

Levi Breese, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company I.

Eli Booth, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company K.

W. W. Crowfoot, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company L.

1st Lieutenant Adrian L. Cook, Hastings; com. Jan. 8, 1865; mustered out Sept. 22, ’65.

Marquis D. L. Crapo, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Dewitt 0. Dodge, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry C. Downs, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Nathan Eaton, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Silas Hewett, mustered out May 18, 1865.

Andrew Hathaway, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 26, 1861.

John Johnson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Simon Mathews, mustered out June 10, 1865.

George H. Robinson, discharged for disability, Feb. 24, 1865.

John Vredenburgh, mustered out June 10, 1865.

John W. Willard, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company M.

Sergeant Adrian L. Cook, Hastings; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Jacob K. Ennis, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

TENTH CAVALRY.

The Tenth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry was recruited during the fall of 1863, its rendezvous being at the city of Grand Rapids.

Among the many counties represented in the organization were those of Allegan and Barry, but neither had a full company in its ranks.

With a force of nine hundred and twelve officers and men, commanded by Col. Thaddeus Foote, the regiment left its rendezvous on the 1st of December, 1863, and proceeded to Lexington, Ky., whence it marched, on the 13th of that month, to Camp Nelson.

During most of the winter of 1863-64 it was on duty at Burnside Point, Knoxville, and Strawberry Plains, Tenn.

On the 24th of April it was ordered to Carter’s Station for the purpose of destroying the bridge over the Wautaga River, but failed in consequence of the enemy being in force and occupying an entrenched position.

In the engagement which ensued the Tenth lost eleven men killed and wounded and three missing.

On the 28th of May a detachment of one hundred and sixty men of the regiment, while engaged in a reconnaissance to Bull Gap and Greenville, encountered a superior force of the enemy, whom they put to rout; killing and wounding a large number, besides capturing thirty prisoners and a number of horses and mules.

During the summer of 1864 the regiment was actively engaged in various parts of East Tennessee, and with varying success fought the enemy at White Horn, Morristown, Bean’s Station, Rogersville, Kingsport, Cany Branch, New Market, Moseburg, Williams’ Ford, Dutch Bottom, Sevierville, Newport, Greenville, Mossy Creek, Bull Gap, Blue Spring, Strawberry Plains, Flat Creek Bridge, Sweet Water, Thornhill, Jonesboro’, and Carter’s Station.

On the 4th of September the regiment participated in the surprise and rout of Gen. John H. Morgan’s forces at Greenville, Tenn.

In this engagement Gen. Morgan was killed and his staff and a large number of his men captured.

To Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had lost in killed and wounded fifty-seven; missing in action, forty-four; by desertions, ninety-six; while the large number of one hundred and forty had died of disease.

In December the Tenth joined in the expedition to Saltville, Va., and assisted in destroying the salt-works at that point.

It also fought the enemy at Kingsport, Bristol, and Chucky Bend, Tenn.

Returning to Knoxville, its brigade soon after marched with Gen. Stoneman in his raid into North Carolina.

The regiment was engaged with the enemy at Brabson’s Mills, Tenn., and at Boonville, N. C. Moving rapidly, vid Wilkesboro’, and thence towards Salisbury, the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad was reached at Christiansburg, and one hundred miles of its line, together with the bridges, was destroyed.

This accomplished, the regiment made a rapid march to Henry Court-House, Va., traversing ninety-five miles in twenty-two hours.

At that point, on the 8th of April, 1865, it became engaged with a superior force of the enemy’s Cavalry and infantry, and was compelled to retire with a loss of eight killed and wounded, Lieutenant Kenyon being among the former.

On the 9th and 10th, while the regiment was employed destroying the railroad and bridge north of Salisbury, at Abbott’s Creek, the enemy was again encountered and defeated, after a three hours’ contest.

The regiment then proceeded along the upper waters of the Catawba; picking up bands of rebel Cavalry endeavoring to make their escape southward.

It was engaged in skirmishes with the enemy at Statesville, N. C., on the 14th, and at Newton, N. C., on the 17th of April, 1865.

Upon the surrender of Johnston the Tenth joined in the movements looking to the capture of Jeff. Davis.

It was soon after ordered to West Tennessee, where it served until Nov. 11, 1865, when it was mustered out at Memphis, Tenn.;

The Tenth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry reached Jackson, Michigan, for final pay and disbandment, November 15th of the same year.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Company B.

Ashfield Graham, died of disease at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 22, 1865.

Samuel Hall, mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

Minor Mead, mustered out Oct. 28, 1865.

Melvin Mead, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., April 5, 1865.

Moses H. Taylor, mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

J. B. Upperson, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company C.

William Vaughan, mustered out May 31, 1865.

Company D.

George W. Jay, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Albert A. Jay, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company F.

John C. Coleman, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Fisher, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Clinton A. Gregory, mustered out Oct. 4, 1865.

Myron H. Stephens, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Company G.

William Bundy, discharged by order, Aug. 30, 1865.

Lewis Landon, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Amos Leek, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Harvey G. Patrick, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

George T. Smith, mustered out Sept. 29, 1865.

Company H.

Hiram 0. Paine, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company I.

Samuel W. Sturdevant, mustered out Nov. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Joseph H. Adams, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward S. Bronson, mustered out June 30, 1865. G

eorge W. Bump, mustered out Sept. 6, 1865.

Myron Bruce, mustered out Nov. 23, 1865.

Wallace M. Bracket, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Cook, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Nelson W. Cook, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Chaffee, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Byron Johnson, mustered out Nov. 15, 1865.

Daniel Lewis, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Frederick F. McNair, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Melvin Mead, died of disease at Lenoir, Tenn., June 22, 1865.

Edgar D. Reid, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Albert Sponible, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Washington Sponible,n’ust. out Nov. 22, 1865.

Company L.

Thomas J. Curties, discharged for disability, Jan. 12, 1865.

Wm. Estess, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Walter M. Keagle, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Allen T. Rowley, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company M.

Frank Demond, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., July 20, 1865.

Richard Demond, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company E.

Captain Wm. H. Dunn, Ganges; com. Jan. 6, 1865; 1st Lieutenant, April 25, 1864;

2d Lieutenant Co. D, July 25, 1863; brevet Major, U. S. Vols., April 11, 1865, for gallantry in action at Abbot’s Creek, N. C.; mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

William A. Alien, discharged by order, Aug. 18, 1865.

George E. Dunn, discharged for disability, Aug. 24, 1865.

George Jones, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Charles H. Taylor, mustered out Oct. 9, 1865.

Company F.

Edwin Conrad, discharged by order, June 25, 1865.

Company I.

Edward Margason, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

William A. Palmer, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

John Stephens, discharged for disability, June 13, 1863.

Company L.

S. P. Howard, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Lester Multhop, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Peter Stacey, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

George Whittle, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

ELEVENTH CAVALRY.

This regiment was recruited at Kalamazoo during the summer and fall of 1863.

It was mustered into the service December 10th, and under the command of Col. Simeon B. Brown left its rendezvous for the field on the 17th of the same month; its rolls showing the names of nine hundred and twenty-one officers and enlisted men.

Company C was almost wholly from Barry County, while the same county was also represented in all the other companies except those of A, B, E, and I.

Six men from Allegan County were distributed among five different companies. (See roster.)

The Eleventh proceeded to Lexington, Ky., and, after receiving arms and equipments, was employed during the months of January and February, 1864, in scouting; having its headquarters at Lexington.

In April it moved to Louisa, Ky., and, with the Thirty-Ninth Kentucky Infantry, with which it was brigaded, was employed in protecting the eastern part of the State from rebel raids and incursions, which came in from Virginia, until the last of May, when it was sent on an expedition into West Virginia, under Gens. Burbridge and Hobson; but, hearing that the rebels, under Morgan, had invaded Kentucky, the division returned, and by forced marching overtook the enemy at Mount Sterling, Ky.

Here, on the 8th of June, the enemy was routed with severe loss.

On the 12th of the same month the rebels were again encountered at Cynthiana, and a second time defeated and dispersed.

From August 23d to September 17th it was stationed at Camp Burnside, on the Cumberland River, and was employed, with other troops, in protecting the southern part of Kentucky from threatened invasion by Gen. Wheeler’s Cavalry.

In the latter part of September it was engaged in a raid to Saltville, Va.

At Bowen’s Farm the regiment was warmly engaged, and also at Richland Gap and Rich Mountain, and was part of the assaulting force upon the enemy’s position at Saltville, which, defended by a superior force, was found too strong to be captured.

During the return march into Kentucky the Eleventh formed the rear-guard.

At Sandy Mountain it was nearly surrounded by the enemy, but succeeded, after a severe struggle, in rejoining the command.

During November it was constantly engaged in clearing the country of guerrillas, and had severe skirmishing at Hazel Green, McCormack’s Farm, Morristown, Mount Sterling, and other points.

It was at Crab Orchard and Cumberland Gap; marching from the latter place to Clinch River, where it had a sharp fight December 28th.

From the 1st to the 11th of December it was engaged in scouting and foraging about Bean’s Station, Morristown, Russellville, Whitesboro’, and Cobb’s Ford.

On the 11th of December it moved with Gen. Stoneman’s command into North Carolina, and on the 13th was at Bristol, where a number of prisoners and a large amount of stores were captured.

At Max Meadow Station the regiment destroyed a large arsenal.

It skirmished with the enemy’s Cavalry about Marion on the 17th, and the whole command had a severe fight with Breckenridge’s infantry, the enemy finally falling back.

The command then proceeded to Saltville, where the enemy’s extensive salt-works were destroyed.

After an arduous campaign the regiment finally returned to Lexington, Ky., where it arrived on the 2d of January, 1865, many of the men having lost their horses and coming in on foot.

During the campaign from November 17th to January 2d the regiment had marched an average of twenty-eight miles a day, not including scouting and foraging.

It was engaged in scouting the eastern portion of Kentucky until February 23d, when it was ordered to join Gen. Stoneman’s command at Knoxville, which it did on the 15th of March, moving by way of Louisville and Nashville.

It formed a part of the expedition under Stoneman into East Tennessee, North and South Carolina, and Georgia.

At Salisbury, N. C., where it arrived on the 12th of April, the command was engaged with a superior force of the enemy, and captured eighteen hundred prisoners and twenty-two guns, besides destroying a large amount of property, including the railway and telegraph lines.

From Salisbury it marched to Asheville, where, on the 26th of April, it captured two hundred prisoners and a large amount of property and munitions of war.

On the 1st of May it was at Anderson Court-House, S. C.*

On the 11th it captured the Cavalry escort of Jefferson Davis, near Washington, and on the 13th was on the Tugaloo and Savannah Rivers.

Returning from this great raid, the regiment reached Knoxville, Tenn., on the 3d of June, and encamped at Lenoir Station until the 24th, when it moved by rail to Pulaski, where, on the 20th of July, it was consolidated with the Eighth Michigan Cavalry.

It was mustered out of service at Nashville, Tenn., on the 22d of September.

Returned to Michigan on the 28th, and was paid and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND MEN FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company C.

1st Lieutenant Charles A. Bailey, Hastings; com. Oct. 23, 1863; discharged for disability, August (?).

2d Lieutenant Theron Mason, Hastings; com. Jan. 3, 1865; Sergeant, Sept. 2, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Com.-Sergeant Henry A. Lathrop, Castleton; enlisted Sept. 22, 1863; promoted in U. S. C. T.

Com.-Sergeant Harmon H. Munger, Hastings; transferred to 8th Cavalry. 7-7 1 ‘I

Sergeant David Todd, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 18, 1863; died of disease at Nashville, March 25, 1865.

Sergeant Augustus Taylor, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 14, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Sergeant Nelson Parker, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 28, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Isaac B. Monk, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 10, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Michael McFarlin, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 3, 1863; discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1865.

Corp. John W. Stillson, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 20, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Frederick Myers, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out March 1, 1865.

Farrier George Munger, Hastings; enlisted Oct. 18, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Farrier William D. Vaughn, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 16, 1863; must, out May 31, 1865.

Wagoner P. B. Homan, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 15, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

John W. Bronson, discharged by order, Aug. 4, 1865. J

oshua Boorom. mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William P. Boorom, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William F. Brown, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

E. W. Benjamin, mustered out May 19, 1865.

Moses E. Baylor, mustered out June 16, 1865.

N. J. Bronson, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Adrian Cook, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Levi Chase, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Marcus L. Cooley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Elbridge Carr, mustered out May 13, 1865.

George L. Crosby, mustered out May 16, 1865.

George W. Cassady, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Aug. 28, 1864.

Alfred Drake, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky.

Oscar F. Dunham, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Anson Fowle, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles Horton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Hayward, died of disease at Mt. Sterling, Ky., Feb. 16, 1865.

Seymour Harris, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Patrick McFarlin, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Edward H. McCormick, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Riley Munger, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Miller, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Maloy, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Marble, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 30, 1864.

Horace A. Orwig, mustered out May 16, 1865.

George W. Peck, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Amasa L. Quant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Israel Roush, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Benjamin F. Roush, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Peter L. Rorke, mustered out June 16, 1865.

James L. Reed, transferred to U. S. C. T.

James Swin, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Isaac Stanton, died of disease at Ashland, Ky., Jan. 20, 1865.

Frederick A. Spencer, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Peter D. Sage, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry D. Thompson, mustered out Aug. 31, 1865.

Company D.

W. H. Knickerbocker, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Company F.

Sergeant Lewis A. Raymond, Castleton; enlisted Sept. 16, 1863; discharged by order, May 26, 1865.

Sergeant Norman H. Latham, Baltimore; enlisted Sept. 9, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Michael Fisher, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 9, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Wagoner John Case, Johnstown; enlisted Oct. 5, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Alonzo R. Coe, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Russell B. Norton, transferred to 8th Michigan Inf.

John R. Snow, died of disease at Marion, Va., Dec. 15, 1864.

Philo Shaff, mustered out July 13, 1865.

Robert Strong, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James Strong, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Benjamin Tungate, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John Tungate, died of disease at Richmond, Va., May 10, 1865.

Company G.

Sergeant Albert S. Eno, Maple Grove; enlisted Oct. 5, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Co. B.

Cassius M. Gould, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Andrew J. Henrich, mustered out July 19, 1865.

Henry H. Mayo, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Reuben Norton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James P. Stokes, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company H.

G. 0. Clark, transferred to 8th Michigan Cavalry.

Philo R. Dunning, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Daniel Crump, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company L.

David R. Dutton, mustered out Sept. 18, 1865.

George Norwood, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Penock, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

 

At Anderson it was estimated that the command destroyed three million dollars’ worth of public property.

At this point also were found and brought away a great amount of Confederate paper money, and three of the plates (engraved in England) upon which bills were printed.

These last, together with a specimen gold coin (five dollars), struck by private enterprise, are the property of Gen. C. E. Smith, of Kalamazoo.

HISTORY OF ALLEGAN AND BARRY COUNTIES, MICHIGAN.

Company M.

E. H. Corwin, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Henry Howe, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company C.

Corp. Wm. Herbert, Gun Plains; enlisted Oct. 15, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company F.

Edgar F. Brundage, dlsch. for disability, May 1, 1865.

Company H.

Monroe Durkee, transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Alonzo Kenney, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

Company I.

Sergeant Win. Bartlett, Ganges; enlisted Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Company L.

Chas. E. Day, mustered out May 29, 1865.

MERRILL HORSE.

This was the name of a body of Cavalry recognized as a Missouri regiment, three companies of which, viz., H, I, and L, were raised in the State of Michigan, and to the close of the war retained their distinctive character as Michigan troops so far that their officers were commissioned by and their members credited to the latter State.

Companies H and I were recruited early in the autumn of 1861, and the latter company especially had a large representation from Barry County.

Company L was not organized until December, 1862.

The regiment to which these companies belonged served during the whole term of its service with the Western armies.

It engaged the enemy at Memphis, Moore’s Hill, and Kirksville, Mo., in 1862.

At Brownsville, Bayou Mecoe, Ashley’s Bayou, Little Rock, Benton, Princeton, Little Missouri River, Prairie Dehan, Camden, and Jenkins’ Ferry, Ark., in 1863-64.

At Franklin, Otterville, Independence, and Big Blue, Mo., in October, 1864.

In the latter part of 1864 the regiment was transferred to Nashville, Tenn.; thence by steamers it proceeded to Eastport, Miss., and on the 11th of February, 1865, it began a march, via Florence, Huntsville, Stevenson, and Bridgeport, Alabama, to Chattanooga, Tenn.

During the remainder of its term of service it was employed in Northern Georgia on scout duty.

In Georgia it encountered the enemy at Trenton Gap, Alpine, and Summerville.

Its service closed on the 21st of September, 1865, when it was mustered out at Nashville, Tenn.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company H.

1st Lieutenant Nathan J. Aiken; com. Aug. 26, 1861; resigned March 18, 1862.

Samuel Baird, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Sidney S. Fish, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Luther Holman, died of disease at Augusta, Michigan, July 15, 1864.

James Paul, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Isaac Snyder, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 21, 1865.

Company I.

2d Lieutenant Lucien B. Potter, Maple Grove; com. July 2, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. B.

Sergeant John M1 Gitchell, enlisted Aug. 26, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Sergeant Hubbard L. Baldwin, enlisted Aug. 27, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out July 25. 1865.

Sergeant John M. Brown, enlisted Aug. 23, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Corp. James E. Jones, enl Aug. 27, 1861; discharged for disability, May 30, 1862.

Corp. John M. White, enlisted Aug. 17, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863.

Corp. John D. Christley, enlisted Aug. 30, 1861.

Corp. Albert -H. Eaton, enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Farrier Sylvester D. White, enlisted Aug. 24, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 4, 1861.

Orsemis Britton, discharged at end of service, Sept. 15, 1864.

Henry Houghtalin, discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

Wesley Houghtalin, discharged for disability, May 9, 1862.

Theron Haynes, died of wounds received at Memphis, July 18, 1865.

Benjamin J. Hall, died of disease at Fayette, Mo., April 26, 1862.

Rufus B. Harrington, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Nathaniel Jeffries, discharged for disability, April 6, 1862.

Reuben Johnson, discharged for disability, Feb. 26, 1862.

John H. Johnson, discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Edwin Mills, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Henry S. Scoville, died of disease at Fayette, Mo., March 13, 1862.

George Scoville, died in action at Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862.

John H. Taylor, died in action at Moore’s Hill, July 28, 1862.

Moses B. Taylor, discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1861.

James Willson, died in action at Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862.

Charles Wilkinson, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 9, 1861.

Company L.

Sergt. James Telford, Johnstown; enlisted Nov. 29, 1862; died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 12, 1864.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company H.

William J. Hensell, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Company I.

Charles Ingraham, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Batteries unconnected with each other-Battery C largely from Allegan County-Its Services in Northern Mississippi-It joins Sherman-The Atlanta Campaign-Its Battles-Marching through Georgia-The Carolina Campaign-Muster out-

Soldiers of the First Light Artillery from Allegan County-From Barry County.

This regiment contained a comparatively large number of men from the counties of Allegan and Barry, but they were scattered through several of the batteries of which the regiment was composed, and the histories of these batteries are as unconnected with each other as are those of the same number of Cavalry or infantry regiments.

Therefore the First Light Artillery cannot be described as a whole; nor is it practicable, except in the case of Battery C, to give separate sketches of the several batteries, in each of which a few men only were found from these counties.

Battery C, however, drew about forty men from the two counties (all but one, we believe, from Allegan), and of that we will therefore give a slight sketch.

Its first official designation was the Third Michigan Battery, but it was most commonly known as ” Dees’ Battery.”

It had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids, and was recruited into service in connection with the Third Cavalry.

Commanded by Captain Alexander W. Dees, it left its rendezvous on the 17th of December, 1861, and joined the forces then assembling for operations against the enemy on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

It was engaged in the battle of Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862;

Siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; battle Iuka, Miss., Sept. 19, 1862;

Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3 to 4, 1862; and at Lumpkin’s Mills, Miss., Nov. 29, 1862, where it disabled two of the rebel guns, and with a Cavalry brigade forced the enemy into their earthworks at the Tallahatchie River.

It continued in service in Northern Mississippi and West Tennessee until the spring of 1864, when it joined Gen. Sherman’s army, then operating in Northern Georgia.

During the hotly-contested Atlanta campaign, Battery C successfully engaged the enemy at Resaca, May 14th; Dallas, May 27th;

Big Shanty, June 15th; Kenesaw Mountain, June 25th;

Nickajack Creek, July 1st; Decatur, July 20th; and the siege of Atlanta, July 22 to Aug. 25, 1864.

From Nov. 1-12, 1864, it was engaged in the pursuit of Hood’s rebel army into Northern Alabama.

On the 16th of the same month, with Gen. Sherman’s army, it began the march “through Georgia.”

Hardee’s rebel forces were encountered in front of Savannah on the 9th of December, and Battery C assisted in driving him inside his works.

On the 10th it engaged him all day, and on the 11th dismounted one of his guns and silenced others.

On the 4th of January, 1865, it embarked on a transport for Beaufort, N. C., and on the 16th was in camp at Pocotaligo.

Its Carolina campaign was commenced on the 29th of January, and on the 9th of February it was warmly engaged with the enemy at the crossing of the South Edisto River.

Columbia was reached on the 17th, and on the 4th of March, near Cheraw, the rebels were again encountered and defeated, and twenty-eight guns were taken from them.

The Cape Fear River was crossed at Fayetteville, N. C.

On the 13th of March the enemy was attacked and driven from his position.

The series of actions which culminated at Bentonville, N. C., March 19th and 20th, the advance to Goldsboro’, N. C., the pursuit of Johnston to and through Raleigh, his surrender, the march to Washington, D. C., via Richmond, Va., and the grand review at the nation’s capital, were events in which Battery C took an active part.

It arrived in Washington, D. C., May 23d, marched to Detroit, Michigan, June 13th, and was there mustered out of the service, June 22, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Battery A.

Albert Bragg, mustered out July 28, 1865.

John H. Hicks, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Battery B.

William C. Thayer, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery C.

2d Lieutenant Asa Estabrook, Allegan; com. Dec. 18, 1864; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Sergeant Martin V. Heath, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 11, 1861; discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Corp. James Sullivan, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 25, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Corp. Frank Fort, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 14, 1861; veteran, Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Saddler James Clark, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 14, 1861; veteran, Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Musician Benoni Collins, Allegan; enlisted Nov. 8, 1861; discharged for disability, July 11, 1862.

Fitch R. Barker, died of disease at St. Louis, March 11, 1862.

John S. Crary, discharged for disability, March 24, 1862.

Warren Collins, discharged for disability, March 4, 1862.

Volney Clark, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1862.

Luman Cooley, discharged for disability, Feb. 26, 1863.

Iarmon H. Cooley, discharged for disability, Sept. 1, 1862.

Benjamin B Carter, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Enos Clark, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

John S. Curtis, mustered out June 22, 1865.

Abel Dunton, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Elijah Evans, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Horace Eldred, mustered out June 22, 1865.

John Frank, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1862.

Angus Frazer, mustered out.

Herbert Howe, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

John H Iemmett, died of disease at Rome, Ga., Aug. 22, 1864.

Frank J. Higgins, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

Burroughs Ingham, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Chandler B. Jones, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1862.

Abram Morris, died of disease in Missouri, May 14, 1862.

Edward Nichols, died of disease in Indiana, May 19, 1862.

Solomon Ostrander, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

Henry D. Synes, died of disease at St. Louis, Jan. 18, 1862.

Elihu Smith, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Earl B. Tyler, discharged for disability, Jan. 11, 1862.

Absalom Walker, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1862.

Philip Valmy, discharged for disability, Aug. 11, 1862.

Battery F.

Daniel Burleson, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

Battery G.

Alpheus Mansfield, died of disease at Fort Gaines, Ala., Dec. 6, 1864.

Solomon Shoemaker, died of disease at Greenville, La., Aug. 22, 1861.

Jos. St. Clair, discharged at end of service, Feb. 12, 1865.

Battery H.

Wilson Rossman, mustered out July 22, 1865.

Battery K.

Geo. K. Lewis, discharged by order, May 17, 1865.

Battery L.

James French, died of disease at Coldwater, Michigan, April 26, 1863.

Wm. C. Thornton, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864.

FOURTEENTH BATTERY.

Sergeant Wm. E. Forbes, Gun Plain; enlisted Sept. 7, 1863; on detached service,

Corp. John Flynn, Gun Plain; enlisted Sept. 4, 1863; mustered out July 1, 1865.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY IN THE FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Battery A.

James McCalley, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 8, 1864.

Andrew J. Mattison, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Battery B.

Jesse C. Benjamin, discharged for wounds, June 3, 1865.

Franklin Campbell, mustered out June 3, 1865.

John Castle, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Augustus Ford, mustered out June 14, 1865.

David M. Hueston, discharged by order, June 29, 1865.

William Palmatier, died of disease at Rome, Ga., Aug. 20, 1864.

Henry L. Raymond, died of disease at Rome, Ga., July 27, 1864.

Chester S. Stoddard, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Ralph T. Stocking, mustered out June 14, 1865.

John Slamm, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery C.

Charles HI. Williams. mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery E.

1st Lieutenant Leonard Wightman, Hastings; com. March 16, 1864; 2d Lieutenant Oct. 1, 1862; (previously a corporal) bvt. Captain, June 20, 1865, “for meritorious services;” mustered out July 20, 1865.

John Burd, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

John Carpenter, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

George W. Cain, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Amos Greentiam, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Nathan Lucas, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Lucius L. Landon, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

James McNee, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

John McNee, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

Jacob Odell, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Elijah A. Shaw, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

George C. Smith, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Cornelius Senter, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

George D. Scoviile, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct. 18, 1864.

Rufus W. Vester, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Peter Wilbert, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Miles S. Young, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Battery G.

William Cranston, discharged for disability, May 13, 1865.

Dayton S. Peck, mustered out Aug. 6, 1865.

Battery I.

John I. Miller, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Battery K.

William Quick, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn.

Batteries L.

Sergeant Austin D. Johnson, Prairieville; enlisted March 16, 1863; mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Corp. George H. Brooks, Orangeville; enlisted March 16, 1863; discharged for promotion in 30th Inf.

Thomas McLane, mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Jesse Quick, discharged for disability, May 13, 1865.

Richard Shaw, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., July 14, 1865.

William Swartout, mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Thirteenth Battery.

Edwin P. Clark, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Zebulon Caswell, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Jeremiah Harper, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Peter Schrontz, died of disease at Fort Sumner, Md., Dec. 25, 1864.

Heman Train, died of disease at Fort Sumner, Md., Nov. 29, 1864.

SOLDIERS OF OTHER REGIMENTS.

Remarks on the scattering Soldiers of Allegan and Barry Counties Men in the First Infantry-In the Fifth Infantry-In the Tenth Infantry-In the Eleventh Infantry-In the Fifteenth Infantry-In the Sixteenth Infantry-In the Eighteenth Infantry-In the Twentieth Infantry-In the Twenty-Fourth Infantry-In the Twenty-Fifth Infantry-In the Twenty-Sixth Infantry-In the Twenty-Seventh Infantry-In the First Colored Infantry-In the First Sharpshooters-In the Forty-Fourth Illinois Infantry-In the Sixty-Sixth Illinois Infantry-In the Nineteenth Wisconsin Infantry-In the First United States Sharpshooters-

Miscellaneous.

BESIDES the commands whose histories have been thus briefly outlined, there were many others containing soldiers from Allegan and Barry Counties, soldiers whose records are equally as bright and honorable as those of any in the army, but of whom we cannot speak here, owing to the smallness of the number in each organization.

We gladly give, however, the following list of their names:

FIRST INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Dennis Cosier, Co. K; veteran, enlisted Feb. 17, 1864; discharged by order, July 6, 1865.

John Dorrance, Co. K; discharged June 1, 1863.

FROM BARRY.

Frederick Cook, Co. H; mustered out July 9, 1865.

FIFTH INFANTRY.

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Charles J. Jenner, Co. D; discharged at end of service, Dec. 17, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Daniel E. Bitdsell, Co. E, Hastings; com. Sept. 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, June 10, 1864; Sergeant; wounded Oct. 27, 1864; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1865.

John Gaff, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Edward Stevens, mustered out July 5, 1865.

George Shultz, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Milo Fisher, Co. F; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Joseph Foster, Co. I; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Mortimer Lowing, Co. I, mustered out May 31, 1865.

TENTH INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Eli Baker, Co. B; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Johnson Parsons, Co. C; mustered out. July 19, 1865.

Chas. F. Smith, Co. E; mustered out Aug. 3, 1865.

Thos. Hayner, Co. G; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Ethan Whitney, Co. I; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Francis H. Norton, Co. K; mustered out July 19, 1865.

FROM BARRY.

John W. Snyder, Co. A; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Charles A. Allen, Co. B; mustered out July 18, 1865.

Niel t. Alden, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 21, 1865.

William H. Muffley, Co. C; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Thomas McGuire, Co. G; died of disease at New Albany, Ind., Feb. 4, 1865.

ELEVENTH INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Corp. James Sprague, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

Joseph Annis, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

James Rose, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

Wm. II. Smith, Co. G; died of disease, Feb. 4, 1862.

Darius Sprague, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1865.

ELEVENTH INFANTRY (NEW).

FROM ALLEGAN.

Talbot Ballinger, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

Lewis C. Cady, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

James Lutz, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

David Stevenson, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

FIFTEENTH INFANTRY

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

George W. Colborne, Co. A; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., June 10, 1865.

Albert N. Russell, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Ezra H. Heath, Co. B; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Thomas Burt, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Ralph Parrish, Co. C; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Cortland Brownell, Co. D; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

John Haywood, Co. D; discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Charles W. Tyler, Co. D; discharged by order, June 16, 1865.

George Kitson, Co. E; mustered out July 18, 1865.

John H. Butler, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Sidney M. Bennett, Co. F; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

James Reeves, Co. F; discharged by order, July 26, 1865.

Peter Schneider, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Sylvanus Snell, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Gaylord Helmer, Co. H; discharged by order, May 31, 1865.

George W. Roe, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Austin G. Pike, Co. I; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Charles Butler, Co: K; discharged by order, July 15, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Asa S. Durham, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Mills W. Corning, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

James Curley, Co. D; discharged by order, Aug. 28, 1865.

George W. Shepard, Co. D; discharged by order, June 22, 1865.

James Racey, Co. E; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Henry Blodgett, Co. F; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Amphious Bliss, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Edwin C. Davis, Co. G; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Austin D. Bates, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Orison Lovewell, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Alfred S. Millard, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Elnathan Gilbert, Co. I; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

William F. M. Mitchell, Co. K; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Robert Rouse, Co. K; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Jacob Lugensland, Co. A; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John W. Brown, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Austin Corbett, Co. B; discharged by order, Aug. 26, 1865.

John Hoof, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Elias Leonard, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John McCreery, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

James R. Griswold, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Alexander Hayden, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

James O’Brien, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Richard Purdy, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John Thomas, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Harmon Campbell, Co. F; discharged by order, June 14, 1865.

Robert H. Gould, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Jerry Munro, Co. I; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Daniel Myers, Co. D; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Francis O. N. Leonard, Co. I; veteran, March 1, 1864.

Louis B. Barber, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

George Roth, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

 

EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN.

Benjamin M. Curtis, Co. C; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 21, 1862.

John A. Carpenter, Co. C; mustered out June 26, 1865.

SOLDIERS OF OTHER REGIMENTS.

TWENTIETH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Thomas H. Barker, Co. C; died of disease near Falmouth, Va., Jan. 10, 1863.

Willard S. Cook, Co. C; died of disease, Dec. 12, 1862.

Ira Messinger, Co. C; died of disease at Falmouth, Va., Dec. 28, 1862.

Samuel W. Onwig, Co. C; died of disease in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 8, 1864.

Oliver J. Stevenson, Co. C; mustered out May 30, 1865.

Captain George W. Bullis, Johnstown; Co. F, Nov. 28, 1863; 1st Lieutenant Co. I, July 29, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 10, 1864.

TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Mortimer W. Hunter, Co. F; died of disease at Richmond, Va., June 8, 1865.

Florence A. Hunter, Co. F; died of disease at Richmond, Va., June 8, 1865.

TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

William F. Henry, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., March 28, 1865.

Selden Sperry, Co. A; mustered out June 30, 1865.

William White, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., April 8, 1865.

Rollin Wood, Co. A; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Clark Bailey, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Newton Belden, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward Crew, Co. E; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., May 14, 1865.

Hollis Ward, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Gideon Chilson, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John G. Collins, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Orson J. Davis, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

George Doxey, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Henry De Roslyn, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Charles M. Failing, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Benjamin F. Lamoyne, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Samuel Piper, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Luther S. Pelham, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward Rogers, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Thomas Iddles, Co. H; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James W. Parker, Co. H; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., March 21, 1865.

James Blytheman, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James Daama, Co. I; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Cornelius Lockker, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Garrett N. Nieland, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Mathew Notier, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Jerome Mockma, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Frank S. Popplewell, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Everett Russell, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James Roe, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Joseph Sharpe, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John Scriven, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John F. Tidd, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Gardner A. Terry, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Lewis Mapes, Co. K; died of disease at Camp Butler, April 25, 1865.

FROM BARRY.

Detzel Bradford, mustered out June 21, 1865.

TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Moses Steeber, Co. H; mustered out June 24, 1865.

TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Jesse Jordan, Woodland; com. Dec. 23, 1863; discharged for wounds, Dec. 5, 1864.

Company I

Sergeant Jesse Jordan, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. H.

Corp. Adam J. Hagar, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865.

Corp. James G. Jordan, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865.

Judge B. Barnum, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Aaron J. Cupp, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Marcus G. Corsett, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Charles Dewey, died of disease, Jan. 11, 1864.

L. D. Edson, died of disease, Aug. 9, 1864.

Samuel E. Grant, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Hugh Kilpatrick, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Henry Miller, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Feb. 6, 1864.

Levi L. Paddock, died of disease at Elmira, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1864.

Jeremiah Riggs, died of disease at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 1, 1864. 19

Oscar E. Sheldon, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 23, 1863.

Joel St. Johns, discharged for disability, Aug. 14, 1863.

Milo Sheldon, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Samuel S. Straight, mustered out June 4, 1865.

George W. Tyler, discharged for disability, May 6, 1864.

William H. Wheeler, died at Farmville, Va., April 7, 1865.

Ransom Wolcott, mustered out June 4, 1865.

John Wilcox, Co. K; mustered out May 30, 1865.

TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY

FROM BARRY.

Henry B. Moon, Co. D; mustered out July 26, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Oscar E. Dunton, 2d Ind. Co. Sharpshooters; died in Andersonville prison-pen.

TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

J. A. Kenyon, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 6, 1865.

FIRST MICHIGAN (102D U. S.) COLORED INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Cairo Bolin, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Amos Cisco, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Amos Swanagan, Co. C; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN.

James Chambers, Co. F; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Albert Tolbert, Co. F; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Musician William Gilmore, Co. G, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 20, 1863; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Aquilla Corey, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

William J. Harris, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

David Silence, Co. I; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS

BARRY SOLDIERS.

Musician Charles M. Stephens, Co. A; enlisted April 18, 1863; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Amos W. Bowen, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Edward F. Cox, Co. A; died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Edgar F. Davidson, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., June 23, 1864.

Curtis A. Davidson, Co. A; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Elias Farwell, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 1, 1865, from Vet. Res. Corps.

Joseph Fisher, Co. A; discharged for disability.

John Fisher, Co. A; died of disease at Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jan. 28, 1863.

Benjamin F. Hinckley, Co. A; died of wounds at Washington, D. C., July 12, 1864.

Nathaniel Jeffreys, Co. A; discharged Nov. 22, 1864.

Darius A. Kent, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John Livingston, Co. A; died of disease near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Henry Stevens, Co. A; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Gilbert Wilber, Co. A; died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Robert Finch, Co. B; discharged for disability, Sept. 17, 1864.

Darius Fonts, Co. C; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John McGraw, Co. F; died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Oct. 26, 1861.

David E. Grant, Co. G; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., December, 1863.

Charles D. Beckford, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Herman McIntyre, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John R. Pitts, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Francis Marquette, Co. K; mustered out June 27, 1865.

ALLEGAN SOLDIERS.

Levi Porter, Co. C; died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 2, 1864.

Obadiah Gleason, Co. D; discharged for disability.

William Hawley, Co. C; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., Feb. 26, 1864.

FORTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Francis P. Backus, Prairieville, Co. H; died in Missouri, Dec. 16, 1861.

Edward Doyle, Yankee Springs, Co. H; died of wounds, April 6, 1862.

Sergeant Arthur Hamilton, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Corp. Benj. F. Norris, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

John Shelp, Prairieville, Co. H; discharged for disability, Jan. 12, 1863.

Thos. W. Travis, Prairieville, Co. H; mustered out May 26, 1865.

Philip Terry, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 4, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Chas. W. Bates, Allegan, Co. H; discharged for disability, Feb. 1, 1862.

James M. Conrad, Gun Plain, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; promoted to Sergeant

Lafayette Willis, Allegan, Co. H; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1862.

SIXTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY (WESTERN SHARPSHOOTERS)

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Andrew J. Herrick, Co. D; discharged for disability, April 25, 1862.

Samuel Russell, Co. D; discharged for disability, Oct. 23, 1863.

Michael Whalen, Co. D; mustered out July 7, 1865.

NINETEENTH WISCONSIN INFANTRY

FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Edward P. Adams, Wayland, Co. H; died of wounds at Fort Monroe, Va., Dec. 11, 1864.

FIRST REGIMENT UNITED STATES SHARPSHOOTERS.

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Leander P. Johnson, Co. K; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Edwin B. Parks, Co. K; discharged by order, Oct. 8, 1864.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Major David Cornwell, enlisted as a private in Co. K, Eighth Illinois Infantry, at Bloomington, Ill., April 25, 1861;

He served three months, and re-enlisted in the same company and regiment for three years.

Major David Cornwell was in the battles of Fort Donnellson and Pittsburg Landing.

He transferred to Bat. D, Second Illinois Light Artillery, serving as private and bugler.

In February, 1863, he commissioned 1st Lieutenant Fifth U. S. Artillery (colored).

Major Cornwell was wounded at Milliken’s Bend, La. and then promoted to Captain June 6, 1863, and com. Major in February, 1864.

He was then on staff till close of war and mustered out May 20, 1866.

Categories: Civil War, Michigan, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Underground Railroad in Michigan..Michigan played an important role in the Underground Railroad of the 1840, 1850’s and 1860’s.


Monro House Jonesville Michigan and the Underground RailroadOne stop was in Union as stated in the article below.

Another was in Jonesville, Michigan at the Monro House.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 made it very dangerous and costly to help slaves escape the southern slavery condition.

Farmers and businesses stood the chance of legally losing their farms and businesses by helping Slaves escape to Canada.

Hiding places were built into homes, woodsheds and barns at the risk of losing it all to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.

The essay below by Mrs. Martha D. Aiken tells some of the story….

Union City

The time was 1843.

The place a small village in southern Michigan, and on the bank of one of its rivers flowing west was Station No. 2, Underground Railroad.

The station agent, known far and near as “The Squire,” stood in the door of his shop just below the bridge intently watching the approach of a large covered wagon of the style known to pioneers as “prairie schooners.”

“Possibly a train for my station,” mused he.

The team stopped, the driver, a white man, alighted, and followed by a small boy, black as ebony.

Hastening out, the alert station agent gave cordial greeting.

“What place is this?” asked the stranger.

On being told, he asked,

“Any Abolitionists here?”

“Thick as blackberries.”

“Where can I find one?”

“Look at me, friend, what wilt thou?”

“Food and shelter for man and beast.”

“Plenty of both to which you are welcome.

Cross the bridge, turn to the right.

I will follow immediately.”

“Ah! You don’t know what you are bargaining for,” pointing to the wagon.

Looking within the Squire saw a man of about fifty years, a woman and four children all of color contraband; the eldest, a boy of ten years, still standing by the driver, an interested listener.

“Not an unusual train for my station,” said the Squire.

“You are all welcome.”

“What ribber be dis, massa; be dis de Jordan what we sing of down in ole Car’line?” asked the boy.

“We may call it a branch of that river, since by crossing the bridge yonder you gain freedom for your body, while you must plunge in the other to rid yourself of sin,” said the Squire, smiling as he looked at the earnest face of the boy whose eyes sparkled as he turned toward the river.

“We have had a tiresome journey but it is evident we have reached a safe harbor at last,” remarked the man, who was none other than Augustus Wattles, famous in that day as the “Quaker Abolitionist,” whose home in Ohio was a refuge for escaped slaves, and who was conducting this company of refugees to Canada.

During the two days taken for rest and recuperation at Station No. 2, the story of the old man of the party, William Smith, a mulatto, was learned.

He was from North Carolina, the slave and also the son of Percival Nelms, a wealthy planter.

It was of such that Dickens wrote when he said:

“He dreamed of freedom in a slave’s embrace and waking, sold her offspring and his own in public markets.”

Although the relationship was well understood by this son, he had served as a slave for nearly fifty years.

That Nelms had some regard for him was made evident by the fact that he had never permitted the lash to touch him and had allowed him to learn to read and write.

He had also promised that before his death he would give him his freedom notwithstanding he was valued at $1,000.

Fifty years had passed when one morning William was called from the field for an interview with his father who said:

“William, the time has come for me to fulfill my promise to you; here are your manumission papers,” virtually a title deed to himself.

Hide your face, O Goddess of Liberty!

A title deed to a human being in this, our boasted land of freedom?”

“You have some money,” continued Nelms, “Here is more, take the horse, Hunter, and go; he knows the mountain passes and you will have no trouble in finding the way; but let it be inferred you are going on business for me as you have often been.

Go straight on, however, to Mercer County, Ohio, and give this letter to Augustus Wattles. You will find in him a friend.”

Now came a cruel struggle in the soul of the slave.

“Ought I to purchase freedom at such a price?

Can I leave my wife and children in bondage and flee to safety?”

The decision had to be made at once, and obeying the scriptural injunction, he made unto himself “friends of the mammon of unrighteousness.”

On an adjoining plantation lived Ralph Pemberton, between whom and the Nelms family there existed a deadly feud of long standing.

Taking advantage of this, William sought assistance from the enemy and not in vain, for here, thought Pemberton, is an opportunity, patiently waited for, to strike an effective blow.

William had several children, the eldest, Andrew, a strong, active man of twenty years and valued as a slave accordingly.

It being impossible to effect the freedom of all, the father, acting on Pemberton’s advice, determined to do his best for this boy, and a tripartite treaty was made, the parties being Smith, Pemberton and Andrew.

Smith was to go directly to Mercer County and on his arrival there, his free papers, which were regularly made out, with the seal of the county affixed, were to be so amended as to describe and apply to Andrew.

Thus altered they were to be sent with a letter of instruction to Pemberton; he would do the rest, and father and son should be reunited.

Thus comforted, William mounted Hunter in the morning and rode away, reaching the Quaker’s home without mishap.

There was at that time in Mercer County a small colony of Negroes, chiefly from North Carolina, who had been set free by their owners.

This colony was under the guardianship and protection of Augustus Wattles.

To him William revealed the plot for liberating his son, and it was entered into without delay; for although peaceful, law-abiding citizens, the Abolitionists were a law unto themselves in the matter of slavery, interpreting literally that clause which declares all men to be free and equal, no mention having been made as to color.

The important document was amended; the letter of instruction for Andrew was sent to Pemberton; then William Smith, now a refugee, with no proof of his liberation, started under the protection of the Quaker, with the Negro woman and her four children for Canada by way of Station No. 2, Underground Railroad.

Meantime the Nelms family had neither slumbered nor slept, and while putting on the appearance of dove-like innocence, were using the cunning of serpents and kept their enemy under their constant espionage.

The post-office was watched,—Smith’s letter to Pemberton opened, read, sealed and re-mailed.

The plan of the treaty had been that on receipt of the papers, Andrew should leave his master’s plantation, secrete himself in a place provided by his friend, where he would remain until the heat of pursuit was over, when he was to be orally instructed as to his course, given the coveted papers and sent on his way.

Into the hiding place Andrew was led and secreted; his place of concealment was changed from one dark corner to another; weeks passed, his restlessness and fear were lulled by plausible reasons for delay and fair promises.

At last, suspecting treachery, he discovered the paper, took it and under cover of night started for Ohio and liberty.

Unable to read or write, knowing almost nothing of the direction to follow, hiding by day and travelling by night, he finally reached the Blessed Refuge in Mercer County, hungry, footsore, and weary, having been taken up but once on suspicion of being a runaway slave; after the examination of his papers he was discharged without further trouble.

Up to the time of Andrew’s departure the policy of the Nelms family had been masterly inactivity, but they had not for an hour lost sight of their slave.

His several hiding places were known and also his flight before it was discovered by Pemberton.

Now was the time to pounce upon their foe, and they did it with all the severity permitted by law.

He was arrested, charged with running off a slave, a crime which in the estimation of slaveholders of that period was considered equal, if not worse than murder.

Abundant proof was in their possession and Pemberton was helpless in the hands of his powerful enemies.

A fine of $1,000 and costs of the suit was imposed.

Security for the amount being taken on his slaves, of which he owned twenty.

In return Perceval Nelms executed and conveyed to his arch enemy a title deed to the body of his grandson, Andrew Smith, according to the laws of North Carolina.

Four months had passed since the arrival of the big wagon which brought William Smith to Station No. 2.

November had come and he was still with the Squire, who on this particular morning was attending to business on the flats when an unusual sight attracted his attention, – three Negroes on foot led by a white man mounted on a beautiful thoroughbred, for which the South has always/s been famous.

A pair of capacious saddle bags—the suitcase of that early day— were thrown over the saddle.

“More wayfarers for my station,” said the Squire, hastening out to greet with friendly hand and cordial welcome the travelers.

“A goodly company you have under convoy,” said he; “an Underground Railroad train I presume.

Well, you have reached in safety a way station where you must rest and refresh yourselves.”

To all of this the stranger—Pemberton himself—gave acceptance with a low bow.

At that moment William dropped his tools and rushing out clasped one of the Negroes in his arms, exclaiming:

“Andrew, my son, bless the Lord!”

The situation was explained, the long expected son had arrived.

To emphasize his friendship, Pemberton dismounted and gave William a most friendly greeting and clasped Andrew in a close embrace.

A second Judas indeed!

Beguiling with kind words him whom he would betray.

On reaching the house the men, black and white alike, were ushered in and the horse led to the barn where the Squire diligently grooming him was interrupted by one of the Negroes greatly excited: “You don’ know who y’ hab in dat house,” he gasped.

“What do you mean, Pemberton is all right, isn’t he?” replied the Squire.

“All right! He de very debil; he gwine take Andrew back to slab’ry.

We know sumpin awful gwine to happen, for after dark las’ night we saw a hor’ble goblin hidin’ ‘hind a stump, and dat man he ketch us jes ‘fore we gets here.”

“Oh well! do not fear,” said the Squire.

“We will show him a play worth two of his; it wins every time, for freedom is a trump card here.”

Returning to the house, dinner was announced and Pemberton displayed his qualities as an entertainer.

Crafty, base and treacherous, his appearance was that of a cultured gentleman, and he was bright and witty.

It was not till night, when the enemy slept, that Andrew told his story.

After reaching Mercer County he had found work and was industriously engaged when one morning he felt a tap on his shoulder and saw before him a United States Marshal with warrant of arrest in one hand and a pair of handcuffs in the other, evidently considering Andrew a dangerous person to attack.

It developed that Pemberton on discovering Andrew’s flight armed himself to the teeth with bowie knife and revolver, mounted his horse, effected the perilous mountain passes and reached the Negro colony in Mercer County, evaded the vigilance of its guardian, Wattles, and without being himself discovered found Andrew who now in handcuffs was taken into court charged with one of the most dreadful crimes known at that time in our land of freedom—love of Liberty.

But the good old Quaker was on hand and proved sufficient for the occasion.

He found a flaw in the warrant large enough to let the captive through, who thus liberated lost no time in preparing to travel the road that led to Station No. 2, G. R. R.

He was accompanied by two trusty friends, contraband like himself.

There was in possession of the three a rusty knife and two ancient revolvers that might possibly go off.

The night was dark, but carefully instructed by the Quaker for their journey they started.

Morning came.

In a dingy, low-roofed log cabin inn, not far from the Mercer County Colony, there was one defeated sorrowful soul, a victim of the lawless scheming of Abolitionists.

That man was Pemberton, and in all that region not one so “poor as to do him reverence” nor give him information concerning his absconded property.

But the light of Underground Station No. 2 was not hidden, and riding swiftly he got on the track of the fugitives one mile east of that “Haven of Rest.”

They were now at the mercy of the law.

The title deed to personal freedom once possessed by William Smith was of course useless and equally useless for Andrew in whose interests it had been amended.

Here was a peculiar situation.

Under the same roof was Pemberton representing slavery, with the law to support him, and the Squire representing freedom, earnestly striving for the privileges which the world accords to men.

He remembered those great words of the Declaration:

“We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal;

That they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights;

That among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”

And although the law was at this time opposed to this declaration, the Squire was supported by a body of able men who believed the law of God superior to the law of State and were ready to respond at a moment’s notice in defense of the oppressed.

On the retirement of Pemberton to his room that night these men were summoned to give counsel in this emergency, and before separating they knelt, beseeching the Father of mercies to give them wisdom and to shield the fugitives in their peril.

It was morning, and the Squire, calling Pemberton to breakfast, was bidden to enter:

“Look,” said the guest, “Aren’t these beauties?” pointing to his open saddle bags wherein lay a six cylinder Colt’s revolver and a murderous looking bowie knife with curved point and glistening blade.

“This has the lives of six men in it,” said he, taking up the revolver.

“Indeed,” replied the Squire, looking at it with the eye of a connoisseur.

“It looks like a good tool.”

“You may well say that.

I should be a hard customer to capture.”

Running his finger along the blade of the knife, with all the nonchalance he could command, the Squire replied:

“We think but little of such light implements in the North; we prefer the breech-loading rifle and do some nice shooting with it when occasion demands; but let us go to breakfast.”

The meal over, Pemberton accompanied Smith to the shop.

His scheme was to quiet Smith’s fears for the safety of his son, by reiterated professions of affection.

Andrew with his faithful guardsmen remained at the house watchful and wary.

At several meetings of the Abolitionists during the ten days of Pemberton’s stay he enlarged upon the direful consequences to himself should Andrew refuse to return.

He had already decided it would be impossible to seize him where Abolitionists were the ruling party.

“It will only be necessary,” he said, “for him to cross the border of the State to exonerate me from the charge of running off a slave, otherwise my slaves must be sold and their families broken up.”

Great tears rolled down his cheeks, to impress his listeners with the tender relations existing between himself and his slaves.

Is it a wonder that honest men believed and sympathized with him?

He gave the names of numerous titled men to verify his statements.

Generals, majors, judges and others were cited, to whom the Squire might refer.

Finally the Squire said: “Pemberton, give Andrew until December; we will meantime correspond with the gentlemen whom you have mentioned, and if they corroborate your statements we pledge ourselves to persuade Andrew to comply with your request; you in the meantime will be at liberty to return to your urgent business.”

To this proposition Pemberton gave ready assent.

An early breakfast was served; the departing guest with the manners of a Chesterfield bade adieu to the family, and grasping the hand of the host said:

“On the honor of a gentleman I swear to fulfill my part of this agreement,” and the declaration was accepted without question.

The day passed, another morning dawned, and breakfast was in progress at Station No. 2. Andrew’s faithful guards had gone.

He alone was gloomy and restless.

“What is the matter, Andrew?” asked the Squire.

“Don* know,” he replied.

“Fear de mattah,” said his father.

“Fear of what or whom?” asked the Squire.

“Slabeholders,—he think dey be arter him, and he neither eat nor sleep.”

“That being the case you shall go over the line into Canada, find work and if all is well, be ready to meet Pemberton as we have agreed,” was the Squire’s reassuring reply.

But among the Abolitionists who were too honest themselves to doubt the fair promises of Pemberton, there was one “Doubting Thomas.”

Henry Gage believed discretion to be the better part of valor.

Meeting Andrew’s friends after the departure of the enemy, he said:

“Now, friends, I think the best time to prepare for war is when everything is peaceful, and I want to know what we are to do if all those promises have been given us as sleeping powders?”

“It isn’t possible!” exclaimed all.

“Perhaps not,” said Gage, “But we are bound to protect Andrew, and should Pemberton return he must be held until Andrew is out of reach.

Squire, did he pay his board bill before leaving?”

“Board bill?

There was none.

He was my guest.”

“Well, guest, or no, if he returns, he must be held here for an unpaid board bill, until we get Andrew across the U. S. line.”

After much argument, that was agreed upon.

Down on the flats, not far from Station No. 2, was a big haystack, built on a rail foundation, where one could hide things animate or inanimate.

Andrew’s fears of capture increased hourly, so he was hid under the stack, to remain until removal was considered safe.

One morning as Andrew was resting contentedly in his retreat and the family was finishing breakfast at Station No. 2, bad news like a bomb was suddenly exploded in camp.

A horse wet and panting dashed to the door, and the rider breathless with excitement exclaimed, “Pemberton is coming!—an officer with him for Andrew!”

It was true. Pemberton had ridden to the county seat, secured the services of a United States Marshal, and provided with handcuffs as well as authority expected to make an easy capture.

Scarcely an hour passed after the alarm before the pursuers arrived.

Being admitted, Pemberton shouted:

“I have come for my property, and in the name of the law I demand that you produce him.”

“If the honest man whom you designate as your property had been as easily duped by your false promises as we were you might have found him here, but thanks to his knowledge of your treachery he is beyond your reach,” calmly replied the Squire.

Like match to powder the wrath of Pemberton blazed.

To be outwitted a second time by these hated Abolitionists was too great a humiliation to endure:

“I brand you as a set of outlaws, utterly regardless of the rights of others.

I’ll dare anyone of you to come.

I’m ready for you,” shouted Pemberton in wrath, as he tore off his coat and clenched his fists.

“We have a better way to settle our differences in this part of the country,” said the Squire.

“The law is our refuge.”

“And speaking of the law,” interposed Gage, “we are not accustomed to having strangers and aliens eat the bread of honest toil for a week and leave without offering to settle the bill, so you may consider yourself under arrest.

Here is proof of my authority,” throwing back his coat and showing his badge of office.

“Under arrest!” exclaimed Pemberton.

“Do you dare treat me with such ignominy?

Here, take your money.”

“Oh, no; we are quite systematic in our methods and settle matters legally; we will, however, attend to the business as soon as possible,” said Mr. Gage, “that you may start on your homeward journey.

Meantime the rooms you have occupied for the past ten days are at your disposal.”

Showing his unbounded wrath and indignation in unmistakable ways, Pemberton retired to those rooms more of a prisoner than he realized.

He could not seek relief by escape, since there were no railroads, and his horse with saddle bags and weapons were safely guarded in a locked barn.

While these events were taking place, Andrew down under the haystack was being comforted and reassured by Joe Bell, who often hunted on the flats.

On this particular morning he carried a remarkably large luncheon, and on pretense of resting from his long tramp through the fields he was putting the greater part of his food through the rails.

“Now boy, don’t you get worried,” he said.

“Mr. Gage has gone for the preacher and old Pompey, you will be safe with them.

By tomorrow you will be in Canada, where Pemberton can’t get you.

The Squire is keeping Pemberton here till you are out of his reach.”

Among the Abolitionists of the village was the Congregational minister, who not only could preach but work with equal energy for the protection of his fellow man; for he read, as did others, that all men are brothers, without specification as to color.

And so, responding to the summons of Mr. Gage, “Pompey,” a horse that had on other occasions traveled the road to freedom, was harnessed. In the wagon were two rifles, and in the preacher’s pockets plenty of ammunition and patent caps.

“Not that I expect to kill anyone,” said the preacher, “but my present business is Andrew’s safety, and anybody that interferes will get into trouble.”

There were two Underground railroad stations between No. 2 and Detroit.

At one of these Pompey was exchanged for a fresh horse.

Detroit was reached on the second day.

There Andrew was transferred to a boat and was soon a free man.

He remained in Canada for years, working faithfully until he accumulated considerable property.

He visited Station No. 2 once with his wife and two children.

His father, “Uncle Smith” as he was called by his many friends, still lived with the Squire.

There also “Uncle Smith” lived to see that blessed day when he and all his race were made free by the Emancipation Proclamation.

Categories: Civil War, hidden, Uncategorized | Tags: | Leave a comment

The Great Lakes History from the 16th through the 19th Centuries..


The Storm.

IN preceding chapters the chief events of lake history, from the period of French discovery to the beginning of modern commerce, succeeding the war of 1812, have been narrated.

The chronology of the lakes becomes a matter of greater detail as this inland traffic gradually expands, and the following pages will chronicle the more important events which have occurred since the lakes became the highway for great commercial purposes.

Preliminary to this chronology, a brief review of the earlier history is presented.

In the sixteenth century the St. Lawrence River was discovered and navigated by French adventurers.

In the seventeenth century the system of the Great Lakes was discovered and occupied by the same nation.

During the eighteenth century there was a constant struggle for the control of these vast inland seas, and, when the war of 1812 ended, their shores were rapidly populated.

Commerce properly began with that permanent settlement.

 

Briefly, then, the preparatory events were as follows:

 

Sixteenth Century.

 

1520—

 

  • Brest established by the French as a fishing station on the straits of Belle Isle.
  • About this year Portuguese also explored the region of the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.

 

 

1524—

 

  • Verrazano, a French explorer, visited the region of the St. Lawrence River and concluded that an immense continent lay to the west.

 

 

1534—

 

  • May 10, Cartier, sent by King Frances I of France, arrived off Newfoundland.
  • May 27, Cartier reached the straits of Belle Isle.
  • July 2, Cartier reached and named the Bay of Chaleur.

 

 

1535—

 

  • Cartier, on his second voyage, reached and named Assumption island, August 15, and discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence river.
  • September 1, reached the mouth of the Saguenay River.
  • October 2, reached Hochelaga, near Mont Royale, now Montreal.

 

 

1541—

 

  • Cartier made his third voyage to the St. Lawrence River.

 

 

1600—

 

  • Pontgrave attempted colonization and failed.

 

 

Seventeenth Century.

 

1603—

 

  • June 7, Champlain started on an exploration of the Saguenay river.
  • About this time he first heard of the “Immense Sea of Salt Water” to the west.

 

 

1615—

 

  • Lake Huron discovered by Le Caron, the Recollect friar, and by Champlain, the great navigator.
  • Lake Ontario discovered later in the same year by Champlain.

 

 

1629—

 

  • Lake Superior discovered by Champlain’s interpreter, Etienne Brule, during this year or earlier.

 

 

1634—

 

  • Lake Michigan discovered by Jean Nicolet, an employe of a French fur trading company.
  • He visited Green Bay.

 

 

1641-

 

  • Raymbault and Jogues, two missionaries, traversed Lake Superior in search of a passage to China.

 

 

1648—

 

  • Iroquois destroyed Huron missions near Lake Huron.

 

 

1660—

 

  • Menard, the missionary, searched for the Hurons on the Lake Superior region.

 

 

1665—

 

  • Allouez established an Indian mission at La Pointe.

 

 

1668—

 

  • Marquette established an Indian mission at Sault Ste. Marie.

 

 

1669—

 

  • Lake Erie probably discovered by Joliet.
  • Allouez established an Indian mission at Green Bay.

 

 

1670—

 

  • First recorded passage through Detroit river, made by Sulpitian priests.

 

 

1671—

 

  • Marquette founded the mission of St. Ignace at the Straits of Mackinac.
  • Rude fort erected at Mackinac.
  • St. Lusson, in behalf of Louis XIV, of France, takes formal possession of the Great Lakes at St. Mary’s Falls.

 

 

1673—

 

  • Joliet and Marquette discovered the Mississippi.
  • Fort Frontenac erected by LaSalle on the present site of Kingston, Ontario.

 

 

1678—

 

  • La Salle built the little bark Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, the first vessel on the Great Lakes.

 

 

1679—

 

  • Schooner Griffin, the first vessel on Lake Erie, launched on the Upper Niagara river in June, entered Lake Erie August 7, encountered a severe storm on Lake Huron, reached Green Bay early in September.
  • Loss of the Griffin on her return trip.

 

 

1684—

 

  • Governor De la Barre, of New France, attempted to crush the Iroquois.

 

 

1686—

 

  • Duluth built a French fort at St. Joseph, on the St. Clair River, the site of Fort Gratiot.
  • English traders visited Mackinaw.

 

 

1687—

 

  • French capture two English trading parties on Lake Huron.
  • French expedition against the Iroquois met with defeat.
  • Fort Niagara built by the French.

 

 

1688—

 

  • Fort St. Joseph burned and abandoned by the French.
  • Fort Niagara abandoned by the French.
  • Fort Frontenac destroyed.
  • French temporarily lost command of the Great Lakes.

 

 

1694—

 

  • Fort Frontenac rebuilt by the French.

 

 

Eighteenth Century.

 

1701—

 

  • French fort erected at Detroit by Cadillac.

 

 

1703—

 

  • French fort at Detroit partially destroyed by Indians.

 

 

1718—

 

  • French fort at Detroit rebuilt by Tonti.

 

 

1720—

 

  • Governor Burnett, of New York, began the erection of a trading post at Oswego.
  • New York Legislature prohibited New York merchants from trading with Canada for furs.

 

 

1725—

 

  • French rebuilt Fort Niagara.

 

 

1726—

 

  • English launched two vessels at Oswego.

 

 

1747—

 

  • French fortify scattered posts from Lake Ontario to Lake Superior.

 

 

1750—

 

  • Little Fort Niagara, one and one-half miles above Niagara Falls, completed by the French.

 

 

1755—

 

  • English built two sloops, the Oswego and the Ontario, at Oswego, besides several other boats.
  • French fortify and strengthen their lake forts.

 

 

1756—

 

  • French captured Oswego, six sloops of war, 100 boats and large munitions of war.

 

 

1758—

 

  • Colonel Bradstreet captured Fort Frontenac, and with it seven vessels.

 

 

1759—

 

  • Fort Niagara surrendered to the English, who thereby secured control of Lakes Erie and Ontario.

 

 

1760—

 

  • Major Rogers took possession of Detroit.

 

 

1761—

 

  • English took the French posts at Mackinac, St. Mary’s, Green Bay and St. Joseph’s and gained control of the entire lake region.

 

 

1762—

 

  • English built at Detroit the schooners Beaver and Gladwyn.

 

 

1763—

 

  • Pontiac’s conspiracy against the English.
  • Fall of Fort Sandusky, May 16,
  • Indians captured St. Joseph’s Fort, May 25.
  • Massacre at Mackinaw, June 4.
  • English post at St. Mary’s and at Green Bay abandoned.
  • Presqu’Isle surrendered, June 17.
  • Detroit invested by Pontiac’s Indians.
  • Gallant service aboard the small armed schooners Beaver and Gladwyn.
  • Beaver wrecked at Cat Fish creek, 14 miles from Buffalo, August 28.
  • Massacre at Devil’s Hole, Niagara river, September 14.
  • The New York Mercury of 1763 says: “There are five brigs from 30 to 80 tons, and 18 armed flush-decked cutters on Lake Ontario. The navigation of that lake will soon equal for trade that of the Caspian Sea.”

 

 

1764—

 

  • Sir William Johnson attempted to pacify the savages.
  • Bradstreet relieved Detroit.
  • Captain Howard regained Mackinaw, and English detachments reoccupy Green Bay and St. Mary’s.
  • Great Britain again in complete control of the lakes.
  • Three new vessels built, the Victory, the Boston and the Royal Charlotte.

 

 

1766—

 

  • English fur trade at Mackinaw began, and extended rapidly.

 

 

1767—

 

  • The Brunswick launched.

 

 

1769—

 

  • The Enterprise built at Detroit.
  • Sloop Betsey launched.

 

 

1770—

 

  • The Charity, of 70 tons, launched at Niagara.

 

 

1771—

 

  • The Chippewa, Lady Charlotte and Beaver 2nd launched.
  • Beaver 2nd lost near Sandusky in May with her entire crew of 17 men.
  • Schooner Hope, 81 tons, built at Detroit.
  • Sloop Angelica, 66 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1772—

 

  • Sloop launched on Lake Superior by the English trader Henry and others in an attempt to develop copper mining.
  • British brig-of-war General Gage, 154 tons, built at Detroit.
  • Schooner Dunmore, 106 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1774—

 

  • The Lake Superior sloop sold by Henry to fur traders.
  • Sloop Felicity, 55 tons, and Schooner Faith, 61 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1776—

 

  • Sloop Adventure, 34 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1779—

 

  • Sloop Wyandotte, 47 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1780—

 

  • British schooner Ontario, probably built several years earlier, lost during a fearful gale between Niagara and Oswego, with 172 English soldiers.
  • The Ontario carried 22 guns, and was commanded by Captain Andrews.
  • The soldiers lost were a detachment of the King’s Own Regiment, commanded by Colonel Burton.

 

 

1781—

 

  • Spanish detachment from St. Louis captured St. Joseph (the British garrison retreating to Detroit), and fly the flag of Spain over Lake Michigan.
  • The Spaniards, fearing an attack from Detroit, retired to the Mississippi a few days later.

 

 

1783—

 

  • By treaty the boundary between Canada and the United States established along the middle of the chain of Great Lakes.
  • Northwest Fur Company organized at Quebec, and established posts at various points on the upper lakes.

 

 

1784—

 

  • Northwest Fur Company built at Detroit the schooner Beaver, 34-feet keel, 13-feet beam and 4-feet hold.

 

 

1785—

 

  • Unsuccessful attempt to take the Beaver up St. Mary’s Falls.

 

 

1789—

 

  • Hudson Bay Company owned a vessel called the Speedwell on Lake Superior, and others on Lake Ontario.
  • John Fellows, of Massachusetts, crossed Lake Ontario in the first American boat on the Great Lakes, with tea and tobacco.

 

 

1792—

 

  • English merchantman, the York, constructed at York.
  • A vessel named the Missisaga, sailed on Lake Ontario that year.

 

 

1793—

 

  • English vessels on Lake Ontario included the armed schooner Onondaga, the Lady Dorchester, 87 tons, Mohawk, Caldwell and Buffalo.

 

 

1795—

 

  • The Sophia was a quick-sailing vessel on Lake Ontario.
  • Captain Lee, of Chippewa, owned the only boat on the south side of Lake Erie, a small vessel, name unknown.

 

 

1796—

 

  • Great Britain surrendered to the United States the posts at Oswego, Lewiston, Schlosser, Miami, Detroit and Mackinaw.
  • At Detroit this year there were owned 12 merchant vessels, and several sloops, brigs and schooners of from 50 to 100 tons each.
  • British built a fort on the island of St. Joseph, 20 miles above Detroit.
  • Schooner Swan first vessel to float the stars and stripes on Lake Erie.
  • Erie Packet sailed on Lake Erie.

 

 

1797—

 

  • Canadian vessel, Governor Simcoe, 87 tons, owned by the Northwest Company, sailed on Lake Ontario.
  • Sloop Detroit wrecked near Erie.
  • American schooner Wilkinson, 80 tons, built at Detroit.

 

1798—

 

  • The Jemima built at Hanford’s Landing, below Rochester.
  • Sloop Weazel sailed on Lake Erie.
  • Sloop Washington, 36 tons, launched near Erie.

 

 

 

1799—

 

  • The York wrecked in November, on a rock off the Devil’s Nose.
  • Genesee and Peggy sailed between Oswego and Niagara.
  • Good Intent, 30 tons, built at Mill Creek.griffon-drawing-1
Categories: Michigan, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Flint Michigan History and Early North American Indians


The History of Genesee County is now presented, without apology, to its patrons, and their verdict is awaited, in full confidence that it will be a favorable one.

FRANKLIN ELLIS

Philadelphia, Oct. 1, 1879.

BY FRANKLIN ELLIS.

LOCATION AND NATURAL FEATURES OF GENESEE COUNTY.

Genesee is an interior county of Michigan, situated in the southeastern part of the lower peninsula of the State; its capital city, Flint, which is also nearly its territorial center, being in latitude 43° 1′ north, and longitude 83° 4′ west; distant sixty-four miles in a northwesterly direction from Detroit, fifty miles east-northeast from the State capital, and sixty-six miles west from the outlet of Lake Huron, by the customary routes of travel.

The counties which join this and form its several boundaries are Saginaw and Tuscola on the north, Lapeer and Oakland on the east, Oakland and Livingston on the south, and Shiawassee and Saginaw on the west.

The limits of Genesee include eighteen townships of the United States survey, sixteen of which (being Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 9 north, in ranges 5, 6, 7, and 8 east) lie together in form of a square; and the two remaining townships (5 north, of ranges 5 and 6 east) join the square, upon the west half of its south line.

Thus the aggregate area is nearly 415,000 acres.

More than three-fourths of this area, embracing all the central and western parts of the county, is underlaid by the vast coal measures, which occupy a space of nearly seven thousand square miles in the center of the lower peninsula; comprehending, besides Genesee, the counties of Saginaw, Shiawassee, Clinton, Ionia, Montcalm, Gratiot, Isabella, and Midland, and the greater part of Tuscola, Ingham, Eaton, and Bay, with considerable portions of Livingston and Jackson.

“Over nearly the whole of this extent of country, the [coal] measures will be found productive.”

This is the prediction made by Dr. Alexander Winchell, State Geologist, in his “Report of the Progress of the Geological Survey of Michigan,” made to Governor Wisner, in December, 1860; from which document is also extracted the following, having reference to Genesee County:

“Between Ingham and Genesee Counties the boundary of the coal formation has not been traced.

In the southwestern part of the township of Mount Morris, and contiguous portions of Flushing, in the latter county, according to the observations of Dr. Miles, the shales and sandstones of the coal measures make numerous outcrops.

On the southeast quarter of section 26, Flushing, the following section is observed in the bank of the Flint River:

“Superficial materials 4 feet.

Black shale, containing Lingula, Chronetes  Smithii, Pruductus Asperus, and Spirifer Cumeratus 3 feet.

Sandstone, tinged with iron 7 inches.

Shale 1 foot.

Sandstone 3 inches.

Shale to surface of water 10 inches.

“A short distance west of here the section is seen to be extended upwards by the superposition of seven inches of sandstone and five feet of overlying shale.

The bed of the river here is covered by somewhat undulating and shattered gray sandstone, which is considerably quarried for building.

At a point on the northeast quarter of section 35, Flushing, a sandstone was seen to attain a thickness of about twelve feet, in an excavation made by Mr. Miles.

“On the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 22, Flushing, a shaft was sunk on the farm of A. J. Brown, of which the following account was obtained:

“Superficial materials 14 feet.

Sandstone, below, bluish, gritty 8″

Coal 2.5 inches.

‘Horseback Claystone’ (Blackband) 2 feet.

Same with kidney iron-ore 2″

Shale 5″

Sandstone and salt watter 3″

Shale 4″

‘Black hard stone,’ combustible 4″

White fire-clay 2″

Hard white sandstone 2”

Darker sandstone unknown.

Striped sandstone 3 feet.

Shale unknown.

‘Coal blaze,’ with bands of iron-ore 11 feet.

“A small hole was bored from this point to a depth of twelve feet in the last-named material, making the whole depth attained eighty-three feet.

The work seems to have been directed by ‘Prof. Challis.’

The shaft is now filled with salt water.

“Coal crops out at numerous places in the vicinity.

It is said sometimes to show a thickness of two or three feet at the outcrop, but soon thins out.

“Mr. Patton, on the east side of the river, near the south line of section 22, made an excavation for coal, and found it seam eighteen inches thick, which is tolerably hard.

The sandstone taken from the quarry above Flushing is a pale bluish rock, abounding in scales of white mica, ferruginous streaks, pyrites, carbonaceous streaks and curls, and much oblique lamination.

What is quite remarkable, I saw in a block of this stone, in the vault of the bank, in Flint, a long club of fibrous talcose slate, a mineral said to occur in considerable abundance.

This rock does not answer to the characters of the Woodville sandstone at any point where its identity is undoubted, and I am induced to regard it as a sandstone included in the coal measures.

“If it is so, this is the only instance within my knowledge where, any of the included sandstones have attained sufficient, development to be worked.

It is likely, however, that the gray, homogeneous, fine, gritty, faintly-banded sandstone, found within a mile or two of the city of Lansing, will be found to hold the same position.

Sandstone—not unlikely the Woodville sandstone—is found outcropping in the township of Montrose, on the borders of Saginaw County.”

The center of the great coal measures of the Lower Peninsula falls nearly on the boundary between Gratiot and Saginaw Counties, and it is only their southeastern edge which falls within the county of Genesee.

Next east of these appears the belt of the Parma sandstone, which traverses the entire eastern side of the county from south to north; and next is found the belt of carboniferous limestone, which extends only a short distance into two or three of the townships in the southeastern corner.

Very few geological developments have been made in the county, and the student of the science finds little here of sufficient interest to reward research or exploration.

Genesee County lies entirely within the Saginaw Valley, upon a slope which has a general inclination towards the northwest.

The greatest altitude is at the southeast corner of the county, it being there about four hundred feet above Lake Huron, and about nine hundred and eighty feet above the sea.

From that point the descent is gradual and regular (leaving out of account the surface undulations) to the extreme northwest corner, where the altitude is but about fifty feet above the lake.

At the northeastern and southwestern corners of the county the elevation is nearly the same, being about two hundred and fifty feet above Huron.

All the waters of the county find their outlet to the lake through the channel of the Saginaw River.

The principal stream of Genesee is the Flint River, which, taking its rise in the east and northeast, in the counties of Tuscola, Oakland, and Lapeer, comes from the last-named county into Genesee across its eastern boundary, north of the center, and, flowing thence in a grand irregular sweep or, curve for a distance of nearly fifty miles within the county, passes out across its northern border, and then on through Saginaw County to its junction with the Shiawassee.

In its course through Genesee the Flint River flows first in a general southwesterly course to a point near the geographical center of the county, where it turns abruptly towards the northwest, and continues in that general direction until it has approached to within about three miles of the west boundary; then turns, and flows in a general course nearly due north to the place of its exit, which is about two and a half miles cast of the northwest corner of the county.

Of the tributary streams which Genesee gives to the Flint, the most important are Kearsley Creek and Thread River, both of which come from a number of small lakes in Oakland County; both enter Genesee near its southeast corner, and flow northwestwardly in very tortuous courses to near its center, where they unite with the main river; the Thread being augmented a short distance above its confluence with the Flint by the waters of Swartz Creek, which also takes its rise in numerous lakes in Oakland and in the southwest part of Genesee County, and flows north and northeast to its junction with the larger stream.

The tributaries above mentioned all enter the Flint through its left bank.

* The Indian name of this stream was Peiconigowink, or, as it has sometimes been written, Pcioonnukcuing, which, being translated, means “River of the Flint” (literally, “River of the Fire Stone”), from which came its name in English.

Among the early French traders and courcurs den bois it was known as “Riviere de la Pierre,” this having nearly the same signification.

The principal of those entering from the opposite side are Butternut Creek, which comes in from the northeast corner and Armstrong Creek and Brent’s Run, which are wholly in Genesee, and enter the river in the northwestern most township.

Pine Run has its sources in the northern part of this county, but enters the Flint several miles below, in Saginaw.

A large number of lakes are found within the county, chiefly in its southern and eastern parts.

Among those which lie in the two southernmost townships are Long, Silver, Crooked, Pine, Mud, Lobdell, Squaw, McKane, Bass, McCaslin, Hibbard’s, Loon, White’s, Byram, Murray, Day’s, Thompson’s, Myers, Ball, and Openconic Lakes, with a large number of smaller ones, all beautiful sheets of pure, limpid water.

Most of these contribute to swell the waters of the main stream and several branches of the Shiawassee River, which flows westward for several miles through this part of Genesee, then passes into and across Shiawassee County on its way to join its current with those of the Flint, the Cass, and the Tittabawassee.

In the extreme northeast corner of Genesee (and extending across the line into Lapeer County) is Otter Lake, which is the source of Butternut Creek.

At more southerly points on the east line of the county are Potter and Hasler Lakes, both of which are also partly in Lapeer.

The latter discharges its waters through Hasler Creek into the Flint, and the former is the source of Black Creek, a tributary to the Kearsley, which is also partially supplied by Neshinaguac Lake, near the southeast corner of the county.

Buell’s Lake, near the northern border, is the head of Perry’s Creek, which flows north and joins the Cass River in Tuscola County.

The surface of Genesee can nowhere be termed hilly, but is generally undulating, though flattening considerably towards the northwest.

The parts which are most rolling were originally covered with open forests, principally of oak, which were (and still are, where they remain) called “oak openings.”

The more level portions were generally covered with a denser and heavier forest, composed of oak, elm, hickory, beech, maple, ash, and a variety of other woods, interspersed in many places with pine of large growth and excellent quality, which, by its manufacture into lumber, has added largely to the wealth of the county.

The soil of the rolling country is a sandy or gravelly loam; that of the flatter lands is intermixed with clay and less friable, but in nearly every part very productive and well adapted for the requirements of the farmer.

In agriculture Genesee stands in the foremost rank among the counties of the State.

THE WHITE MAN’S PREDECESSORS IN THE SAGINAW VALLEY.

Ancient Mounds and Relies—The Sauks, and their Expulsion by the Chippewas —Early Indian Traders—Jacob Smith.

ANCIENT MOUNDS AND RELICS.

In hundreds of different localities in Michigan, and, indeed, through all or nearly all the States lying between the Alleghenies and the Mississippi, there have been found indisputable evidences that, centuries before the advent of the white man into this western land, its valleys and hills and forests had been inhabited by tribes, or nations of people, who were either the remote ancestors of the later Indians who were found in occupation, or, perhaps, of a race which is now extinct and unknown.

Many such evidences were found by the early settlers in Genesee County (as in every other part of the Saginaw Valley), chiefly in the form of ancient mounds of earth, which appeared to have been constructed for purposes of sepulture, as in nearly or quite every instance they were found to contain human bones,—sometimes sound and well preserved, but oftener in a condition of such friability that the lightest touch, or even exposure to the air, reduced them to fine powder; the latter circumstance seeming to indicate a very ancient period of inhumation.

And with these were sometimes found rude implements and parts of warlike weapons, which may or may not have been significant of the rank or consequence of the person with whom they were buried.

Instances are mentioned as having been noticed in the county, where the bones found were of unusually large size; one of these cases being that of a colossal skeleton, which was discovered some two or three feet below the surface, and was disinterred by workmen engaged in constructing a road across Crane’s Cove, on the west side of Long Lake, in the fall of 1877, and another instance in the east part of the county, where a number of skeletons (also of very large size) were found buried in a circle directly beneath the stump of a gigantic pine-tree of the oldest growth; but in both these cases the finding of the bones was wholly accidental, as there was no mound or other surface-mark to indicate the places of burial.

Many of the ancient mounds discovered in Ohio, Illinois, and other States seem to have been intended as defensive works; and in their construction, as well as in the material and finish of the implements, pottery, and weapons found within them, there appears the work of a people who, in enlightenment, engineering, and mechanical skill, must have been very far in advance of the later Indians to whom we are accustomed to apply the name of aborigines.

But the pre-historic works found in Genesee County were not of this class; they were in every case (it is believed) simply sepulchral mounds, inclosing the bones and relies of a race that may have been identical with that which the first white settlers found in possession of the soil.

There appears to have been nothing in the construction of the mounds, or in the mechanism or material of the implements discovered here, to compel a belief that either were the work of a superior people.

That any race of men different from the Indian ever had a home in the valley of the Saginaw is only rendered probable from the disclosure of skeletons, represented to have been of unusual size; and it is not impossible that even this peculiarity (in the absence of actual measurement) may have been unintentionally exaggerated on account of the atmosphere of mystery and romance which surrounded their discovery.

They may have been the remains of Toltec or Aztec mound-builders, or they may have been those of the ancestors of Pontiac or Tecumseh.

It is a question which can never be satisfactorily settled, and which, beyond the facts of the discovery of the tumuli and their mysterious contents, is not properly within the scope of this history.

THE SAUKS AND THEIR EXPULSION BY THE CHIPPEWAS.

When the first white explorers penetrated this wilderness region, they found it peopled by bands of both the Chippewa and Ottawa nations of Indians, though the former were by far the more numerous here, and have generally been mentioned in Indian history, and recognized in all subsequent treaties as the original proprietors of the country bordering on the Saginaw and its tributaries, and of the vast territory stretching away from thence northwestwardly to Lake Superior.

According to their own traditions, however (which, in this particular, are supported to some extent by authentic history), their proprietorship was of but comparatively recent date.

They said that, within the memory of some of their old men, all these streams and woods and hunting-grounds, this Indian paradise of fish and deer and beaver, was the home and possession of the Sauks and Onottoways (a kindred people), who lived near together in neighborly amity, and, both being strong and valiant tribes, and confederated for mutual defense, they felt perfectly secure in their fancied ability to hold their country against all invading enemies.

The Sauks were the more numerous, and occupied the valleys of the Tittabawassee, the Flint, and the Shiawassee, their domain extending as far south as the head-waters of the latter stream, along the present southern boundaries of Shiawassee and Genesee Counties.

The Onottoways lived in the valley of the Onottoway-Sebewing, or Cass River, and had their principal village a few miles above the mouth of that stream, nearly where is now the village of Bridgeport Centre, and where, as late as 1840, a large earthen work was still visible, though whether built by these people or by their successors, the Chippewas, is, of course, a matter of doubt.

The chief village of the Sauks was on the west side of the Saginaw River, opposite where Portsmouth now stands; but they had other small villages or encampments at different points on the rivers, and as far up as the lakes of Genesee and Livingston Counties.

Both these tribes appear to have possessed warlike traits, and were not only disposed to hold and defend their own country, but sometimes engaged in aggressive expeditions against the tribes whose country adjoined theirs on the north and south, which tribes, as a consequence, both feared and hated them.

Particularly was this the case with the Ojibways (Chippewas), who then inhabited a region far away to the north, bordering on the lakes,—Michigan, Huron, and Superior.

This nation had for years coveted the teeming hunting-grounds of the Sauks, and it had long been a cherished project with them to conquer and exterminate the prosperous tribes who held the Saginaw Valley, and the country stretching thence, for many a league, towards the north and west.

But they dreaded the power and prowess of their enemies, and this consideration held them in check until their ambitious desires could be controlled no longer, and, at last, they determined to attempt the execution of the plan of invasion and conquest which they had so king secretly entertained.

To this end they held council with the Ottawas of the north (whose country was contiguous to their own), and sent messengers to the southern Ottawas (whose domain lay along the northern border of that of the Pottawattamies), asking them to join in an expedition for the humiliation of the Sauks and Onottoways and the occupation of their hunting-grounds.

The proposition was favorably received, the league was formed, and the confederated bands set out on the war-path with great secrecy, hoping to take their enemies by surprise,—a hope that was fully realized.

As to the manner in which the attack was made, the traditional accounts differed to some extent; but that which seems the most complete and reasonable was nearly as follows:

The invaders entered the country of the doomed tribes in two columns,—one, composed of the southern Ottawas, coming through the woods from the direction of Detroit, and the other, made up of the Chippewas and northern Ottawas, setting out in canoes from Mackinaw, proceeding down along the western shores of Lake Huron and the bay of Saginaw, paddling by night, and lying concealed in the woods by day.

When the canoe fleet reached a point a few miles above the mouth of Saginaw River, half the force was landed; and the remainder, boldly striking across the bay in the night-time, disembarked at a place about the same distance below the mouth of the Saginaw.

Then, in darkness and stealth, the two detachments glided up through the woods on both sides of the river, and fell upon the unsuspecting Sauks like panthers upon their prey.

The principal village—situated on the west side of the river was first attacked; many of its people were put to the tomahawk, and the remainder were driven across the river to another of their villages, which stood on the eastern bank.

Here they encountered the body of warriors who had moved up on that side of the river, and a desperate fight ensued, in which the Sauks were again routed, with great loss.

The survivors then fled to a small island in the Saginaw, where they believed themselves safe, at least for the time, for their enemies had no canoes in the river.

But here again they had deluded themselves, for in the following night ice was formed of sufficient strength to enable the victorious Chippewas to cross to the island.

This opportunity they were not slow to avail themselves of, and then followed another massacre, in which, as one account says, the males were killed, to the last man, and only twelve women were spared out of all who had fled there for safety.

So thickly was the place strewn with bones and skulls of the massacred Sauks, that it became known as “Skull Island.”

(Mr. Ephraim S. Williams, one of the oldest and most respected citizens of Flint, but formerly of Saginaw City, verifies this statement. He has often visited the island in earlier years, and has seen numbers of skulls exhumed from its soil.)

After completing their bloody work on the Saginaw, the invading army was divided into detachments, which severally proceeded to carry destruction to the villages on the Shiawassee, Tittabawassee, Cass, and Flint Rivers.

Meanwhile, the co-operating force of Ottawas, coming in from the south, struck the Flint River near its southernmost bend, and a desperate battle was fought between them and the Sauk’s, upon the bluff bank of the river, about a half-mile below the present city of Flint.

Here the Sauk’s suffered a severe defeat, and retreated down the river to a point about one mile above where the village of Flushing now is; and there another battle was fought, as bloody and disastrous as the first.

Still another deadly struggle took place on the Flint, a little north of the present boundary between Genesee and Saginaw Counties; and on this field, as on the others, the bones of the slain were found many years afterwards.

Equally murderous work was done by the bands which scoured the valleys of the Shiawassee and the Cass, and everywhere the result was the same,— the utter rout and overthrow of the Sauks, only a miserable remnant of whom made their escape, and, finally, by some means, succeeded in eluding their relentless foes, and gained the shelter of the dense wilderness west of Lake Michigan.

After the Sauks had been thus utterly crushed, and their villages destroyed, the victorious allies did not immediately settle in the conquered territory, but held it as a common ground for the range of their hunting-parties.

After a time they found that some of the young men who went out with those parties did not return, and could never be heard of, and then it became their firm belief that the dim recesses of these forests were haunted by the spirits of the murdered Sauks, who had come back to their former hunting-grounds to take vengeance on their merciless destroyers.

And the result of the belief (so said the tradition) was that they abandoned this inviting region, and for years their hunters and fishermen avoided its haunted woods and streams, although the thickets swarmed with game and the waters were alive with fish.

No one can say how long their superstitious terrors prevailed, but it is certain that they were overcome at last, and the Chippewa and Ottawa tribes built their lodges in the land which their bloody hands had wrenched from its rightful possessors.

Those who came to the valley of the Saginaw, however, were principally Chippewa’s, and from that time the Indian inhabitants of this region were known as the Saginaw tribe of the Chippewa nation.

They possessed all the characteristics of the parent stock, and, until they were overawed and cowed by the power of the whites, they showed a disposition as fierce and turbulent as that of their kindred, the Ojibways of Lake Superior, who massacred the garrison of Fort Michilimackinac, in 1763.

(At both these places were found a number of mounds covering human bones. These were visible within the past few years, and have been seen by many persons now living in the county. One of the Indian accounts of this sanguinary campaign was to the effect that no Sunk or Onottoway warrior escaped; that of all the people of the Saginaw Valley not one was spared except the twelve women before mentioned, and that these were sent westward and placed among the tribes beyond the Mississippi. This, however, was unquestionably an exaggeration made by the boastful Chippewa’s; and it is certain that a part of the Scti1ks escaped beyond the lake.)

The country of the Saginaw’s was then an almost inaccessible fastness, and from this their warriors continually forayed against the unprotected settlements on the Detroit, St. Clair, and Huron Rivers; and many were the scalps and captives which they brought back from these hostile expeditions.

They joined the Indian league which was formed in 1786 in the interest of the British, for the purpose of destroying the American settlements and driving them beyond the Ohio River, and they took part with the other tribes in the hostilities which continued until checked by the victorious campaign of General Anthony Wayne.

Again, when the Shawanese chieftain, Tecumseh, and his brother, the “Prophet” Elkswatawa, instigated by the British, sent forth their emissaries to ask the cooperation of the northern and western tribes in a project to exterminate the white settlements within the Northwest Territory, the Saginaw Chippewa’s were found ready and willing to join the league; and they continued among the most active of all the Indian allies of the English during the war of 1812-15.

EARLY INDIAN TRADERS—JACOB SMITH.

Up to this time it is probable that not more than a dozen white men had ever penetrated into the country of the Saginaw’s.

They may have been visited by the enterprising and adventurous priests from the Recollet Mission at the foot of Lake Huron, but such is not known to be the fact.

It is known, however, that, sometime before the commencement of the present century, a French trader named Bolieu (named, in Indian, Kasegans) came among them, and lived at different points on the Flint and Saginaw Rivers; that he married a full-blood Chippewa woman, by whom he became the father of a number of half-breed children, one of whom, in after-years, was a claimant to one of the Indian reservations in Genesee County.

There is little doubt that (with the possible exception of a priest or two, as above mentioned) this trader, Bolieu, with perhaps two or three assistants, or coureurs de bois (forest-runners), were the first men of European descent who ever set foot upon the wilderness domain of the Saginaw Chippewas.

There was another French trader, however, named Tremble (frequently corrupted to TrombIey), who came to Saginaw very soon after Bolieu, but it is not shown that he was located anywhere else in the Indian country than at that point.

(The facts of Bolieu’s residence among the Saginaws at the time mentioned, of his marriage with the Indian woman, who was a near relative of the Saginaw chief Neome, and of the rearing of his half-breed family, were afterwards shown in a noted case of litigation (Dewey vs. Campau), involving the title to a part of the site of the city of Flint.

In mentioning this class of men, Judge Campbell, in his Political History of Michigan, says, “Many of these were of the lower classes, and dropped readily into the ways of the Indians, adopting their habits, and becoming adherents to the tribes.

But there were many also of respectable connections, who betook themselves to a wandering life of hunting and trading, partly from love of adventure and partly because they could find no other means of livelihood.

There is no reason to regard them as a despicable or essentially vicious race.”

They were generally employed by the early Indian traders to assist in the transportation of their merchandise through the woods, etc.)

Perhaps the next (and certainly one among the earliest) of the traders who came into these wilds was Jacob Smith, a man who should receive more than a cursory mention, not only because he was brave, true, and nobly generous in all his impulses, honest and benevolent in his dealings with the Indians of this valley, to a degree which gave him a firmer hold on their esteem and confidence than has ever been enjoyed by any other white man, but because, although an alien by birth, he was warmly devoted to the cause of America, an officer under her banner, one who braved great personal peril in her service, and gave his property, as he also risked his life, to rescue prisoners from the hands of their savage captors, and because his name is intimately connected with the early history of the region which is now partially included in Genesee County.

He was of German parentage or descent, and a native of the city of Quebec, Canada.

His enterprising and adventurous spirit drew him to the western frontier, and in the early years of the present century we find him, with a wife and several children, located in Detroit, as the base of his trading operations.

He came among the Indians of the Saginaw before the beginning of the war of 1812, at a time when their hostile disposition had been wrought up to a high pitch by the machinations of Tecumseh.

At this time, however, he was not permanently established among them, but merely made periodical visits to their country from his home at Detroit.

On the breaking out of the war, in 1812, it became a matter of importance to know what position the Saginaw tribe would take in the contest, and Jacob Smith undertook the task of gaining such information by going to their villages, ostensibly on a trading expedition, but really with the object above named, though it was necessary to the success of his mission, as well as for his own safety, that this object should remain unknown and unsuspected by the Indians.

He arrived safely at their main settlement on the Saginaw, but soon after reaching there the tongue of one of his two assistants became loosened by a too free use of the treacherous whisky, and while thus off his guard he incautiously divulged the secret which should have been jealously guarded.

Upon learning that the trader, whom they knew to be a British subject, had now come among them as a spy, in the interest of the Americans, they became so greatly infuriated that it was only by instant flight that Smith and one of his assistants were finally enabled to escape with their lives.

Abandoning the merchandise, they leaped on their horses and sped away with all possible rapidity on the southern trail, up the valley of the Flint, fording the river where Flint City now stands, and thence flying on through the woods and openings towards Detroit.

All this time the Indians were in pursuit and gradually gaining ground.

On reaching the Big Springs (in the present town of Groveland, Oakland County) the fugitives found themselves so hard pressed that, in order to embarrass their fierce pursuers, they separated, one continuing on the trail to the Clinton River, the other striking more towards the south, and by this means they finally escaped unharmed, except that Mr. Smith, in riding through a thicket, received a permanent injury to one of his eyes.

The assistant whom they were compelled to leave behind lost his life, and the goods were of course a total loss; but the main object of Mr. Smith’s mission was accomplished, for he had ascertained the disposition and intentions of the Saginaw’s most conclusively.

Either before, or immediately after, this expedition, he was made a captain in the United States service, and was present, under General Hull, at the disgraceful surrender of Detroit.

By reason of this surrender he experienced heavy losses, for which he was never reimbursed by the government.

During the war which succeeded, he on several occasions rendered admirable service by procuring the liberation of prisoners who had been taken by the Indians.

One of these cases was that of a family named Boyer, whose dwelling on Clinton River had been burned and themselves carried into captivity by the Saginaw’s.

To effect their release, Jacob Smith proceeded into the Indian country, taking with him (loaded upon pack-horses) a large quantity of goods, such as delight the hearts of Indians, to be given as a ransom for the unfortunate prisoners.

It was a bold movement for one who had once been compelled to fly for his life from these same Indians whom he now went to seek in their stronghold; but it was just such an act as might have been expected from one of his brave and generous nature.

The Indians admired his fearlessness and respected his mission, and the prisoners were released unharmed.

After the close of the war Mr. Smith continued to prosecute his traffic with the Indians, though he still had his residence in Detroit.

But after the death of his wife, in 1817, he became permanently established in the Saginaw country, and passed most of his time there during the remainder of his life.

In 1819 he located his store where Flint City now stands, and died there a little less than six years afterwards.

By the Indians he was known as Wahbesins (meaning “the young swan”), and his popularity and influence with them was almost unbounded.

He was kind and generous to them; he was unexcelled in bravery; and was the possessor of physical qualities such as invariably elicit the red man’s admiration.

No Indian hunter was more skilled in woodcraft than he.

He had to a great extent adopted their dress and mode of life and by his long intercourse with them had become so familiar with their language that he spoke it as fluently and perfectly as the Chippewas themselves.

Among all the principal men of the tribe there were few, if any, who were not friends to Wahbesins; and especially strong was the bond of amity between him and old Neome, who was one of the most respected and powerful of all the Saginaw chiefs, but an honest, simple-minded, and peaceable man.

The attachment which existed between him and Jacob Smith was so strong that for years after both were dead the Indians invariably spoke of Neome and Wahbesins as brothers, whose friendship had never been broken or clouded.

Conrad Ten Eyek was trading among the Saginaws nearly as early as Jacob Smith.

Louis Campau established himself as a trader among them in 1815.

His brother, Antoine, came about the same time, and Baptiste Cochios had his trading-post on the Flint.

General Riley, of Schenectady, N. Y., commenced trading here soon after the close of the war of 1812-15, and several other traders were in the Indian country as early as 1820, but among all these there were none who ever held the confidence and friendship of the natives to an equal degree with Jacob Smith.

THE SAGINAW-CHIPPEWAS AFTER THE WAR OF 1812-15.

Story of the Chief Nawahgo—Superstition of the Saginaws—The Chief Neome, and the Pewonigo band.

The close of the war of 1812-15, which resulted in the discomfiture of Britain and her Indian allies, seems to have marked the extinguishment of the fierce and warlike disposition of the Saginaw tribe of Chippewas, and from that time their progress was rapid towards that state of decay and demoralization which is invariably the result of the Indian’s contact with the white race, and his access to the white man’s whisky.

When they began to be well known by the traders who followed Jacob Smith, and by the United States officers and agents whose duties called them to the Indian country, they were found to be a dispirited and comparatively harmless people, who, realizing that their former power and prowess were broken, were little disposed to take the war-path or wield the tomahawk for the enforcement of the aboriginal rights which they knew had been justly forfeited by their acts of hostility against the government during the then recent war.

Mr. Ephraim S. Williams, now of Flint, who passed many years among these Indians subsequently to 1820, and who also knew the Chippewas of Lake Superior, says of the former that they were a people who possessed many good traits, but who, generally, were but degenerate representatives of the northern nation from whom they sprung; though he knew many instances of individuals to whom this criticism would not apply.

One incident which he relates seems not inappropriate to mention here, as it occurred in the neighboring county of Saginaw, the actors in it being members of the same tribe who peopled the valley of the Flint, and Mr. Williams (who was an eye-witness of the scene) an old citizen of Genesee, personally known to a large portion of the people of this county, and recognized as among the best of authorities in all matters pertaining to early Indian history.

He tells the story as follows:

There lived upon the Saginaw a young Chippewa warrior,—a model of physical power and grace,—named Nawahgo, who, in a quarrel, had killed a son of the old chief, Red Bird (Wuzcobenasa), whose home was on the Tittabawassee.

By Indian law and usage the relatives of the murdered man might take the life of his slayer, in retaliation, and in this case they demanded the forfeit.

In response to the summons, Nawahgo presented himself before the warrior relatives of his victim, and bared his breast to receive their blows.

The avengers filed past him, and each in turn delivered a blow at his heart; but when all had struck, and Indian justice was sated, the young warrior still lived.

Weak from his wounds and loss of blood, he started to return to his wigwam, but on his way there was met by another Indian, who stabbed him in the back and left him there, believing that he had given a mortal wound.

There he was found by his faithful wife, who had tracked him by the blood-marks.

She succeeded in removing him to their lodge, bathed and bound up his wounds, and nursed him through weeks of prostration and suffering until at last he was completely restored to health.

It was then his turn to demand and to take vengeance on the coward who had struck him in the back, and he did not long lack an opportunity, for he soon met his enemy in the hunting ground, and drove a knife with sure aim to his heart.

Not long after this, large numbers of Indians were assembled at Saginaw to receive a payment from the agents of the government, and on this occasion Black Beaver (a brother of one of the principal chiefs) reviled Nawahgo as a murderer for killing the Indian who had struck him in the back.

The latter retorted that the act was justifiable, and that he had but killed a craven wretch who was unfit to live.

Black Beaver reiterated the accusation in still more insulting terms, and then Nawahgo, fierce with anger, leaped upon him and slew him in his tracks.

This took place upon the present site of East Saginaw.

Nawahgo, immediately after the homicide, crossed to the west side of the river, where his own band were encamped, but here, under the white man’s law, a warrant was issued for his arrest, and upon learning this he at once re-crossed to the east side.

“He sent word to two of his white friends, E. S. Williams and Antoine Campau, desiring them to cross the river and come to the woods in which he was secreted, when, by their giving a signal, he would come to them.

They did so, and he soon made his appearance.

He informed them that he had sent for them for advice; that the white man’s punishment, imprisonment, was only fit for cowards; death by the hands of his own race was glorious, in comparison, if any relative of Black Beaver should choose to make it a cause of vengeance.

They advised him to cross back to his own camp, present himself to his people, and let the affair take the course warranted by Indian usage.”

The advice was taken, and he re-crossed to his own camp.

The arrest was waived, and Nawahgo awaited the summons to appear before those to whom his life was forfeit under the Chippewa law.

The time came for the burial ceremonies of the dead chief, Black Beaver.

All the vast throng of Indians who had gathered for payment, and nearly or quite all the white people living at the place (each one acquainted with the circumstances of the homicide and each eager to know and see the sequel), were congregated in full view of the spot where lay the coffined form of the Beaver, encircled by mourning relatives and chiefs in black paint, among them being some of the head men of the tribe.

Suddenly, during an interval of silence which forms part of the Indian burial ceremony, the stately form of Nawahgo entered the group, and moved towards the center with a mien and step which might have befitted the great Pontiac, or Philip of Mount Hope.

He was habited in costume such as an Indian warrior would wish to die in, and his belt bore knife and tomahawk.

Advancing to the side of the coffin he laid his weapons upon it, then filled and lighted his pipe with great deliberation, drew a few whiffs, and offered it successively to each of the scowling chiefs and warriors who surrounded him, but all declined it.

Next he unslung from his shoulder a small flask of whisky, drank, and offered it to each in the same manner, but again all declined to partake.

“You refuse to smoke with me,” he said.

“You will not drink the fire-water with me in token of peace.

You demand my life, and I am here to give it!”

Then he sat down on the foot of the coffin, loosed his hunting-shirt at the throat, bared his breast, and again addressed his enemies:

“You demand my life! Here it is; take it!

But beware how you strike! Make no mistake; for if a warrior strikes and fails, or if he deals a foul blow, he shall feel my knife in his heart, as I have driven it to the hearts of cowards before!”

This speech was followed by a dead silence.

Nawahgo cast a proud and scornful glance around on the blackened faces of the hostile group, but there was not one among them who moved from his place to strike the waiting victim.

A little longer he sat there, and then—as none came to claim the vengeance due under Indian usage—he rose with deliberation, readjusted his hunting-shirt, resumed his belt and arms, and with the single withering epithet, “Cowards!” upon his lips, strode away, undaunted and unharmed, to the camp of his own band.

“This,” writes Mr. Williams,

“I was eye-witness to.

It was at a payment made by government, and nearly three thousand Indians were present, I was Nawahgo’s friend, and he was also mine, and would and did stand by me in all dangerous times.”

Immediately after the occurrence above mentioned, Nawahgo left the Saginaw, and removed to the shore of Lake Huron, where he lived during the remainder of his life.

He finally died a violent death,—in an encounter with a relative of one of his early victims.

They met on the hunting-ground, and each knew that a death-struggle was to follow; but, before fighting, they sat down, and drank together from the same canteen.

Having finished their potations, they rose, and, like Fitz-James and Roderick Dhu,

“Each looked to sun, and stream, and plain,

As what he ne’er might see again,

Then, tout, and point, and eye opposed,

In dubious strife they darkly closed.”

And they fought on till both fell, mortally wounded.

From this narrative it seems evident that, in Nawahgo at least, the warrior blood and spirit of the northern Ojibways had suffered no degeneration.

SUPERSTITION OF THE SAGINAWS.

It has been mentioned that the ancient Chippewas imagined the country which they had wrested from the conquered Sauks to be haunted by the spirits of those whom they had slain, and that it was only after the lapse of years that their terrors became allayed sufficiently to permit them to occupy the “haunted hunting-grounds.”

But the superstition still remained, and in fact it was never entirely dispelled.

Long after the Saginaw valley was studded with white settlements, the simple Indians still believed that mysterious Sauks were lingering in their forests and along the margins of their streams for purposes of vengeance; that Munesous, or bad spirits, in the form of Sauk warriors, were hovering around their villages and camps, and on the flanks of their hunting-parties, preventing them from being successful in the chase, and bringing ill-fortune and discomfiture in a hundred ways.

So great was their dread, that when (as was frequently the case) they became possessed of the idea that the Munesous were in their immediate vicinity they would fly, as if for their lives, abandoning everything, wigwams, fish, game, and poultry; and no amount of ridicule from the whites could convince them of their folly, or induce them to stay and face the imaginary danger.

Some of the Indian bands whose country joined that of the Saginaws played upon their weak superstition and derived profit from it, by lurking around their villages or camps, frightening them into flight, and then appropriating the property which they had abandoned.

A few shreds of wool from their blankets left sticking on thorns or dead brushwood, hideous figures drawn upon the trunks of trees with coal, or marked on the ground in the vicinity of their lodges, was sure to produce this result, by indicating the presence of the dreaded Munesous.

Mr. Williams, whose authority has already been cited in the foregoing pages, writes of this matter as follows:

“There was a time every spring when the Indians from Saginaw and the interior would congregate in large parties for the purpose of putting up dried sturgeon, which made a very delicate dish when properly cooked, and was much used in those days by the first families of Detroit. . . .

The Indians would select the best, flay them, hang them across poles in rows about four feet from the ground and two feet apart, then a gentle smoke was kept under them until perfectly dry.

When this was nearly accomplished, poor, lazy, worthless Indians from a distance, having an eye to supplying themselves with provisions which they never labored to obtain, would commence, in different ways, to excite their fears that the Munesous were about their camps, until at last they would take to their canoes and flee, often leaving almost everything they possessed.

Then the Munesous (the thieving Indians from other bands who had cunningly brought about the stampede for the sake of plunder) would rob the camps of what they wanted, and escape to their homes with, perhaps, their summer supplies of fish, and often of sugar and dried venison.

I have often met them fleeing as above; sometimes twenty or more canoes; have stopped them, and tried to induce them to return, and we would go with them; but no, it was the Munesous, they said, and nothing would convince them differently, and away they would go, frightened nearly to death.

I have visited their camps at such times, gathered up their effects that were left, and secured them in some one camp from destruction by wild animals.

After a while they would return and save what was left.

During these times they were perfectly miserable, actually afraid of their own shadow.”

It was not alone on their annual fishing expedition to the lake that these things occurred; similar scenes were enacted by their hunting-parties in the forests of the Shiawassee and Flint, and at their summer camps among the beautiful inland lakes of their southern border.

“I have had them come from places miles distant,” says Mr. Williams, “bringing their rifles to me, asking me to examine and re-sight them, declaring that the sights had been removed (and in most cases they had, but it was by themselves in their fright).

I have often, and in fact always did when applied to, re-sighted and tried them until they would shoot correctly, and then they would go away cheerfully.

I would tell them they must keep their rifles where the Muncsous could not find them. …

At other times, having a little bad luck in trapping or hunting, they became excited, and would say that game had been over and in their traps, and that they could not catch anything; have known them go so far as to insist that a beaver or an otter had been in their traps and gotten out; that their traps were bewitched or spell-bound, and their rifles charmed by the Munesous, so that they could not catch or kill anything.

Then they must give a great feast, and have the medicine-man or conjuror, and through his wise and dark performances the charm is removed and all is well, and traps and rifles do their duty again.

These things have been handed down for generations.”

“And so, through all the domain of the Saginaws, their lives were made miserable by these superstitious fears; and thus they expiated the crimes committed by their ancestors against the unfortunate Sauks.

THE CHIEF NEOME AND THE PEWONIGO BAND.

The old chief Neome was, as has been mentioned, the most powerful and respected among the chiefs of the Saginaws, though it does not appear that he was or ever had been famed for skill or prowess in war.

His power had somewhat decayed in the latter years of his life, but he retained until the last the respect and confidence of his people.

He was a man well advanced in years when the white people first knew him, prior to 1819.

Then, and during the remainder of his life, he held with his band the southern frontier of his nation, though the territory of the Saginaw’s extended southward many miles beyond his village, which was named Pewonigowink, and located on the river of the same name (the Flint), near where it crosses the boundary between Genesee and Saginaw Counties.

Its site, however, was once or twice, moved,—being at one time in the present township of Montrose, in Genesee, and at another, farther down the river, in Taymouth, Saginaw County.

A large open tract of land, more than a hundred acres in extent, situated about seven miles south of Bridgeport Centre, is yet remembered by the oldest settlers as the “old Indian field.”

This had been used by the people of Neome’s band for their rude agriculture; but, after years of continuous planting, the corn was destroyed for two or three seasons by the grub-worms, which they believed to be the Great Spirit’s curse upon the land, and they therefore abandoned it, and planted in newer fields farther up the river.

Neome died at his village in the year 1827, and was succeeded in the chiefship by Tonedogane, who had been the principal war-chief of the baud and second in command during the life of his superior.

Neome had a brother named Mixanene, and it does not seem clear why he was not made his brother’s successor.

He appears to have been a fierce and bloodthirsty Indian, and it is related of him that in the year 1813, Mr. Joseph Campau paid to him a large sum for the ransom of a white prisoner, Mr. James Hardan, whom Mixanene had determined to torture to death.

But perhaps at that early time even the good Neome was less amiable than the whites found him to be in later years after the Indian spirit had been cowed and broken.

The Indians living in the valley of the Flint were known as the Pewonigo tribe, or band, from the Indian name of the stream.

The present county of Genesee was crossed in various directions by their trails, which, by being traveled for years by themselves and their ponies, had become hard-beaten paths, worn into the soft soil in some places to the depth of more than a foot.

The principal of these was the “Saginaw trail,” which was the Indian road from the Saginaw River to Detroit.

Its route through Genesee County was from Pewonigowink up the Flint River to its southern bend, and thence south by way of Grand Blanc and the Big Springs (Oakland County) to Detroit.

The place where it crossed the Flint was known as the Grand Traverse, or great crossing-place,—a name probably given to it by Bolieu the French trader.

A beautiful open plain, lying in the bend of the river, on the north side and contiguous to the crossing, was named, in Indian, Muscatawingh, meaning “the plain burned over.”

This is now in the first ward of the city of Flint.

A part of it had formerly been used by the Indians as a corn-field, and it was always one of their favorite camping-grounds.

As many as fifteen hundred of them having been seen encamped on it at one time by people who are still residing in Flint.

Over this great trail, too, for years after the first settlers came to Genesee County, thousands of Indians passed and repassed annually, the throng always being particularly large at the time when they went down to receive their annuities.

These yearly payments were made in the early times by both the United States and the British governments; the latter usually paying them at Malden.

The amount paid there was fifty cents a head to Indians of all ages, from the red patriarch of ninety years to the papoose upon its mother’s back.

On these occasions, therefore, every member of the tribe took the trail to be present at the muster for pay.

After a time the British payments ceased, and the United States adopted the plan of paying at inland points to avoid the demoralization which resulted from vast collections of Indians at Detroit.

These interior payments were oftenest made at Saginaw, but were on one or two occasions made ‘at Pewonigowink.

The money used was silver coin, and this was brought up from Detroit on pack-horses.

“Two boxes of one thousand dollars each, weighing one hundred and twenty pounds, slung on each side, were a load for a pack-horse.

The party (generally consisting of an interpreter and sub-agent) made in this way twenty miles per day, and slept out in the woods without fear, though without firearms.

The journey occupied four days from Detroit to Saginaw.”

The Indians were not given to plundering on so grand a scale as the robbery of a pack-horse train loaded with specie, though they sometimes engaged in small pilfering.

Beyond this it does not appear that the settlers stood in much, if any, fear of them.

They were comparatively harmless except when excited by liquor, and even when, under that influence, they were disposed to be defiant, they were easily overawed by a firm and determined course of treatment.

At the commencement of Black Hawk’s war, that chief sent his emissaries among these Indians to distribute his “war-quills,” inviting them to take part against the whites, but the message failed to bring the response he desired, for the warlike spirit of the Saginaws was dead, and they had buried the hatchet forever.

 

INDIAN TREATIES AND CESSIONS OF LAND-INDIAN EMIGRATION.

Treaty of Greenville—Treaties of Detroit and Springwells—Treaty of Saginaw—Pewonigowink Reservation—Plans for Indian Emigration—Treaties of Washington (1836), Detroit (1837), Flint River (1837), and Saginaw (1838).

The United States government, from the time of its formation, has recognized the possessory rights of the Indian tribes in the soil; and the principle has been established that these rights can only be acquired by the government, or with its consent, and can only be alienated from the native Indians by their own voluntary act, done in public and open council, where the tribes are represented by their chiefs and head men, and the government by its accredited agent or commissioner.

This principle has always been acted on, and this method observed, by the government in its treaties with Indians for the acquisition of their possessory rights in the public domain.

TREATY OF GREENVILLE IN 1795.

The first Indian treaty by which the aboriginal title to lands now within the State of Michigan was extinguished was made on the 3rd of August, 1795, at Greenville, Ohio, by General Anthony Wayne, on behalf of the United States, with representatives of the Wyandots, Shawanese, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawattamies, and several other tribes.

By the terms of that treaty the Indians ceded to the United States government “the post of Detroit, and all the lands to the north, the west, and the south of it, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or English governments, and so much more land to be annexed to the district of Detroit as shall be comprehended between the river Rosine (Raisin) on the south, Lake St. Clair on the north, and a fine, the general course whereof shall be six miles distant from the west end of Lake Erie and Detroit River.”

Several other large tracts were also ceded by the treaty; among these being “the post of Michilimackinac, all the island, and lands on the mainland adjacent,” and the island of Bois Blanc, — mentioned as being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation.

Also among the lands ceded by this treaty was “one piece of land six miles square at the mouth of Chikago River emptying into the southwest end of Lake Michigan.”

It was expressly stipulated in the treaty that, in consideration of the peace then and there established, and of the relinquishments made by the Indians, as well as to manifest the liberality of the United States as the means of making the peace strong and perpetual,'” the United States relinquish their claims to all other Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and southward of the great lakes and the waters uniting them, according to the boundary line agreed on between the United States and the King of Great Britain in the peace made between them in the year 1783.”

And it was declared that ” the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands are quietly to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon so long as they please, without any molestation from the United States; but when those tribes, or any of them, shall be disposed to sell their lands, or any part of them, they are to be sold only to the United States; and until such sale the United States will protect the said Indian tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of the United States, and against all other white persons who intrude upon the same; . . . and if any citizen of the United States, or any other white person or persons, shall presume to settle upon the lands now relinquished by the United States, such citizen or other person shall be out of the protection of the United States, and the Indian tribe on whose land such settlement shall be made may drive off the settler, or punish him in such manner as they shall think fit; and because such settlements, made without the consent of the United States, will be injurious to them as well as to the Indians, the United States shall be at liberty to break them up, and remove and punish the settlers as they shall think proper, and so to effect the protection of the Indian lands hereinbefore stipulated.”

The Indians were also allowed, under the treaty, to have the privilege of hunting and fishing over all the ceded territory during their good behavior.

TREATIES OF DETROIT (1807) AND SPRINGWELLS (1815).

The treaty by which the entire southeastern part of Michigan (including more than nineteen-twentieths of the present county of Genesee) was ceded to the United States government was made and concluded at Detroit on the 17th of November, 1807, ” by William Hull, governor of the Territory of Michigan, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and sole commissioner of the United States to conclude and sign a treaty or treaties with the several nations of Indians northwest of the river Ohio, on the one part, and the sachems, chiefs, and warriors of the Ottaway, Wyandotte, and Pottawattamie nations of Indians on the other part.”

The territory here ceded by the Indians, in consideration of goods and money paid and to be paid to them by the United States, was described in the treaty as “beginning at the mouth of the Miami River of the lakes [meaning the Maumee], and running thence up the middle thereof to the mouth of the great Auglaize River; thence running due north until it intersects a parallel of latitude to be drawn from the outlet of Lake Huron, which forms the river Sinclair; thence running northeast on the course that may be found will lead in a direct line to White Rock, in Lake Huron; thence due cast until it intersects the boundary line between the United States and Upper Canada, in said lake;

(In its relinquishment of these lands, however, the government excepted the post of Vincennes, on the Wabash, the post of Fort Marsac, towards the mouth of the Ohio, and lands at other places, actually in the occupation of French or other white settlers, to which the Indian title had before been extinguished.

then southwardly, following the said boundary line down said lake, through the river Sinclair, Lake St. Clair, and the river Detroit into Lake Erie, to a point due east of the aforesaid Miami [Maumee] River; thence west to the place of beginning.”)

For this session the government stipulated to pay (in money, goods, agricultural implements, or domestic animals, at the discretion of the superintendent of Indian affairs) the sum of $3333.33 each, to the Ottawa and Chippewa tribes, and one-half that amount each to the Pottawattamie’s and Wyandot’s, with a perpetual annuity of $2000 to each of the first-mentioned tribes, and one-half that sum to each of the others; all to be paid at Detroit.

And it was further declared in the treaty, that ” the United States, to manifest their liberality and disposition to encourage the said Indians in agriculture, further stipulate to furnish the said Indians with two blacksmiths; one to reside with the Chippewa’s at Saginaw, and the other with the Ottawa’s, at the Miami, during the term of ten years; said blacksmiths arc to do such work for the said nations as shall be most useful to them.”

The second line mentioned in the description of the tract here ceded—that is, the line running due north from the mouth of the Auglaize River, and a prolongation of it to the Straits of Mackinaw—was afterwards adopted by the United States surveyors as the principal meridian line of the lower peninsula of Michigan.

The territory ceded by the Indians at the treaty of Detroit embraced all of Michigan lying east of that line as far north as the center of the present county of Shiawassee, and extending from thence in a northeastwardly direction to the shore of Lake Huron, at a point a little above the northern boundary of the county of Sanilac; including all that is now in the county of Genesee, except the northern and western part of the township of Montrose and the northwestern corner of Vienna.

Within this ceded territory the Indians reserved several tracts for their own uses (none of them, however, being within the present limits of Genesee County), and they were also to have the privilege of hunting and fishing, under the same conditions as stipulated in the treaty of Greenville.

During the war of 1812-15, the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Pottawattamie tribes sided with the British, and by this act, and their general conduct through that struggle, were considered to have justly forfeited the lands reserved to them.

Nevertheless, the government magnanimously determined not to enforce the forfeiture, but to adopt a conciliatory and friendly policy towards them; and in September, 1815, Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, Gen. McArthur, and John Graham, Esq., on the part of the government, held a council with them at Springwells, near Detroit, where, on the 8th of that month, a treaty was concluded, by which it was agreed that” the United States give peace to the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Pottawattamie tribes.

They also agree to restore to the said Chippewa, Ottawa, and Pottawattamie tribes all the possessions, rights, and privileges which they enjoyed or were entitled to in the year 1811, prior to the commencement of the late war with Great Britain; and the said tribes upon their part agree to place themselves under the protection of the United States, and of no other power whatsoever.”

And, at the same time, the treaty made at Greenville in 1795, and subsequent treaties between these tribes and the United States, were confirmed and ratified.

TREATY OF SAGINAW—1819.

Soon after the close of the war with England, the attention of emigrating farmers from New York and New England began to be, directed towards the newly-opened agricultural regions of Michigan, and it was not long before it became evident to the comprehensive mind of Governor Cass—the most able as well as the most influential man in the Territory—that broad as was the domain acquired by the treaty of 1807, it would soon be found too narrow to receive the immigration which had already begun to spread westward and northward from Detroit.

He at once applied his tireless energies to the task of securing a further cession of lands from the Indians, and, being ex officio Indian commissioner for Michigan, he laid the matter before the President, and received authority and directions to negotiate a treaty for the extinguishment of the aboriginal title to adjoining territory on the north and west.

The result of his labors was the assembling of the sachems and chiefs of the Saginaw Chippewa’s, with a few of those of the Ottawa nation, in council at the present site of Saginaw City, in September, 1819.

Early in that month, Governor Cass, accompanied by a cavalcade composed of his secretaries, interpreters, and other assistants, set out from Detroit, and proceeded by way of Royal Oak, Pontiac, and the Grand Traverse of the Flint, to Saginaw, where they arrived on the 10th, and there found the warriors and chiefs already assembled, and assembling, for the convention.

The attendance, however, was less numerous than had been expected; and when it was found that some of the Indian bands and villages were unrepresented, runners were sent out in haste to such localities to give further notification, and to urge the absent chiefs to come in and join in the council.

Under instructions from Gen. Cass, suitable preparations had been made for the occasion.

Mr. Louis Campau, who had for three years been established at Saginaw as an Indian trader, had made an addition to his trading-house sufficient in size to furnish quarters for the governor, and also a commodious mess-room for him and his retinue.

Near the bank of the river had been erected the council-house.

It was a rude structure,—more a bower than a house,—and inadequate to afford shelter against inclement weather, but sufficient to furnish a shade for the general and the attendant chiefs, and to give some degree of dignity to their deliberations.

Moored in the stream were two small vessels, a sloop and a schooner, which had come round from Detroit, bringing subsistence stores, goods intended for Indian presents, and a company of the Third United States Infantry, under command of Capt. C. L. Cass, a brother of the governor.

The presence of these troops was considered necessary, in view of the possibility of violence on the part of the assembled Indians.

When all preparations were complete, the white and red dignitaries assembled in the council-house, near the center of which, upon a low platform of hewn logs, sat the commissioner, Gen. Cass, accompanied by his secretaries, R. A. Forsyth, Jr. (who was also acting commissioner), John L. Leib, and D. G. Whitney ; Capt. Cass; Capt. Chester Root, of the artillery; Lieut. John Peacock, of the 3d Infantry; Whitmore Knaggs, Indian trader and sub-agent, and, on this occasion, principal interpreter; Archibald Lyons, an Indian trader; Henry Connor, interpreter (known among the Indians as Wabishkindebay—meaning ” White Hair”); Louis Beaufait, William Tucky, and John Hurson, interpreters, and many others; while all around were grouped the dark faces of the Chippewa and Ottawa chiefs.

The council being opened with duo formality, Gen. Cass proceeded to inform the Indians of the objects for which they had been assembled.

He told them, through his interpreters, that the Great Father at Washington was earnestly desirous of promoting the welfare of his red children, and anxious to preserve and perpetuate the friendly and peaceful relations which had existed between their tribes and the government since the close of the war; that the tide of white emigration was pressing irresistibly towards their domain; that their streams were each year growing less prolific; that the steady advance of civilization would drive the game to the remoter hunting-grounds; and that for these and other weighty reasons it was manifestly the part of wisdom for them, the chiefs and notables of the tribes, to advise their people to abandon, or at least to depend less on, precarious hunting and fishing as a means of subsistence, and to give their attention to the pursuits of agriculture upon fertile and ample tracts of their own selection, to be reserved for their perpetual use from the territory which it was now the desire of the government to purchase from them, at a fair and generous price, for the use of the white emigrants who wished to come and settle among them as friends and neighbors.

The opening address of the commissioner was replied to by several of the chiefs; those most conspicuous by their speeches being Ogemawkeketo, Mishenenanonequet, and Kishkawko; the last named being an exceedingly wily and troublesome man, though really a Canadian Indian, an interloper among the Chippewa’s, with no proprietary interest in their lands or right to a voice in the questions before the council.

But he had managed by some means to obtain considerable influence among the Saginaws, and his violent speech against the cession produced an effect adverse to the cherished objects of Gen. Cass.

Here, however, his influence against the proposed treaty ended, for at the close of this day’s council he had fallen completely into the power of John Barleycorn, and during eight or ten days following remained in almost helpless intoxication.

The master-spirit among the Indians was Ogemawkeketo (“chief speaker”), who, though at that time scarcely more than twenty-one years of age, was possessed of remarkable powers of oratory; and his speech on this occasion was an eloquent outburst of indignant remonstrance, which was never afterwards forgotten by those who heard it.

Addressing Gen. Cass, he said, “Our people wonder why our white brethren have come so far from their homes.

Our English Father never asked us for our lands.

Our American Father wants them.

Your people gather in our country, and press in on our hunting-grounds.

Our lands are melting away like ice when the waters grow warm around it.

Our women reproach us.

Here are their homes, and the homes of our children.

Shall we sell the ground where they spread their blankets?

You do not know our wishes.

We have not invited you here.

Your young men have called us to meet you and kindle the council-fire, and we have come; not to give you our lands, but only to smoke with you the pipe of peace.”

To counteract the effect of such a speech it was necessary for the commissioner to show firmness and self-possession.

In his reply Gen. Cass said in effect that the Great Father at Washington, in the then recent war, had inflicted chastisement not only on the English king, but also on them, his Indian allies, and that they, the Chippewas, by their hostility to the United States during that war had justly forfeited all their lands to the government, but that notwithstanding this the Great Father had no desire to take the lands from them without paying a proper and generous equivalent; and that, in case a treaty should be made with them, it was not in contemplation to take the homes of their women and children, but to secure to them ample tribal reservations on which they could spread their blankets in peace, and not only live without fear of molestation from the incoming whites, but receive valuable assistance and instruction in their agriculture.

But when the day’s deliberations closed the Indians still remained intractable and defiant; and the commissioner, after having told them in a friendly manner to go to their wigwams ” and smoke and talk over the matter together,” withdrew with his company to their quarters, in a state of anxiety and disappointment in anticipation of a not improbable failure of the negotiations.

The council was not convened on the following day, nor for several days thereafter.

The Indians remained sullen and unyielding, and the prospect was looking very unfavorable for the consummation of the treaty, when a powerful influence, which had hitherto been quiescent, or adverse to the plans of the commissioner, began to be exerted in favor of the treaty.

This was the influence wielded by Jacob Smith, the Indian trader.

It is related that he had a personal acquaintance with every one of the principal chiefs who were present at this council; that there were few, if any of them, to whom he had not at some time extended some favor or act of friendship, either in entertaining them at his different places of business, or relieving their necessities by advances of blankets and food.

And among these chiefs, too, sat old Neome, steadfast and unwavering in his friendship, and willing and anxious on this, as on every occasion, to be guided by the wishes of his white brother, Wahbesins.

In view of these facts, it is not hard to realize the extent of the power which was held (and exercised) by Jacob Smith to shape the action of the Indian council,—a power far greater, in that direction, than that of the commissioner, or of Kishkawko, or even of the chief orator, Ogemawkeketo.

It might have been supposed that Gen. Cass, who was personally acquainted with Smith, and well knew his pre-eminent qualifications as interpreter and negotiator with the Indians, would have selected and retained him in that capacity in this council, but such was not the fact, and his neglect to do so is regarded as proof that the commissioner regarded him with feelings of distrust.

It was supposed by many that the inflexible opposition manifested by Ogemawkeketo, Neome, and the other chiefs was incited by him, and this supposition does not seem entirely improbable.

But however this may have been, it is certain that all the efforts of the authorized interpreters and agents of the government, continued during several days succeeding the first council, were wholly unavailing, and no favorable word or sign of yielding could be wrung from the chiefs, until old Neome received through Mr. Knaggs, the interpreter, the promise that the wishes of his friend, Wahbesins, should be consulted, and his demands acceded to, in regard to the reservations to be granted by the terms of the proposed treaty.

This was agreed to by the interpreters (of course with the private assent of Gen. Cass), and the arrangement was definitely made that, in addition to the reservation of ample tracts for the use of the several Indian bands, there should be made eleven reservations of six hundred and forty acres each, to be located at and near the trading-house of Jacob Smith, at the Grand Traverse of the Flint River; these reservations to be granted to a corresponding number of individuals, under Indian names, which were handed in, written upon slips of paper, to Gen. Cass.

Several days after the first meeting, the chiefs were again convened in the council-house, where a considerable amount of discussion ensued; but as a principal difficulty had been surmounted by the granting of Wahbesins’ demand, and the consequent propitiation of Neome and the chiefs, and as Gen. Cass had ceased to press the original proposition of the government to remove the Chippewa’s beyond the Mississippi, or at least to the westward of Lake Michigan (finding that it was impossible of accomplishment, and that to insist on it would be to endanger the success of the entire negotiation), there was but comparatively feeble opposition to the treaty, which was finally agreed on and virtually concluded at this sitting ; all that remained to be done being to engross it in due form, and to affix to it the signatures of the commissioner, the chiefs, and the witnesses.

For the ceremonious signing of the treaty, the chiefs were convened in council for the third and last time.

Among them appeared Kishkawko, who had now partially recovered from the debauch which from the close of the first day until now had kept him confined to his wigwam, and prevented his participation in the later deliberations.

The attendance at this council was much greater than on either of the previous occasions, being estimated at no less than two thousand chiefs, warriors, and braves, while a great concourse of Indian women and children were crowded together on the outskirts of the assemblage.

The ceremony of signing was conducted with decorum and dignity, and was made as imposing as possible.

The first name written upon the instrument was, of course, that of Lewis Cass, United States Indian Commissioner, and underneath were placed the totemic signatures of one hundred and fourteen chiefs and head men of the Chippewa’s and Ottawas (though there were very few of the latter, and the whole number have usually been mentioned as Chippewas).

(In a trial before Chancellor Manning, held in 1843, touching the title to one of the tracts reserved by this treaty, Robert A. Forsyth testified that upon this occasion he had been private secretary to Gen. Cass, and, acting in that capacity, had copied the draft of the treaty; that “Jacob Smith handed to the commissioner the names of certain persons for whom reservations were to be made;” that he ” saw but two lists of the names; Jacob Smith handed in one, and Henry Campau or Louis Beaufait the other.”—Walker’s Chancery Reports ; Stockton vs. William, February, 1813.)

The subscribing witnesses were the commissioner’s secretaries, Leib and Whitney; Acting Commissioner Forsyth; Capts. Cass and Root; Lieut. Peacock ; G. Godfrey, sub-agent; Messrs. Knaggs, Tucky, Beaufait, and Hurson, interpreters; John Hill, army contractor; Barney Campau, V. S. Ryley, J. Whipple, Henry I. Hunt, William Keith, A. E. Lacock, Richard Smyth, John Smyth, B. Head, Conrad Ten Eyek, and Louis Dequindre.

Thus the treaty was concluded and executed Sept. 24, 1819.

When the ceremony of signing was over a large amount of silver money was brought out and placed in huge piles on the table before the commissioner, to be by him distributed among the chiefs and representatives of the several bands.

Many of these chiefs were indebted in considerable sums to the trader Louis Campau, who had received their promise that when the payment was made to them his claim should be liquidated, at least to the amount of fifteen hundred dollars.

He had already notified Gen. Cass of this agreement, and was now anxiously waiting, hoping to receive the money from the commissioner without having it pass through Indian hands at all.

But there were also present three other traders, who were not pleased at the prospect of having so considerable a part of the Indians’ money appropriated to the payment of their old debts.

One of these three was Jacob Smith, who at once set about the task of persuading the half-intoxicated Kishkawko and some of the other chiefs to demand that the entire sum due them should be paid to the Indians, to be applied by them “as they saw fit.

His diplomacy was entirely successful, and when the commissioner explained to the chiefs that Campau was expecting to receive his dues, and asked if they consented to the arrangement, they replied that they were his children, under his protection, and expected that he would pay the money into their hands.

The general could not disregard their expressed wishes in this particular, and he therefore directed that the money be paid to them.

Upon this, Campau, seeing that his money was lost, and believing Smith to be the cause of his discomfiture, leaped from the platform where he had been standing, and struck the latter two stunning blows in the face.

Quick as lightning Smith turned on his assailant, but Henry Connor and Louis Beaufait interposed between the belligerents and stopped the fight, much to the disgust of Campau, who was smarting under a sense of what he believed to be gross injustice in the non-payment of his claims, and furious at being denied the privilege of taking vengeance on the man who had circumvented him.

When all the business of the day was closed, Gen. Cass directed that the fire-water should be allowed to flow, and under this order five barrels of government whisky were opened, and the liquor was dealt out to the Indians.

Upon seeing this, Campau, still filled with wrath at the treatment he had received, and blaming the general almost as much as Smith for it, ordered up ten barrels of his own whisky, knocked in the heads, and posted two men with dippers to supply the Indians as they came up.

Of course the scene of intoxication that ensued was indescribable.

At about ten o’clock, the governor, having become thoroughly alarmed at the infernal orgies that surrounded the trading-house in which he was quartered, sent his private secretary, Forsyth, with orders to Campau to shut off the supply of liquor; but the trader only deigned the grim reply, “You commenced it, general!”

Then a platoon of the 3rd Infantry was detailed to guard the store-house.

Soon after they had been posted, a new arrival of Indians demanded whisky, and, upon being refused and held at bay, rushed on the guard to force an entrance, during which attempt one of them received a bayonet wound in the leg.

In an instant the war-whoop was sounded, and in a few minutes more swarms of savages, infuriated with liquor and tomahawk in hand, came rushing towards the store.

“Stop the liquor, Louis!” screamed the Governor of Michigan Territory, as he stood in the door of his quarters with a night-cap on his head.

“We shall all be murdered! Stop the liquor, I say!” “Certainement, mon general,” replied Campau, “but you begun it, and you allowed Smith to rob me.

I’ll keep you safe, but remember you commenced it, mon general.”

He appeared to think that the satisfaction of thoroughly frightening Gen. Cass (who he said had allowed Jacob Smith to rob him) was cheaply enough purchased by the expenditure of ten barrels of whisky.

By the combined efforts of the interpreters and traders, the Indians were at length pacified, and they retired to their wigwams to sleep off the effects of their intoxication.

After they had entirely recovered from their debauch they became perfectly friendly and tractable, and even after the commissioner and his staff of assistants had departed for Detroit, they sent the orator-chief, Washmenondequet, to overtake him, and express to him their pleasure and satisfaction at the result of the council.

The area of the territory ceded by the treaty of Saginaw was estimated at about six millions of acres; its boundaries, as described in the treaty, being as follows:

“Beginning at a point in the present Indian boundary line [identical with the principal meridian of the State) which runs due north from the mouth of the great Auglaize River, six miles south of the place where the base line, so called, intersects the same ; thence west sixty miles [this corner being about three miles northeast of the present village of Kalamazoo) ; thence in a direct line to the head of Thunder Bay River; thence down the same, following the courses thereof, to the mouth; thence northeast to the boundary line between the United States and the British province of Upper Canada; thence with the same to the line established by the treaty of Detroit in the year 1807; and thence with said line to the place of beginning.”

From this cession various tribal reservations were made for the use of the Chippewa’s, viz.: on the east side of the Au Sable, a tract of 8000 acres, including an Indian village; 2000 acres on the Mesaquisk; 6000 acres, to include an Indian village, on the north side of the Kawkawling; 640 acres on the same river, “for the use of the children of Bokowtonden;” 9640 acres in three tracts, on the Huron (Cass) River; an island in Saginaw Bay; a tract of 2000 acres ” where Nabobask formerly stood;” 1000 acres ” near the island in Saginaw River;” 2000 acres “at the mouth of Point Augrais River;” 10,000 acres at Big Lick, on the Shiawassee, and 3000 acres on the same river at a place called Ketehewandaugenink; 6000 acres at Little Forks, on the Tetabawasink (Tittabawassee) River, and 6000 acres, near the same stream, “at Blackbird’s town ;” 40,000 acres “on the west side of the Saginaw River, to be hereafter located ;” and individual reservations of lands on the Saginaw to John Riley, Peter Riley, James Riley, and to “The Crow,” a Chippewa chief.

The tracts reserved on the Flint River, were “one tract of 5760 acres, to include Reaum’s [Neome’s] village, and a place called Kishkawbawee,” and the eleven reservations at the Grand Traverse of the Flint, granted as before mentioned to persons under names furnished by Jacob Smith and Louis Beaufait.

It has been mentioned above that the cession made by the Indians in the treaty of Detroit, in the year 1807, covered all of the present county of Genesee, excepting a small fraction in the northwestern corner, therefore including, of course, all the lands at the Grand Traverse, and far to the northward of it; so that these lands, having already been ceded to the United States, were really not within the possible scope of the Saginaw treaty, nor within the power of the Chippewa’s to sell.

But the Indians did not so understand it.

They had no means of knowing precisely where the diagonal line terminating at White Rock (as named in the treaty of 1807), would fall, and they believed that the northern boundary of that cession passed considerably to the southward of the most southerly bend of the Flint; when, in reality, it crossed that stream nearly ten miles by its course north of the present village of Flushing, leaving all of the river which is south and east of that point within the territory previously ceded to the United States.

The fact, however, that they believed themselves to be still the sole possessors of the beautiful valley of the Flint, is proof that they had never intended to include it in the cession of 1807.

Whether Gen. Cass knew that this region was comprehended within the limits of that cession—or, indeed, whether the northern boundary described by the treaty of Detroit was ever accurately run—does not appear; but if the commissioner was aware of the fact, he did not, and could not, insist on the right of the government to the lands at the Grand Traverse.

Only by tacitly admitting the Indian proprietorship in those lands could he have secured Jacob Smith’s consent to the treaty, and without that consent it is not probable that the treaty could have been concluded.

In consideration of the cession made by the Saginaw treaty, the United States agreed to pay to the Chippewa nation, annually, forever, the sum of one thousand dollars, in silver coin, and, also, that all annuities to be paid them in pursuance of the stipulations of previous treaties should thereafter be paid in silver.

The terms of the treaty of Greenville (in 1795), giving the Indians the right to hunt and fish at will upon the ceded lands, so long as they remained the property of the United States, were applied to this treaty.

They were also to be permitted to make sugar wherever they chose upon the same lands and during the same period, but without any unnecessary waste of the trees and the government reserved the right to construct necessary roads through any part of the reservations.

It was likewise stipulated in the treaty that “The United States engage to provide and support a blacksmith for the Indians at Saginaw, so long as the President of the United States may think proper, and to furnish such farming utensils and cattle, and employ such persons to aid them in their agriculture, as the President may deem expedient.”

PEWONIGOWINK RESERVATION.

The tribal reservation of five thousand seven hundred and sixty acres on the Flint River, before mentioned as including the village of the old chief Neome, ” and a place called Kishkabawee,” became known as the Pewonigowink reservation, and embraced within its area all of section 4, the west half of section 3, the east half of section 5, the north half of section 9, and the northeast and northwest quarters, respectively, of sections 8 and 10 in the present township of Montrose, in Genesee County, and something more than double that amount of land in Saginaw.

In the latter portion was included the old Indian Field, so well-known to the early travelers who passed down the valley of the Flint, and used its broad open space as a camping-ground.

PLANS FOR INDIAN EMIGRATION—TREATIES OF WASHINGTON (1836), DETROIT (1837), FLINT RIVER (1837), AND SAGINAW (1838).

It had been the intention of Gen. Cass to procure from the Indians at Saginaw an agreement that they would gradually emigrate from their old hunting-grounds in Michigan and remove beyond the Mississippi River, or, at least, to the country lying to the westward of Lake Michigan; but in this the commissioner was disappointed, as we have seen.

This repulse, however, did not cause the government to abandon its cherished idea, and, finally, after many long years of persuasion, the minds of the red men seemed to have become fully prepared to entertain the proposition for ultimate removal to the new countries of the far West.

In the year 1836 a council was held at Washington by Henry R. Schoolcraft, United States Commissioner, with the principal chiefs of the Chippewa and Ottawa nations, by which those nations ceded to the United States all the remaining part of the lower peninsula to which the Indian title had not before been extinguished, with the exception of a few reservations.

This treaty was concluded on the 28th of March, and proclaimed on the 27th of May, in the year named.

At the commencement of 1837, Mr. Schoolcraft, as Indian commissioner, met the chiefs and delegates of the Saginaw tribe of Chippewas at Detroit, where, on the 14th of January, a treaty was concluded by which the tribe ceded to the United States all the reservations, except those granted to individuals, under the Saginaw treaty of 1819, but retained the right to continue for five years in undisturbed occupation of their tracts on the Augrais River, and on the Mushowusk River west of the Saginaw: no white man to settle or encroach on those tracts under penalty of five hundred dollars.

The United States agreed to furnish a farmer and blacksmith for the tribe as before, and to continue the donations of cattle and farming utensils.

The lands embraced in the ceded reservations were to be surveyed by the United States and placed in the market with the other public lands as soon as practicable, and the amount due the Indians from this source to be invested by the President in some public stock, the interest to be paid annually to the tribe in the same manner as their annuities were paid; and if, at the end of twenty years, the Indians should wish the said stock to be sold and the proceeds divided among the tribe it might be done with the consent of the President and Senate.

By the terms of the treaty the tribe agreed to remove from the State of Michigan as soon as a proper location could be obtained, and for this purpose it was stipulated that a deputation should be sent to view the country occupied by their kindred tribes west of the most westerly point of Lake Superior; “and if an arrangement for their future and permanent residence can be made there, which shall be satisfactory to them and to the government, they shall be permitted to form a reunion with such tribes and remove thereto.

If such arrangement cannot be effected, the government of the United States will use its influence to obtain such location west of the Mississippi River as the legislation of Congress may indicate.”

The above was amended by a new treaty concluded on the 20th of December, 1837, at Flint River, between Henry R. Schoolcraft, commissioner, and the Saginaw chiefs and delegates, by the terms of which the United States agreed to reserve a location for the tribe ” on the head waters of the Osage River, in the country visited by a delegation of the said tribe during the present year; to be of proper extent agreeably to their numbers, embracing a due proportion of wood and water, and lying contiguous to tribes of kindred language;” the meaning and intent of this being to nullify and abrogate that article of the treaty of Jan. 14, 1837, which entitled them to a location in the country lying west of Lake Superior.

It was provided by the treaty that the sum of fifty cents for each acre of Indian land sold by the United States should be reserved “as an indemnification for the location to be furnished for their future permanent residence and to constitute a fund for emigrating thereto.”

The attesting witnesses to the treaty were John Garland, major U. S. A.; Henry Connor, sub-agent and interpreter; T. B. W. Stockton, Gardner D. Williams, Jonathan Beach; Chas. C. Hascall, receiver in the land-office at Flint; Albert J. Smith, Robert J. S. Page, Wait Beach, Rev. Luther D. Whitney, T. R. Cummings.

This treaty, although not of very great importance in its results, is mentioned here, more especially for the reason that it was held at the place where now stands the beautiful and prosperous city of Flint, at a time when the spot was marked only by the straggling dwellings of a few pioneer settlers; and because, among those who were present at the deliberations, there were many whose names are well known in the annals of the city and county; some of whom still live, and distinctly remember the interesting occasion.

About a month after the conclusion of the treaty of Flint River, the chiefs were again assembled in council with Commissioner Schoolcraft.

This time the council-fire was kindled at Saginaw.

The reasons for the calling of this convention, as set forth in the preamble to the treaty which

was there concluded (Jan. 23,1838), were, that ” the chiefs of the bands have represented that combinations of purchasers may be formed at the sale of their lands [meaning the reservation lands, relinquished by the treaty of Detroit, Jan. 14, 1837], for the purpose of keeping down the price thereof, both at the public and private sales, whereby the proceeds would be greatly diminished; and such a procedure would defeat some of the primary objects of the cession of the lands to the United States, and thereby originate difficulties to their early removal and expatriation to the country west of the Mississippi.”

To quiet these apprehensions, and to insure satisfaction and justice to both parties, it was provided in the treaty there made that the reservation lands, ceded by the treaty of Jan. 14,1837, should be offered for sale by proclamation of the President, and that the sales should be conducted in the same manner as the sales of other government lands; and that all lands brought into market under the provisions of the treaty of 1837 should be put up and offered for sale by the register and receiver of the respective land-offices, at five dollars per acre, which was declared as the minimum price; and if that price was not bid, the sales should thereupon be stopped; and no reservation lands should be disposed of, cither at public or private sale, at a less price than the one mentioned, during a period of two years from the commencement of such offering for sale.

But if, at the expiration of that period, any part of the reservation lands should remain unsold, then the minimum price should be diminished to two dollars and fifty cents per acre, at which price they should be subject to entry until all were sold.

If any of the lands should remain unsold at the end of five years from the ratification of this treaty, they were then to be sold at such price as they would command, provided that no such sale should be made for a price less than seventy-five cents per acre.

And finally, it was agreed that if the Indians should consent to emigrate, and give up the tracts at Augrais and Rifle River (the usufruct and occupancy of which had been reserved to them for five years by the treaty of Detroit in 1837) at any time within two years, they should receive therefor, from the United States, the minimum price of five dollars per acre; and if they should fail to so relinquish within that period, but should relinquish within the period for which the minimum price of two dollars and fifty cents per acre was established, then they should receive that minimum price per acre for the lands so given up and vacated.

But the plan of Indian emigration from Michigan, formed and fostered by the government, and assented to by the tribes in the treaties of Detroit, Flint River, and Saginaw, was never carried into effect; for, long before the expiration of the time named in the treaty for their departure, they had bitterly repented of their promise to remove to the land of the setting sun, and prayed the Great Father that they might be permitted to remain on the poor remnant of their once broad hunting-grounds, and to be buried near the graves of their fathers.

The government did not insist on the performance of their agreement, and no general Western emigration took place; but eventually the bands became in a great measure broken up, and the individual members gradually scattered away farther towards the north and west, some of them afterwards becoming the owners of small tracts by purchase (a course which was encouraged by the government), many removed to reservations in Isabella County, where they or their children are still living, and some crossed the river and lake into Canada.

INDIAN RESERVATIONS ON FLINT BIVEB.

Description of the Individual Reservations at the Grand Traverse— Their Location and Survey under authority of the Government— United States Patents issued to several of the Reservees—Long Litigation between rival Claimants to the Lands.

The Indian tract of Pewonigowink having been relinquished to the United States by the treaty of 1837, the only reservations which then remained within the territory now comprised in the county of Genesee were the eleven tracts granted to individuals named by Jacob Smith and others in the treaty of 1819.

The article of that treaty providing for these individual reservations declares that “there shall be reserved for the use of each of the persons hereinafter mentioned, and their heirs,—which persons are all Indians by descent,—the following tracts of land,” and after specifying the tracts of the Rileys and “The Crow,” on Saginaw River, as before mentioned, proceeds as follows:

“For the use of Nowokeshik, Metawanene, Mokitehenoqua, Nondashemau, Petabonaqua, Messawwakut, Cheebalk, Kitehegeequa, Sagosequa, Annoketoqua, and Tawcumegoqua, each six hundred and forty acres of land, to be located at or near the Grand Traverse of the Flint River, in such manner as the President of the United States may direct.”

Immediately after the conclusion of the treaty Jacob Smith removed to the Grand Traverse of the Flint, and there established his post.

He had foreseen the future importance of this point, and had acted accordingly in securing the reservations; but he probably considered the lands on the north side of the river to be more eligible than those lying on the south side, and he therefore located on the former, opening his business in a log house, which stood near the river-bank, on the ” burnt plain” of Muscatawingh.

In the year 1820, President Monroe, in pursuance of the provisions of the treaty, caused the eleven tracts to be surveyed, and located on both sides of the Flint River, at its southernmost bend; that is, at and near the Indian crossing place known as the Grand Traverse.

Six of these tracts were laid out on the north side of the river and five on the south side.

They were laid out in irregular forms, but each contained an area equal to one mile square.

They were numbered from one to eleven, inclusive; and their respective locations and allotment among the several reservees was as indicated in the accompanying diagram, copied from the plat of the survey.

These tracts have frequently been mentioned and named upon maps, collectively, as “Smith’s Reservation,” and the designation is perhaps not wholly incorrect; for, although Jacob Smith never claimed more than five of them for the reservees named by him, yet it seems clear that none of them could have been secured except through the exertion of his powerful influence with the Indians at the treaty.

A remnant of the Pewonigo Indians, however, continued to live on this reservation for a number of years after it will formally ceded to the United States.

Within the limits of these reservations was comprised nearly all the area of the present city of Flint; and the great appreciation of the value of the lands, resulting from their rapid settlement, led to much controversy and years of obstinate litigation between different parties laying claim to their ownership.

Jacob Smith died at the Grand Traverse early in the year 1825, leaving as his legal heirs five children,—one son and four daughters,—residing in Detroit.

His location at the Traverse had been on the reservation numbered two, where, besides his trading-house, he had a small tract under cultivation.

To what extent he had ever been in actual possession of any of the other reservations does not appear, but whatever his interest was, at this place, it was taken possession of soon after his death, by Maj. (afterwards Gen.) John Garland, his son-in-law, in the name of the heirs, for whom it was claimed that they were the true owners of the Indian names Metawanene, Annoketoqua, Sagosequa, Nondashemau, and Messawwakut, to whom, respectively, sections 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were allotted on the plat of the reservations made by direction of the President; these names, as was alleged, having been given them in infancy by their father’s Indian friends, who at that time frequently visited his house in Detroit.

There would have been nothing strange or unusual in their giving Indian names to white children and adults, the same thing having been done in the family of Maj. Oliver Williams, of Oakland County, every member of which received an Indian name from these same Chippewa’s, and many other similar instances are mentioned.

In this case, however, three of the five Indian names referred to were those of males, while four of the children of Jacob Smith were daughters.

When the tide of immigration began to set strongly in this direction, and it became apparent not only that the valley of the Flint Hiver must eventually take rank among the most favored and prosperous portions of Michigan, but that the Grand Traverse must become the most important point in all that fertile valley, the claimants to the five reservations above mentioned very naturally felt desirous of establishing an absolute title to the lands in question; and as an important preliminary step in that direction, all of those tracts (which had in the meantime been partially occupied by various lessees under Maj. Garland, the representative of the heirs of Jacob Smith) were taken in actual possession by Albert J. Smith, the claimant to the name and lands of Metawanene, he also acting on behalf of his three surviving sisters and of the heirs of their deceased sister Caroline.

This was in the year 1835.

At the next succeeding session of Congress these claimants memorialized the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, praying for the passage of an act authorizing the issuance of patents to them for the five reservations as surveyed in 1820, and numbered two, three, four, five, and six on the plat filed in the land-office.

Their petition—after setting forth the well-known and undisputed fact that their father, Jacob Smith, was present at the Saginaw treaty of 1819, and was greatly instrumental in bringing about a successful result to that negotiation— proceeded as follows:

“Although the reservations intended for your memorialists under the treaty of Saginaw have been partially occupied under them, and always known and acknowledged as being intended for them, yet they never have received or obtained such a title from Government as would authorize them to sell or convey any portion of the said lands, in consequence of their having been embraced— unintentionally, as your memorialists believe—among the number of reservations intended for persons being Indians ‘by descent;’ owing to which the General Land-Office has not felt authorized to issue patents for said land in the names of your memorialists. … In support of their prayer, your memorialists would respectfully refer you to the certificates of the chiefs and head men of the Chippewa nation, marked B, in which the claim of your memorialists is fully acknowledged and proven; also to the affidavits of respectable citizens of Michigan (numbered one, two, three, and four), who possess a knowledge of the facts and understood the intentions of the Indians.”

Indian Reservations in Genesee County image

 

The array of proof above alluded to as accompanying the memorial was, to say the least, exceedingly strong.

First, was a certificate or statement made by Chippewa chiefs, signers of the treaty of 1819, fully recognizing the rights and claims of the children of Jacob Smith.

This document, being an important one, is given here entire, as follows:

“The subscribers, chiefs and head men of the Chippewa nation, and subscribers to the treaty of Saginaw, hereby certify that the five reservations at and near the Grand Traverse of the Flint River, made by the treaty of 1819, were made and intended for the five following named persons, viz.: Metawanene, alias Albert J. Smith; Messawwakut, alias Harriet M. Smith; Sagosequa, alias Caroline Smith; Annoketoqua, alias Louisa L. Smith; and Nondashemau, alias Maria G. Smith (each six hundred and forty acres); known to us, and distinguished by the aforesaid names, as the children of the late Jacob Smith.

We further certify that the aforesaid donations to the children aforesaid were made in consideration of services rendered by said Smith (deceased) to the Chippewa nation, and the friendly intercourse that subsisted between the parties for many years.

We further certify that Metawaoene, alias Albert J. Smith, now present at the execution of this certificate, is the son of Jacob Smith, deceased, and that we recognize him as one of the five children to whom the before-mentioned donations were made and intended.

“Saginaw, January 22, 1835.

“Territory Of Michigan, Oakland County

“Personally appeared before the subscriber, a justice of the peace within and for the county of Oakland, Ephraim S. Williams, Esquire, who, being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith that he, this deponent, was present at the execution of the within certificate, and saw the within-named chiefs and head men make their marks to the said certificate.

Deponent further saith that the subscribers, chiefs and head men as aforesaid reside in the vicinity of Saginaw, Oakland County, and Territory of Michigan.

Deponent further saith that the contents of the certificate aforesaid were by him, fully explained, and were cheerfully assented to by the aforesaid chiefs and head men.

[Signed] “E. S. Williams.

“Sworn and subscribed before me this twenty-second day of January, 1S35.

“Thomas Simpson.”

This statement of the Chippewa chiefs was made at a council which had been called for the purpose at the place and date mentioned, chiefly through the influence and instrumentality of the brothers G. D. and E. S. Williams, who were then traders at Saginaw.

The meeting (which was not a formal treaty-council) was held in a building owned by the American Fur Company, and was presided over by Thomas Simpson,—known to the Indians as Lixaboga,—who was residing among the Chippewas to instruct them in agriculture at the expense of the government.

The chief interpreter on the occasion was Jacob Gravradt, who was assisted by Charles H. Rodd (who was regularly employed in that capacity by the American Fur Company), and also by Mr. Ephraim S. Williams, who spoke Chippewa as well as the chiefs themselves.

T. B. W. Stockton and Albert J. Smith were present as representatives of the Smith reservees, and the last named was at once and fully recognized by the chiefs as the Metawanene of the Saginaw treaty.

The principal personage among the chiefs was Ogemawkeketo, who had been recognized by Gen. Cass as the “chief speaker” of the Chippewas, and who still wore upon his breast the government medal of silver which had been presented to him by the general in 1819.

Here, as on the occasion of Cass’ treaty, this “chief speaker” opposed, at first, the object for which the chiefs had been called together.

He fully understood that the Grand Traverse reservations had by the terms of the old treaty been granted to certain persons who were mentioned as all being of Indian descent, and seeing in this a circumstance which might inure to the benefit of the tribe by causing the lands to revert to them, he made a strong speech to the effect that as the lands had been granted to individuals of Indian descent, which these children of Jacob Smith were not, and as during the sixteen years which had passed since the granting of the reservations no person bearing a trace of Indian blood had ever laid claim to them, it was plain that they had never yet passed from the ownership of the Chippewas; therefore, the tribe should retain them until the government or individuals should be ready to purchase at a fair price.

This seemed to be a reasonable argument, and might have been fatal to the claims of the white reservees had it been adhered to; but the assembled chiefs had not yet forgotten their good and steadfast friend Wahbesins, and now they did not hesitate to declare that his white children were the rightful owners of the reservations in the true meaning and intent of the treaty.

Even the astute “chief speaker” receded from the position which he had first taken, and the name of Ogemawkeketo was placed at the head of all those of the chiefs who signed the instrument.

Certificates to the same effect—declaring the white children of Jacob Smith to be the persons to whom the Chippewas had intended to give the five sections of land in question—were procured from chiefs and head men at Big Rock village on the Shiawassee, Sept. 30, 1835: at Flint River, September, 1835; and at Grand Saline, Oct. 31, 1835; these being made through Capt. Joseph F. Marsac, interpreter to the Indian department, and in the presence of Stephen V. R. Trowbridge and Lieut. Alfred Brush, of the United States army.

The depositions of Major Robert A. Forsyth, who had drafted the treaty of 1819, and of James Connor, who also took part in the treaty (the former taken before Judge George Morell, and the latter before Judge Solomon Sibley), were to the effect that it was understood by them, at the time the treaty was made, that five or six reservations had been intended by the Indians for the children of Jacob Smith, who was a great favorite among them.

All of the above-mentioned documents were laid before Congress in support of the petition of the Smith claimants, as was also the following memorial from persons residing principally at Flint River and in that vicinity, viz.:

“To the Honorable, the Senate of the United States:

“The undersigned, citizens of the Territory of Michigan, residing in the vicinity of certain lands reserved to the heirs of Jacob Smith, under the treaty of Saginaw, having understood that a certain bill is now pending before your honorable body for the relief of the heirs of said Jacob Smith, have thought proper to represent that the confirmation of the said grants to the said heirs would greatly advance the settlement and improvement of this part of the Territory, and that the delay in the perfecting of the title to said lands has already been of serious injury to this portion of the Territory.

The undersigned would, therefore, respectfully petition that the above-mentioned bill may become a law, there being no doubt that the equitable title to said lands is in the said heirs, and that strict justice requires of the general government a confirmation of the same:

“Lyman Stow, “Thomas J. Drake,

This was, at that time, considered as a final settlement of the question of title to these reservations; but it was not very long before the opinion began to be entertained by some (an opinion which was afterwards sustained by the courts) that these patents did not and could not convey a title as against any person or persons who could prove themselves to be the rightful reserves in the true intent and meaning of the treaty.

It would seem that the proofs adduced by the Smith heirs had been ample for the establishment of their claims, but there were still doubts whether they could hold under the article of the treaty which provided that the lands granted should be for the use of persons of Indian descent only.

About this time it was discovered that a young Chippewa, whose English name was Jack, and who had been brought up and protected by Jacob Smith, claimed to be the real Metawanene, and consequently the owner of the reservation numbered two on the land-office plat; and also that some Indian women made the same claim to sections which had been patented to the daughters of Mr. Smith.

In March, 1842, the Indian claimant to reservation numbered two, deeded that tract to Gardner D. Williams, of Saginaw, who in June, 1845, conveyed one moiety of the same to Daniel D. Dewey, of Genesee; and by these a suit was commenced in the Circuit Court for the establishment of the claim of the alleged true Metawanene, and the possession of the lands.

After many years of delay, this cause came to final trial in 1856, at the March term, held by Judge Sanford M. Green, in the city of Flint.

Plaintiffs, Messrs. Williams and Dewey. Defendant, Chauncey S. Payne.

Attorneys for plaintiffs, Hon. Moses Wisner, James H. C. Blades. For the defendant, Messrs. E. C. and C. I. Walker, of Detroit, John Moore, of Saginaw City, and Charles P. Avery of Flint; which last-named gentleman had then recently purchased an undivided half of Mr. Payne’s interest in the property, thus becoming equally interested with him in the result of the suit.

In support of the plaintiff’s claim there were brought forward four Indian witnesses, who testified through the sworn interpreter to the court, the Rev. Henry P. Chase, of Muncey Town, Canada West. These witnesses were Nahwahchegome, Kahkagezhick, Francis Roy, and Pero Roy, of Saginaw; the first two being full-blood Chippewas and the others half-breeds.

Their testimony was to the effect that the Indian, Jack, who was associated with the plaintiffs upon the record, was known by them to be the true Metawanene for whom section two was reserved; that at the time of the treaty of 1819 he was about four or five years old, and that on that occasion he was brought into the council-house and placed before the commissioner, Gen. Cass.

Albert J. Smith had, in 1836, deeded to Mr. Payne an undivided three-fourths, and to T. B. W. Stockton an undivided one-fourth, of the reservation.

In 1810, Mr. Stockton conveyed his interest to Mr. Payne, who thus became sole owner.

These witnesses (who are represented as having been unenlightened pagans) did not sustain themselves well under cross-examination; and a part of their testimony was directly contradicted by that of Gen. Cass,—taken upon commission,—which was to the effect that no children were produced before him at the treaty as the designated reservees.

The defense brought twelve Indian witnesses,—among whom were several chiefs,—who testified that the Indian claimant was not the true Metawanene of the treaty; that he was the son of a Canada Indian whose name was Shayogemaus, and that his own name, from the time of his christening, was Ahnemekeens, and that they had been intimately acquainted with his personal history from the time when he was first laid in his bark cradle.

One of these witnesses, an old woman named Moosequay, said she was present at the birth of the claimant, the date of which she placed at about two years after the treaty of Saginaw.

This woman was a Christianized Indian, as were also several others of the witnesses for the defense. They also testified that Albert J. Smith, son of Jacob, had been adopted, while yet a small boy, by the old chief, Neome, in the place of a deceased grandson, and that from that time he had uniformly been recognized by the Indians as Metawanene; this adoption having taken place before the treaty, at Mr. Smith’s house in Detroit.

Among the white witnesses were the Rev. D. C. Jacokes, E. D. Young, Daniel S. Freeman, and P. O. Johnson.

Mr. Jacokes testified that he had made these Indian claims the subject of thorough and impartial examination at an early day, and at a time when it was his interest to establish them as rightful claims if it could be done, the result of which investigation was that in no instance did a single Indian allege that any one of those five sections had been intended for any other than the white children of Jacob Smith.

Both he and Mr. Freeman also stated that in conversation with them, at various times, the Indian, Ahnemekeens (or “Jack”), had told them that he had never thought of his having a claim, or that his name was Metawanene until it had been suggested to him by white men.

The defense also embraced the evidence contained.in the verified statements of the Chippewa chiefs, which were laid before Congress, as before mentioned, as well as several less interesting points.

The jury after short deliberation rendered a verdict in favor of the defendant, thus deciding a case which, during years of litigation, had caused much excitement and some bitter feeling, and which is a matter of general historical interest in the annals of the county.

The trial of a similar suit, involving the title to reservations numbers three and four, was also had before Judge Green, at Flint, in the December term in the same year, resulting, as in the case of section 2, adversely to the Indian title.

The suit was brought in the names of two of the Indian women, before mentioned, who claimed to be the real Annoketoqua and Sagosequa, and consequently owners of the tracts which had been patented respectively to Louisa L. Smith and to the heirs of Caroline Smith, deceased.

For the plaintiff there appeared several Indians who were, or claimed to have been, at the treaty of 1819, and whose testimony was given to show that the reservations were not intended for the children of Jacob Smith, but for the daughters of Neome, and that the Indian claimants in this case were the daughters of that chief.

The defense brought two Indians and three white men who were present at the treaty, whose testimony went to show the great influence exerted by Smith at the treaty, and that old Neome favored Smith’s wishes, but desired no lands for his own children.

The testimony of General Cass for the defense was to the effect that he understood the reservations to have been intended for half-breeds, and not to full-blood Indians, as the granting of reservations to the last-named class was contrary to the policy of the government.

(The Indian claimants in this case were full-blood Chippewas.)

He further testified that he did understand at the treaty that the design of Jacob Smith was to obtain reservations for his white children, and that to defeat that design he (General Cass) had caused to be inserted in the treaty the words “all of whom are Indians by descent.”

But it was held by the court that whatever the intention of General Cass might have been, yet if it had been the intention of the Indian grantors to give the lands for the use of the white children of Jacob Smith, the fee was thus vested in them, notwithstanding the insertion of the descriptive words “Indians by descent.”

The same counsel who had conducted the case of section 2 appeared also in this.

The trial occupied three days, and at its conclusion the jury, after a retirement of less than an hour, returned a verdict for the defendant representing the Smith interest.

But the end was not yet.

The case involving the title to these two sections (Gregory vs. Frost,—the defendant holding under the Smith heirs) was removed by change of venue to the Circuit Court of Oakland County, and came to trial there in September, 1860.

About the time when the question first began to be agitated, in reference to the validity of the title of the Smith children to the reservations, General Cass, in response to a request for a statement of the facts, wrote a letter, which was placed on file in the Indian Department at Washington, of which the following is a copy: “Detroit, Juno 22, 1831.

“I have been requested to state the facts connected with the reservation of eleven sections of land at Flint River, made under the treaty of Saginaw, so far as respects any interest held therein by the children of Jacob Smith.

At the time this reservation was made, I understood that the Indians intended that a number of the sections —I believe five or six—should be granted to the children of Smith, and the names given by them as the grantees of these sections were said to be his children.

From circumstances not necessary to detail here, I was led to suspect that Smith designed the land for his white children, and that most of the names purporting to be those of his Indian children were, in fact, the names of his white children, which the Indians—who were in the habit of frequenting his house—had given to them.

To guard against the consequences of this attempt, I therefore inserted in the article providing for these reservations a clause confining them to persons of Indian descent, I have an indistinct recollection that one young girl was spoken of as the Indian daughter of Smith, but cannot remember her name.

I know Louis Beaufait and Henry Connor well; they were both at the treaty of Saginaw, and they are very honest men, in whose statements full confidence may be placed.

(Signed) “Lewis Cass.”

The testimony here was the same as at the trial of four years before in Genesee, except that the defendant introduced, in addition, that of Mr. Le Parle, of Monroe, and Jean Baptiste Trudell, of Bay County, which was very strong in confirmation of the other evidence for the defense.

Testimony for the plaintiff, given by several Indian and half-breed witnesses, was successfully impeached, and a verdict was rendered for the defendant.

The plaintiff had urged, as a principal argument in favor of the change of venue, that a fair trial could not be had in Genesee County, for the reason, not only, that many individuals there were interested in sustaining the Smith title, because holding under it, but also that a large majority of the people of Flint were favorable to it, in the belief that its overthrow would be detrimental to the interests of the city.

The case, therefore, having been tried at a distance from all such alleged influences, was regarded as a test case, and the verdict was a final decision in favor of the Smith title to the five reservations numbered from two to six inclusive.

Protracted litigation resulted also from a controversy concerning the title to reservation eight, which was allotted in the survey of 1820 to Mokitchenoqua.

This Indian name was claimed (justly, as it afterwards appeared) by Elizabeth Lyons, a half-breed daughter of Archibald Lyons, an Indian trader.

She was one of three girls, or women, all half-breeds, who at different times laid claim to the reservation, and who received from the register and receiver of the land-office at Detroit, certificates of identification, as Mokitehenoqua, the rightful reservee under the treaty.

The certificate to Elizabeth was obtained Aug. 2, 1824.

The next claimant was Marie Lavoy, who obtained a certificate of identity Feb. 7, 1827; and the last was Nancy Crane (wife of Alexander D. Crane), formerly Nancy Smith, a reputed daughter of Jacob Smith.

She received her certificate July 22, 1831.

This was endorsed and confirmed by the Commissioner of the General Land Office at Washington, Aug. 5, 1835, and on the 7th of March, 1840, a patent was issued for the section of land “to Mokitchenoqua, alias Nancy Crane, wife of Alexander

* “Archie Lyons was a trustworthy agent of the Messrs. Williams [Gardner D. and Ephraim S. Williams, traders at Saginaw, and on the Tittabawassee], whose history is identified with the Saginaw Valley prior to the treaty.

He was a fine penman, well educated, and a musician of no little skill.

He was located at the Little Forks of the Tittabawassee (Midland City), and in coming down from that point on the ice upon skates for the purpose of playing the violin for a dancing-party at Saginaw he was drowned.

His track was found on the ice the next day, to the edge of the hole into which he had skated, leaving no doubt as to his fate.”—Hon. C P. Avery.

f Soon after the issuance of this certificate to Mario Lavoy, a council was held at Saginaw by Chippewa chiefs, who certified before Col. Stanard (a justice of the peace), and in presence of Archibald Lyons, that they had, at the treaty, reserved a section of land at the Flint River for Mokitehenoqua, tho daughter of Lyons.

This was testified to by Antoine Campau at one of the trials which subsequently grew out of her claim.

Not long after this Lyons was drowned in the Tittabawassee, but the above-mentioned fact proves that while living he recognized her claim to lands on the Flint (and not at Big Rock on the Shiawassee), and that he took measures to establish it.

D. Crane, formerly Naney Smith.”

In the meantime (June 30, 1835), she had united with her husband in a release of all their interest in the lands to Maj. John Garland.

The interest of Elizabeth Lyons was conveyed by her on the 4th of April, 1838, to Gardner D. Williams and Kintzing Pritchette, who, in February, 1840, brought an action of ejectment against T. B. W. Stockton and Chauncey S. Payne, occupants of the section under title conveyed to them from Maj. Garland.

Four months later (June 11, 1840), Stockton and Payne filed a bill in chancery, praying that Williams and Pritchette be restrained from prosecuting their action of ejectment, and decreed to release their claim to the premises.

Associated with these as defendants were Calvin Smith, Thomas J. Drake, and Elizabeth Lyons; Nancy Crane having on the 10th of February, 1837, joined with her husband in a conveyance of two-thirds of her interest in the section to Messrs. Smith and Drake, who were charged with notice of the deed of the same interest to Maj. Garland, made twenty months before.

This case was tried before Chancellor Manning in February, 1843.

In the testimony, as reviewed by the Chancellor, there were but few points of general interest.

Henry Connor, the interpreter at the treaty, testified that he did not know of any reservation being made for Elizabeth Lyons.

Robert A. Forsyth, who drafted the treaty, said he thought that the name of Mokitcheweenoqua was among those handed in by Jacob Smith to be inserted as reservees.

Louis Beaufait, interpreter at the treaty, said that Jacob Smith, a few months after the treaty, showed him a list of names of those for whom he had obtained each a section of land, and he thought that among them was Mokitcheweenoqua.

Cecil Boyer (a woman) was at the treaty, and heard there that a reservation had been made at the Grand Traverse of the Flint for Mokitcheweenoqua, who, she believed, was Jacob Smith’s only child of Indian descent.

She had also heard that Elizabeth Lyons had a tract reserved for her at Shiawassee.

Eshtonaquot, alias Macons, testified strongly in favor of the claim of Nancy Smith, but admitted that he did not know that Mr. Smith had ever claimed more than one section under the treaty.

The testimony for the defense was much stronger.

Rose Campau said that Elizabeth Lyons had been brought up in her family in Detroit, and had frequently been visited there by her Indian relatives, who always called her Mokitehenoqua, and that she had often heard them say that a section had been reserved for Elizabeth by the treaty.

Josette Knaggs, widow of Whitmore Knaggs (who was chief interpreter at the treaty), testified that her husband had told her, on his return from the council at Saginaw, that a section of land had been given to Elizabeth Lyons.

She had also heard the same from Indians of the tribe, and from the half-breeds, Peter and James Riley.

An important witness for the defense was Rufus W. Stevens, a prominent and most respectable citizen of Genesee County.

He testified that he had been told by Jacob Smith that section 7 had been reserved for Edward Campau, section 8 for Archibald Lyons’ daughter, and others for his (Smith’s) children, on the north side of the river, but that he made no claim for them to lands on the south side of the river.

Louis Moran testified that when, on one occasion, he had inquired of Jacob Smith as to the ownership of certain lands at the Flint, the latter replied that it was a section which had been reserved for Archibald Lyons’ daughter by the treaty.

John Baptist Trudell said he was present at the treaty; that all the chiefs told him at the time that Lyons’ daughter had land reserved for her; that Jacob Smith, while he resided at the Flint, told him that Lyons’ daughter had a section of land there on the opposite side of the river; that he (Smith) spoke of this a number of times, and only a short time before his death.

Nearly the same facts were testified to by Peter Whitmore Knaggs (who was at the treaty) and by several others.

The chancellor, in reviewing the testimony, said in effect that he did not consider that adduced by the complainants to be entitled to much weight, and that the preponderance of evidence was decidedly in favor of the defense.

The facts testified to for the defense by Rufus W. Stevens, Louis Moran, and J. B. Trudell, concerning Jacob Smith’s frequent admissions that his children claimed no reservations on the south side of the river, were held by the chancellor to be most important.

In reference to these he said: “The repeated declarations of Smith after the treaty that there was a section reserved at the Flint for Lyons’ daughter is almost conclusive of itself.

He claimed five sections at that place, under the treaty, for himself or children, and took possession of them, but he never claimed section 8.

No one, perhaps, was more anxious to secure personal advantage by the treaty, or knew better for whom reservations were made, than Smith himself.”

The court, therefore, refused to decree the release of the defendants’ claims, and the bill was dismissed.

The complainants then appealed the case to the Supreme Court, where it was tried at the January term in 1845, resulting in a decision affirming the decree of the Court of Chancery.

Upon this decision, Williams and Pritchette proceeded with their ejectment suit, and in due time it was brought to trial.

The evidence adduced by them here was the same as in the previous trials, but it did not prove sufficiently strong and convincing to establish the claim of Elizabeth Lyons.

The decision was in favor of Messrs. Stockton and Payne, and this was a final settlement of the case.

Reservation No. 1 has also been the subject of long and vexatious controversy at law between opposing parties, each of whom claimed to hold under the true Tawcumegoqua, for whom the section was reserved by the treaty, and to whom it was allotted in the survey of 1820.

One of the persons—for whom it was claimed that she was the true reservee of this section—was a half-breed daughter of the before-mentioned French trader, Bolieu, by his full-blood Indian wife.

This girl was named in French Angelique, but in Chippewa Tawcumegoqua.

At the age of about twelve years she was sent to the white settlements at or near Detroit, and there partially educated.

On attaining womanhood she married a Frenchman named Coutant, and settled near Connor’s Creek, in Hamtramck, Wayne Co., where she continued to reside (living after the manner of the French inhabitants of the neighborhood) during the remainder of her life.

By her marriage with Coutant she had two children,—a son and daughter.

After his death she married Jean Baptiste St. Aubin, but by him had no children.

At the time when the treaty of Saginaw was made she was fully forty years of age, and about eight years later she died, leaving her two children, Simon and Angelique Coutant, as her sole heirs-at-law.

Both these children married, the husband of Angelique being Nicholas Chauvin.

It appears that Madam Coutant (otherwise St. Aubin) had claimed to be the owner of the reservation in question, and that after her death her heirs made the same claim, though neither had had actual possession or had taken any legal steps to secure it.

But on the 17th of October, 1833, Simon Coutant and his wife Marie conveyed all their interest in the section, by deed, to Joseph Campau, of Detroit, for the consideration of four hundred and eighty dollars; and on the 18th of the same month, Nicholas Chauvin and his wife (formerly Angelique Coutant) conveyed all their interest in the tract, by deed, to the same grantee. Subsequently (June 24, 1839) these transactions were confirmed by a deed from the same parties to Campau, who, about the same time, took possession by the placing of one or more tenants upon the tract.

On the.26th of February, 1845, a patent for the section was issued to Mr. Campau, in pursuance of the authority conferred by act of Congress, approved June 15, 1844.

The other claimant to the reservation, under the name of Tawcumegoqua, was a full-blood Chippewa woman, the daughter of Mixanene, brother of the old chief Neome.

She was about six years of age at the time of the treaty, and about the year 1830 she was married to Kahzheauzungh, a full-blood Indian, by whom she had three children.

On the 13th of August, 1841, she joined with her husband in a deed conveying the whole of Reservation No. 1 to John Bartow and Addison Stewart, the last named gentleman having been for several years in possession of a small portion of the tract, though claiming no title to the land on account of such occupation.

On the 6th of April, 1855, Lucy Stewart, widow of Addison Stewart (deceased), and his minor heirs, by their guardian, conveyed their interest in the section to Daniel D. Dewey, and John Bartow conveyed his interest in it to William Hamilton, by deed dated July 3d, in the same year.

Thus, whatever title to the tract had originally vested in the full-blood daughter of Mixanene was now held by Messrs.

Dewey and Hamilton, while all the right to the tract which had formerly been possessed by the half-breed daughter of Bolieu (Madame Coutant) was held by Joseph Campau, who claimed to have been in actual possession since the year 1838.

Under these circumstances, Dewey and Hamilton commenced a suit in ejectment against Campau in the Circuit Court of Genesee.

The trial resulted adversely to the plaintiffs, who thereupon carried the cause to the Supreme Court, where the judgment of the court below was affirmed.

The loss of the case to the plaintiffs was on account of an informality in the acknowledgment of the deed from the Indian claimant.

This defect was remedied by a new conveyance from her husband and children, she having died in the year 1848.

On the 24th of November, 1856, Alvin T. Crosman (who had acquired title by mean conveyances from the heirs of Tawcumegoqua) quit-claimed his interest in the entire section to George M. Dewey and Rufus J. Hamilton; and on the 20th of July, 1857, Daniel D. Dewey and William Hamilton quit-claimed to the same grantees, who, in August of that year, brought action of ejectment in the Genesee County Court against Joseph Campau and Alexander McFarlan (the latter a lessee under Campau).

On the 29th of April, following, the venue was removed to Saginaw County, where the cause was finally tried in the Circuit Court, before Judge W. F. Woodworth, at the January term in 1860.

At this trial,* “evidence was adduced on the part of the plaintiffs tending to prove that at the time of the treaty of Saginaw, and for many years prior and subsequent thereto, a band of Chippewa Indians resided at the village of Pewonigowink, on the Flint River, and about ten miles below the Grand Traverse of that river, at the place where the present city of Flint is located.

That during all the time referred to Nome was the chief of this band; that Tonedogane was the principal warrior or second chief of this band, and succeeded Neome in the chieftainship on his decease.

That one Mixanene was also a member of this band, a brother of Neome, and that Mixanene had a daughter, named Tawcumegoqua, who was about six years of age at the time of the treaty, and was a member of Neome’s family.

That Neome also had three children,—two females, Sagosaqua and Owanonaquatoqua, the former about ten or twelve years old at the time of the treaty, the latter a woman grown, and one boy, Ogibwok [supposed by some to have been the real “Checbalk,” to whom section 9 should have been allotted), who was about fifteen years of age,—and a grandson called Metawanene; that all the children named were full-blood Indian children. . . .

That Neome, his children, and said grandchild, and his band, including Tonedogane, and also Mixanene and his little daughter Tawcumegoqua, were present at the treaty.

That Jacob Smith was there also.

That on the night prior to the last council, at which the treaty was read over and agreed to, Jacob Smith came to Neome’s tent and advised him to get special reservations of land for his children, and promised to assist him in doing so.

That at the grand council, held the next day between the Indians and Gen. Cass, Neome came forward before Gen. Cass with his three children and said grandchild, Metawanene, and also his niece, Tawcumegoqua, Mixanene being with him and Jacob Smith standing by his side, and asked for reservations of land for these children; that Gen. Cass assented, and that the names of the children were written down, and that it was talked of and understood at the treaty that these children got special reservations of land.”

The testimony of the chief Nocchicame, and others was also introduced by the plaintiffs to show that Mixanene’s daughter, Tawcumegoqua, was married about 1830 to Kahzheauzungh, and to identify her as the same person who joined with her husband in the deed to John Barton and Addison Stewart, April 29, 1846 ; that she died in the fall of 1818, and that the persons who joined with her husband in the deeds to John Moore and A. T. Crosman were her children and heirs.

The defendants introduced evidence showing that their Tawcumegoqua (alias Madame Coutant) was the daughter of the trader Bolieu, and an Indian woman (his wife) who was related by blood to the chiefs Neome and Tonedogane, and tending to prove that she (the daughter) was the true reservee.

Among this evidence was the deposition of Henry Connor (then deceased) taken before David E. Harbaugh, a justice of the peace for Wayne County, Feb. 20, 1839, as follows: “I, Henry Connor, of Wayne County, State of Michigan, do solemnly swear that I was an Indian interpreter at the treaty held with the Indians at Saginaw, in the year 1819, and that Tawcumegoqua, a half-breed Indian woman, was present at said treaty; that I acted as interpreter for her in the matter of her claim to a section of land at or near the Grand Traverse on Flint River, in the then Territory of Michigan.

I was well acquainted with said Tawcumegoqua during a period of more than thirty years, and I know that she was the identical woman to whom the Indians then granted and intended to grant a section of land situated near the Grand Traverse of the Flint River aforesaid.

I do also know that she was married to a Frenchman named Coutant, and was called by the French inhabitants Angelique Coutant.

That she had two children by said Coutant, called Simon and Angelique Coutant, and that these two children are the only heirs of the said Tawcumegoqua.”

It was urged that this testimony was of great weight and importance, from the fact that Connor (on account of the position held by him at the treaty) must of necessity have been fully acquainted with all the circumstances, and with the intentions of the Indians, and also from the fact that his entire truthfulness and honesty were vouched for by General Cass, and others who had known him intimately for many years.

George B. Knaggs testified for the defense that he knew Madame Coutant and that he saw her at the treaty, that she was the person to whom the Indians intended to give the reserved tract, and this was understood by common conversation among them afterwards.

This witness, however, did not sustain himself well under cross-examination, and his statements appear to have been received with distrust by the court.

Louis Campau, the old trader (who, at the time of this trial, was living in retirement at Grand Rapids), testified for the defense.

He was present at the treaty of 1819, and here gave a detailed account of the proceedings on that occasion.

He said Mrs. Coutant was present, and was then called by her Indian name, which the Indians accepted; that she was presented by that name to General Cass, and that after her interview with him in the presence of the chiefs, he (Campau) asked her if she got the land, and she replied, “Yes, my son, my relations have pitied me, and given me a piece of land.”

He said that he met the chief, Tonedogane, who spoke of Mrs. Coutant by her Indian name, and called her his aunt, and that not only this Indian, but also the chiefs, Neome, Kabamiscobe, and Podagnass, told him that they had given her lands.

This witness also testified that although he had been well acquainted with Neome since 1815, and knew all the hunters of his band, he had never known or heard that the old chief had any children, as had been stated by the witnesses on the other side.

The trial, which was a long and interesting one, terminated on the 15th of February by a verdict in favor of the plaintiffs.

Upon this a writ of restitution was issued, and Messrs. Dewey and Hamilton were placed in possession of the tract by Sheriff Lewis Buckingham on the 29th of November, 1860.

From the Circuit Court of Saginaw County the cause was carried by the defeated party to the Supreme Court, on a writ of error and bill of exceptions, and came to trial at the October term in 1861; resulting in an affirmation of the judgment of the court below.

The foregoing account of the principal suits, involving the original title to these reservations, may be thought unnecessarily extended; but it has been made so not only because of the great interest which was felt in them by the people of this vicinity, and on account of the singularly conflicting nature of the evidence adduced, but also for the reason that (as was remarked to the writer by one of the most prominent citizens of Flint, and one who is intimately acquainted with the matter of which he speaks) “the settlement of the titles to the seven thousand acres embraced in the Smith reservations has caused twenty times more trouble, anxiety, and litigation than all the other land-titles in the county of Genesee.”

This remark, however, does not properly apply to the reservations on the south side of the river, excepting number eight, which has been mentioned above at some length.

The first of these (commencing at the lowest point on the river) was the one numbered eleven, of which the reservee was Kitchegeequa, a half-breed, otherwise known as Catharine Mene, who died a few years after the treaty.

On the 30th of May, 1830, a patent was issued to Charles Mene and the other heirs of Catharine, and the title thus confirmed, proved good and valid.

The reserves of the adjoining tract (number ten) was Phillis Beaufait (otherwise Petabonequa), a half-breed daughter of Colonel Louis Beaufait.

Holders of titles derived from her found themselves secure; and this was also the case on reservation nine, which was granted to the half-breed Checbalk, otherwise Jean Visger, or John Fisher, a member of the “Fisher tribe” or band, several of whom are still living in the county.

Nowokeshik, to whom reservation number seven was allotted, was Francois Edouard Campau, a half-breed son of Barney Campau.

A patent for this tract was issued to him June 12, 1825, and on the 1st of April, 1830, he conveyed it by deed to John Todd, the pioneer of the Flint River settlement.

Within this reservation is now included all of the second, and the greater part of the third ward of Flint, embracing the most populous and valuable portion of the city.

Categories: Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.

mayanexplore.com

Riviera Maya Travel Guide

Cajun Food, Louisiana History, and a Little Lagniappe

Preservation of traditional River Road cuisine, Louisiana history & architecture, and the communities between Baton Rouge & NOLA

Jali Wanders

Wondering and Wandering

Southpaw Tracks

“If ever a time should come, when vain and aspiring men shall possess the highest seats in Government, our country will stand in need of its experienced patriots to prevent its ruin.” ~Samuel Adams

Pacific Paratrooper

This WordPress.com site is Pacific War era information

what's the formula?

Nurturing awesomeness: from the parents of celebrities, heroes, trailblazers and leaders

Tarheel Red

A Voice of Conservatism Living in Carolina Blue

cancer killing recipe

Just another WordPress.com site

dreamshadow59

A great WordPress.com site

Mike's Look at Life

Photography, memoirs, random thoughts.

Belle Grove Plantation Bed and Breakfast

Birthplace of James Madison and Southern Plantation

Letters for Michael

Lessons on being gay, of love, life and lots of it

Sunny Sleevez

Sun Protection & Green Info

Backcountry Tranquility

A journal about my travels and related experiences :)

LEANNE COLE

Art and Practice

Endless Wanders

Travel, culture and lifestyle from around the world. All rights reserved.

BunnyandPorkBelly

life is always sweeter and yummier through a lens. bunnyandporkbelly [at] gmail [dot] com

%d bloggers like this: