Michigan

Dr. J. L. Whiting on early Detroit, Black Hawk, Cholera and speaking on the ‘the father of medicine in Michigan.’


DR. J. L. WHITING.

Evening News, April 30, 1880.

Dr. Whiting, after fifteen years of successful practice as a physician and surgeon, retired from the profession to engage in the forwarding and commission business.

Concerning this step, he said, “The tide of immigration from the east was beginning to pour in upon us in a steady flood, and the business was most promising.

I quit medicine to follow my new venture in February, 1832, but I was compelled to return to it in July, and work harder at it than ever I had in my life.

The cholera had broken out.

“The dreadful disease was brought to us by a vessel carrying troops ordered to the scene of the Black Hawk war, a war almost unknown to the history readers of this generation.

You are aware that Black-Hawk was a powerful Sac chief, somewhat after the Pontiac pattern.

The Sacs and Winnebago’s of Wisconsin had long been ugly and spoiling for a fight.

They were angry over the rapidly advancing colonization of Illinois, and dreaded further white encroachment.

In the spring of

1832 they commenced warfare upon the frontier settlements of Illinois, killing, scalping, burning, and outraging, and a national as well as a militia force was sent out to teach them a lesson.

After a number of fights the United States troops and Illinois militia, under General Atkinson, inflicted a crushing defeat upon the redskins at the junction of the Bad Axe River with the Mississippi, capturing Black-Hawk and his son and drove the Indians beyond the father Hawk and his son were taken to Washington. On their return Black Hawk stopped for a while in Dtroit, where I saw them both.

Young Black Hawk fell desperatly in love with a prominent society belle and wanted to honor honor her by making her his squaw.

She declined the proffered dignity for reasons best known to herself, but she has never married, and is still living in a state of single blessedness at Mackinac.

“Well, as I was saying,” continued the doctor, “I had just about got used to my new work down at the dock, when along came these troops with the cholera.

One of the men died of a pronounced case of Asiatic cholera on the Fourth of July.

The military surgeon accompanying the detachment was scared almost out of his wits, and immediately upon landing betook himself to bed in the hotel.

The commanding officer, thus deserted, called upon Dr. Rice, an able physician and an amiable man, to attend the sick, and Rice came to me to ask me to go with him.

I didn’t care to go, for I knew, though I had never seen a case of

Cholera that it was frightfully contagious and rapid in its results, and I told Rice so.

He urged that he had been authorized by the quartermaster to spare no expense in securing the most competent help, and finally he persuaded me to go with him.

I told my wife when I went home that Saturday evening that I had been called upon to attend the sick soldiers.

She looked grave and sorrowful, but said that as it was a case of duty she could not ask me to back out.

“That night sixteen cases were brought ashore and placed in the quartermaster’s stores, which had been converted into a temporary cholera hospital.

The stores were back of Fisk’s present crockery warehouse, between Jefferson Avenue and the river, fronting on Woodbridge Street.

Of the sixteen cases eleven proved fatal before morning.

“On the same day Dr. Rice had the sick call sounded and carefully examined every man of the detachment.

To everyone who showed predisposing symptoms of the disease, such as the premonitory diarrhea, he administered a thumping dose of ipecacuanha and calomel on the spot.

It acted like a charm.

There wasn’t another new case in the command.

After the dead were interred the detachment was hurried up to

Fort Gratiot to recruit, and before they left, the commanding officer warmly thanked Dr. Rice and myself for our services.

“The cholera visitation upon the citizens came later in the year 1832, and imposed a vast amount of work upon me.

It was confined largely to the lower classes, and swept off the intemperate and dissipated in large numbers.

In 1834 it attacked an entirely different class; the upper orders, the sober, temperate, and church-going people.

As in 1832 I was taken away from my commission business to attend to the stricken, and had to go out to Marshall, 100 miles, to attend to the cases there, the cholera having hopped over from Ann Arbor.

Dr. Rice did wonders during both visitations.

He practiced in Detroit for some 20 years, and was a man of great merit and as quick as lightning.

“This was not the only time I was called upon to minister to United States troops.

In 1823 the quartermaster insisted upon my going to Saginaw to attend to a sick garrison from Green Bay.

The troops were suffering from malignant intermitting fever, and at the end of three weeks’ attendance upon them I was knocked over myself.

I found the whole garrison sick, with one or two exceptions, and Dr. Zina Pitcher, the surgeon in charge, was the sickest of the lot.

He was completely broken up.

He had some 120 souls, old and young—60 enlisted men, with officers, laundresses, and children—under his charge, and all of them sick but one, with one of the most abominably distressing fevers imaginable.

He was all alone, one hundred miles from anywhere, with an appalling amount of work on hand, and no wonder he broke down.

When I reached Saginaw he was being carried all over the garrison on a mattress by men well enough as yet to move about or lift anything, giving opinions and advice, and a dreadful sight he presented, I can assure you.

The garrison was broken up in October and moved to Detroit where the troops were quartered on Fort street.

I did Pitcher’s duty from August, 1823, till May, 1824, nearly a year.

At that time I began to talk to him of moving into Detroit, for I had a high opinion of him as an able physician and a fine man.

In 1828, when I was making arrangements to give up my practice, I began writing to him, endeavoring to induce him to settle in Detroit and take my place, but I did not succeed until 1835 or ’36.

“Dr. Pitcher was styled not long ago, by a president of the county medical association, the ‘father of medicine in Michigan.’

With all due respect to the president, who knew better, as I told him afterwards, medical history compels me to dispute the title awarded to my old friend.

As long ago as 1811, I commenced the formation of a medical society among the few scattered physicians of the territory.

We had three at the capital and one respectively at Pontiac, St. Clair, Mount Clemens and Monroe, and they all joined me.

Long afterwards, when I had retired from practice, and when the number of physicians was greatly increased, county and State associations were formed and Dr. Pitcher was one of the first presidents of the Wayne County Society.”

Dr. Whiting had some experience with Cass among the Indians, and was a traveling companion with General Winfield Scott as early as 1827.

“In 1827,” he said, “General Cass called upon me to accompany a treaty-making expedition to the Buttes des Morts, or Hills of the Dead, on the Fox River about 40 miles above Green Bay.

The treaty was to be executed between General Cass and Col. McKinney, Indian agent at Washington, joint high commissioners for the United States, and Winnebago’s, Chippewa’s, Pottawattamie’s, Foxes, Sacs, and Menominee’s.

The expedition went out on board the steamer class vessel in her time.

She had only a main deck, which was a fore and after, with a cabin below.

The affair was regarded as a splendid chance for speculation, so the steamer was loaded down with Detroit merchants and their goods.

I was myself entrusted with $3,000 worth of goods of one kind and another, which I disposed of to advantage.

One of the passengers was General Winfield Scott, who was on a tour of inspection of forts and posts, and as two companies were stationed at Sault Ste. Marie he persuaded the captain to take him there.

This is how the first steamboat voyage to the Sault came to be made.

“The general was about 40 hours inspecting the post, and while he was busy we were having a splendid time enjoying ourselves in pleasure and trade.

There were about a dozen beautiful young ladies on board and we had a dance nearly every night.

The after cabin was given up to the demoiselles, so General Scott used to sleep on the dining tables every night, with a whale sperm candle burning at either side of his pillow; for there was an awful deal of fuss and feathers about the old fellow, even at that early stage of his career.

“My duties as medical officer were sufficient to keep me busy night and day.

I had to attend to the Indian sick, and as it was a season when green corn was in, they gorged themselves to repletion with it, and of course, suffered torments.

I was a big gun among them, I can tell you, as the ‘medicine man,’ with a couple of interpreters in constant attendance, moving around among people who regarded me as little less than a divinity, and swallowed the most atrociously unpleasant draughts with relish.

To hear them smack their lips over rancid castor oil which spoke for itself at long range, was a caution.

“We had to wait a long time for the Winnebago’s to come in, for they were saucy and disposed to show the whites that they didn’t care for them, but at the same time they were suffering from a bad attack of green corn.

A Menominee runner came in one day in advance of his people, many of whom came down from the neighborhood of Hudson’s bay, and in answer to my inquiries replied, with gesticulations far more eloquent than words:

‘Menominee sick like hel-l-l! Eat corn!

Break up Munnominee, purroo purro-o-o-o-f ! ! !’

“There were about 3,000 Indians of the different tribes present, many of whom had marched one thousand miles to partake of the benefits of the treaty and receive the presents of food and clothing.

They were supported while they were on the treaty ground and given all the provisions they could carry away with them.

The valuable lands which they ceded have long since become among the most fertile portions of the western granary.

We went upon this expedition in June and returned in August.

The Indians thought the world of Cass, whom they named OsKotchee, or ‘Big Belly.’ ”

Of his personal share in the Black-Hawk war Dr. Whiting tells in a modest, interesting way:

“I was appointed,” he said, “surgeon of the First Michigan militia regiment in 1818, and held my commission till 1832, when the war broke out.

A Dr. Hurd, who came here in 1819, was very anxious to displace me and brought a number of recommendations from people in high position which he pressed upon General John R. Williams, then commander in chief.

When we were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Dearborn (Chicago) preparatory to marching upon Illinois, Hurd spent a whole day with the general trying to get the position.

The fact was, he had been rather unsuccessful in Detroit, and the pay was an object to him, as much as the prestige was to me.

I was determined I would not be thrust out of my rank to suit Hurd, and in the long run I defeated him and was ordered to provide a supply of medicines and make ready to march at once.

I got Dr. Chapin, then our only druggist doing anything like a business, to fit me up a big medicine chest sufficient for the requirements of 200 infantry and a company of cavalry.

We got marching orders and had gone about fifty-five miles in the direction of Illinois when we received an order from General Williams ordering us back.

Our expedition lasted from the Thursday of one week till the too short a time entirely to give the First Michigan an opportunity to disquingish themselves on the field of glory, and I regret to say, also too short to qualify any of us for the 160 acres of land which every patriot had in his eye.

I didn’t have an opportunity of physicking a single combatant before the whole business was over.”

On the close of the “second cholera” in 1834, Dr. Whiting retired permanently from the practice of medicine, and devoted himself for the ensuing eight or ten years to the forwarding business, which consisted principally in the receipt and handling of the goods of immigrants who were then flowing into the State in large numbers.

The rush of immigration began in 1828 and continued for a long period afterwards.

“I saw,” said Dr. Whiting, “the early movement of emigration to Ohio, which was vigorously proceeding when I was on my way to Michigan.

I have seen the huge wagons of the pioneers, drawn by four teams of horses or yokes of oxen, making their way over the terrible roads, laden to the bursting point with household goods, and so arranged as to be moving homes for the family for the whole duration of the journey and until the settler could erect his log cabin in the unbroken wilderness.

The immigrants who came to us were from the thriftiest and most industrious New England stock, principally from the northeastern States and New York; people who could turn their hands to almost anything, and whose industry and perseverance, which they transmitted as a heritage to their posterity, have made Michigan what she is to-day.

“While keeping an eye on immigration, I saw the arrival of most of the men who have attained to note and position in this city and State.

It was while I had my office on the dock that Zachariah Chandler, then quite a new-comer, applied to me for a situation.

I well recollect when my friend, Mr. C. C. Trowbridge, came here—I was practicing then—a bright-eyed, ambitious, enthusiastic young man whose friendship I have enjoyed for scores of years, and whose career I have watched from early manhood to old age.”

Digressing a little, Dr. Whiting said:

“I observe in your sketch of Mr. Trowbridge that he speaks of an M. Laselle having once whipped the commandant of the fort in a dispute over a question of etiquette.

M. Laselle was well known as a peppery French officer in the Union service, who was present at Winchester’s defeat at River Raisin in the war of 1812-15.

He was the officer of the day, and, as the troops slept on their arm after the carnage, while posting a tall, gaunt New Hampshire soldier as a picket guard, intelligently instructed him as to his duties as follows:

” ‘Spose you see Hinjin, you say how?

How?

Dat call him ‘tenshun.

Den you say Endoss! Endoss!

Dat come here!

Come here!

‘Spose Hinjin no endoss, you vill sa-a-acra-wentelment baionnez le dans la ventre!”

[You will sacramentally bayonet him in the bowels.]

“To return to forwarding.

There was not much of a general trade in my earlier experience of the business.

The fur trade was carried on by a few houses, Judge Abbott, Mack & Conant, Dequindre, and the Buhls.

There were a few small manufacturing concerns turning out boots and shoes, clothing, wool hats, and so on, but nothing to signify.

For all our iron work we had to send to Cleveland, and large quantities of goods, now manufactured in and exported from Detroit, were imported from Ohio.

But as the flood of population poured in from the eastern states a change came rapidly about, which had a remarkable effect upon my business.

I had at one time the agency of five steam boats, something enormous for that period—purchased their supplies, and gave a decided impetus to the fuel trade by requiring a constant supply of from 1,500 to 2,000 cords of wood.

The steamers for which I was agent ran to Buffalo, calling at the different lake ports on the way.

Once or twice a year they went to Chicago and Mackinac with supplies and stores.

In my younger days we had quite a contemptuous opinion of Chicago as a little swampy hamlet compared with which Detroit was of metropolitan grandeur.

Times fully since then, yet always for the better in Detroit whose growth has been gradually solid and substantial.

I have seen the population grow from 900 to 130,000, and I know whereof I speak.”

Dr. Whiting, after a lengthened experience as a forwarder and commission merchant, went into business as a land and tax agent, in which he continued till his physical infirmity obliged him to retire.

He stayed at his post till he was forced to seek repose.

Speaking of politics, he said:

“I have never been actively engaged in politics.

I was originally what was called a ‘blue-light federalist,’ and cast my first vote for DeWitt Clinton for president just before I left for Detroit.

Parties have come and parties have gone, leaving me, in my opinions, pretty much where I was standing when I cast my first vote.

Though I was elected city clerk in 1832 and again in 1834, I have never sought office.

During my second term as clerk of the city I found I had to either giveup my warehouse or resign the clerkship, and I chose the latter.

This completes my experience of office.

I became a Whig when Whiggery represented principles, and when it died out I found it terrible hard work to become a republican, and only surrendered under protest.

However, I had not much time to throw away on politics and politicians; my life was too busy a one for any dissipation of the kind, and besides I have always had the confidence that this Union could take care of herself, without my going into hysterics about saving her.”

As I rose to go, Dr. Whiting said: “When you hear young fellows of yesterday talking of Detroit as a slow, fossilized place, remember that I have seen it grow from a frontier post, with half a hundred English speaking Americans in it, depending upon the precarious support afforded by the fur trade and the disbursement of public money by the troops; from a little settlement, yet showing the ravages of a long war, to a great imperial city, with the most thrifty and generally prosperous population of the United States, at the distributing head of the most magnificent inland water system of the world, and growing year by year in power and riches.”

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The 13th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War – A Narrative and Letters by Colonel Michael Shoemaker.


THE MICHIGAN THIRTEENTH – NARRATIVE OF THE OCCUPATION, FORTIFICATION, ATTACK UPON, DEFENSE OF, AND RETREAT FROM STEVENSON,  ALABAMA, IN 1862, BY THE THIRTEENTH REGIMENT OF MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY UNDER COMMAND OF COLONEL MICHAEL SHOEMAKER

The 20th brigade, of which the 13th regiment was a part, commanded by Col. Charles G. Harker, of the 3d division; Brig. Gen. Thos. John Wood, of the Army of the Cumberland; commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, arrived at Stevenson, Alabama, on Saturday, July 19th, 1862, and went into camp on the hill side east of and immediately adjacent to the town.
In our rear was a vacant house, of which I took possession and made it the headquarters of the field and staff officers of the regiment.
The other regiments of the brigade were immediately north and west of us.
Picket lines were established, and guards and sentinels posted in every direction from our camp.
The night after our arrival was very unpleasant, rain falling most of the time.
LETTERS EXPLAINING MOVEMENTS AND SITUATION.
(Extracts from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.)
“In camp near Stevenson, Alabama,
“Sunday, July 20, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:
I, yesterday, while on my way here, received your letter of July 4th.
On Thursday I marched my regiment to Decatur, and then almost immediately on arrival was notified that the brigade was to take the cars the next day for this place, and marched back again, making one of the hardest day’s work we have done since leaving Kalamazoo, in consequence of the frequent heavy showers and extreme heat.
On our return we were ordered to have reveille beat at 2 A. M., Friday, and march to the railroad.
We arrived there about sunrise, and remained there twenty-four hours waiting for the cars, they arriving about 2 A. M. Saturday.
We had to wait for another regiment, but finally got off about sunrise and arrived here last night, or rather in the afternoon, in time to get into camp by night.
I don’t know how long we shall be here, but probably until there is something done on one side or the other.
It looks now as though the Confederates would give us enough to do without waiting for us to make an attempt to take Chattanooga.
I never write much about our movements or what has been done, for you to learn all that from our newspapers much sooner than you can hear from my letters.
Tell Fred to send me a New York paper as often as twice a week.
We do not yet know much of the particulars of the battles before Richmond.
We never get papers here unless sent directly to us, and seldom at that.
Note.—In this article from the ready pen of Col. Shoemaker, we have a record not only of much personal interest, but an addition of great value, to the history of the war.
He takes us behind the scenes, “and shows how correct were our criticisms at the time, of the dilatory commanders whom we accused of trying how not to do it.”
He takes the reader along with him: we see the dreary bivouac, we follow with the weary march, we almost hear the roar and see the rush of battle, share the indignation of his men as they saw the half-hearted attempt of Gen. Buell to put down the rebellion by acting merely on the defensive, and we admire the skill with which Col. S. sustained his command at Stevenson, and made its hasty retreat by Buel’s orders— (see telegram No. 23) of nearly a hundred miles over the mountains to Nashville with the exultant foe at his heels.
The survivors of “the 13th” will thank their honored colonel for this record of their labors and trials: and, vivid as are the pen pictures he gives us, they only, no doubt, can fully appreciate the thrilling history.
On the 21st and 22d all of the command were occupied in policing our camp, making sanitary arrangements, procuring and distributing rations, and apparently making ready for a prolonged stay at this point.
I commenced to drill my regiment on the 23rd, and continued to do so every day when the weather would permit, until we moved into the fort, except such days as we were employed on fatigue duty or in the building the stockades or fort.
The brigade formed line of battle on the 24th at 3 o’clock A. M., and remained in line until after daylight.
In the afternoon I drilled my regiment.
At 9 P. M., there was an alarm sounded, and the entire brigade turned out and formed in line of battle; but the alarm was without cause, as no attack followed.
After an hour more of excitement the men were dismissed to their quarters and all became quiet.
Extract from letter dated July 22, 1862, to Mrs. Shoemaker.
“I have not seen a paper of any kind since a week ago last Sunday.
You can judge how little we know of what has taken place elsewhere, when I tell you that we learned last night that Gen. Duffleld was wounded at Murfreesboro, when it was taken, though that was near two weeks ago, and in our army.
Even this may not be so.
I mention it to show our want of opportunity to learn what is done.
“I am very well, and bear the life I lead much better than I would believe possible, for it is very, very severe in every respect.
Nothing but the cause in which we are engaged would keep me here a day, and I hope for a speedy termination of all our troubles, so that I may be released and return to my home and family.
I must confess, however, that with the limited intelligence I have of affairs elsewhere, and with my opinion of the management of our armies.
I do not see that we are any nearer a settlement than when I left home.
Tell Fred, he must send me papers.
I can get none here.
I am daily expecting Kidder and Lieut. Slayton, and shall then get some news.
“This is a miserable country, the commencement (or tail) of the mountainous country of East Tennessee; but few farms and little cultivation.
The inhabitants have nearly all left, and it is very difficult to get anything to live upon.
We have no butter, or potatoes, or vegetables of any kind.
The troops have been on half rations for some time, and it is hard living.
Pork, hard bread, and coffee are our principal articles of food.
Everything in the regiment is moving off very quietly and well, but the officers are terribly disappointed that they cannot get furloughs, and some of them will resign.
“The service is a hard one, quite a number are sick of it, and would rather leave than remain.
I do not know where the other Michigan regiments are.
I have seen none but the Mechanics and Engineers since we left Corinth.
Randall and part of the horses came with the artillery and transportation on the wagon road, and they have not yet come up.
We expect them to-day.”
LETTER ON MILITARY SITUATION.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“July 23, 1862.
“My Dear Wife.—
No mail yet; no letters, no nothing.
This is a miserable God-forsaken country, mean and despicable in every respect, and the people not only partake of the character of the country, but are meaner and more to be despised than it is.
Cowardly hounds, lying around home day times and at night meeting with their neighbors, and making a raid as guerrillas, if they can do so with perfect safety.
“My respect for the southern character generally is much lessened.
They are none of them willing to fight unless they have every advantage of numbers, time and opportunity, and there are few of them but will murder our men by shooting them from the bushes whenever they find them straggling, singly or in small numbers, at a distance from the camp, or column, if on the march.
Men are every day killed in this way.
They will not sell us anything if they can help it, and if they do they charge three prices for it.
We are now getting as a favor, one quart of milk a day for fifteen cents.
Buttermilk the same, and butter not to be had at all.
Yet these men are all protected by orders of our army and division generals.
No soldier is allowed to go into a house, or in any way have anything to do with the in habitants, and all officers are under much the same restrictions as the soldiers.
Secessionists are much better off in this country than either union men or soldiers.
The former are protected by both parties, while the rebels are perfectly relentless to all enemies, and even to all who do not support them.
All this, and more, which I cannot give in a letter, places the union army at a great disadvantage, and is much felt by us all, but it cannot get expression as it ought, as no inferior has a right to publicly criticize the actions of his superiors.
There is great dissatisfaction in the army, both as to its inactivity and its management.
We had before Corinth, a splendid army of one hundred thousand men.
Nearly two months have elapsed since its evacuation, and it has done literally nothing or worse.
This we know, and it, together with other facts not stated, but of the same nature, has taken from the army, so far as I can judge, all confidence in Generals Buell and Wood.
The latter is a fool.
I could fill a volume if necessary, to sustain what I have said, but enough for the present.
It is not usual to comment so freely to any upon the conduct of general officers.
They may be praised, but not blamed with impunity; and this letter, though every word and more is true, would cause me to be cashiered if it was known I had written it, consequently you will be very careful to whom you show it, or what you do with it.
Don’t burn it, but put it away under lock and key, for it may someday be of service for good instead of harm.
I would as soon Governor Blair would know its contents as not, but he must not speak to any one of the facts as coming from me.
He ought to know them, and the whole country ought to know them, for a different policy must be pursued or we can never crush this rebellion.
Remember me to all friends. Kiss the babies.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. SHOEMAKER.”
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“July 24, 1862.
“My Darling Wife,—
What time do you think it is?
I don’t know, for I have no watch, the one I bought of Brown never having kept good time.
I put it away in my trunk.
Speaking of that watch reminds me that I want you to tell Fred, not to pay Brown for it, as it is not as he represented it to be.
‘Says he, Riah!
Says I, what?’—
I will now, not to be as bad as the widow, go back to the time of morning.
 It is daylight, but not yet sunrise, say between four and five o’clock.
We get up at three A. M., form line of battle, and remain in that position until broad daylight, when the battalion is dismissed to attend reveille roll-call.
This early forming of line battle is to prevent the possibility of surprise, as the enemy are all around us, and vigilant.
They are on every side of us, and perhaps above and below us.
If I in chief command most of them would be in the latter position soon.
I can just see the sun; the upper disc is just visible up the valley of the Tennessee, and his beams are beautifully reflected by the forest that covers the mountains which rise here quite majestically on both sides of the river.
We are out from the town, which is no town at all (about like Leoni, or perhaps Grass Lake) less than a mile, in a beautiful grove of little oaks, and have as pleasant a camp as any heretofore occupied.
“Yesterday I went to town in my white hat and blouse, without vest, in fact in the rough, as we have to be most of the time while down here.
While there I went into an old tumble-down tavern, more like a barn than a house, had my ambrotype (early picture usually in a frame) taken, and that is the gift I am to-day sending you by mail.
I have received no letters since date of 4th, and it is said that all communication with the North is cut off, and that no mails are now received at all.
If no mails are received, then I suppose none can be sent.
I shall however, continue to write, and hope you will do the same.
“Twenty-fifth Brigade formed line of battle at 4 A.M., remained in line until sunrise.
In the afternoon I had a thorough regimental drill.
The same order was observed on the 26th by both brigade and regiment.
Lieutenant Colonel Worden applied for absence on sick leave, which was granted, and he left the regiment, not joining it again until after our arrival at Nashville with the rear part of General Buell’s army.
In the afternoon, Major Culver and myself rode out to Bolivar, a small village about four miles east of Stevenson, where we dined with Mr. Beals, who was formerly cashier of a bank (in Goshen, I think), in the State of New York.
A package of bank bills purporting to contain $1,000.00 was sent from his bank to a bank in Detroit, which when opened, was found to contain slips of newspaper cut into the size of bank bills.
It may be set down as a remarkable coincidence that I was in the bank at Detroit when this package was opened, and now met Mr. Beals, who in consequence of that transaction lost his situation in Alabama.
Quartermaster Kidder returned from Michigan, bringing letters and supplies from Mrs. Shoemaker and others.”
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“In Camp near Stevenson, Alabama,)
“Sunday July 27, 1862. J
“My Dear Wife:—
Yesterday a mail was received, and by it I received a letter from Jackson, of the 11th inst.
After the mail Kidder came in and brought your letters of the 12th to 16th.
The communications are now so much interrupted that the mails are very irregular and some perhaps entirely lost.
I have written you every day when I could do so, which has been frequently this month.
By reference to my diary I find that I wrote you on the 4th. 6th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 20th, 21st, 23d, 24th, 25th, and to-day is the 27th.
That is sixteen letters in twenty-three days, and perhaps one or two more that I made no note of.
Now, you exacting woman, what more than this would you have of a man, particularly of a husband?
Why, most lovers don’t do as well as that before marriage.
“I have not had as many annoyances as I expected.
I entered upon the duties of my command determined to conquer its difficulties, and have done so.
Governor Blair says he has had less trouble with this regiment than any in the service; and if he will follow my recommendations concerning it I will be answerable that it will continue so.
I am now drilling the regiment every day, and am as capable of doing so as many colonels who have been in the service a year.
Those who ought to know, say I do it better than any other officer in this brigade.
I write this because I think you will be pleased to know it.
I don’t write so to anyone else.”
INEFICIENCY OF THE OPERATIONS OF OUR ARMIES.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker, with criticisms on army operations.]
“In Camp Stevenson, Alabama,
“Before sunrise, July 28, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:—
I have just dismissed my men to their quarters.
We turn out before the first appearance of light, and form line of battle, and remain in position until reveille.
This is to guard against surprise.
We do not intend to be caught napping if we can prevent it.
We have four regiments of infantry, a battery, and a few cavalry here.
Our army is so scattered that I fear it will be all cut off in detail.
We had a splendid army when Corinth was evacuated by the confederates, one that was irresistible, both from its force and discipline, against any force the south had in the field.
If then Buell’s army had marched at once to Chattanooga, and the other moved down the rail road either towards New Orleans or Mobile, great results would have followed.
We might and ought to have Chattanooga and all East Tennessee.
As it is, that great army is so scattered and idle that it is only a terror to its friends, where it happens to be located in detachments.
It is attacked and being cut off in detail every day or two at some bridge, or town, which is guarded by a small force, but which would need none if a vigorous course had been pursued.
We cannot now take any place, much less Chattanooga, unless we are largely reinforced, and are more likely to be driven back to Nashville than to take Chattanooga.
Our communications are constantly interrupted, and our supplies cut off.
We have now been on half rations for two weeks, and it looks as though they might get to be even less, if not cut off entirely.
We are now in a very poor country, or short rations would not affect us.
We are now, even to make up half-rations, collecting and killing all the beef cattle, or rather all the cattle of every kind, we can find, and they are hard to find.
The farmers hide them in the woods and mountains, and we have to go eight and ten miles to find as many cattle.
Potatoes are worth two and three dollars a bushel, onions fifty cents a dozen, milk fifteen cents a quart, and butter not to be had.
“From all this you must not think that we are suffering, for we are not, but are all getting along very smoothly and well.
“I regret to see our armies so mismanaged, and think there must be a change of men and measures before the rebellion can be crushed out.
We must make war on our enemies, and not protect them in their persons or property if we wish to subdue them.
We have recently lost a force of near one hundred men at Courtland, between Decatur and Tuscumbia, and it is said that many of the assailants were recognized as men whose property our army had guarded.
“To show you the irregularity of the mails: I yesterday received your letter of the 9th, and also by the same mail one from Gov. Blair of the 21st.
Major Worden is quite sick and has applied for leave of absence, and will, I think, go home.
Are you not thankful that I am well, or do you wish me to be sick and come home?
Affectionately your husband,
“MICHAEL SHOEMAKER.”
SHORT RATIONS.
July 28th.
The brigade formed line of battle at 4 A. M. When the command formed line of battle, either here or elsewhere, in the morning, it was always at either 3 or 4 o’clock, and the troops forming the line remained in that position under arms until after broad daylight.
In the afternoon I drilled my regiment for several hours.
The Sixty-fifth Ohio, V.I., Col. Furguson, were sent towards Chattanooga in a fifth Ohio, V. I., Col. Ferguson, were sent towards  Chattanooga in an expedition and to procure provisions for the brigade, particularly fresh meat and vegetables, of which there was none in our commissary stores.
The command were on short rations most of the time.
The brigade was at Stevenson, and all of the time short of many articles of food.
Fresh meat and vegetables were always scarce, and most of the time could not be procured at all.
We occasionally received onions from the north for a few rations, and the effect produced by them was so noticeable that it became at once the subject of remark.
No other vegetable produced so immediate and beneficial a change.
The inhabitants of the town and country adjoining were universally hostile, and would furnish nothing unless obliged to do so.
Every day men off duty were granted leave to go in squads and forage among the surrounding plantations for the purpose of buying any provisions they could find for sale.
This was always on their own responsibility, and all purchases were at their own expense.
THE SOLDIERS’ MODE OF PROCURING SUPPLIES.
When the planters refused to sell their beef, pork, or mutton, all kinds of artifices were resorted to in order to obtain them; and in case of complaint at headquarters, it was very difficult, and generally impossible, to detect the culprits; for they always reported themselves to the planters as belonging to any regiment but their own; and a search of the camp, which was sometimes ordered by Colonel Harker commanding the brigade, never resulted in the discovery of the depredators or the fresh meat they had appropriated.
I will give one instance which occurred within my own knowledge.
A planter came into the came from some two miles distant and complained at brigade headquarters, that going out of his house the day previous, Sunday, he found some soldiers skinning one of his bullocks (Bull).
When he spoke to them, he said they were very pleasant and polite, they gave him the name and number of the regiment to which they said they belonged, and informed him that they were acting in strict obedience to orders from headquarters.
The planter then said to them that he would go to the camp and see about getting pay for his animal, but on attempting to leave his premises he found them surrounded by a cordon of sentinels, each marching his beat, fully armed and equipped, none of whom would allow him to pass without orders from the officer in command.
He then inquired for the officer commanding the detachment, who was at once pointed out to him.
He complained that his property was being taken from him, and that his grounds were guarded so that he could not leave them.
He said he wanted to go to camp and see the officer commanding the brigade.
The officer heard all he had to say, and then in a stern and rather threatening manner informed him that he need not feel anxious because he could not go, but rather because he would be obliged to go, as he had orders not only to procure the beef, but also to bring him, the planter, into camp, and that he must be in readiness to go with them when they were ready to leave, at the same time intimating that the planter would find some serious charges against him.
The planter became alarmed, and asked permission to go into his house to make some necessary preparation and inform his family where he was to be taken, so that they would understand the cause of his absence.
The favor was granted most graciously, the planter went into his house, spent some little time in consultation with his family, and rather prolonged the time, as he did not like the idea of being taken from his home under arrest; for the times were such that there was no foreseeing the consequences.
He might, however innocent, be kept from home for a long time, as some of those arrested were sent to Nashville.
When he did muster up courage to go out, he did not find the sentinels posted as they had been when he left the officer, and he soon discovered that all, officers, soldiers, and beef, had suddenly, silently, and mysteriously disappeared.
In doubt as to what was proper or best to do, he remained at home until the next day, Monday, when he came into camp and made his case known at brigade headquarters.
He then found that he had been victimized by some of the soldiers of our brigade, who were not only acting without orders, but in direct violation of them.
An investigation was ordered, but nothing came of it; except that it proved that the soldiers were not of the regiment they claimed to belong to, and that no officer was with the detachment committing the depredation.
The men undoubtedly went out in small squads and united for action after leaving the camp, and were probably from more than one regiment.
The regimental officers all sympathized with the men, and we always protected them from exposure when possible to do so.
GUERRILLAS, AND THEIR ACTIONS.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Stevenson. Alabama,)
“July 29, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:—
The birds are singing in the grove on every side of me, as they do every morning, and everything appears to be peaceable and quiet, but this is all deceptive.
Under the surface there is trouble, deadly hostility, and enmity.
Yesterday an escort of cavalry to a foraging train sent out to purchase beef cattle, so that we might have even half rations, was fired upon from the bushes, two men killed and three wounded.
The cavalry force was small, and fled as usual.
Within a few days the railroad from Decatur west to Cortland was retaken by the rebels, and from 80 to 100 of our men killed or taken prisoners.
At two or three places our men repulsed them after hard fighting against four to one, and in all these cases, the dead left on the ground by the rebels are found to be citizens who had been living at home with passes and protections, and whose houses and property had in many cases been guarded by our soldiers, whom they were attempting to surprise and butcher.
“When Cortland was attacked there was a brigade at Decatur; its commander, Gen. Schorf, telegraphed to Gen. Buell at Huntsville, but could get no answer, and did not dare to go to its relief without orders, so we lost the town, the railroad, and one hundred men.
When we had a force within protecting distance, which might not only have protected the road, the town, and the men, but also have inflicted summary punishment upon a band of assassins who were allowed to carry out their acts of double treason and murder with impunity.
I am fearful that Gen. Buell’s inactivity, or sympathy for traitors, to use a mild expression, will prevent the army from accomplishing anything towards crushing the rebellion, if it maintains its ground, which is becoming doubtful.
When we left Corinth we had a splendid army, and now where is it?
Scattered over the country, divided unnecessarily into detachments, and if employed at all it is in guarding the property of rebels.
If, after Corinth, we had proceeded immediately to Chattanooga, we could have taken it and East Tennessee I think, without a blow, and be now acting on the offensive.
As it is, we are being cut off in detail while in the act of doing nothing.
These are the feelings of the army so far as I can judge them, and unless there is a change of policy and men, the north will find that their three hundred thousand men they are now raising will be of little value.
My candid opinion is, and there are more reasons for it than I can give in a letter, that if the officers who are and
have been in the regular army are allowed to govern the army as they are now doing, we might as well recognize the Southern Confederacy first as last; for under their auspices we shall never put down the rebellion.
I came into the army a ‘West Point man’ but I cannot resist the evidence of my senses, and the stake is too great to admit of, or justify, silence.
The people here were afraid of Gen. Mitchel, and he kept them quiet.
I don’t know him and have never seen him, but I do know that it is the opinion of Gen. Buell’s officers, and army, that Gen. Mitchel is the most effective man of the two, and that he has done more for the cause with his division than Gen. Buell with his entire army.
There are many evidences of all these things which I see and hear which I cannot give in a letter, but you may be sure that the rebellion will never be crushed until the armies are commanded in the field by other men than such as Generals Buell, Wood, or even Halleck.
Pope is a good officer, and was an active one here.
If you have an opportunity you may show this letter to Gov. Blair, and I would prefer that he should see it, but to no one else at all, and neither you nor he must speak of these things as coming from me.
If it was known I had written such a letter it would cause me trouble.
“Affectionately your husband,
“MICHAEL SHOEMAKER.”
July 29.
The brigade formed line of battle at 3 A. M., and, excepting the detail for fatigue duty, were kept all day under arms in readiness for an apparently expected attack from the Confederate forces.
Colonel Ferguson returned without having seen any opposing force, and without having procured any supplies.
The fatigue parties today commenced to fortify the town by the erection of a redoubt, by building stockades on the line of the railroad for the protection of the depot, and by protecting and fortifying the depot buildings in such manner as to make them capable of respectable resistance.
These, when finished, were all occupied by details of soldiers.
One hundred and twenty men of my regiment were on this detail, and worked all day on the fortifications.
In the night there was a heavy fall of rain.
Injury by fall of horse.
July 30.
While superintending the labors of my men at different points, I attempted to cross the track of the railroad, and my horse became frightened at an engine which was standing near.
In checking him, he fell flat upon his side, with one of my legs under him, injuring it badly.
I succeeded in getting from under the horse, and in getting both him and myself out of the way of the locomotive engine, but had a very narrow escape from serious injury, if not loss of life.
This accident became finally the cause of some of the most remarkable events of my army life; as from the serious and painful result of the injury to my leg I was obliged to give up riding on horseback, after reaching Nashville obtain leave of absence from my regiment, which led to my capture by the confederate guerrillas, my adventures while on my way to Richmond, and confinement in Libby Prison.
All of my men fit for duty were to-day working on the redoubt and stockades.
Orders were issued from brigade headquarters to impress contrabands to assist in building fortifications.
Rain fell all the afternoon and most of the night.
July 31.
Rain in A. M.
In compliance with the order of yesterday I sent Captain A. Balch with a detachment from company G. into the country to impress contrabands (negro slaves’) to assist in the work of fortification.
Received notice of resignation of Captain Vosburgh, and Lieutenant Phelps, both of whom remained in Nashville without authority from me to do so, when the regiment left there for Savannah and Shiloh in March.
Work commenced to-day under my command on the redoubt, or fort, on the hill south of the town.
One hundred and twenty of my own men on fatigue duty on this work.
I made the following extracts from a letter of this date written to my wife:
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“July 31, 1862.
“My Dear Wife,—
I had a very lucky fall yesterday.
As I was crossing the railroad track on a plank-crossing there was an engine standing within a few feet of the road, and as my horse came opposite he leaned from it and started a little.
There had been rain in the night, and many teams over the road, so that it was somewhat muddy, and the mud here is more like grease than anything else.
As my horse started his feet all slipped from under him and we both came flat on the plank, one of my legs under the horse.
I extricated my other foot from the stirrup, the horse immediately sprang up, and so did I.
We were both covered with mud, but otherwise there was not much damage done, though it is a wonder how I escaped without breaking some bones.
My leg was somewhat bruised and is a little lame to-day, but not so much as to prevent me from being around all the time.
(Col. Shoemaker’s graphic account of his capture and imprisonment will be found in volume 3)
I bathed it freely with liniment as soon as I got back to camp.
We are now all busy erecting fortifications, and to-day have parties out after Negroes from the plantations to come in and help do the work.
They are rather scarce about here.
This is the first time we have been allowed to use anything belonging to the rebels, and I am glad to see a commencement in the right direction.
If followed up as it should be, it will relieve our soldiers of much hard labor and drudgery, and add vastly to the efficiency of the army.
I have had no letter from you since I last wrote.
In fact we have had no mail.
I was much amused at your letter about ‘glory.’
Your reasoning is as good as Falstaff’s on ‘honor.’
You would never love or respect a ninny of a man, who had no spirit, and those who have no feeling for their country are too selfish to love anything but themselves, and if I had been such an one you would never have loved me.
It may do for a woman to place her family before everything else, but even you did not and would not do that.
When I thought it necessary to go into the army, you consented, regretting, as I did, the necessity, but what would the world become if men were not willing to give up all in times like these, that their children and those who do survive may have a government?
I must close now.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. SHOEMAKER.”
August 1.
Out with my entire regiment and work on fort all day and until 12 o’clock P. M., with the ground very slippery and the night very dark.
The “powers that be” seem very anxious to forward the work on the fortifications, and our actions would now foreshadow a defensive rather than an offensive campaign.
I have to-day sent out another detachment to impress negroes, mules, and carts to work on the fort.
We had rain in the afternoon and night.
August 2.
Work on fortifications with one hundred and twenty of my men. Detailed one company to act as provost guard, and two companies on the picket lines.
I again sent out three detachments, to impress negroes, mules, and carts to work in the intrenchments, all of which were procured in sufficient numbers for present purposes.
PLACED IN CHARGE OP FORTIFICATIONS.
Sunday, August 3.
I to-day received orders, with “carte blanche” from Colonel Harker, commanding brigade, to build fort and stockades, and make such defenses for the protection of Stevenson as in my judgment I deemed best.
Stevenson is at the junction of the Charleston & Memphis, and the Nashville & Chattanooga railroads, and was at this time made a depot for the supplies of the army, and also for the convalescent soldiers from the direction of both Huntsville and Chattanooga.
I now directed two buildings, standing in what would probably be a line of fire if we were attacked, to be torn down.
I also had the passenger depot and the platform of the freight depot barricaded, and detailed three companies to occupy the depot and platform during nights.
The following is an extract of a letter written today to Mrs. S.:
“I am awful tired, and can’t write much of a letter.
How do we spend the Sabbath in Dixie?
I will tell you.
Up at 3 A.M.; form line of battle at 3:30, and remain in that formation until reveille, say about 4:30 o’clock.
At six A.M. the whole regiment turns out and work all day on the redoubt, stockades, and intrenchments.
This includes barricading of buildings and other temporary works.
We have here a large amount of rations and army stores, with more arriving, and from all directions.
We intend to protect them and do not mean to be taken by surprise.
We are working day and night on our defensive works.
I was out Friday night in the rain, but do not appear to have caught any cold.
The regiment worked from 6 till 12 P. M. with pick and shovel.
I send this by William A. Ewing, a son of Surgeon Ewing, who has been here a few days, and can tell you much of the particulars of our situation.
You must excuse this scrawl, particularly the substance of it, for I do not know what it is, I am so tired and sleepy.
Don’t fret, be of good courage, and above all things, keep in good spirits.
I do, though suffering hardships and privations greater than you have any idea of.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. S.”
On the 4th of August there was a very heavy fog.
Wm. A. Ewing left for home.
His father was getting somewhat uneasy about our situation.
He thought the action we were taking in fortifying our position signified that it was more probable that we would be attacked than that we would act on the offensive, and as his son was not connected with the army, he very properly concluded that he had better return home while our communications were uninterrupted.
I continued work on the fortifications with my regiment and the contrabands.
August 5.
Foggy and very hot.
Lieut. Col. Worden left for home on sick leave.
Formed line of battle 3:30 A. M.
WORK ON FORT.
August 6, 7, 8, 9.
Formed line of battle each day at 3:30 A. M., and work with entire regiment on fortifications at various points about the town, and on the line of the railroad.
On the 7th I wrote Mrs. Shoemaker as follows:
“Stevenson, Alabama, August 7, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:—
The sun is now just rising.
I was out at 3:30 o’clock with my regiment in line of battle to guard against surprise.
What with building stockades, breastworks, and other military duties, we are having a laborious time, particularly as the weather is not only warm, but very hot.
I have but little leisure time.
Major Worden went home sick yesterday.
He will come and see you.
He had but short notice before he left, and I had no time to write to you, as every spare moment was taken in writing to Governor Blair on official business.
When Major Worden returns I shall come home and make you a visit, or if we are stationed here, as we may be, I will send for you, though you will have to rough it if you come.
How would you like to sleep in a tent?
If ever there were any decent people here, I think they have left, for I have seen or heard of none; but I have been in but one house since I came, and got out of that as soon as I could do my business.
Most of the inhabitants of the town and country have left their homes, their houses being unoccupied in our arrival here, but from the appearance of these deserted habitations I think it never was much of a town.
We have torn down a part of it in making room for our guns to have good range.
Lieut. Woodruff will remain in Michigan some time on recruiting service.
Worden is now Lieutenant-Colonel.
On the night of the 8th Colonel Ferguson, of the Sixty-fourth Ohio, and Captain Stoughten and a very interesting meeting, at which they held such high revel that as a consequence.
Company “I,” which was acting as provost guard, was ordered into camp to prevent a recurrence of what might prove of serious injury to the discipline of the regiment, and to impress upon the officers the necessity of sobriety and strict attention to their duties, now more than ever necessary.
The order was revoked at the request of Captain Stoughten, and upon his promise that no such cause for complaint should again arise.
Captain Stoughten was a good officer, a very intelligent man, and as good as his word.
The afternoon of the 9th was spent in preparing the regiment for inspection.
On Sunday, the 10th, the regiment formed line of battle at 3:30 A.M. and worked on the stockades and redoubt in the afternoon.
As there were rumors of Confederate forces or of guerrilla bands being in our vicinity.
I sent a detachment of twenty men towards Dechard to reconnoiter.
They returned without having discovered signs of any armed force.
The following is an extract from a letter to Mrs. Shoemaker, dated August 10, 1862:
“The sun is just rising this bright, beautiful Sabbath morning, and I thought I could not better occupy my time until breakfast than by writing to you.
I was out with my regiment at 3:30 o’clock this morning; we came in at reveille, just before sunrise, and to that good habit of early rising you are indebted for this letter.
There is so much applying for leave to go home by officers that it is difficult to get away, and not desirable unless necessary.
It is hardly honorable at this time for an officer to be away from his post if he is able to do his duty.
If you come down here I may not be at home for some time, and am anxious to be kept informed about my business.
Fred, must write me once a week.”
On the 11th, I placed Company B, Captain McLaughlin, in the redoubt building on the hill south of the railroad, to remain day and night to act as a guard.
The working force of the regiment to-day finished the stockades on the railroad above the turn-table, and worked on the redoubt and barricades.
On the 12th formed line of battle at 3:30 A.M.
Regiment built lower stockades, and barricaded the brick depot and magazine.
Charley Ward, our cook, returned from Michigan.
Received and gave to Captain Jones, of Company “H,” his commission as captain.
On the 13th and 14th the regiment worked on stockades and barricades.
The stockades were all on the line of the railroads, at the bridges, and most exposed points.
The depot buildings and certain houses were barricaded, so as to be used for the defense of the station if necessary.
The work was thoroughly done, and all places fortified were occupied by detachments from my regiment or by convalescents sent here from other points on the railroad, and placed under my command.
These were at times quite numerous, frequently exceeding one thousand men and probably averaging that number from the time they commenced coming.
REDOUBT OR FORT OCCUPIED.
On the 15th I moved my regiment into the redoubt, or fort as we called it, which we were building on the hill south of Stevenson, pitched my tent and took up my headquarters there, but still continued to work at, and have charge of all the stockades and fortifications in the town and on its approaches.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
Stevenson, Alabama,
August 16, 1862.
“My Dear Wife:
I have had no letter for several days, but as some railroad bridges are burned in Kentucky, that, I suppose is the reason.
I am now more busy than ever.
Yesterday I moved my regiment to the redoubt, and am now occupying it and the stockades.
I have for the present, command of this post, and may remain here for some time.
The present command is only temporary.
The permanent appointment will be made by Gen. Buell.
I shall be recommended by the brigade commander, and will, I think, be appointed.
It is a very honorable, but very laborious and important position, involving great care and trust.
If I am left here I do not mean to be surprised, or taken without a good, big fight.
The place is strong, and capable of resisting a large force.
If I remain here, I shall have my own regiment, a battery and a squadron of cavalry, besides other details and all convalescents sent here.
When it is decided, and it will be soon, I will let you know, and if I stay, will have you come and make me a visit.
You would not wish to remain long; there is nothing in camp life but what, to say the least of it, is uninviting to any lady.
We have never yet had one in our camp.
In most towns there are comfortable places in the houses of residents, but here there is not one.
All is military here.
No resident of the country is allowed to come within our lines unless he has a written pass, and the country itself is very poor, and almost depopulated.
We have now the hardest kind of living.
No potatoes or butter.
In fact, we have no vegetables but onions, of which we bought a barrel a few days since.
If you could put up a small jar of butter, and seal it, you might have an opportunity to send it.
We are now having very warm, dry weather.
My health is tolerably good, but I am getting very thin.
We shall finish the works here next week, and I shall then know what I am going to do.
I suppose you have seen Surgeon Ewing’s son, Will., and Lieut. Col. Worden.
It is said the latter is to be married; he looked rather yellow for that when he left here.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. S.”
Supplies from home.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Lieut. Slayton came in last night and brought your letter, and all the nice little supplies you so thoughtfully sent me.
They were all very welcome.
Col. Harker, Surgeon Ewing, and Adjutant Culver were present when I opened them.
I said, see what it is to have a good, thoughtful, loving little wife.
I gave Surgeons Ewing and Pratt the collars, and we had a good laugh over them.
Dr. Ewing is wearing his today.
One bottle of the whisky got broken in Lieut. Slayton’s trunk, so there was but one left.
Some of the corn was spoiled, but the cake, sugar, salt, pepper, and two jars of preserves were in good condition.
I am now very busy, but hope in a few days to have moor leisure.
Those collars just fit me and I have one of them on.
The handkerchiefs are being washed; they got stained with the whisky, or something else.”
This extract goes to show, though only in a slight degree, the extent to which we were obliged to depend upon our friends in our distant homes for many of what are considered the necessaries of life, or get along as we could without them.
Captain Palmer and his company “C” were on the 16th detailed to occupy the stockade at the railroad bridge across Crow Creek, west from Stevenson; an exposed and important post.
As it was outside our picket lines the greatest vigilance was necessary to prevent the men from being cut off, or the post surprised by the guerrillas.
On the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th, work was continued on the redoubt and other fortifications by a large force of negroes, mules, carts, and all of my regiment, except such as were detailed for guard and picket duty.
All the stockades and barricades were finished, leaving only the redoubt, upon which the whole force was concentrated.
SAW-MILL CAPTURED.
[Extract from letter to Mrs. Shoemaker.]
“Stevenson, Alabama,
“Sunday, Aug. 16, 1862.
“I have just read for the third time your letter of last Sunday, and although it is “awful” hot, I thought I would write you, as I shall be busy with military matters in the cool of the evening.
It seems quite pleasant to receive a letter from you in the same week that it is written, as that has of late been unusual.
There was a steam saw-mill captured from us by the guerrillas last night within half a mile of our picket-line.
It was a saw-mill used by a detail from the Mechanics and Engineers to get out lumber for a pontoon bridge which General Buell, when acting on the offensive proposed to use in crossing the Tennessee River.
The engineer, three soldiers of that regiment, and four Negros were taken and carried away.
We are surrounded by rebels.
The bushwhackers and guerrillas are all around us, and the confederate army is above (on the river) east and south of us.
One of our men was shot in the hand on Wednesday last when returning from a spring within eighty rods of our picket lines.
Our men are shot down from the roadside whenever there is an opportunity to do so with impunity.
Our camp, the town, and country are full of spies and informers, and the rebels know all about our forces, and our weak points when we have any such.
They are generally cowardly, and don’t want to fight when the numbers and chances are even, but when they can have four or five to one, or when they can shoot from the bushes, then they are “eager for the fray.”
This war promises to become a murderous one, and if the rebels keep up their present system, the country will be desolated wherever our army goes.
“I shall send this letter by Quartermaster Kidder, who goes home.
He has intelligence that his wife is very sick, and probably will not recover.
He has resigned.
He expects to come back to the regiment.
Who is going to be Colonel of the Jackson regiment?
What position does Livermore expect to have?
Tell me all about this regiment, and who of the Jackson folks are in it.
Kiss the babies.
Remember me to your mother, Fred., and all friends.
“Affectionately your husband,
“M. SHOEMAKER.”
On the 20th I received an order from brigade headquarters to get my regiment in readiness to march with the brigade on the 21st.
This order was issued by mistake, and was countermanded, and an order issued appointing me to the command of the post of Stevenson, Alabama.
There was placed under my command, besides my own regiment, the 5th Indiana Battery, Captain Simonson; four companies of the Michigan Mechanics and Engineers, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Hunton; one company of the 29th Indiana V. I., Captain Casey, and all convalescents at, or to come to the Post able to do military duty.
“Colonel Harker with the other regiments of his brigade, the 64th Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel Young, 65th Ohio, Colonel Ferguson, and 51st Indiana, Colonel Straght, left early in the morning of the 21st of August, 1862 for Bridgeport, and I saw no more of them until the 7th of September, when I rejoined them at Nashville, Tennessee.
IN COMMAND AT STEVENSON.
I appointed Lieutenant Eaton as Provost Marshal of the Post, and Lieutenant James R. Slayton as Assistant Provost Marshal.
Strict orders were issued to all detachments occupying stockades, guarding bridges, on picket lines, or stationed at any point outside the redoubt to observe the greatest vigilance, and to hold themselves in readiness for action at any moment.
General Don Carlos Buell, commander of the Army of the Cumberland, came in on the railroad on the 21st, from Huntsville.
There came also over one hundred convalescent soldiers from the divisions of Generals Chrittenden and McCook, to remain here in my charge, to be taken care of, and made useful as far as possible.
On the morning of the 22nd, in company with Lieutenant Colonel Hunton, I visited and inspected the entire picket line (which was several miles in extent and completely surrounded Stevenson), the redoubt, stockades, and all points where detachments of troops were stationed, except some at railroad bridges, which were outside the lines.
We found the picket posts all properly placed, and the guards prompt and watchful in the discharge of their duty.
Captains Balch and Sunderlin with the companies under their command were relieved from duty in the stockades and stationed in the redoubt, their places in the stockades being filled from those of the convalescents sent to the post who were able to bear arms.
Captain Simonson was also ordered to place his battery in position in the redoubt so as to be ready for action at any and all times, which was done.
The work on the redoubt and stockades was pressed towards completion as rapidly as possible with the force at my command, mules and carts, which had been impressed in the surrounding country, the troops being now all required for military purposes.
General Buell on being informed of what had been, and what was being done, expressed himself pleased and satisfied with my dispositions, and enjoined the necessity of great care and watchfulness, as the post was liable to be at any time attacked.
The necessity of preserving railroad communication with Huntsville was particularly impressed upon me.
He left with his staff on the 22nd by railroad for Dechard.
A SURPRISE.
On the 23rd we continued to strengthen the fortifications.
While thus engaged I received the following telegram:
No. 1. “Dechabd, August 23, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker Commanding: —
Expedite shipment of stores from Stevenson in every possible way, and be ready to evacuate the place at a moment’s notice.
Let Engineers and Mechanics prepare pontoons for burning, and when you leave destroy everything that cannot be brought away. Confidential.
Operator at Stevenson will not let it be known.
“J. B. FRY,
“Colonel and Chief of Staff.”
The situation of officers occupying positions like myself in the Army of the Cumberland was peculiar in this.
Being always confronted by the Confederates, we had no opportunity to obtain information of what was taking place outside of our own immediate command.
We could learn nothing from those with whom we associated, for they were as ignorant as ourselves, and we never saw a northern newspaper less than from a week to ten or twenty days old.
People at home, reading the daily papers, knew infinitely more of the general movements of our army, to say nothing of the others, than did any of the brigade or regimental officers composing it.
As we had been all summer rebuilding burned bridges and repairing railroads torn up by the Confederates, and building fortifications, I had supposed that we were to act on the offensive and advance still further into the Confederacy.
It was, therefore, a great surprise to me when I received the above telegram.
I had no knowledge of the movements of the army of which we formed a part except what I actually saw, and none whatever of those of the Confederate army of Gen. Bragg to which were opposed.
This telegram, therefore, was the first intimation to me of what proved to be the incursion of Gen. Bragg into Kentucky, or that there was any other intention on the part of Gen. Buell than to hold this post, and make it a depot of supplies, as it was situated at the junction of the railroads from Memphis and from Nashville to Chattanooga, Atlanta and Charleston.
I was confirmed in my belief of the permanency of our occupation, by the fact that up to this time there had been large shipments of all kinds of supplies to Stevenson from Nashville and the north, evidently intended for distribution to the forces in the field beyond this point.
Of these there was a large amount that must now be re-shipped or destroyed.
I had under my command at this time over one thousand men, the battery, the companies of the Mechanics and Engineers, besides over a thousand convalescents, most of whom were unable to do military duty.
On the receipt of this telegram (No. 1) I immediately commenced to make arrangements for shipping all the stores and the soldiers who were too sick to be made useful.
On the 24th I dispatched by railroad a large amount of stores and all the convalescent soldiers that were unable to bear arms or unfit for other duty.
Of these there were several hundred.
I continued to work the negroes, mules, and carts in strengthening my position in the redoubt and around the railroad depot.
ON THE CONDUCT OF THE WAR.
The following extracts from a letter written to my wife will give the opinion of the situation which I at that time entertained, and which, viewed in the light of subsequent events, proves the correctness of the views I then held.
There never was a more bungling, ill-advised campaign, or one showing such evident want of military ability, and absence of strategical design, or intent, or knowledge, than that dating first from the surprise of our army at Shiloh, and again from the capture of Corinth.
After the battle of Shiloh, if the army had been moved directly forward it could have gone into Corinth without further fighting; for, when finally there, we had the evidence of its citizens that the Confederate army came there completely disorganized, with the exception of one division.
If any effort on our part was made to ascertain the actual state of things it must have been unsuccessful, or our commanders were stunned by the magnitude of the battle which had been forced upon them.
All the indications seemed to show that we had gained a great victory; all the orders under which we acted made it apparent that those in command were still apprehensive of being again attacked, and our movements were those of an army acting on the defensive rather than the offensive; of one that had fought a drawn rather than a victorious battle.
After the capture of Corinth, the Federal army was in sufficient force to have marched through the confederacy in any direction.
All the armies of the west were concentrated there, and formed one grand whole.
It could have marched through the confederacy to any point on the gulf or ocean, and then have swept around to Virginia with greater ease and less opposition than did Sherman before fighting the battles which preceded the capture of Atlanta, some years later.
Instead of moving in a body, the different armies composing the whole (all west of the Alleghenies) , were separated and dispatched in different directions, and the campaign of 1862 in the west came to naught, or worse.
These are not ideas born of subsequent events, but those held at the time, and expressed in letters to Gov. Blair, Mrs. Shoemaker, and others, as the following letter clearly proves:
The Army of the Cumberland spent the summer in the Valley of the Tennessee west of Chattanooga, building bridges, repairing railroads, guarding plantations, protecting cotton stored thereon (of which there was enough when we passed up from Corinth to Stevenson to have paid a good share of the National debt at the close of the war), trying General Turchin by court-martial for making war, and finally in September, ignominiously retreated to Louisville, by forced marches, in order to reach there before it could be occupied by Gen. Bragg and the confederate army, which had been recruiting its strength while our army had been engaged in labor and pursuits that all eventuated to the use and benefit of our enemies.
The bridges, the railroads, the cotton, and the corn, was all, or mostly all, used or destroyed by the confederates after our army, without fighting a battle, was forced to leave the country, and before its return.
“My Dear Wife :—
The troops have all left here, and are leaving, except my regiment, which is in charge of the post.
There is much uncertainty about our future movements, but you will know from the papers what has been done sooner than by my letters.
Communication is now very uncertain, as is everything else.
It looks now as though we were to abandon this country.
We are now one of the extreme outposts, and may see some fighting before we leave.
I will write you as often as I can, but every moment of my time is now taken up by duties.
I have now about one thousand men and four pieces of artillery to garrison this place.
The enemy are said to be in large force in our immediate vicinity.
I have no letter from you for some time; the last date was two weeks today.
Don’t say anything of what I write about military matters.
Sunday night, 25th August, 1862.
They are all in confusion here, and I fear will be worse.
I am writing in the depot.
The army is retreating; Huntsville and that line is abandoned.
Gen. Buell went through here yesterday, and has his headquarters now at Dechard.
“We want good generalship, or our lives if given, will do no good, but only be a useless sacrifice to the cause.
We ought now to be acting on the offensive instead of the defensive.
I hope there will soon be a change of policy, if not of commanders.
“Kiss the children.
I send my love, and think of you every minute.
Will write again as soon as I can.
In haste.
“Yours in love,
“M. S.”
HOLD THE FORT.
On the 25th, I received the following telegram (No. 2) from Gen. Buell:
“Dechard, August 25, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Do not let it appear there is any intention of abandoning your post, but be prepared to do so in -case of necessity.
It is desirous to hold your post as long as possible, and it is the intention to do so.
J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I continued to strengthen my position in every possible manner, both at the redoubt and in and about the town, keeping several hundred negroes and a large number of mules and carts constantly at work.
I allowed no one to know or have cause to suspect that there was any intention of abandoning Stevenson.
From the nature of the work carried on both day and night on the defenses of the place, both citizens and soldiers were led to believe that we meant to “hold the fort.”
Detachments from my command were every day scouring the country to procure supplies, and particularly forage for our animals for which we required a large supply.
We had one hundred and thirty-one horses with Simonson’s battery, and thirteen army wagons with four mules to each, with my regiment making one hundred and eighty-three animals, besides the horses of the officers of which there was between twenty and thirty, giving over two hundred horses and mules to feed.
COMMENTS ON THE SITUATION.
I today caused water to be hauled into the fort so that we might have a supply in case of emergency.
During the day trains came in from Huntsville, and passed directly through towards Nashville as soon as they could be transferred to the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad.
With them came Judge Lane, Gen. Rosseau, and a large number of others who were evidently leaving the country, including military officers, civilians from the loyal States connected with the army, loyal southern men, and refugees from the Confederate States.
This exodus, taken in connection with the orders I was receiving, forced me to conclude that our labor in the valley of the Tennessee and at Stevenson was all to be not only worthless to our cause, but was to accrue directly to the benefit of the Confederates; and all because the Army of the Cumberland, under Gen. Buell, had spent the summer in repairing railroads, building bridges, and fortifications instead of making real, actual war upon the enemy.
The plantations, the cotton, and the corn of the southern people, however hostile they might have been, had been guarded by Federal troops; and attempts, which I am happy to state were always fruitless, were made under the immediate command of Gen. Buell, to return “fugitive slaves” that had escaped from their masters and sought refuge in our army.
This was the manner in which the gallant Army of the Cumberland was employed, instead of seeking out and dispersing the Confederate forces wherever there was an attempt to concentrate them.
If the campaign of 1862 in the valley of the Tennessee, in the States of Alabama and Georgia, was not intended to give “aid and comfort” to the Confederates, by giving them time and opportunity to recover from the defeat, and disasters of Shiloh and Corinth, it most certainly had that result; for it enabled them to recruit and gather up their forces to such an extent, that at this time they were strong enough to resume the offensive so effectually as to whirl the Federal Army back across the States of Tennessee and Kentucky to Louisville on the Ohio river, and force it to abandon and leave for the use and benefit of the Confederacy all the fruits of its labor since leaving Corinth.
FURTHER ORDERS.
During the day I received from Gen. Buell telegram No. 3 as follows:
“Dechard, August 25, 1862, on the cars.
[“Confidential.]
“Col. Shoemaker:
Send one (1) of your companies to Bridgeport to escort the section of artillery at that place in its march to Stevenson.
The artillery will come up as soon as stores are removed, probably to-morrow.
J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I now became satisfied that the large quantity of stores in my charge must be removed or they would have to be destroyed, or left for the benefit of the Confederates; and I therefore caused all supplies, stores, and material not necessary for the defense of Stevenson to be shipped as fast as the facilities on the railroad would permit.
The prisoners were sent North under charge of Captain McLaughlin.
Late in the day, I received from General Buell Telegram No. 4, as follows:
“Dechard, August 25, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
Continue to strengthen your defenses, and be prepared for an obstinate defense.
J. B. PRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I caused a further supply of water to be hauled into the fort, and determined to impress more negroes to work on the fortifications.
Those we had were kept at work in relief squads both day and night.
On the 26th of August, I sent four wagons for forage with an escort, with orders to bring in air the negroes they could find, with mules, carts, and tools.
Company E, Captain Webb, formed the escort and guard, and as the day and night passed with Captain Webb absent and no intelligence of his movements, I became quite anxious about the safety of his command.
I knew the country was swarming with guerrillas, but heretofore they had never ventured to attack any of our command sent out for forage or any other purpose; but any soldier wandering from his command, or for any cause found alone, was certain to be cut off, and in almost every instance his fate was unknown to us, but there was almost an absolute certainty that he was foully murdered, and those reported on the rolls as “missing” were seldom if ever again heard of among men.
As the country was undoubtedly by this time well aware of the retrograde movement of General Buell, I feared the guerrillas might have become emboldened, and have gathered in force and ventured to attack Captain Webb, or obstruct his operations.
I had every confidence in the courage and capacity of Captain Webb, which the result justified, for he came in on the 27th with a large supply of forage, mules, carts, and Negroes with “working tools” for all of them.
BRIDGEPORT.
In compliance with the telegraphic order of General Buell I sent Captain Balch with his Company G to act as escort and guard for two howitzers (section of battery) from Bridgeport to Stevenson.
In marching back, when just east of Bolivar, towards evening, one of the company, not feeling well, fell out of the ranks.
His brother, also a soldier in the company, learning of this, also left the ranks to remain with and look after his brother.
This was all wrong, and ought not to have been allowed, as it was an almost certain sacrifice of the two men.
The sick man, if unable to march, should have been placed on one of the gun carriages and brought in with his company.
There was no danger that the force of Captain Balch, would be attacked, and no necessity for undue haste.
When these facts were reported to me I was highly indignant that these men should have been left under circumstances that most certainly would subject them to the tender mercies of the guerrillas, who were known to be perfectly inhumane in their treatment of stragglers from our ranks, and I determined to send in the early morning a force to bring them in or learn their fate.
I accordingly detailed companies K and I, with one howitzer, under command of Captain Chadwick for this duty.
The captain on his return reported that at the place where the first man left the ranks he found the brother, who last fell out of the ranks, lying on the ground, wounded, where he had been left the day previous, after being stripped of his gun, accoutrements, and most of his clothing.
This man stated that when he came in sight of his brother he was surrounded by guerillas, who fired upon, wounded, and then robbed him, and left, taking his brother with them, after having stripped him also.
The fate of the latter I never ascertained.
He is one of the great army of the “missing.”
The following orders by telegram were received the 26th:
No. 5.] “Dechard, August 26, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker, Commanding: —
Two (2) trains are to go to Huntsville at daylight.
One of them has three companies of 10th Wisconsin on board.
Distribute these men so as to guard both trains as far as Huntsville.
These companies are to be sent back to Larkinville.
Order them positively to go through to Huntsville with trains.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
The orders were given and the trains dispatched as directed, though it was evident there was apprehension of danger.
Also the following:
No. 6.
“Dechard, August 26, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
How many animals will you have to feed?
You must get in at once all the forage you can.
Cut the green corn for fodder.
Answer.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied by telegram that I had 107 horses and 78 mules, and that I could and would procure full supplies of forage.
CONFEDERATE FORCES NEAR.
On the 27th, for the first time, the enemy began to show themselves openly in the vicinity of the fort, and two of the garrison were fired upon by a squad of mounted men within two miles of the town.
One company sent below Widow’s Creek bridge for wood reported the railroad track torn up.
The signs, and they manifested themselves in all quarters, indicated that the confederates were about to commence offensive movements in this quarter, and probably “all along the line,” as a response to the masterly inactivity of our summer campaign.
In the afternoon there came into our lines several fugitive soldiers from Bridgeport, with very conflicting reports, some of them stating that there had been heavy fighting, and that our forces had been defeated.
Others said that the Federal troops had, after gallantly defending their position against superior forces, abandoned the place and retreated across the mountain.
All agreed that Stevenson was now the outpost, and that there were no federal troops between this place and Chattanooga.
These fugitives were all very positive we were soon to be attacked by a large force.
I now thought it unsafe to leave a guard at Widow’s Creek Bridge, as it was in such an exposed position, and so far from support.
Captain Jones, who was, with his company, acting as guard at that stockade and doing picket duty near there, was ordered into camp and stationed inside the fort.
The two howitzers were placed in position on the fortifications inside the fort.
The following telegram was received:
No. 7.
“Dechard, August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
Direct Col. Hunton (of Mechanics and Engineers to leave one company of Mechanics and Engineers under a good captain, at Stevenson, to do such work as may be required, and give him instructions then to march tomorrow for this place, by the road along the railroad; bring his empty wagons.
The baggage to be left in charge of the company which remains, and to come up by rail when ordered.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied to this by sending a telegram to Gen. Buell, asking him to allow me to keep with my command Col. Hunton and two companies of Mechanics and Engineers, in answer to which I received the following telegram:
“Dechard, August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Let two companies Engineers remain instead of one, and send one of them with train to repair.
How many convalescent and sick at Stevenson?
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
The answer to this dispatch I did not preserve or have mislaid, but the company of Mechanics and Engineers were sent as directed, and the number of sick and convalescent, over one thousand, given.
Lieutenant Colonel Hunton with two companies of Mechanics and Engineers remained under my command.
AM CONFIDENT THAT I CAN HOLD THE FORT.
I also received the following telegram
(No. 9):
“Dechard. August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
A brigade cannot dislodge you.
Hold the place.
The property must be got away.
Let Col. Hunton remain with you.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied to this that “I could and would hold the place against any force that could probably be brought against me.”
I had no doubt of my ability to do so, for I was convinced that the main army of Gen. Bragg was not moving in this direction at all, and I did not believe that any considerable force would be taken from his army (if, as appeared to be the case, he was assuming the offensive) for the purpose of attacking Stevenson.
I did not fear an irregular force, as I felt confident we could hold our own against any of that character which the Confederates could send against us.
The result proved that I was correct.
I had now the fort in an efficient state for defense, with the artillery (Captain Simonson’s Fifth Indiana battery) in position in it, held in constant readiness for use.
The railroad depot buildings and all the houses commanding the approaches to the town had been converted into fortifications.
Stockades had been built on the railroad on both sides of the town.
All these I had been able to fully man by placing in them, with part of my own regiment, the convalescents able to bear arms, which had been sent to me from both up and down the line of the M. & E. railroad.
I now received telegram (No. 10) in the afternoon:
“Dechard. August 27, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker: —
Take in your guards between Bridgeport and Stevenson, and prepare to defend the latter.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col and Chief of Staff.”
Also the following telegram
(No. 11):
“Dechard. August 27, 18G2.
“Col. Shoemaker:
If there is no special reason to the contrary, let a guard of one company go out carefully on the train in the morning with telegraph repairer to put up line to Huntsville.
See Mr. Chittenden, chief operator.
What news from Bridgeport?
Answer. “J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
I replied that several straggling soldiers had come into Stevenson, bringing conflicting reports.
All agreed that Bridgeport had been at tacked by a large force of Confederates, and most of them claimed that the post bad been abandoned, but what became of the garrison none of them knew.
During the day water and provisions were hauled into the fort.
In the evening Captain Webb and his command returned with a good supply of forage, negroes, mules, and carts.
He had extended his trip farther than was expected when he started, and this had caused him to take more time.
He had neither seen nor heard of any opposing force; had not been molested, but reported that the expression of hostility by the inhabitants was universal.
In compliance with order by telegram (No. 10) I ordered Captain Jones with Company H in from Widow’s creek bridge, and stationed them in the fort.
August 28th.
I did not apprehend that there was any “special reason to the contrary” and therefore sent a company as guard with the cars and telegraph repairers towards Huntsville to put up the line where it had been broken by the guerrillas.
This duty was performed without molestation.
Two of the four companies of Mechanics and Engineers which had remained with me up to this time started this morning, with the transportation of the regiment, but without their baggage or loads of any kind in their wagons.
They went by the wagon road towards Dechard.
RECONNAISSANCE.
In order to ascertain if there was any danger of an immediate attack upon this post, I sent a scouting party composed of two companies towards Battle Creek, who made a reconnaissance to within four miles of Bridgeport, but saw no Confederate forces.
Soldiers from the hospitals, convalescents and sick, had been coming in to my charge by almost every train since the post had been placed under my command, and to-day, again, all those not able to bear arms were sent to Nashville on the railroad, as was also the baggage of General McCook’s division, which had been sent here some time before.
Large quantities of stores and supplies were also shipped to Nashville,—all that could be carried by the cars furnished for that purpose.
In order that I might be prepared as perfectly as possible for any emergency which might arise, I now reorganized my forces.
Captain Palmer and his company (C) were stationed in two stockades on the Huntsville railroad west of the town, the two companies of Mechanics and Engineers in two stockades and a barricaded building on the east side of the town; the convalescents capable of bearing arms were stationed in the depot and other buildings in the town.
To Colonel Hunton, I gave command of the Mechanics and Engineers and convalescents.
My own regiment, and two companies of the 29th Indiana V. I., which had joined my command, were given in charge the picket lines, the fort, and such duty outside the lines as might become necessary.
I also changed the picket lines, drawing them in so that if attacked they could be more readily supported.
I received the following telegram
(No. 12):
“Dechard, August 28th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker, Commanding: —
Send back all train guards at the earliest practicable moment.
“WM. SOAG SMITH.
“Brig. Gen. Commanding Post.”
I was engaged on the picket lines and with other duties until quite late, and lay down for the night without taking off my clothes; and from this time until I arrived in Nashville, Tenn., on the 6th of September, my clothes were never once taken off, and this not as a matter of choice, but of necessity.
BURNING OF BOLIVAR.
August 29.
I this morning sent two companies under command of Captain Chadwick east on the line of the railroad leading to Chattanooga to reconnoiter.
I was determined not to be taken by surprise, and I knew I could prevent it by keeping parties of observation beyond the picket lines on the route by which any force of the enemy must approach our position.
Late in the afternoon we observed from the fort a heavy cloud of smoke rising evidently in the vicinity of Bolivar, a small place east of us and on the line of march taken by Captain Chadwick.
This I learned was caused by the burning of several houses in that hamlet.
These houses, five or six of them, were, I have no doubt, burned by some of the men of the scouting party that went out in the morning under command of Captain Chadwick, although they all, so far as I could ascertain, denied committing the act, and if done by them, was against my positive order.
I was very particular in charging all officers and soldiers sent into the country, for any purpose whatever, to carefully abstain from interfering with, or in any manner injuring the inhabitants, either in person or property, any further than was absolutely necessary to carry out the orders under which the expedition was acting.
Commands sent for forage, Negroes, or any other supplies were instructed to use such force as was necessary to procure them, but to carefully abstain from all outrage, or any unnecessary violence; and this was the only instance in which my orders were disobeyed.
I have no doubt but Bolivar was burned by soldiers of Captain Chadwick’s command, and I think with his knowledge if not consent.
My entire command had for some time been satisfied that its inhabitants were not only acting as spies, but also as guerrillas, and to them, I believe correctly, was ascribed the outrage committed on the 26th on the two brothers of Captain Batch’s command.
It was to avenge the treatment of these men, in all probability that caused their comrades to fire the houses of those they believed to be guilty of that cowardly and inhuman act.
Captain Chadwick, and the other officers who were out with him, would never admit that any of his command fired the houses, but some of them must have done so, for there were no other parties who could have done it.
Captain Chadwick and his command returned late in the afternoon.
The captain reported that he had seen no confederate force, nor any sign of any.
He went to within four miles of Bridgeport.
All of the commissary stores, and what was remaining at Stevenson of the baggage of Gen. McCook’s division, was to-day shipped by railroad to Nashville.
Negroes and whites of the country.
I still kept the Negroes and carts at work on the fort and stockades.
The Negroes worked willingly and faithfully.
If there was any one thing which they appeared to fear more than all else, it was that the Federal forces would leave the country, and that they would be remanded to the tender mercies of their masters.
The Negroes were not only industrious and faithful workmen, but were also most useful, and in fact, our only trustworthy spies.
The information obtained from them, when they were where they dare speak freely, could almost always be depended upon.
That obtained from the whites was always intended to deceive or mislead, when they thought by giving it they could lead the Federal troops into danger or make them trouble of any kind.
Each and every one of them would travel fast and far to carry information to the Confederate forces when they thought advantage could be taken of it.
So well convinced was I of this that, after the 23rd of August.
I refused to permit any person living in Stevenson to pass outside the picket lines, or anyone outside to come within, without a written permit signed by the provost marshal or myself, and this liberty was given in but few instances, and only where we were satisfied that no advantage could be taken of it.
NOTES SOUNDING OF RETREAT.
The following telegram was received from General Buell who still had his headquarters at Dechard (No. 13):
“Dechard, August 29, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker—confidential:
Trains will go to Huntsville to-morrow to bring over the last stores from that place.
When they arrive at Stevenson tomorrow night have Simonson’s Battery loaded on the cars, and also all the baggage there is at Stevenson, and send all the trains up together.
The horses with harness of Simonson’s Battery and your regiment must come here by land, and you should start if possible, before daylight on the morning of the 31st.
“Direct Major Hall, 37th Indiana, to prepare a note for each of his detachments on the line, telling them to march to the North along the road, and let these notes be delivered by the last train.
Be particular on this point, as the guards must not leave until the last train passes, and that train should take the baggage of the guards.
Old tents should be destroyed.
If Major Hall is not at Stevenson some other officer must see to this.
It is the intention to evacuate the place and leave nothing to fall into the enemy’s hands which would be useful.
The pontoons should be fired just before you start.
No locomotives or cars should be allowed to fall into their hands.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
Major Hall was at Stevenson, and I gave him a copy of as much of this message as related to his command.
I had supposed until I received this telegram, that it was the intention of General Buell to hold Stevenson, as it was at the junction of the Memphis and Charleston, and Nashville & Chattanooga Railroads, and we had built here a fort, an earthwork of considerable strength.
I knew the army was moving north, but did not think the country was to be entirely abandoned.
In order that I might be better prepared to act under these orders I visited the picket lines and again changed them, bringing them nearer the town and fort, after which I received the following telegram (No. 14):
“Decharn. August 29th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
Guards of one company for each train must be sent with the trains which go to Huntsville.
Use Mechanics and Engineers for that purpose.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
REFUGEE WHITES IN THE SOUTH.
There came into our lines to-day a gentleman about 35 or 40 years of age, who asked to be taken to the officer in command.
He was taken to the Provost Marshal, Lieut. Eaton, of whom he asked to see me as the commanding officer, at the same time refusing, or rather declining to answer any questions.
I saw him, when he requested to be sent with as little delay as possible to the headquarters of Gen. Buell; and he professed to have important information which he could only impart to him (Gen. Buell).
He declined to give his name, was much agitated, and evidently laboring under considerable apprehension of danger from some quarter.
When he first saw our flag (the stars and stripes) he shed tears, and said it was the first time his eyes rested upon it for eighteen long, weary months.
He was evidently a gentleman of culture and standing.
Although I doubted his sincerity, I decided to comply with his request, and he was sent at once in charge of an officer to the headquarters of Gen. Buell, wherever that might be.
Who he was or what important information he communicated I have never learned; but if he was a sincere Union man, he was, in my belief, the only southern man I ever saw in southern Tennessee, Mississippi, or Alabama while I was in the service that was sincere in his profession of loyalty.
There were but few that made any such profession, and those we had uniformly found to be spies or informers.
The feeling of loyalty to the Confederacy, and not only disloyalty to, but hatred for the Union, was simply universal; and towards our army there was with the entire population, men, women, and children, a feeling of deadly hostility.
This was shown whenever there was an opportunity to cut off a single man or a small detachment.
While on the march we were constantly watched, and any man falling out of the rank from fatigue or any other cause, if left behind, was certain to be cut off.
My opportunities of judging of the temper and disposition of the people were exceptionally good, as my command was most of the summer of 1862 detached from the main line of the army, so that I was brought into direct communication with the inhabitants, particularly at Iuka, Bear Creek, Town Creek, and Stevenson.
We were also at Tuscumbia, Decatur, and Mooresville, and in fact, I may say that my facilities for obtaining information were good from Corinth to Chattanooga.
As a source of satisfaction to myself I felt deeply interested in learning as correctly as possible, the feelings and sentiments of the southern people, and I never lost an opportunity for obtaining information either from men, women, or Negroes.
I visited houses near all our encampments, and as far as possible took great care to make, the acquaintance of the residents in the vicinity of those stations where we remained any number of days.
The convictions to which I give expression are the result of mature deliberation.
I do not think it at all discreditable to our southern brethren that they should believe according to the light in which they were educated, but in common with all in our army, I detested the spirit which led to murder and guerrilla warfare.
From the time we left Salt river, in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama, I found that Confederate money was taken in preference to greenbacks, and in southern and eastern Tennessee and in Mississippi, the money of the Federal States would not be received at all in payment.
This was almost universally the case after we left Nashville on our march to Shiloh.
In Mississippi and Alabama there were no exceptions.
The inhabitants would not sell us anything at all, for any kind of money, if they could avoid doing so, but if they felt compelled to do so they invariably asked two or three prices, and would then only take Confederate money in payment.
There could be no more certain indication of, not only the feelings of the people, but also of their belief in the ultimate success of the Confederate cause than their preference for Confederate, and their absolute refusal to take the national currency.
It was useless to point out to them that if the Confederacy should succeed in becoming a separate nation, yet still the greenbacks would be good as against the loyal States.
No, they would have none of them.
They did not want any “yankee money,” and that the Confederate States would succeed in the war, and of the value of the Confederate money they never, at this time, allowed themselves to doubt.
Until after our arrival at Stevenson all supplies taken in the country for the army were paid for and at all times, before and after, the officers paid for all such supplies as they procured in the country.
FURTHER ORDERS.
Dr. Mandeville was stationed at Stevenson to assist in taking care of the sick and convalescent.
There were many of both classes at Steven son all of the time, although we were sending all able to be transported, and not able to bear arms, to Nashville as fast as we could get cars.
They were also coming to us every day by every train.
Dr. Mandeville had been ordered away, and I requested of General Buell, by telegram, that he might be allowed to remain with me and received the following answer (“So. 15):
“Dechard, August 29, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker: Dr. Mandeville can remain until further orders.
“R. Murray.
“Surgeon U.R.A. Med. Div.”
I also received this important dispatch from General Buell (No. 16):
“Dechard, August 29th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
Send all baggage wagons of your command here by the road along the railroad, starting at daylight tomorrow, and be ready to move with the troops at a moment’s notice.
Send Engineer companies as escort for wagons, or if they are not with you, send two of your companies.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
To obey this order would cause me to divide and weaken my force, and endanger both divisions if attacked, I therefore decided to ask General Buell to rescind this order, and sent him the following telegram:
“Stevenson, Alabama”
August 29th, 1862.
“Colonel J. B. Fry. A. A. Gen. and Chief of Staff:
Our teams are constantly employed.
Captain Simonson says he will need four, and can send but two.
I must use five.
That would leave, including ambulances, less than half to go, and would weaken my force two companies.
I think I can feed all the animals by stripping green corn, and would prefer to keep my force together.
Can I do so?
“M. SHOEMAKER,
“Col. Commanding Post.”
To this I received the following answer (No. 18):
“Dechard, August 29, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
If you think best, keep all your wagons and bring them with the regiment.
They must come empty or with light loads.
“J. B. FRY,
“Col. and Chief of Staff.”
By a determined effort on my part, and much extra work of my helpers I succeeded in shipping today to Nashville all the commissary stores remaining at Stevenson and the baggage of McCook’s division.
August 30.
The picket lines were disturbed at several different points the past night by the approach of scouting parties of the Confederates and spies who were evidently attempting to ascertain the number and location of our forces.
The picket guard wounded a Confederate captain, who succeeded in making his escape, but the guard captured his body servant, a remarkably bright, intelligent, good looking mulatto.
He declared that he knew nothing of any force of the enemy in our immediate vicinity.
The events of the morrow proved his fidelity to his master, as he was undoubtedly endeavoring to deceive us.
In the morning I visited the picket lines quite early, and charged the officers in command to act with great care and caution, to observe and report the appearance of any force, or of single individuals in the neighborhood of the lines.
On my return we commenced to move the provisions and ammunition out of the fort, preparatory to its abandonment.
I made such disposition of the means at my command that it enabled me to send away everything of value.
ORDERS FROM GENERAL BUELL.
Received from General Buell the following telegram:
“Dechard, August 30th, 1862.
“Colonel Shoemaker:
You will put caissons on the cars, and start them in the morning, but retain the guns to march with you.
The gun chests should be filled with shells, not solid shot.
In case the trains should not get through from Huntsville tomorrow, you will hold your position until night, and then march with your whole force, unless you know by delay you can cover their movement, and if opposed force your way through.
“Colonel Chapin will be Instructed to wait until ten o’clock tomorrow for the train, and then force his way to you with what detachments he can pick up on the road.
“You may not have any trouble, but prudence and resolution will carry you through in any event.
Put your baggage on the cars, so as to move light.
Keep the horses and harnesses of the caissons to help your guns over the mountains.
“I will send two battalions of cavalry down tomorrow to meet you.
Colonel Chapin’s regiment will march with you, and the train must take up the bridge guards this side of Stevenson.
D. C. Buell,
“Major General Commanding.”
On Sunday morning, August 30, 1862, I caused all the baggage, commissary stores, sick and convalescent soldiers remaining at Stevenson to be loaded on the cars, and started on the railroad towards Nashville, Tennessee.
The caissons were also sent at the same time, and the only ammunition kept with us was the shells the artillery could store in the chests of the guns of the battery, and what the soldiers could carry in their cartridge boxes.
We had quite a number of prisoners, part of whom were regarded as military and part as civilians.
These were all sent to Gen. Buell by railroad in charge of Captain McLaughlin and Lieut. Dunbar.
The civilians were mostly residents of the vicinity whom I had caused to be arrested from time to time for acting as spies, and being in secret communication with the Confederate military authorities, to whom they made known our strength and all our movements.
Some of the prisoners complained bitterly at being sent from their homes and families.
To these Captain Eaton, Provost Marshal, most pertinently replied that their action and that of others like them had taken us from our homes and families, and brought us over a thousand miles and yet, with so much more cause, we did not complain.
CONFEDERATE FORCES CHECKED.
About 8 o’clock A.M. and before the arrival of any trains from Huntsville, I was informed by some of our scouts that there was a force of Confederate cavalry making a demonstration on the Bolivar and Bridgeport road.
I immediately sent out Captain Slayton with Company I, and Captain Simonson with two pieces of artillery to reconnoiter, with directions to check an advance on that road, if any was attempted, and ascertain the number of the forces of the enemy as nearly as possible.
Captains Slayton and Simonson were both on horseback, and were accompanied, besides their command, by some twenty or more mounted men, volunteers, of whom fourteen were of Simonsons’ battery on artillery horses, and the others, except Lieutenant-Colonel Hunton, officers of my regiment.
A short distance outside of our picket line and about one mile east of the town, they saw a force of cavalry in a small grove of woods directly on the road.
Captain Simonson immediately opened fire on them with his two pieces of artillery.
A few shells exploding among them caused their retreat without offering any resistance.
They were immediately pursued by our volunteer cavalry, who, charging at full speed through the woods, found that their hot haste almost precipitated them on to a brigade of Confederate infantry, supported by a battery of artillery and a troop of cavalry, drawn up in order of battle on the open ground and crossing the road.
They were in such close proximity that our volunteers were in imminent danger of being surrounded and their retreat cut off; but they promptly took in the situation, and before the enemy had time to act, after seeing how small was the force which was so bravely rushing through the woods, our impromptu cavalry turned, retreated and were saved from capture by the speed of their horses.
They all succeeded in reaching the ground occupied by our artillery, which again opened fire on the advancing foe, and checked the pursuit.
All this was immediately reported to me, and I dispatched another company of infantry, with orders to hold the position as long as possible, to advise me if more support was necessary, and I would send it to them at once.
The road on which they were stationed and defending was that leading directly to the depot, and if the Confederates succeeded in advancing upon it they would prevent the transfer of trains from Huntsville to the Nashville railroad.
After a lively cannonade of an hour the enemy ceased firing, drew off their forces to the left or south, and we had accomplished our object in forcing them to take a position, in making any further attack upon us, most favorable for the accomplishment of the objects we had in view.
THE CONFEDERATES ATTACK THE FORT AT STEVENSON.
The Confederates now approached the fort from the southwest, planting their battery and displaying their forces in the cleared field in that direction, opened quite a lively fire with their artillery on both the fort, and the town.
The two companies of infantry, and two pieces of artillery, were now ordered to return, and placed inside the fort.
They had acted with great gallantry, and rendered service of the utmost value by the tenacity with which they held their position in the face of a force so greatly superior.
They had caused the enemy to abandon the direct road to Stevenson, and swerve to the left or south, thereby not only preserving our railroad connections from immediate danger, but also protecting our line of retreat, which would have been greatly endangered, if not cut off, had the Confederates made good their advance directly upon the town, which, with the number and composition of their forces, they ought to and might have done.
The commander of the enemy did not bring his forces within range of our muskets, but Captain Simonson kept up a continuous fire on them from his battery in the fort with good effect.
They changed the position of their battery several times, and there was at intervals a good deal of confusion apparent in their ranks.
This artillery engagement was general and active from ten A.M. until about four P.M., without any loss on our side, as their balls and shells generally passed over the fort.
They had our range correctly, but did not well calculate the distance.
I do not know what loss the enemy suffered from the guns of Captain Simonson, but judge it must have been quite considerable, or they would not have been so wary or so dilatory in their movements.
The manner in which the Confederate gunners handled their artillery reflected anything but credit upon them, as it would hardly seem possible for a full battery to pound away steadily for six hours and inflict so little damage as we suffered.
There was not one man killed or wounded, no gun dismounted, and our stockades and other fortifications were not injured.
Some damage was done to several houses in Stevenson, into which they threw a portion of their shells, probably with the intention of destroying our railroad communications, but they failed in this, and “nobody was hurt.”
Soon after three o’clock the trains came in on the railroad from Huntsville with the Tenth Wisconsin Infantry, some refugees and others fleeing to the North.
EVACUATION OP STEVENSON.
I now sent a telegram to Brigadier General Soay Smith, giving him the state of affairs and telling him that I had no doubt of my ability to hold the place against the force operating against me, if such was the wish of General Buell.
The following telegram (No. 22) :
“Dechard, August 31, 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Withdraw in good order, keep your artillery in advance preceded by skirmishers.
Use your artillery whenever you can, if the enemy pursues.
No cavalry has been sent.
“WM. S. SMITH,
“Brigadier-General.”
In obedience to this order I now commenced to withdraw from the fort and town.
The trains on the railroad, four of them, after those from Huntsville were transferred to the Nashville railroad, were sent off with all the remaining stores, baggage, caissons, the convalescent and weak men – all those not able to make a forced march.
The latter were placed in charge of Dr. Foster Pratt, Assistant Surgeon, who went with them to Nashville, Surgeon Alexander Ewing remaining with me.
On the retreat, the Tenth Wisconsin took the advance, the place of safety, and the easiest on the march, and kept it until we rejoined the rest of our forces at Tallahoma, although at Tantallan it should have taken the rear.
This Col. Chapin declined to do, claiming priority of rank and the right to do as he pleased; and from that point to Tallahoma he pressed his regiment through without paying the slightest attention to those in his rear.
He acted as if very apprehensive of an attack, and as desirous of avoiding one if made.
His course in dividing the command would have placed the artillery and my regiment at great disadvantage if we had been attacked in crossing the mountain between Cowan and Tallahoma.
I was so indignant at his conduct that I thought seriously of preferring charges against him.
Next in line of march on the retreat I placed our wagons, all being without loading of any kind.
The artillery came next, and the better to conceal our movements, one gun of the battery was discharged, then taken from its position in the fort and placed in the line of march, when another was discharged and treated in the same manner, and in this way the fire on the Confederates was kept up until everything was in readiness for the march, when the last gun was fired, taken from the fort, and the march began about 5 o’clock P. M., the 13th Regiment, Michigan V. I., bringing up the rear and being the last regiment of Gen. Buell’s army to leave Alabama.
In the meanwhile the enemy had not ventured within musket shot, and had been easily kept in check by our artillery.
RETREAT FROM STEVENSON, ALABAMA.
Had the Confederate force which made this feeble attack upon Stevenson, instead of so doing, occupied the railroad at any point between that place and Tantallan, it would have placed us in a very critical position, being as we were, in a hostile country, and it is doubtful if we could have forced our way through, as it would have involved the necessity of our attacking them in a position of their own selection, for we could only cross the mountains by a certain road, and to have reached this we would have to fight with superior numbers with the advantages all in their favor.
The Confederates could also, by tearing up a portion of the track of the railroad, have captured at least four trains of cars loaded with valuable stores, which left Stevenson not more than two hours before we marched out of the fort.
Instead, however, of opposing our retreat, the Confederates by their action appeared to be desirous to facilitate our departure from the country.
The road from Stevenson, north, runs around the foot of a high mountain in the immediate vicinity of the town.
Soon after we had passed around the end of this mountain the cavalry of the enemy appeared in force in our rear in pursuit.
In order to check any further attempt to molest our retreat I determined to give them a reception so warm that it would probably free us from further molestation.
I accordingly placed Company B in ambush on the side of the mountain, among the bushes, a few rods from the road, with orders to wait until the rear rank of the enemy was opposite them, and then open on them with a fire as rapid and fatal as possible.
I also ordered Captain Slayton, who commanded the rear guard to attack them as soon as the company in ambush should commence to fire, and informed him that he would be supported by my entire command if necessary.
As the Confederates advanced, and before they were fully abreast of Company B, one of the men fired without orders, and prematurely, which was followed by a volley from the whole company, when a number of the enemy, reported at eleven, were seen to fall from their saddles, and their entire force, estimated at two hundred, wheeled about, and retreated with the utmost precipitation.
We were no more troubled by them, or their support, and saw no other Confederate force under arms on our retreat to Tallahoma, Murfreesboro, and Nashville.
We destroyed the first bridge we crossed and continued our march until about three o’clock A. M., when we reached Anderson’s Station, on the railroad, where we bivouacked with the other forces.
In this skirmish at Stevenson we succeeded by skillful management, rather than by hard fighting, in accomplishing all we desired; for notwithstanding the attack of a large force, estimated at four times our numbers, we held them at bay for nine hours, during which time there was a heavy and continuous cannonade, and finally retreated from the fort and town, after the transfer and dispatch of all the railroad trains, without the loss of a man, animal, wagon, or any of the large amount of commissary stores which had been entrusted to my charge while in command at Stevenson.
On the march to Anderson Station we lost a four-horse ambulance, which, the night being intensely dark, got out of the road, and rolled down the mountain, on the steep side of which we were marching.
From this, the nature of the road on which we were making our retreat may be judged.
We were accompanied on our march from Stevenson by the entire negro force which had been working for us on and about the fortifications, and by all others who had come into the town while occupied by our forces.
There were among them as many women and children as men, and some of the most unpleasant scenes of the war were in witnessing the painful but determined efforts and struggles of some very old negroes, or of some mother with a whole brood of children, to keep with us on the march, and avail themselves of the protection of our troops, hoping thereby to attain their freedom.
How fruitless were their sufferings will presently appear.
There must have been with us at this time more, than one thousand negroes, of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
Anderson’s Station, and on the march.
Sept. 1.
In the morning at Anderson’s Station we found that the engine of the last train had run off the track the previous evening, and was still in that condition, thereby blocking two trains, and rendering them liable to capture.
The want of proper tools made the task of replacing the engine on the track a difficult one.
The 10th Wisconsin were immediately at work at it, and continued their efforts without success until noon.
I then proposed to have Lieut. Col. Hunton with his Mechanics and Engineers take sole charge of it.
This was done, and they soon had the engine on the rails, and about two o’clock P. M. both trains started for Nashville.
In the morning, when I found that we were to be detained for some time.
I ordered Captain Slayton to march towards Stevenson and reconnoiter, to see if any force was following us.
On his return at noon Captain Slayton reported having seen some troops advancing, who on seeing his company moving towards them, turned and retreated rapidly.
While at Anderson’s Station I received the following telegram;
(No. 23):
“Dechard, 1st Sept., 1862.
“Col. Shoemaker:
Hurry your march with all diligence, night and day.
Bring everything with you if possible.
“W. S. SMITH,
“Brig. Gen.”
As soon as the trains on the railroad moved off we resumed our march, and proceeded about twelve miles to Tantallan, at the foot of the Cumberland Mountains, near the southern end of the tunnel on the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad, where we bivouacked.
Here one of my legs that was injured by being pressed between my horse and that of another officer, but neither that nor the one injured at Stevenson by the falling of my horse caused me much pain or inconvenience until after this time.
CROSSING CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS.
On the morning of the 2nd of September we commenced our march up the Cumberland Mountains, with six pieces of artillery and all our transportation (wagons and ambulances), over a road which, as we were told, had not been traversed by a wagon for eight years, or since the completion of the tunnel.
The ascent was steep, and in places not only difficult but perilous for our artillery and wagons, and not at all pleasant for officers on horseback or soldiers on foot.
The soil in the road, what little there had been, was all washed out, and it was not unusual to find a perpendicular rise of two feet in the rock crossing the road, and from this down to a bed of boulders, but after a toilsome march we arrived at the summit without accident or loss of any kind, except the breaking of the tongue of one of our wagons, and the loss of time in replacing it with a sapling cut by the roadside, by which we saved the wagon.
We found this wagon to be back in great service before morning.
At the summit we struck a traveled road, and the descent was made with comparative ease.
The distance is about ten miles, and we arrived at Cowan, at the foot of the mountains on the north side, at 2 P.M.
In crossing the mountain the line of march of the command became very much stretched out or lengthened, as all will understand who have ever marched any distance with troops; every obstruction, detention, or halt serving to throw the rear command still further behind.
My regiment brought up the rear, and as the 10th Wisconsin and Simonson’s battery did not halt for the whole command to close up, as they should have done, either at the brow or foot of the mountains, or at Dechard, we were left a long way behind.
When we reached Cowan, both the 10th Wisconsin and Simonson’s battery were out of sight.
I sent an orderly forward to them, requesting them to halt, and wait until we could close up, but they returned for answer that Gen. Smith had left Dechard, and given orders for them to march without delay, day and night, until they joined him, and that they should not wait for us, Captain Simonson adding that “self-preservation was the first law of nature.”
I was satisfied that they were unnecessarily alarmed, and if they were justified in fearing an attack, I was indignant at their pusillanimity in thus dividing the forces, and abandoning my regiment.
I did not believe there was any danger, but I knew that if the Confederates should place any force on our line of march it would be much safer for our forces to remain united than to march a detachment at a time, and that too, with the battery entirely unsupported and unprotected, except by the few men attached to it.
Judging from their hot haste it would appear that they were badly scared, if not panic struck, and that without cause; for we had seen no force of the enemy since the day we left Stevenson, and there was no evidence of any being in our vicinity.
My regiment, officers and men, were free in expressing their indignation at what they considered an unmanly desertion, and had I complied with their wishes I would have brought the conduct of Col. Chapin and Captain Simonson to the notice of Gen. Buell, but I gave it no further attention.
NIGHT MARCH FROM COWAN TO TALLAHOMA.
At Cowan I determined to halt, and refresh my men, and put them in better order for whatever we had to encounter, but I was fully satisfied in my own mind that it was nothing more than a long and fatiguing march.
I now ordered my wagons, which were in advance, to halt and wait until we joined them, which we did about two miles south of Dechard, in a pleasant grove, where we remained until our men were all in, and had partaken of such rations as we could command.
When we were ready to resume the march, I placed a wagon in charge of the captain of each company with orders that as the men became too weary to march they were to be placed in the wagons to ride, but that all such were to resume the march again as soon as sufficiently rested, so as to allow others to take their places in the wagons, and charged them to see to it that this was done in such manner that none should be left behind who should be unable to keep with their command on the march.
Many of the officers were quite active in impressing, and appropriating to the service of the government, all the horses, mules, and jacks on the route, so that when we arrived at Tullahoma most of them were mounted.
After completing my arrangements and giving my men a good rest, we started, and were enabled to continue our march to Tullahoma without making another halt.
I not only brought in all my own men, but also picked up a number of the 10th Wisconsin that had dropped out of their line from fatigue.
TULLAHOMA, MURFREESRORO, NASHVILLE.
We reached Tullahoma after midnight, having marched from Tantallan in twenty hours, a distance of thirty-six miles, which included the crossing of the Cumberland Mountains; of itself a full and most difficult day’s march.
At Tullahoma I found Brig. Gen. Wm. Soay Smith with his division, to whom I immediately reported my arrival.
He said he had given us up as captured, and expressed himself as being greatly pleased with my conduct and management, by which I had not only saved my own command but also all of the valuable property at Stevenson, which had been in store for the army.
The first words of Gen. Smith on my entering his quarters were, “My God! Shoemaker, is that you?
I never expected to see you again; I feared you and your regiment had been captured.”
The effect of this march was important, if not serious to me, as the long continuance on horseback, with the injuries my legs had received, the one at Stevenson, and the other at Tantallan, and having now worn my boots without drawing them off for several days and nights, caused my legs to swell so as to fill my large military boots, and they became at the same time painful almost beyond endurance, feeling as though they were being pierced by thousands of needles.
After leaving Gen. Smith, I met Major Fox of the Mechanics and Engineers, who took me to his tent, where I drew my boots for the first time since the 28th of August, and got what rest I could without removing any other portion of my attire.
JUSTICE TO THE THIRTEENTH MICHIGAN V. I.
The action of my command at Stevenson, and in rejoining the army, did not attract the attention it deserved, or otherwise would have done, from the fact that we were in the rear of the retreating army of Gen. Buell, and was unknown except to our superior officers, to whom we made our official reports.
Gen. Buell gave us full credit for our good conduct, but he was soon after removed from the command of the Army of the Cumberland, so that he had no opportunity to do us justice.
The retreat of Gen. Buell, and the advance of Gen. Bragg, endangering as it did, our supremacy in Tennessee and Kentucky, absorbed the interest of the public, and caused all minor actions to be overlooked, when not in the immediate front, and where no special effort was made to bring them before the public.
The number, frequency, and matter of the telegrams sent me by Gen. Buell, prove not only the importance of our position, but also the service we rendered in holding the town and fort until all the trains, persons, and property were removed.
We were left at Stevenson not only to secure the property and railroad connection, but also to mask his movements with the main army, and continued there until we were looked upon as a sort of forlorn hope.
That we did not share the usual fate of one was simply because we met circumstances as they arose with a determination to maintain ourselves wherever we were until we could get out without loss.
We continued with Gen. Smith and left Tullahoma the following morning, the 3rd of September.
THE NEGROES ABANDONED.
In leaving Tullahoma, all the negroes were, by command of Gen. Smith, turned outside our lines, and refused the further protection of our army.
This action of Gen. Smith I thought as unjust as it was unnecessary; for they asked for no help, but simply to march under our protection.
Many of them had done us good service at Stevenson; they relied, as they had good reason to do, upon us to give them a chance for freedom and liberty, and I was very sorry to see them deprived of it; but I do not know that Gen. Smith should be held responsible for this action, as he was simply carrying out the policy of Gen. Buell (his commander), while in command of the Army of the Cumberland.
Gen. Buell not only refused to protect fugitive slaves, but frequently ordered the camp to be searched for them for delivery to their owners.
I think Gen. Buell was one of our most able military commanders, but he either failed to understand the magnitude of the contest, or else was too much in sympathy with the Confederates.
Whatever the cause, he was too much of a “tender-foot” for the occasion and the times, and was very properly relieved of all command in the Federal armies.
Had all the commanders of all of our armies been allowed to treat the slaves as General Fremont proposed to do in Missouri, and the southwest, the rebellion would have been crushed in a year, and hundreds of thousands of lives, and an untold amount of suffering saved on both sides.
If the slaves coming to our lines, or rendering us service, had been protected, and advanced their freedom, the good result would soon have been apparent in such an exodus, and demonstration in our favor, as would have rendered the Confederacy powerless for resistance.
By turning them from our lines we taught them to mistrust us, and this induced them to remain contented on the plantations when almost the entire white male population of the south was in the armies of the Confederacy.
When finally we did offer them their freedom, which early in the war they would have earned for themselves if they had been permitted to do so, they feared to act, as our previous action justified them in doing, and failed to render as efficient service as they would have done had they been treated differently the first years of the war.
Here, with us, were men, women, and children, who had been working faithfully for us at Stevenson, asking nothing but to be allowed to follow us, protected from molestation, and this was mercilessly refused; when to have extended it would have required no action on our part.
All that was necessary was to let it be understood that we would not allow them to be seized and carried away.
These people were in a more pitiable condition than they would have been had they rendered us no service, for they would now be more cruelly treated by their masters or others who seized them than they would have been had they not been laboring for us at Stevenson.
THE MARCH RESUMED.—NASHVILLE.
After leaving Tullahoma on the morning of the 3d of September, we marched until 1 o’clock A.M. on the 4th, when we halted for two hours for rations and rest; then resuming our march and continuing until 2 o’clock A.M. on the 5th, when we reached Murfreesboro, where we joined another part of the army.
Here we were allowed to rest until noon, when the army was again put in motion on the line of march for Nashville, where we arrived on Saturday, the 6th of September, 1862, at two A. M.
I now, with my regiment, joined the division of Gen. Wood, from which we separated at Mooresville, Alabama, on the 18th of July.
I made a brief report in writing of our action at Stevenson, and sent it to Gen. Buell, as I was then acting directly under his command.
As an evidence of the incessant manner in which we were occupied, and of the fatigue we underwent, I would state that up to the time of our arrival at Nashville I had not once taken off my clothes since the Thursday of the week previous; that is, from the 28th of August to the 5th of September, and every night after Sunday, the day we left Stevenson, for the few hours’ rest we could take we lay down wherever we bivouacked, without tents or covering of any kind.
Most of the time we were without provisions, and we supplied ourselves in such manner as we best could.
After leaving Tantallan my legs commenced swelling, and every day would swell until they filled my large military boots so that it was difficult to draw them; and an impression made in the swelling, as a dent with the finger, would remain for an hour or more.
The swelling would subside when I was in a recumbent position, but as soon as I mounted my horse would again commence, and was always accompanied with a prickling sensation over the entire surface, which made the pain almost intolerable; but from which on this march there was no escape, and no opportunity to apply any remedy.
I have never suffered as much, physically, as during the march from Tantallan to Nashville.
Surgeon Ewing expressed himself as quite apprehensive of the effect of the condition of my limbs, and said that if I continued to ride on horseback there was great danger that from dropsy, or erysipelas, my legs would become permanently diseased, and perhaps endanger my life; when, with rest and prompt medical treatment I would soon recover, and be as well as ever.
He insisted on presenting my situation to General Buell and did so in person.
General Buell granted me leave of absence for thirty days, and I left Nashville Sunday night, of the day of my arrival, by stage for Franklin, Kentucky, for home; which, however, I was only destined to reach after a series of adventures and by way of Richmond, Virginia, and Libby Prison.
Near Tyree Springs the stage was surrounded by guerrillas, I was captured and taken to the headquarters of Generals Bragg, and Hardee, near Carthage, on the Cumberland River, from there to Knoxville, Richmond, and home after a short sojourn in Libby Prison.
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PATRICK SINCLAIR; BUILDER OF FORT MACKINAC – BY WILLIAM L. JENKS in 1915


By far the most conspicuous object in the Island of Mackinac is the old fort which overhangs so protectingly the village below.

The thick stone and earth walls, the three old block houses, built, according to the cards upon the doors, in 1780, the old buildings within the enclosure, all force the attention of the visitor, resident or tourist, to the age of the structure, but to few is known even the name, much less anything of the career of its creator.

In the extreme northeast of Scotland lies the shire or county of Caithness; a large part of it low and boggy, it rises toward the south and west, and contains but three streams of any size, the Wickwater and the Forss and Thurso Rivers.

Most of the coast line is rocky and forbidding and good harbors are few.

Near the northeast corner is John O’Groat’s house, and south of that along the East Coast is a large bay called Sinclair’s Bay.

For several centuries the name Sinclair or St. Clair-they are in reality the same, the latter being nearer to the original Norman form-has been the leading one in Caithness; the first earl of Caithness, created in 1455, being Sir William Sinclair.

From this shire, forbidding in its natural aspects, but like so many other places in Scotland, furnishing an abundant supply of young, energetic, capable and courageous men, came Patrick Sinclair, the subject of this sketch, of interest to Michigan, not alone because of his connection with Mackinac, but because he was the first man to establish a permanent foothold in the way of occupation, erecting buildings and cultivating land along St. Clair River.

Patrick_Sinclair

This noble river should today bear the name of Sinclair as it did for many years a century ago.

The present name is derived from Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Territory, the original name passing gradually through forgetfulness of the one and growing importance of the other to its present form.

It is a curious fact that both Arthur St. Clair and Patrick Sinclair were born in the same year in the county of Caithness, within twenty-five miles of each other, and they were undoubtedly distantly related.

Whatever the cause, temperament, roving disposition, hard and forbidding material conditions at home, certain it is that Scotchmen have proved through centuries the mainstay of British enterprise and glory in foreign lands, and Scotch soldiers and explorers have done much to extend England’s domains.

Patrick Sinclair mas born in 1736 at Lybster, a small hamlet on the east coast of Caithness about 11 miles southeast of Wick, the chief town of the County, and was the half son and oldest of four children of Alexander who had married a connection in the person of Amelia Sinclair, the daughter of another Alexander Sinclair.

His father was the fourth Sinclair of Lybster and the name Patrick was common in the family, his grandfather bearing it, and his great grandmother was the daughter of Patrick Sinclair of Ulbster.

We have no knowledge of his youthful education but it must have been considerable as his papers and correspondence evince facility in expression, clear ideas and a good command of language,

In July, 1758, Patrick Sinclair purchased a commission as ensign – practically equivalent to 2nd Lieutenant, a grade not then existing in the famous 42nd Highlanders, or Black Watch Regiment, but he may have had some previous service in some capacity as in a letter to Gen. Haldimand in August, 1779, he refers to his 25 years’ service in the army, which if not a rhetorical exaggeration would imply that he had entered the service in 1761.

At any rate he soon saw active service, as his regiment was sent to the West

Indies in 1759, and he participated in January of that year in the attack and capture of Guadeloupe.

Not long after with his regiment he went to New York and then to Oswego where they spent several months.

In July, 1760 he was promoted to lieutenant and in August his regiment joined the army which under the leadership of General Amherst invaded Canada and captured Montreal.

Later it went to Staten Island, and in October, 1761, shortly before his regiment left for the West Indies he exchanged into the 15th Regiment of Foot.

The reason for this exchange is not evident as the 15th Foot went to the West Indies the same Fall and in August, 1763 came back to New York and then to Canada.

One Company however of the 15th Regiment remained in America and it is possible that this was Sinclair’s Company, as there is some evidence that he was at Quebec for a year from October, 1761, then for a time at New York, and again at Quebec.

For a part of the time at least he was in Capt. Robert Stobo’s Company.

In the Fall 1763 or the Spring of 1764 Sinclair must have been transferred to or connected with the Naval Department of the Lakes, as in a petition to the Earl of Hillsborough in 1769, he states that he “hath servedhis Majesty near six years last past on the Great Lakes in North America where he had the honor to command his Majesty’s vessels on the Lakes Erie, Sinclair, Huron and Michigan,” and the inscription on a silver bowl presented to him by the merchants of Detroit in 1767 refers to him as Captain Sinclair of the Naval Department.

The 15th Regiment of Foot was stationed at various posts in Canada, but no part of it as far west as Detroit, which was garrisoned mainly from the 60th Regiment during the entire period Sinclair mas in charge (as he says), of the navigation on the lakes,’ his’ headquarters, however, being Detroit.

Sinclair’s duties were general but important; to maintain and provision the boats, see to their arming and protection against the Indians, who were numerous, and, for some time after 1763, largely hostile to the English, and so dispose the shipping as to serve best the interest not only of the various garrisons, but also of the Indian traders and the merchants, who of necessity depended upon these boats for the bringing in of their goods and the carrying out of their furs.

The boats then in use consisted of canoes, batteaux, snows, sloops and schooners.

The canoe was the famed birch bark canoe noted for its carrying capacity in proportion to its weight and admirably adapted to the carriage of persons but not freight.

The batteau was a light boat worked with oars, long in proportion to its breadth and wider in the middle than at the ends.

It was well adapted for carrying freight, and for some years after the English obtained possession of the lakes it was extensively used between the posts in transporting both freight and passengers.

Of necessity the shore was closely followed both with batteau and canoe.

The snow was a type of vessel long since gone out of existence, with two ordinary masts and rigged much like a brig, but having in addition a small mast near the main mast to which the trysail was attached.

All the sailing vessels were of small burden.

The schooner “Gladwin,” famous for her successful attempt in bringing aid to the besieged Detroit garrison was of 80 tons burden.

Up to 1780 the largest boat on the lakes was the brig Gage of 154 tons, built in 1774.

In the same petition referred to above Sinclair states that he is the only person on the lakes who has ever explored the navigation of the lakes for vessels of burden “by taking exact soundings of them and the rivers and Straits which join them with the bearings of the headlands, islands, bays, etc., etc.”

The beginning of the siege of Detroit by Pontiac was signalized by the murder by the Indians on May 7th, 1763, of Captain Robertson, Sir Robert Davers, six soldiers and a boat’s crew of two sailors while engaged in taking soundings near the mouth of the “River Huron” as the account states it, now called St. Clair River, to seeif the lakes and rivers were navigable for a schooner then lying at Detroit on her way to Mackinac.

As a means of facilitating his duties, especially in regard to the communications between Detroit and the upper lakes, Sinclair erected, in 1764, a small fort just south of the mouth of Pine River in St. Clair County, the buildings comprising two barracks, one for sailors and one for soldiers, two block houses for cannon and small arms, and a wharf for drawing out and careening vessels, all enclosed within a stockade.

This post, about midway between lakes Huron and St. Clair, enabled him to control the river as regards the Indians, and also furnished a place for trade with them.

This establishment was ordered and approved by Colonel Bradstreet who was in Detroit in August, 1764.

During the season of 1764 Sinclair had under his command the schooner “Gladwin” which had brought relief to the beleaguered garrison at Detroit in the siege of Pontiac, and at the close of that season’s navigation he put her in winter quarters at Pine River.

In connection with his duties while stationed on the Lakes he made a trip of exploration down in the Indiana Country along the Wabash River, thus acquiring considerable knowledge of the French settlements in that vicinity.

Sinclair seems on the whole to have got along with the Indians very satisfactorily, and to have obtained their respect and liking and to have established a widespread reputation to that effect.

He was not entirely free from troubles however, as in 1767 the Chippewas, or Mississaguas, murdered a servant of his near the foot of Lake Huron.

The murderers were apprehended and sent to Albany for trial but were finally released to his indignation.

In 1767 the system of operating boats on the Lakes was changed and delivered over to private contractors, and Sinclair’s duties and official position terminated but it required some time to close out his matters, and when in the early summer of 1768 his regiment returned to England he remained upon the Lakes, and did not return to England until the spring of the following year.

That his conduct of affairs while in charge was acceptable to the class with whom he came most in contact outside of his government relations is proved by the presentation to him in 1767 of a silver bowl-still preserved in the family-with the following inscription engraved upon it:

“In remembrance of the encouragement experienced upon all occasions by the merchants in the Indian countries from Capt. Patrick Sinclair of the Naval Department, not as a reward for his services, but a public testimony of their gratitude this is presented instead of a more adequate acknowledgment which his disinterested disposition renders impracticable.

Dated the 23rd September, 1767.”

The merchants of Mackinac also gave him a testimonial.

Sinclair had erected the buildings and made the improvements at his fort mainly at his own expense, and in March, 1769, he applied to Gen. Gage, then commanding the British forces in America., to be reimbursed for his outlay £200, but Gage replied that the Government had not directed the construction and therefore Sinclair could do with the improvements what he saw fit.

Proposed_outline_of_Fort_Mackinac

 

Perhaps in anticipation of such result and as a measure of self-protection

Sinclair had obtained from the Indians a deed to a tract of land upon the St. Clair River, 2 ½ miles along the river by the same in depth to include his improvements. This deed was dated July 27th, 1768, and was signed by Massigiash and Ottawa, chiefs of the Chippewa Nation, in the presence of 15 Indians of that Nation and of George Turnbull, Captain of the Second Battalion of the 60th Regiment, George Archbold, Lieutenant, and ensigns Robert Johnson and John Amiel of the same Regiment, also of John Lewis Gage,Ensign of the 31st Regiment, and Lieut. John Hay of the 60th Regiment, Commissary of Indian affairs.

 

In the deed the land is described as being “on the Northwest side of the River Huron, between Lake Huron and Lake Sinclair, being one mile above the mouth of a small river commonly called Pine River and ending one mile and a half below the mouth of said Pine River.”

The consideration stated is “the love and regard we bear for our friend Lieut. Patrick Sinclair and for the love and esteem the whole of our said nation has for him for the many charitable acts he has done us, our wives and children.”

The King of England in his proclamation of October 3rd. 1763, establishing the province of Quebec, had expressly prohibited the obtaining of deeds from the Indians except under special license, and through certain officials.Site_of_Fort_MichiliMackinac_on_Mainland

This deed, therefore, although executed with considerable formality, and in the presence of the highest British Officials in the vicinity, did not operate to convey any legal title and this was recognized by Sinclair himself in 1774, in a petition to the government to be reimbursed for his expenditures on the property.

The property thug obtained was of sufficient size and quality to entitle him to consideration among the land owners of his native home, and he improved it by clearing, by setting out an orchard on the north side of Pine River, and by additional buildings.

It included a considerable body of pine and it is a curious fact that this marked on the East side of Michigan the Southern line of the great pine section of the Lower Peninsula.

During the period of his station at Detroit, Sinclair used the fort, buildings and pinery, but it is not known who looked after it during his absence from this locality after leaving in 1769 until 1759 when he arrived at Mackinac, but in 1780 Francis Bellecour, the British Indian Agent at Detroit, mas in charge.

He evidently was not giving satisfaction to the Indians in the vicinity, as in July of that year Maskeash, one of the Chiefs who signed the deed, with his wife and ten other Indians from along St. Clair River, went up on one of the government vessels, commanded by Alex Harrow, to Fort Mackinac to ask that Baptiste Point de (or du) Sable, be appointed to take cliai.ge of the property in place of Bellecour. DeSable mas a free mulatto who had traded with the Indians at the lower end of Lake Michigan, and, as he was friendly to the Americans, had been captured in 1779 by a British force from Fort Mackinac on the ground of his being a sympathizer with the American Rebels, and taken to Mackinac and detained.

By his conduct after his capture he commended himself to his captors and to Sinclair, then Lieutenant Governor, and as a result he was released and sent down to look after this property and trade with the Indians.

He appears to have remained there more or less continuously until 1784 when his effects were taken to Detroit and he returned to Illinois and continued at Peoria and Chicago until his death in 1811.

Although not in chronological order the subsequent history of this tract may be here narrated.

Sketch_of_Fort_Mackinac

In 1783 Lieutenant Governor Sinclair was living on the Isle of Orleans awaiting a decision upon the allowance of his accounts.

A young man by the name of Nicholas Boilvin who was a native of the Parish of St. Nicholas near Quebec. decided to try his fortunes in the far west, and April 5th., 1783, Sinclair gave to him a power of attorney to take charge of 1iis.farm on Pine River, his “stock, houses, barns, orchards, gardens, timber and every other article thereto appertaining.”

The same instrument recommended Boilvin to the protection of the officers at Detroit, so that all other persons might be prevented from cutting timber or trading near the post to Boilvin’s detriment.

Boilvin, on reaching Detroit, decided to go still farther west and September 20th, 1783, he assigned his power of attorney to David Ross and shortly after went to St. Louis.

He there became an Indian agent of the United States, but later removed to Prairie du Chien, where he mas for many years a person of some consequence.

In 1788, Sinclair’s rights were sold at auction and bought by Meldrum & Park, a firm of merchants and Indian traders of Detroit who went into possession of the property, made improvements and erected two saw mills and a grist mill.

In 1795, as the Indian deed to Sinclair had never been registered, but taken by him to England. finally finding its way to the Public Record office in London, Meldrum & Park obtained another deed from twenty-six Chippewa Chiefs, purporting to be in confirmation of the former deed to Sinclair; but the new deed conveyed a tract ten miles along St. Clair River by four miles in depth or about six times as much land.

This seems to have been in accordance with the usual way of honesty and fairness with which the white men treated the Indian.

This deed was not recognized by the United States as a conveyance of title, but the possessions taken under it enabled Meldrum & Park and their grantees to obtain patents from the United States, in 1810, to nearly five thousand acres.

In 1768 or 1769 Sinclair petitioned the Earl of Hillsborough, then Secretary for the Colonies, for the appointment of Superintendent of Navigation upon the Lakes, pointing out his experience, his successful services and the great need of such an official to protect the interests of the government, but the petition was refused, much to Sinclair’s disappointment.

It is not known exactly when he returned to England and his regiment, but it was sometime in the spring of 1769 and he was engaged in recruiting for upwards of a year.

In May 1771 he applied to the Earl of Hillsborough for the grant of a house at Detroit belonging to the Crown in lieu of his buildings at Pine River.

The matter as referred to General Gage, then at New York, who promised to look into the matter and see if that could be done without injury but apparently the inquiry was never made and nothing came of the petition.

He was promoted to Captain April 13, 1772, and the next year retired with the provision that he would not lose his rank if he rejoined the army.

Upon his retirement Sinclair returned to his ancestral home at Lybster, but time moved slowly there to a man accustomed for years to the wilderness and freedom of the Great Lakes in America and to the power and influence which Sinclair had been wont to exercise and directly upon his retirement he began exerting influence to get back to this country.

On June 1st, 1773, Sir Charles Thompson who had been for seven years the Colonel of the 15th Regiment, and who was an intimate personal friend of the King, wrote Lord Dartmouth in his behalf, recommending him as a proper person for appointment in Pennsylvania, the Jerseys, New York and the New England Provinces, but nothing came of it.

The government had never recognized his title to his land in America, nor had it ever repaid his outlays upon it, and in December, 1774, he applied for payment not only of these charges, but also for £56 which he paid to the Indians in redemption of white captives.

In the same account he includes £27 for his expenses caused by his being detained in the west when his regiment was sent to Europe and £70 for two servants killed by the Indians.

In February, 1775, his same kind and influential friend wrote again to Lord Dartmouth recommending Captain Sinclair for employment in Canada.

This time the fates were propitious and prompt, as on April 7th, 1775, he was commissioned by King George III, as Lieutenant Governor and Superintendent of the Post of Missillimakinac.

By the Proclamation of 1763 the Province of Quebec was established with such boundaries that practically all the Great Lake region lay outside, and therefore without any established form of government, which remained essentially military, without courts or ordinary civil officers.

The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament and effective in October, 1774, greatly extended the limits of the Province so as to reach the Ohio on the South and the Mississippi on the west.

By this Act a form of government by Governor and Council was provided and the old French laws recognized.

Although the Act itself made no reference to or provision for the western posts, the King in April, 1775, recognized four western districts or posts, and appointed as many Lieutenant Governors or Superintendents, one each to the posts of Detroit, Missillimakinac, St. Vincennes, and the Illinois.

These appointees were respectively Henry Hamilton, Patrick Sinclair, Edward Abbott and Matthew Johnson.

There was no attempt made to define the limits of each district, but ordinarily no question could arise over conflict of jurisdiction.

There was in each case a fortified place, which formed the center of operations.

There was, however, a clear distinction between the Post or District, and the fortified place; thus in the case of Sinclair, his seat of operations was Fort Mackinac, while his post was Missillimakinac and extended to cover the territory of all the Indians who were wont to come to that point to trade.

In the commission appointing Sinclair Lieutenant Governor there was no definition of his powers but he was to hold the position with all its “rights, privileges, profits, perquisites and advantages during the King’s pleasure.”

The incumbent, however was required to obey such orders and directions as he might receive from time to time from the Captain General and Commander in Chief of Quebec.

As there was no statute or general regulation upon the subject, the relation of the Lieutenant Governor, a civil officer, to the military force stationed at his post was indefinite and at Detroit was productive of considerable trouble.

Anxious to arrive at his post of duty promptly, there being no direct shipping from Glasgow to Quebec, Sinclair sailed for Baltimore, where he arrived July 26th, 1775, and at New York August 1st.

His purpose then was to go up the Hudson to Albany, thence to Oswego, and from there by boat to Quebec, and he made all preparation to leave New York August 4th, but on that day the Provincial Congress of New York then in session, having learned the previous day of his presence in the city, and of his great influence with the Indians, thought it unwise to permit him to go to his post where he might prejudice his Indian friends against the Colonies, and took him in custody and sent him on parole to Nassau Island in Suffolk County, Long Island, where he remained

until the following March, when upon his application to be permitted to retire to Europe, the Continental Congress granted his petition and he returned to England that summer.

He remained in England about a year and, apparently, found it rather difficult to get passage back to America, as in May, 1777, we find Lord George Germaine, then Secretary of the Colonies, granting Sinclair permission in response to request to come over in the packet Bristol rather than as “an unwelcome guest in a man-of-war.”

He did not reach America until the fall of 1777, this time at Philadelphia where he went with letters to Sir William Howe who advised him that his best plan to reach his post of duty via Quebec was to go by way of the St. Lawrence River the following spring.

Accordingly he spent the winter with Lord Howe and when the English fleet and forces left for England in May, 1778.

Captain Sinclair went as far as Halifax, where he was again compelled to wait until he could obtain transportation to Quebec.

Communications between Halifax and Quebec were infrequent and slow and it was a year later, in June, 1779, that Captain Sinclair arrived at Quebec and was ready to present himself and his commission to the Governor and receive his instructions and proceed to his post, although he had sent a communication to the Governor from Halifax in October of the year before.

At this time Sir Frederick Haldimand was Governor General.

He was of Swiss birth and, after some years’ service in the Prussian army joined the British forces in 1754 and was rapidly promoted.

He was an efficient officer and a good soldier, but his character and training both emphasized the military over the civil power.

On more than one occasion he received severe reprimands from the English government because of actions due to this feeling.

The officer then in command at Fort Mackinac was Maj. Arent Schuyler DePeyster who had been there for five years.

He was a capable officer, quite influential with the Indians and tactful in his intercourse with others.

He was gifted in a literary way, and although of American birth had strong English sympathies, sewing in the English army during the Revolutionary War.

Upon his retirement from the army he went to Dunfries, Scotland, his wife’s native place, where he became a close friend of the Poet Burns.

For some time DePeyster had been desirous of leaving Mackinac, giving as his reasons that his health was poor and that his private affairs at New York where his family had long been established sadly needed his presence but his real reason was the distance of his post from civilization, as no further complaints were heard from him after he was transferred to Detroit.

It is probable that Haldimand and Sinclair had met before.

In 1760 Haldimand, as lieutenant Colonel, accompanied the British force from Oswego to Montreal and Sinclair’s regiment, the 15th Foot, was a part of the force. Although Sinclair arrived in Quebec early in June, 1779, and undoubtedly presented himself promptly with his commission and a letter from Lord Germaine, which stated that, as Lieutenant Governor, he would have command over the military force stationed there, as well as civil authority, the Governor General, who did not relish the idea of Sinclair’s exercising military as well as civil powers at his post, put him off on various pretenses for over a month-in the meantime writing to DePeyster that he intended to delay Sinclair until the ship’s arrival from England in mid-summer, hoping perhaps to receive by then some authority to reduce or negative the instructions in Lord Germaine’s letter.

The ships arrived, but nothing to favor his wishes: he thereupon wrote to England, commenting upon the union of the civil and military authority in one person; but the reply received the following year made plain that the action of the government in this respect was fully considered and not to be altered.

In the meantime Haldimand issued a set of instructions for Sinclair, in which, disobeying the express terms of Lord Germaine’s letter, he authorized Sinclair to act as Commandant only until a senior officer of the garrison stationed there should arrive, and impressed upon him that only such senior officer had power over the troops to be sent beyond garrison limits, and in addition the perquisites attached to the commander of the post were to go to the officer.

Naturally such instructions proved very distasteful to Sinclair who at once addressed a spirited remonstrance to the Governor.

After some vigorous correspondence, in which Sinclair proposed to return to England rather than occupy a position which might be humiliating, the matter was compromised;the instructions were somewhat modified, and it was represented to him that there was in fact no senior officer at the post and an early opportunity would be given to purchase a commission as officer which would entitle him to outrank anyone who would be sent to the garrison.

With these assurances he left Quebec the last of August, 1779, for his post, and arrived at Fort Mackinac October 4th, 1779, probably by way of the Ottawa River, four and one-half years after the date of his commission.

He had crossed the ocean three times and while, until this date, he had not been able to exercise any authority under his commission, he had not neglected one important part of his duty, to draw his annual salary of £200.

Three days after his arrival, Major DePeyster left for Detroit, and Sinclair was free to examine his empire.

The fort was on the mainland on the south side of the strait, and practically in the same condition as it existed in 1763 at the time of its capture by the Indians.

It enclosed about two acres and the ramparts consisted solely of pickets driven into the ground.

It was on the sand and so near the shore that the waves in time of storm dashed over the pickets.

The practiced eye of Captain Sinclair at once noted its insecure condition, its inability to resist any attack but that of small arms, and that it could not afford protection to vessels.

In a letter to Captain Brehm, aide to Governor Haldimand, written four days after his arrival, he suggested the removal of the fort to the Island of Michilimackinac, and pointed out at some length the many advantages which the island possessed in the way of easy construction of a defensible fort, the protection of vessels, and good building material “but for God’s sake be careful in the choice of an engineer and don’t send up one of your paper engineers fond of fine regular polygons.”

In another letter to Brehm a week later, he returned to the subject and urged prompt action.

“It is the most respectable situation I ever saw, besides convenient for the subsistence of a Garrison, the safety of troops, traders and commerce.”

Without waiting for authority from the Governor, which could not be expected to be received until the following spring, Sinclair proceeded to set men at work on the island clearing, making shingles, pickets, etc.

By February he had so much done that he set about moving the French Church over to the Island and persuaded the traders and Canadians (as the French were generally called) that the removal was not only desirable but certain.

In May, 1780, came the consent of the Governor to the change with the information that lie had so much confidence in the Lieutenant Governor’s engineering abilities that no other engineer would be sent.

Sinclair soon found, however that, with the limited means at his command in masons and artificers, it would not be possible to complete the new fort sufficiently to move into it during that season, and he accordingly took all steps to put the mainland fort into the best possible condition to repel attack which he feared might come from the “rebels” – friends and adherents of the United States and their Indian friends.

In the meantime Sinclair had obtained the desired reinstatement, in military rank, so he was properly styled the Commandant (as well as Lieutenant Governor), thus uniting the military and civil powers of the post.

It so happened that Capt. George McDougall of the 84th Regiment, had been for some time anxious to sell out and retire on account of his health, but as he was an active and efficient officer, well-liked by the Indians, the Governor was loath to permit him to go.

However, in the spring of 1780, on the representation of failing health, permission was granted him to sell out and Lieut. Patrick Sinclair became the purchaser and a Captain again in the British Army, his commission being dated from April 1, 1780.

Sinclair received notice of his appointment July 8, and it evidently was a source of much satisfaction to him as he signed his letters for a time “Patrick Sinclair, Capt. 84th Regiment &Lieut. Gov.”

It was not long before an affair justified his insistence with Governor Haldimand upon the propriety and necessity of the provisions in Lord Germaine’s letter. Captain Mompesson of the 8th Reg., then at Detroit, was ordered by Maj. DePeyster to take a part of his company to Mackinac to relieve a company of Grenadiers.

Upon his arrival, Ang. 21st, 1780, he immediately refused to take orders from Sinclair and the next day issued a Regimental order that he expected obedience to his commands from the troops in the garrison.

Both officers wrote at once to the Governor who immediately decided that Captain Sinclair was in the right, that his former rank as Captain in the 15th Regiment had been ‘preserved upon his leaving that regiment, and he therefore clearly outranked Captain Mompesson.

The Governor in his letter to Sinclair about the matter added that he had at length obtained his Majesty’s decision upon the disputed rank of Lieutenant Governors of the post; this decision was, in fact, merely a confirmation of Lord George

Germaine’s letter.

Another episode happened at this time not calculated to soothe a somewhat peppery disposition and one regardful of the dignity and authority of its owner. Capt. Alex Harrow, of the Schooner Welcome, arrived July 29th, 1780, and assumed, as superior in naval command, to give an order to Captain McKay, of the Felicity, which had been plying chiefly between the post and the Island.

(Captain Harrow was a Scotchman who came to the Great Lakes in 1779 as an officer in the naval department and, in 1794, settled in St. Clair County on a large tract of land lying a short distance above Algonac and upon a part of which descendants of his are now living.)

The Lieutenant Governor resented this interference with his own authority and as both men were tenacious of their dignity, it resulted in Harrow being taken from his vessel and imprisoned in the fort.

After confinement of a month or two the authority of Sinclair was confirmed by the Governor, and Harrow, through the good nature of Sinclair, who, though quick to anger, was equally quick to relent, was released and reinstated in command of his vessel.

The command of a post so distant and isolated as that of Mackinac was a severe test of the qualities of promptness, decision, judgment and tact, and an early opportunity displayed Sinclair’s possession of the first two qualities in ample quantity.

After France embraced the cause of the United States she endeavored to get Spain to do the same; but the latter, though aiding the Americans in many ways, including the sale of a large quantity of gunpowder at New Orleans, made no formal declaration of war until May 8, 1779.

Lord Germaine either devised or adopted a plan to drive the Spanish out of Louisiana and on June 17, 1779, wrote General Haldimand, directing him in co-operation with Brigadier General Campbell to attack New Orleans and the other

Spanish posts on the Mississippi River.

Haldimand issued a circular letter to the Governors of all the Western posts giving general instructions.

This letter after passing from Colonel Bolton, at Niagara, to Major DePeyster, at Detroit, was forwarded by the latter Jan. 2, 1780, to Sinclair at Mackinac.

The day after its receipt Sinclair sent a war party to engage the Sioux Indians to proceed down the Mississippi River.

He also ordered Mr. Hesse, a trader, but formerly in the army, to collect a force of Indians and supplies in Wisconsin for the same purpose.

A few days later he dispatched a sergeant with Machiquawish, a noted Indian Chief, and his band.

The combined force made an attack on St. Louis which was only partially successful, and the project, as a whole, was a failure, the result being to leave the district South of Lake Michigan and as far West as the Mississippi River in American control.

Sinclair shows up, however, very favorably in the affair and, if the King had been as well served elsewhere, the result might have been very different.

The removal to the Island fort was made in the summer of 1781, although the fort was not entire1 completed.

When finally completed for occupation it contained four block houses, three of which are still standing; the fourth, which stood near the southeast corner was later removed.

The walls have since been widened and raised, and the roadway from the lower town brought nearer to the face of the hill and parallel to it, and lengthened so as to reduce the grade.

The officers’ quarters within the enclosure stand where they were originally constructed and the guard house, built in 1835, is on the site of the one built by Sinclair.

However, the general plan of the fort remains substantially the same today as when it was originally constructed 134 years ago, except that the North wall toward the West is brought in. thus contracting the enclosure by about one-fourth.

Sinclair proposed to call the new fort “Haldimand” after the Governor, but the latter decided that the fort should be called Fort “Makinac,” and the post should be continued to be called Michilimackinac, thus indicating that the post, meaning the civil jurisdiction, was more extensive than the fort, which included only the garrison limits.

The Governor’s spelling of the name of the fort was never carried out but the name of the post continued as long as the British retained control.

When they left and the Americans took possession, the post, as such, ceased, and both island and fort took the same name, Mackinac.

Sinclair, as a means of propitiating the Indians and securing their approval of removal to the Island, had negotiated with some of the Chiefs for a deed which he finally obtained in May, 1781.

By this deed five Chiefs of the Chippewa nation relinquished to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair, for the behalf and use of the English King, the Island of Michilimackinac, and agreed to preserve in their village a belt of wampum seven feet in length to perpetuate and be a lasting memorial of the transaction.

The consideration was £5,000 New York currency (equal to $12,500 in 1915).

The deed was signed with the totems of the Chiefs, also by Patrick Sinclair, Lt. Governor & Commandant, Captain Mompesson, Lieutenant Brooke and Ensign McDonall, and witnessed by six of the resident traders.

The work of completing the fort went on slowly as the Commandant could not get the necessary workmen.

Major Depeyster at Detroit was not feeling very friendly to Sinclair and when requested to send artificers reported that he could not spare any.

In August, Brigadier General Powell was compelled to peremptorily order him to send up two carpenters.

During the years of the construction of the fort an unusually large number of Indians came to Mackinac from all quarters to receive their annual presents from the British Government.

Sioux, Menominies, Sacs, Foxes, Ottawas and Chippewas, Winebagoes and all other tribes between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, and even beyond, had become accustomed to make an annual pilgrimage to & Michilimackinac to meet the representative of their Great Father across the water and receive in return an outfit which would please their sense of display and enable them to support life until another season.

The coming of the white man and the introduction of strong drink and firearms had completely revolutionized the status of the Indians.

From an independent self-supporting people procuring their spare and difficult livelihood by the exercise of natural talents heightened by ever present necessity, they had become dependent for clothing and the means of obtaining food.

So longer were their own developed weapons sufficient.

They needed guns, powder and shot to kill the animals whose flesh gave them food and whose skins gave the furs the white man coveted and was willing to pay for.

The French had found it advantageous to give the Indians some presents to stimulate and maintain their friendship, but the English found it necessary to give far more.

The French, by their willingness to live the life of the Indians, to intermarry with them, and by their understanding and appreciation of Indian nature, were naturally regarded as their friends, and in the long French and English war the sympathies of the Western Indians were with the former and Pontiac found it easy to obtain the adherence of the most of the tribes.

When the English obtained possession of the western posts they thought it wise to conciliate the Indians by presents, and as time went on the number of Indians who applied for gifts and the extent of their demands increased until it became appalling to the British authorities.

An additional reason why during the period of Governor Sinclair’s station at Mackinac a larger amount of presents was needed than in ordinary times was that, owing to the Revolutionary War, the English feared-and with good reason-that the French were, in the main, friendly to the Americans, and would use their influence with the Indians to turn the latter against the English.

If this should happen all the Western posts would inevitably fall into the hands of the Americans.

The three posts on the lakes to which the Indians resorted in large numbers for supplies were Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac.

One of the articles most in demand was rum and, as an illustration, it appears that there was consumed during the year from June, 1780, to June, 1781, at the three posts, 19,386 gallons of this article euphemistically called “milk” at the Indian pow-wows.

This does not include the large amount used and furnished by the traders.

The nature of other articles sent by the Government as presents can be seen from the return showing that in 1781 there was sent to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair for Indian presents, 991 pairs of blankets, mostly 2% and 3 point, 102 dozen calico shirts, and 50 dozen linen ones, laced hats, feathers, looking glasses, knives, tomahawks, medals, needles and thread, axes, razors, brass and copper kettles, tobacco, powder, shot and guns, and a host of other minor articles.

It happened not infrequently that the supply of goods furnished by the government became low, or was very late in arriving at the post and, as the presents must be made when the Indians were there, the officers at the posts had been in the habit of buying from the traders such articles as they thought to be absolutely necessary.

In consequence they often were compelled to pay high prices.

These purchases as well as all other outlays were met by drafts drawn by the Lieutenant Governor upon the Governor General.

In order to prevent a further continuance of this practice and reduce, if possible. the great and Increasing expenses of the Western posts, on June 22nd, 1781, Governor Haldimand issued orders that the officers at Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac should, on no account whatever, after receipt of the order, purchase liquors or any other articles whatever for the use of the Indians from the trader, and that no circumstances whatever would he admitted a reason for not complying with the order.

Lieutenant Governor Sinclair did not observe this order very closely, evidently believing that this order was only intended for ordinary occasions, and that, as he was on the ground, he was entitled to use his judgment, even if it resulted in violating orders made at a great distance.

During the years 1780, 1781, 1782 the new fort was under construction, and in 1781 Sinclair drew on the Governor General drafts to the amount of £43,000 New York currency, for the engineering works and £65,000 for the Indian Department. This was an increase over the preceding year of £18,000 in the latter and nearly £35,000 in the former, which, however, was probably not unexpected as much more work was done on the new fort in 1781 than in 1780.

In 1782 the Lieutenant Governor drew for immense sums in both departments; in January one draft went forward for over £43,000 to be charged against the fort building, and to this no objection seems to have been made.

On the same day, however, he drew £11,450 on account of Indian expenditures, and when this draft was presented to Haldimand he refused to accept it, and referred the accounts to Mr. Goddard, general storekeeper and inspector of Indian presents, with instructions to charge out all articles he might consider presents to the Indians.

He later requested advice from his Attorney General upon the question whether he could legally pay part of the account, without acknowledging the whole.

Apparently he was advised that he might safely pay part as he did pay over £9,000.

In April Sinclair drew drafts to the amount of £14,500 of which £9,500 was on account of the fort and was paid, and £5,000 for Indian expenditures which was paid in part.

In July he drew for over £60,000 of which £40,000 was for the Indian department and the remainder for the Fort construction, about one-half of these drafts were accepted and the others refused and protested.

Although the Commandant at Detroit was at the same time also drawing heavily-in 1781, £162,000 and in 1782, £66,000 nearly all of which was on Indian account, none of his bills were refused.

In August, 1782, Haldimand alarmed at these enormous expenditures, which were affecting his own standing with the authorities in London, appointed Lieut. Col. Henry Hope, Sir John Johnson.

Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and James S. Goddard, to go to Mackinac and examine into the situation.

They arrived September 15th and found a number of irregularities.

There evidently had been looseness and carelessness in the keeping and checking of accounts, and the instructions of Governor Haldimand had not been followed with regard to the purchase of articles from the traders.

One of the perquisites which had been enjoyed and which though profitable to the Lieut. Governor, was detrimental to the public interests, was the reception by that official of presents from the Indians, generally in the nature of furs which naturally called for increased presents to the Indians, paid for by the Government.

It is apparent, however, that Sinclair’s actions had some justification.

Supplies ordered by him had not been sent, or were damaged in transit, or were so greatly delayed as not to arrive in time for distribution to the Indians, and the Commandant was obliged to choose between disappointing and alienating the Indians, a consequence of much importance until the Revolutionary War was ended – or purchasing goods from the traders.

Most of these drafts which were objected to were drawn in favor of George McBeath to be used by him in the payment of the various traders who had furnished articles.

McBeath had been sent up by Haldimand for the very purpose of taking charge of these expenditures and evidently thought them proper and necessary.

A few days after the arrival of the investigating board, Sinclair turned over the command of the post to Captain Robertson, the next ranking officer of the garrison, and left for Quebec arriving in October.

The fort was not yet entirely completed.

A careful survey made at the time by an engineer indicated the extent of the work done, and estimated that with 100 laborers and the necessary artificers, the fort could be put into a safe condition in about two months.

As nearly $300,000 had then been spent upon its construction without serious objection by the English authorities it may be easily conceived that they regarded the post as of high importance.

November 1st, Sinclair applied to Governor Haldimand for permission to go to Great Britain, which was refused on the ground that he was needed for the examination of his accounts.

He then took up his residence on the Isle of Orleans, awaiting action on this matter, and there he remained until the fall of 1784, when he finally obtained the desired permission and left for England.

In the meantime Haldimand wrote in October, 1782, to the English Treasury stating what he had done and that he would investigate and report.

In November, he followed this by an explanation of his reasons, which were in the main, that Sinclair had acted contrary to the order of June, 1781, in buying Indian presents from the traders.

He also promised to have the matter carefully looked into.

A year went by without any action whatever and in October, 1783, Haldimand wrote the Treasury that he was waiting with great impatience for instructions.

To this the Lords of the Treasury replied that he had failed to give them the information which he had promised, and which they needed before giving full instructions.

In January, 1784, the Treasury received remonstrances from the merchants whose bills were unpaid, and they wrote Haldimand that such parts of the bills as represented articles furnished and labor performed should be paid for at the usual rates.

In July, 1784, Haldimand wrote that he had offered £22,000 upon bills drawn for £57,000, and that his offer had been refused and he had been threatened with prosecution by the claimants.

In the meantime Sinclair was eating out his heart on the Isle of Orleans.

Prevented from going to England and meeting his family and friends, feeling the hostility of the Governor General, receiving the frequent importunities of the unfortunate traders who had parted with their goods, but had not received their money.

It is not to be wondered at that he fell into a state of deep and settled melancholy, and that even to his best friends his faculties began to seem impaired.

Representations were made to the Governor General and in August, 1784, he was allowed to return to England in company with Captain Erskine Hope and his wife, who was a connection of Sinclair.

The trip and his surroundings and his friends and relatives in Scotland, where he at once repaired upon his arrival in England, restored his health.

In November Haldimand himself left Canada for England, arriving at London in January, 1785.

As soon as Sinclair heard of this he left at once for London determined to have his affairs settled, and arrived there February 28, 1785.

He was delayed in meeting Haldimand, however, by being arrested at the suit of some of the holders of the protested Mackinac bills and thrown into Newgate prison, from which he was released on March 17th by his paying the bills.

He immediately demanded of Haldimand that the latter repay the amount at once, or he would apply for a Court Martial.

Apparently neither action was taken but early in April, Haldimand was sued for £50,000, he at once called upon the Government to defend him.

In the following year the action was dismissed, and the claimants appealed to Government for their pay.

The result of this application is unknown but the standing of Sinclair with the English authorities does not seem to have been impaired by all these proceedings. While at Mackinac he had advanced in military rank, having become a Major in 1782.

The next year his regiment, the 84th, was disbanded.

His absence from his post as Lieut. Governor did not affect his title or his salary except the allowance which he drew as commanding officer.

In August 1784, the Governor General was careful to impress upon Captain Robertson, then commanding at Mackinac, that his authority was merely in the absence of the Lieut. Governor.

In October, 1793, Sinclair was made a Colonel.

The post of Michilimackinac was transferred in June, 1796, to the Americans, and although Sinclair had not set foot in it since he left in August, 1782, he had continued to draw his yearly salary of £200 with great regularity.

According to modern ideas this would have been an unjustifiable sinecure, but that was an age of sinecures and it was acknowledged that an office was a vested right of which no possessor should be deprived without the payment of compensation.

Accordingly, it is not surprising to find that in April, 1797, Colonel Sinclair, then in London, petitioned the Duke of Portland, Secretary of State, that as he had been at great pains in fortifying and defending the post of Michilimackinac, and his Majesty had found it expedient to give it up to the United States, he flattered himself that this action would not be prejudicial to him and that his salary might be transferred to the general establishment.

This petition apparently seemed reasonable and his salary continued during the remainder of his life.

Not long after he was retired on half pay and withdrew to Lybster where he spent the remainder of his days.

Being still in line for promotion he was made a Major General on September 25th, 1803; he was made Lieut. General, July 25th, 1810, and at his death, which occurred January 31st, 1820 at the age of 84, he was the oldest officer of his rank in the British army.

From a consideration of all the evidence now available in the matter of the protested bills Sinclair was unfairly treated.

Haldimand, although a good soldier, was a stubborn opinionated man whose training as a soldier inclined him to be overbearing and impatient of anything except the most exact obedience to his orders.

In the face of the King’s commission to Sinclair with the accompanying letter of Lord George Germaine, which made the Lieut. Governor the Commandant entitling him to outrank any officer under a Brigadier General, he refused to recognize any military authority in the position.

Although admitting the great importance of placating the Western Indians, and having himself no personal knowledge of the difficulties of the situation, he thought his orders issued from a thousand miles away should be implicitly obeyed.

It is clear that Sinclair did not understand until the Board put in its appearance at Mackinac that he was doing anything more than the necessities of the situation required, in view of the fact that the government agencies were often so dilatory and neglectful as to leave the far distant post short or entirely lacking.

From his reply to Haldimand’s letter of June, 1781, it is apparent that he understood that his position as Lieut. Governor gave him discretion and this position was never contradicted by Haldimand.

His good faith is manifest all through, and even if Haldimand were justified in claiming that Sinclair had acted in contravention of his orders, that furnished no excuse for not paying the traders who had, in good faith, furnished articles actually used by the government and ordered by a representative they had no reason to suspect.

It seems probable that in the end the government paid the bills, as in 1786 the Treasury at London called on Haldimand to furnish information why the bills had been protested, and to explain why he had continued McBeath at Mackinac in connection with Indian disbursements after he had repudiated his actions in connection with Sinclair.

Sinclair married Catherine Stuart, of Invernesshire, and had four sons and one daughter.

Three sons died unmarried, and one married but left two daughters, who never married.

His only lineal descendants are through the children of his daughter, Susan, who married David Laing, surgeon, of Thurso.

A full length silhouette of General Sinclair taken after he had retired from the army shows a large handsome man of imposing presence.

Family tradition depicts him as an impulsive, warm hearted, as well as warm tempered individual, quick to resent and to punish, and equally quick to forgive; kindly and generous to dependents; philanthropic and helpful to the needy and improvident.

He lived to the good old age of eighty-four and his thoughts must frequently have gone back to this Inland Empire in which nearly a decade of his life was spent, and in which he had wielded a wide influence, and had erected a monument still enduring.

His name which was so closely connected with the early history of Michigan should be perpetuated and both Mackinac and St. Clair County should mark, by proper memorials, the name of Sinclair, as a most important one in their rolls of historic characters.

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ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN


griffon-drawing-1

INDIAN AGENTS.

EARLY VISITORS.

ORIGINAL INHABITANTS.

The origin of the first occupants of this region is shrouded in mystery.

Several writers have adopted the theory that they were descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, and they fortify their position with a variety of interesting facts.

The founder of our fair domain was a believer in this theory, and the archives of France contain a lengthy memorial written by Cadillac in which he distinctly asserts his belief that the Indians are descendants of the Hebrew race, strengthening his argument with statements of many remarkable coincidences and customs confirmatory of the idea.

The researches of Schoolcraft, Prescott, Pickering, and others, indicate that the first comers were from Asia, that they were driven by winds and waves over to the Pacific coast, or made their way by the Aleutian Islands or Behring’s Strait to Alaska, and from thence southward to Mexico and South America, afterwards spreading northward and eastward over the American continent.

Elaborate and plausible arguments have been made to prove the converse theory, that the Chinese are descended from the Aztec race.

In support of this supposition, it is urged that the trade winds from the Peruvian coast pass directly to China, and that even frail vessels could easily be wafted thither.

Unique and ancient bronze implements are found alike in both countries; the picture-writings of the two countries are in many cases similar, and in others are exactly the same; and the Feast of Souls, as celebrated in Central America, is remarkably like certain of the Chinese ceremonies.

The order of the ancient occupancy of the country seems to have been, first the Olmec’s, then the Toltecs, then the Aztecs, or Aztecas.

Various reasons give rise to the theory that the Aztec race were the first occupants of this particular region.

Humboldt was of the opinion that the country of the Aztecas was in this latitude.

The meaning of their tribal name is “People of the Lakes;” and there is no place in the United States in which small lakes are so numerous as in Michigan, while the State is nearly surrounded by lakes, which are almost seas in extent.

The name Michigan is derived from two Chippewa words, Mitchaw, great, and Sagiegan, lake. Great Lake.

The so-called Indian mounds in various Western States, in their size, form, and contents, add force to the Aztecan theory.

In the township of Springwells, just below Detroit, were four of these mounds; one of them still remains inside the grounds of Fort Wayne; the second was on property now occupied by the Copper Smelting Works, and the third lay between the other two.

They were circular in form, from thirty to seventy feet in diameter, and varying from three to ten feet in height.

Two parallel embankments, about four feet high, led to them from the east.

One of these mounds was opened in 1837, and the one inside the fort, by permission of the War Department, on May 22, 1876.

Both were found to contain numerous skeletons, arrow-heads, and vases or pots of earthenware.

The one last opened contained also an iron vessel capable of holding two or three gallons, and several pounds of what appeared to be a sort of paint.

The Great Mound of the River Rouge, about half a mile below Fort Wayne, was at first, probably, fully three hundred feet long and two hundred feet wide.

In 1876 it was twenty feet high.

It has never been fully explored, but a partial investigation by Henry Gillman resulted in the discovery of stone axes, arrow-heads, fragments of pottery, and human bones much decayed.

An old Indian told a member of the Cicotte family that these mounds were erected as forts, at the time the tribes were fighting each other.

Indian tradition also ascribes these mounds to the Tuetle Indians, who preceded the Wyandotts.

The name Tuetle is believed to be a corruption of Tuteloes, a tribe once supposed to have emigrated from Virginia only as far north as the Susquehanna; but it now seems probable that some came as far as the Detroit.

Of the more modern Indian tribes who roamed over this region, the Algonquin race was the earliest.

They counted among their numbers in the northwest the tribes of the Ottawas, Menominees, Sacs, Foxes, and Chippewas.

There were also in this vicinity the tribes of the Miamis, Potowatamies, Winnebagoes, and the Ouendats, or Wyandotts.

The latter who came to this vicinity about 1680, excelled the other tribes in energy and progressiveness.

From time to time the Iroquois also appeared.

This nation was composed originally of the Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, Oneidas, and Mohawks.

In 1714, the Tuscaroras of North Carolina united with them, and they were afterward known as the Six Nations.

They claimed all of Michigan, and between them and the Algonquins warfare was frequent.

Indeed, the Iroquois were the enemies of all the Indians at or near Detroit, and in 1649 they drove the Algonquins from this region.

They were unfriendly to the French, and during the French and English war did good service for the English.

They were the cannibals of America, and French residents of Detroit, in 1756, stated that the Iroquois actually ate the flesh of persons slain in battle.

It was the settled policy of the French commandants to induce as many friendly Indians as possible to settle near their forts.

We find Cadillac, in 1703, urging the Ottawas to move to Detroit.

The French records of the same year show that several Miamis were already settled there, and that on June 28 thirty Hurons arrived from Mackinaw and erected wigwams near the fort.

The Potowatamies had their village west of the fort, near the mouth of what was afterwards called Knagg’s Creek.

The Ottawa settlement was where Windsor now is, and the Hurons were gathered on the Canada side, opposite the Cass Farm.

In 1705 about two hundred Indians had been persuaded by Cadillac to settle in the vicinity.

In furtherance of his plans a great council of chiefs was held, continuing from August 6 to August 10, 1707.

The following translation from a French Colonial Memoir, written in 1707, and preserved at Paris, gives a vivid picture of Indian life at this period:

The village of the Pottowatamies adjoins the fort; they lodge partly under Apaquois, which are made of mat-grass.

The women do all this work.

The men belonging to that nation are well clothed, like our domiciliated Indians at Montreal; their entire occupation is hunting and dress ; they make use of a great deal of vermilion, and in winter wear buffalo robes richly painted, and in summer either blue or red cloth.

They play a good deal at la crosse in summer, twenty or more on each side.

Their bat is a sort of little racket, and the ball with which they play is made of very heavy wood, somewhat larger than the balls used at tennis; when playing they are entirely naked, except a breech cloth, and moccasins on their feet.

Their body is completely painted with all sorts of colors.

Some, with white clay, trace white lace on their bodies, as if on all the seams of a coat, and at a distance it would be apt to be taken for silver lace.

They play very deep {gros j’eu) and often.

The bets sometimes amount to more than eight hundred livres.

They set up two poles and commence the game from the center; one party propels the ball from one side and the other from the opposite, and which ever reaches the goal, wins.

This is fine recreation and worth seeing.

They often play village against village, the Poux against the Outaoues or the Hurons, and lay heavy stakes.

Sometimes Frenchmen join in the game with them.

The women cultivate Indian corn, beans, peas, squashes, and melons, which come up very fine.

The women and girls dance at night; adorn themselves considerably, grease their hair, put on a white shift, paint their cheeks with vermilion, and wear whatever wampum they possess, and are very tidy in their way.

They dance to the sound of the drum and sisiquoi, which is a sort of a gourd containing some grains of shot.

Four or five young girls sing, and beat time with the drum and sisiquoi, and the women keep time and do not lose a step ; it is very entertaining, and lasts almost the entire night.

The old men often dance the Medelinne (Medicine Dance); they resemble a set of demons, and all this takes place during the night.

The young men often dance in a circle {le tour) and strike posts; it is then they recount their achievements, and dance, at the same time, the war dance (des decouvertes), and whenever they act thus they are highly ornamented.

It is altogether very curious.

They often perform these things for tobacco. When they go hunting, which is every fall, they carry their Apaquois with them to hut under at night.

Everybody follows, men, women, and children, and winter in the forest and return in the spring.

The Hurons are also near, perhaps the eighth of a league from the French fort.

This is the most industrious nation that can be seen.

They scarcely ever dance, and are always at work; raise a very large amount of Indian corn, peas, beans; some grow wheat.

They construct their huts entirely of bark, very strong and solid; very lofty and very long, and arched like arbors.

Their fort is strongly encircled with pickets and bastions, well redoubted, and has strong gates.

They are the most faithful nation to the French, and the most expert hunters that we have.

Their cabins are divided into sleeping compartments, which contain their misirague, and are very clean.

They are the bravest of all the nations and possess considerable talent.

They are well clad; some of them wear close overcoats {juste au corps de capot).

The men are always hunting, summer and winter, and the women work.

When they go hunting in the fall, a goodly number of them remain to guard their fort.

The old women, and throughout the winter those women who remain, collect wood in very large quantity.

The soil is very fertile; Indian corn grows there to the height of ten to twelve feet.

Their fields are very clean, and very extensive; not the smallest weed is to be seen in them.

The Outaoues are on the opposite of the river, over against the French fort ; they, likewise, have a picket fort.

Their cabins resemble somewhat those of the Hurons.

They do not make use of Apaquois except when out hunting: their cabins in this fort are all of bark, but not so clean nor so well made as those of the Hurons.

They are as well dressed and very laborious, both in their agriculture and hunting.

Their dances, juggleries, and games of ball (la crosse) and of the bowl, are the same as those of the Poux.

Their game of the bowl consists of eight small pebbles (noyaux), which are red or black on one side, and yellow or white on the other; these are tossed up in a bowl, and when he who holds the vessel tosses them and finds seven of the whole eight of the same color he gains, and continues playing as long as he receives the same thing.

When the result is different, the adverse party takes the bowl and plays next, and they risk heavy stakes on all these games.

They have likewise the game of the straws, and all the nations gamble in like manner.

In 1736 there were five hundred Indian warriors at Detroit,—two hundred each from the Huron and Ottawa tribes and one hundred from the Potowatamies.

Bougainville, who was here in 1757,says:

The Indians who usually come to trade at Detroit are the Hurons of the same tribe of those of Lorette, near Quebec, a perfidious and deceitful nation in whom we must never put confidence.

There are also the Ottawas, the Sauteux, and the Potowatamies; these last named are of all the Indians the most faithful and the most attached to our interests.

They have never murdered any Frenchmen, and have often warned us of the plots of other tribes.

Cadillac says that the Ottawas wore, as an ornament, a little stone suspended from their nose, and that “Ottawa,” the name of the tribe, signified “the nation with a hole in their nose.”

The French gave nicknames to most of the tribes in this region.

The Wyandotts they designated as Hurons, because of their fierce aspect, comparing them to a wild boar; the Chippewas, as Sauteurs, from their residence near the Sault St. Marie; the Menominees were called Folles Avoines, from “wild rice,” one of their principal articles of food.

The name Potowatamie was abbreviated into Poux.

This nation was very uncleanly.

All of the tribes known to the Americans, north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi, had their council-fire at the village of the Wyandotts, near the mouth of the Detroit River.

The Wyandotts alone had the power to convene the tribes, and when a council was to be held, application was made to them, and it was held at their village.

This fact gave the locality a peculiar importance and made it familiar to all the Indians.

At various times nearly all the noted Indian leaders visited this post.

Pontiac, Tecumseh, and his brother The Prophet, were frequent visitors. John Logan, the Cayuga chief, whose speech to Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, is familiar to every schoolboy, was here in 1774, and after the treaty of Chillicothe, he resided for many years in this vicinity.

He became a drunkard, and was killed, between Detroit and Miami, by an Indian.

The French trusted the Indians almost without fear.

No seals or locks were placed on the storehouses, and the Indians came and went as they pleased. Under English and American rule the Indians were welcomed inside the stockade during the day, but at night all were turned out except those who were entertained by private persons.

The Indians were always persistent beggars, and no Arab of the present day demands backsheesh more clamorously than did the red men of their French and English “brothers.”

Their requests were generally acceded to, and the presents given them in some measure made up for the exorbitant prices charged them for articles offered in exchange for furs.

Their likes and dislikes turned, like a pair of scales, according as they had free range or were restricted in their visitations to the houses.

On September 18, 1770, Captain Stephenson, of the Eighteenth Regiment, then in command, wrote to Sir William Johnson:

My children here are quiet at present.

They have all been to pay me a visit and suck my breast, to which they made so close an application that I told them I was afraid they would throw me in a consumption.

They are very happy at having free access to my house, which my predecessor’s delicacy would not admit.

Even after this region was surrendered, the English Government sought the favor of the Indians by annual gifts; and year by year up to 1836 thousands from various tribes gathered at Detroit, Sandwich, or Maiden to receive the presents of their Great Father, the King.

The American Government was compelled to follow this precedent.

On November 24, 1807, Governor Hull wrote to the Secretary of War that within the two or three days previous seven or eight hundred Indians had called at Detroit, on the way to their villages, and that he had been compelled to feed them.

In the autumn of 1812, while the city was in possession of the British, the Indians committed many outrages.

A party of them went in a body to rob Colonel Lambert Beaubien’s orchard, but the Colonel attacked them with his fists, and made so courageous a defense that he drove them from his premises.

After the city again passed under American control, Colonel Cass was obliged to feed great numbers of the Indians.

In one communication to the War Department he states that for several years he fed an average of four hundred Indians per day.

Between 1814 and 1817, he disbursed $200,000 for the benefit of the Indians.

To divide and distribute among them the goods and bounty of the Government was a task vexatious in the extreme, and almost unbearable, for it was impossible to satisfy the stupid and stolid savages.

All the year round they came and went, and the agent’s family was “driven from one extremity of the house to the other by them.”

In addition to the annuities the “government blacksmith” repaired, free of charge, their guns and traps.

There was always some excuse for their coming, and citizens were not surprised at any time to see a swarthy face at the window-pane; oftentimes the click of the latch was the only warning of the entrance of one of the nation’s wards.

Some of them were gayly dressed with blankets of scarlet broadcloth, and strings of silver half-moons graduated in size from one to several inches in length, hung from neck to ankles, both in front and down the back.

Their moccasins and leggins were gay with beads and the stained quills of the porcupine.

The heads of the war chiefs were frequently gayer still with the vermilion and bear’s grease which had been rubbed thereon.

The squaws were not left behind.

There was always some burden for them to carry, and the procession ceased on one day only to begin the next.

Indians and more Indians, and still they came! Indians lazy and Indians drunk, Indians sick and Indians hungry, all crying “Give! give!”

After receiving their payments, hundreds of them would lie about the city stupidly drunk; in August, 1825, they so disturbed the peace of the city, that the Council, through the mayor, sought aid from the governor to quiet and control them.

A few of these Indians came to buy goods, and were really trustworthy.

An old account book of that period contains charges made against Indians called “Saw Goose’s Wife,” “Big Wind’s Daughter,” “The Rat,” “The White Devil,” ” The Old Cow,” “The Cow’s Sister,” “The Old Eagle and Son,” “The Red Bird,” and “The Turtle.”

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Allegan and Barry Counties, Michigan in the Civil War….Officers and Enlisted men.


5228557711_b98ce008ff_oSECOND AND THIRD INFANTRY.

Formation of the Second Infantry-Battle of Bull Run-In Kentucky-In Mississippi-Siege of Knoxville-Re-enlistment-Off to Virginia-The Campaign of the Wilderness-Muster out-Members from Barry County-Members from Allegan County-

The Third Infantry-Representation from Barry and Allegan Counties –

The Regiment at Bull Run-Steadiness of its Brigade-Praise of the New York Tribune-Winter-Quarters-Gallantry at Williamsburg-At Fair Oaks-Prince de Joinville’s EncomiumThrough the Seven Days’ Fight-Second Bull Run-At Chancellorsville-At Gettysburg-Sent to New York-Back to Virginia The Mine Run Campaign-In the Wilderness and Subsequent Fights-Non-Veterans sent Home-Veterans and Recruits formed into a Battalion-Consolidated with the Fifth Infantry —Call for Men in July, 1864-Raising the New Third Infantry-It goes to Alabama-Back to Murfreesboro’-Depots-Faulkner’s Brigade The Regiment goes to Texas in 1865-Stays there till 1866-Mustered out in May-Barry County Officers and Soldiers-Allegan County Officers and Soldiers.

SECOND INFANTRY.

THE Second Regiment of Michigan Volunteer Infantry, the first three years’ regiment to take the field from that a During the civil war Allegan County received credit for twenty-one hundred and seventy-five men, and Barry for sixteen hundred and twenty-seven.

This is more than can be found in the reports of the adjutant-general of the State, but the discrepancy is principally due to the fact that re enlisting veterans were credited to the county twice, while their names appear in the reports but once.

A number of men, also, served in the navy whose names do not appear in the reports.

The credits also include those drafted men who, in the first months of the draft, were allowed to pay three hundred dollars each in lieu of personal service, though of course they are not represented on any rolls.

A few names were also, doubtless, omitted from the reports, in spite of the energy and fidelity of Adjt.-Gen. Robertson, on Second and Third Infantry rendezvoused at Detroit, and was mustered into the United States service May 25, 1861.

With an aggregate force on its muster-rolls of one thousand and thirteen men, commanded by the brave Col. Israel B. Richardson, it left Detroit, June 5, 1861, and at once proceeded to the seat of war on the Potomac.

The Second participated in the first battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and was one of the few regiments that did not become thoroughly demoralized as a result of that engagement (see history of the Third Infantry).

From that time until March, 1863, it shared in all the victories and defeats of the Union arms in Virginia.

It was then transferred to Kentucky, where it remained until June, when, with Gen. Parke’s division of the Ninth Army Corps, it reinforced Gen. Grant at Vicksburg.

With Sherman at Jackson, Miss., it lost heavily.

From Mississippi it re-returned to Kentucky, and in September, 1863, marched via Cumberland Gap to Knoxville, Tenn., where, under Gen. Burnside, it took part in all of the severe fighting incident to the siege of Knoxville, losing one-half its effective strength.

A large number of its remaining men re-enlisted in December, 1863, and returned home on furlough.

From Mount Clemens, Michigan, the regiment returned to Virginia in May, 1864, arriving in time to plunge into the Wilderness and bear its share on that hotly-contested field.

Thereafter, at Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, and in all the other principal engagements which culminated at Appomattox, the Second was an active participant.

It was mustered out of service at Delaney House, D. C., July 28, 1865, and arrived at Detroit, Michigan, for final pay and disbandment, August 1st of the same year.

MEMBERS OF THE SECOND INFANTRY FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company B.

Henry D. Thompson, discharged for disability, Sept. 16, 1862.

Company C.

William G. Fox, Wounded 5/5/1862 Williamsburg, VA, discharged for disability, Oct. 2, 1862.

Royal G. Rice, discharged at end of service, July 21, 1864. After the War he lived in Dowling, Mich

Charles I. Robinson, discharged at end of service, Jan. 26, 1865.

George Rogers, missing in action at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863. Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS (Severe wound in left leg, amputated)

Samuel R. Wilson, discharged for disability, Feb. 3, 1865.

Company D.

William Scudder, discharged at end of service, Feb. 10, 1864.

Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS http://www.fadedfootsteps.net/veterans/profile/4071/private-william-m-scudder-company-d-2nd-michigan-infantry-us-us-union-army.html

Company K.

Moses Boyden, discharged at end of service, Jan. 7, 1864.

Thomas M. Ellsworth, discharged at end of service, Nov. 16, 1863.

Estes Rorke, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863. Wounded 7/11/1863 Jackson, MS

John C. Stewart, discharged at end of service, Jan. 7, 1864. After the War he lived in Stanton, MI

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SECOND INFANTRY.

Company I.

David S. Buck, missing in action at Savage Station, Va., June 29, 1862.

Martin Crane, veteran, Dec. 31, 1863; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., Oct. 27, 1864.

James Carruthers, discharged at end of service, June 22, 1864.

Clark Conrad, veteran, enlisted Dec. 31, 1863.

George B. Myers, discharged at end of service, June 22, 1864.

Nathan A. Tanner, died of wounds at Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1863.

George P. West, discharged for disability.

Company K.

Alfonso Crane, died of disease at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863.

THIRD INFANTRY.

The Third Regiment of infantry, which was recruited during the month of May, 1861, was mainly from the counties of Allegan, Barry, Clinton, Easton, Gratiot, Ionia, Kent, Muskegon, Mecosta, Montcalm, Newaygo, and Ottawa and had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids.

It was the first regiment organized in this portion of the State, the second mustered for three years, and the third to take the field from Michigan.

Barry County was represented by about a hundred and fifty men scattered through all its companies except I, while Allegan’s representation was divided among companies A, C, E, F, I, and K.

Having upon its muster-rolls the names of one thousand and forty officers and enlisted men, the regiment left Grand Rapids on the 13th of June, 1861, and proceeded directly to the seat of war on the Potomac.

It was soon after assigned to the brigade commanded by Col. Israel B. Richardson, and first met the enemy at Blackburn’s Ford, Va., July 18, 1861.

Three days later Richardson’s brigade was engaged in that famous conflict, the first battle of Bull Run.

To show that the Michigan regiments then and there gave evidence of the material composing them, we need but cite the New York Tribune’s account of that battle, from which the following is an extract:

” I was told that a few regiments besides the three faithful ones of Blenker’s brigade had come in fair order, and that they were the Second and Third Michigan and the Massachusetts First, of Richardson’s brigade.

“Gen. McDowell also stated that “Richardson’s troops were the last to leave the field.”

When the defeated and almost disbanded Union army fell back on Washington, Richardson’s brigade served as rear-guard.

It maintained its position at Centreville Heights until the morning of July 22d, and when all detachments and stragglers had passed to the rear, it deliberately took up the line of march to Washington, where it arrived in perfect order.

To this brigade was then assigned the duty of guarding Bailey’s Cross-Roads and picketing other highways leading from Rebeldom to Alexandria and Washington.

After I account of the apathy or ignorance of the regimental and company officers.

In the preparation of the sketches of the services of the regiments great care has been taken to make them —although necessarily brief -as correct and interesting as possible.

The adjutant-general’s reports and the “Red Book of Michigan” have been closely examined, surviving soldiers of the various regiments have been consulted, and in many cases items have been added derived from the personal information of the gentleman who, under the direction of the general historian, compiled these military sketches.

That gentleman, Mr. J. S. Schenck, was formerly adjutant of the Sixteenth Illinois, and served nearly three years side by side with several of the Michigan regiments whose exploits he has here narrated.

It is intended that the sketches of the various regiments shall bear some proportion as to size to the number of men from these two counties in them.

It may be proper to add here that during the Mexican war Samuel Brown, Jr., Henry Starring, Franklin H. Heath, Silas S. Price, and Chester Ross, of Allegan County, served in Captain F. W. Curtenius’ company in the First Michigan Infantry of that period; the two men last named dying in the service. C. J. * Col. Richardson was a native of Vermont, and a graduate of West Point.

He served in the Mexican war, and attained the rank of major.

He was made brigadier-general of volunteers in September, 1861, promoted to the rank of major-general soon after, and met his death at the battle of Antietam, Sept; 17, 1862, while commanding a division.

This number represents all who served in both the first and second terms of service.

The Third Infantry assisted in the construction of the defenses of Washington, the Third went into winter-quarters near Alexandria, Va., where it remained until March, 1862.

Then the Third Michigan Infantry moved with McClellan’s army to the Peninsula.

At the battle of Williamsburg, the Third fought on the 5th of May, 1862.

The Third Infantry then with Berry’s brigade of Kearney’s division moved, through mud and rain, to the front at double-quick.

Here the Third Michigan Infantry formed line under fire, and, immediately charging a superior force of the enemy, recaptured a lost position and artillery, and did not stop until the enemy was dislodged and beat back from his own position to the plains below.

In regard to this fight, a Tribune correspondent said:

“By confessions of rebel prisoners, eight hundred of Berry’s men, mostly of Michigan regiments, drove back sixteen hundred of the enemy.”

At Fair Oaks, on the 31st of May. the Third particularly distinguished itself.

Its commander, Col. Stephen G. Champlin, was severely wounded, and the gallant Captain Samuel A. Judd was killed.

The total losses of the regiment in this action were thirty men killed, one hundred and twenty-four wounded, and fifteen missing.

The Prince de Joinville, an eye-witness of this battle, said:

“As at Williamsburg, Kearney comes to re-establish the fight.

Berry’s brigade of this division, composed of Michigan regiments and an Irish battalion, advanced as firm as a wall into the midst of the disordered mass which wanders over the battle-field, and does more by its example than the most powerful reinforcement.

“The Third was also engaged at Savage Station and Peach Orchard, June 29, 1862; Glendale (or Charles City CrossRoads), June 30th; Malvern Hill, July 1st; and Groveton (or Second Bull Run), Aug. 29, 1862.

In the latter battle it lost twenty men killed, besides a large number wounded and missing. Proceeding from Edward’s Ferry, Md., via Warrenton and Falmouth, Va., to Fredericksburg, Va., the regiment was engaged at the latter place Dec. 13, 1862, losing nine men wounded.

At Chancellorsville, on the 1st, 2d, and 3d of May, 1863, it sustained a loss of sixty-three men, killed, wounded, and missing.

On the 11th of June the regiment began a toilsome march via Centreville, Va., Edward’s Ferry, and Frederick City, Md., to Gettysburg, Pa.

The roads were dusty, the heat was intense, and the men suffered terribly.

At Gettysburg, on the 2d and 3d days of July, 1863, the Third again dealt staggering blows to the cohorts of treason, sustaining a loss on its side of forty-one men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Having followed the enemy to Williamsport, it marched thence to Harper’s Ferry, crossed the Potomac at that point, and moved forward to Manassas Gap.

On the 17th of August, 1863, the regiment proceeded to Alexandria, Va., and from there to New York City, whither it had been ordered to aid in the preservation of the public peace and the keeping down of a mob during the then pending draft.

Remaining there some days, it proceeded up the Hudson to Troy, N. Y., where it was stationed two weeks.

The Third Michigan Infantry then returned to its brigade in the Army of the Potomac, arriving at Culpepper, Va., Sept. 17, 1863.

On the 26th of November, 1863, the regiment took part in the Mine Run campaign, engaging the enemy on the 27th at Locust Grove, and on the. 30th at Mine Run.

With the army it returned to Brandy Station December 2d, having lost during the movement thirty-one men in killed, wounded, and missing.

One hundred and eighty members of the regiment reenlisted as veterans Dec. 23, 1863.

They received a thirty days’ furlough, and at the expiration of that time returned to their command.

From December, 1863, until the beginning of May, 1864, a season of inactivity prevailed.

On the 4th of the latter month the Third crossed the Rapidan at Ely’s Ford, advanced to Chancellorsville, and during the three following days was in the midst of the terrific battle of the Wilderness, sustaining a heavy loss.

It was also engaged at Todd’s Tavern on the 8th and at Spottsylvania on the 12th, where it participated in the successful charge of the Second Army Corps.

At the North Anna River it again encountered the enemy, May 23d and 24th.

The Pamunky River was crossed on the 27th, and the advance continued toward Cold Harbor.

During this month of continuous fighting the regiment sustained a loss of thirty-one men killed, one hundred and nineteen wounded, and twenty-nine missing.

At Cold Harbor, on the 9th of June, 1864, the regiment, with the exception of the re-enlisted men and such as had joined since the original organization, and certain designated officers, was ordered home for the purpose of being discharged.

The remaining officers and men-some three hundred and fifty in number-were formed into a battalion of four companies, and attached to the Fifth Michigan Infantry.

The order consolidating these regiments was confirmed by the War Department June 13th, and on the 20th day of June, 1864, the old Third, which had been one of the first to take the field in defense of the government, was formally mustered out of the United States service.

THIRD INFANTRY (NEW).

In addition to the hundreds of thousands gone before, on the 18th of July, 1864, the President issued his proclamation calling upon the loyal States for five hundred thousand more men.

Volunteers from the several States were to be accepted for one, two, and three years, as they elected.

Michigan’s quota under this call was more than eighteen thousand, of which twelve thousand had to be recruited or drafted.

Governor Blair determined to raise six new regiments of infantry, viz., the Third, Fourth, Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first, or one in each Congressional district, and in pursuance of this plan issued his proclamation on the 21st of July, 1864.

On the 29th of the same month orders were issued to reorganize the Third Infantry, and to Col. Moses B. Houghton (formerly lieutenant-colonel of the old organization) was entrusted the charge of raising the new regiment.

Grand Rapids was named its place of rendezvous, and the Fourth District its field for recruiting.

The exigencies of the service did not permit the complete organization of all these regiments before the enforcement of the impending draft (Sept. 5, 1864), and seven companies, which had been raised for the Thirtieth at * Composed of the Second, Third, and Fifth Michigan, and a New York regiment.

The Third, thus reinforced, completed its organization at once (October 15th), and, being mustered in with eight hundred and seventy-nine officers and men, left camp for Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1864, going thence to Decatur, Ala.

It remained at Decatur-having meanwhile a skirmish with the enemy at that point-until November 25th, when it was transferred to Murfreesboro, Tenn., and ordered to duty at Fort Rosecrans.

On the 7th of December, while Gen. Milroy was engaged at the Cedars with the principal part of Forrest’s rebel command, Faulkner’s rebel brigade of mounted infantry made a dash on the picket-line at Murfreesboro, drove in the guard, and gained possession of the town.

After a spirited engagement of an hour’s duration, four companies of the Third, together with an equal number of companies of the One Hundred and Eighty-first Ohio, with a section of artillery, repulsed the rebels and pursued them two miles.

The regiment remained at Murfreesboro and its vicinity until Jan. 16, 1865, when it was moved to Huntsville, Ala., and assigned to the Fourth Army Corps.

On the 31st of January it was ordered to Eastport, Miss., and proceeded as far as Nashville, Tenn., when, the order being countermanded, it returned to Huntsville, remaining there until the middle of March.

With its brigade it then marched to East Tennessee, occupying successively positions at New Market, Bull Gap, and Jonesboro’, where it was employed in pursuing, capturing, and driving off the numerous guerrilla bands infesting that region.

The Third was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., on the 20th of March, arrived there the 28th, and on the 15th of June, 1865, with its corps, proceeded by rail from Nashville to Johnsville, Tenn.; thence by steamers down the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, arriving on the 5th of July.

After a short delay the regiment proceeded in vessels to Indianola, Texas, and thence it marched to Green Lake.

On the 12th of September it started out for Westerin Texas, and, after a fatiguing march of fourteen days’ duration, it reached San Antonio.

During the following winter two companies were on duty at Gonzales.

Early in the spring of 1866 the entire regiment was ordered to Victoria, Texas, and was there mustered out of the service, May 26, 1866.

Marching to Indianola, it took steamers to New Orleans, going thence via the Mississippi River to Cairo, Ill., whence it was transported by railway to Detroit, Michigan.

It arrived there June 10, 1866, and was soon after paid off and discharged.

BARRY COUNTY OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE THIRD INFANTRY (FIRST TERM).

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major Israel S. Geer, enlisted June 10, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. C, Aug. 1, 1861.

Company B.

John Goff, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Willard Main, mustered out July 9, 1865.

Robert Strong, mustered out May 19, 1865.

Company C.

Captain Israel S. Geer, com. Dec. 26, 1861; wounded and taken prisoner at Wilderness, May 6, 1864; mustered out Sept. 21, 1864.

Jacob T. Bipley, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., July 12, 1864.

Jacob Broepphe, missing at Mine Run, Va., Nov. 30, 1863.

Christian Fostler, transferred to 5th lrf., June 10, 1864.

Lewis Ruthardt, discharged for disability, May 1, 1864.

Company D.

John Winebremer, transferred to 5th Inf., June 10, 1864.

Company E.

Sergeant Andrew Nickerson, Hastings; enlisted June 10, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. H, Aug. 5, 1862.

Musician James L. Reed, discharged May 24, 1862.

Mathew Bain, discl. for disability.

George W. Btgl)ee, discharged for disability, Feb. 17, 1865.

James G. Birdsall, discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1863.

Cornelius Barkluff.

Alonzo H. Bennett, mustered out May 30, 1865. Thomas Burke, mustered out May 27, 1865.

Daniel E. Birdsall, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Samuel B. Cook, discharged for disability. George Decker, mustered out June 28, 1865.

Washington Feriis, discharged for disability.

D. W. Foster, died of wounds at Portland, June 17, 1862.

Franklin Green, transferred to 5th Inf.

Emmett A. Hamilton, died of wounds at Groveton, Va, Aug. 29, 1862.

George H. Hill, died in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864.

Ralph IHenley, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Andrew J. Jordan, mustered out May 17, 1865.

John A. Kellogg, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Andrew G. Kilpatrick, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

James Kilpatrick, discharged for disability, Sept. 30, 1862.

David C. Leach, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Samuel McMurray, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Dwight T. Merrill, mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. John B. Osgood, mustered out July 5, 1865.

William Paustle, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, July 28, 1865.

Merrick D. Reed, veteran, enlisted Dec. 23, 1863.

Daniel A. Randall, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Truman Sawdy, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 26, 1863.

Martin M. Sweet, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Joseph E. Sutton, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Simeon C. Stanton, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Edward Stevens, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Truman J. Wisner, transferred to 5th Michigan Inf.

Company F.

James R. Dexter, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1861.

Samuel S. Garrison, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

John Oberly, discharged for disability, Jan. 14, 1863.

Timothy Penders, discharged for disability, Nov. 12, 1863.

Ephraim Parsons, mustered out May 8, 1865.

Owen F. Palmer, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Isaac Walker, ditch. for disability, Feb. 7, 1863.

Company G.

Captain Abram J. Whitney, Hastings; com. 2d Lieutenant, Co. I, May 13, 1861; promoted to 1st liout. Aug. 1, 1861; Captain, June 9, 1862; resigned Sept. 26, 1862.

Company H.

2d Lient. Andrew Nickerson, com. Aug. 5, 1862; promoted to slt Lieutenant, Co. K, Oct. 20, 1862.

Aaron E. Dupee, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

James F. Dibble, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Jeremiah Sanders, discharged at end of service, Nov. 10, 1863.

Company K.

Captain Andrew Nickerson, Hastings; com. Nov. 1, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Oct. 20, 1862; killed in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

Corp. Edwin H. Mallory, enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Wagoner Isaac D. Reed, enlisted June 10, 1861; discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Edward Bugbee, died of disease at Yorktown, May 3, 1862.

William Buck, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Henry II. Bailey, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Austin Dibble, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

Charles W. Feber, discharged at end of service, June 17, 1864.

Oscar Gaines, discharged to enlist in regular service, Dec. 17, 1862.

Jonathan Kellogg, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Jonathan Kelly, transferred to Vet. Res Corps.

Orange McClure, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Mortimer Millard, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Lorenzo W. Payne, discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863.

Jacob S. Pickle, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Sept. 17, 1861.

William Parrish, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Henian Parrish, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863.

Cody M. Reed, discharged to enlist in regular service, Nov. 29, 1862.

Alfred H. Slocum, discharged for disability, June 20, 1862.

Charles H. Sanford, died in action at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863.

Warren Wilkinson, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE THIRD INFANTRY (FIRST TERM).

Company A.

Captain Milton Leonard, com. 1st Lieutenant Nov. 1, 1863; 2d Lieutenant Feb. 5, 1863; died in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864.

Company C.

Musician John B. Champion, discharged Feb. 28, 1862.

Theo. Castor, transferred to 5th Inf., June 10, 1864; mustered out Sept. 4, 1865.

Christian Pleigden, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

John P. Scheidt, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

Valentin Schaeffer, discharged for disability, June 20, 1861.

Anton Steffles, discharged for disability, Feb. 23, 1862. Thomas Schneider, died of disease at Baltimore, July 19, 1863.

Jos. A. Schuler, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864. Peter Wagner, discharged for disability, Oct. 1, 1861.

Company E.

Edward T. Webster, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. Harvey Wilson, discharged for disability, July 29, 1861.

Samuel F. Woolman, died May 30, 1864, of wounds.

Company F.

2d Lieutenant Milton Leonard, transferred 2d Lieutenant from Co. A, May 1, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. A, Nov. 1, 1863.

Musician Edward C. Wheelock, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Geo. W. Bailey, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Harvey S. Briggs, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865. J

ohn Calkins, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

John Hefner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Martin Jones, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Daniel G. Slade, discharged for disability, Nov. 20, 1861.

Company I.

Wm. H. Campion, discharged for disability, November, 1862.

Nelson J. Davis, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Edward R. Goble, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Sylvester Gay, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1864.

Alfred M. Gardner, discharged for disability, Dec. 31, 1862.

Perry Goshom, discharged for disability, Nov. 17, 1862.

Josiah E. Huff, died of disease, Nov. 18, 1861.

Lonson Hill, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Albert Hamlin, discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

Calvin Hall, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Jerome Kibbee, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

John McDonald, discharged for disability, Oct. 1, 1863.

Joseph L. Paney, discharged at end of service, June 20, 1864.

Jas. Reeves, discharged for disability, Aug. 7, 1862.

John Simpkins, died in action at Seven Pines, Va., May 31, 1862.

Willard Sweet, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Company K.

John Felton, died in action at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

Win. H. Harvey, transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Edwin Nickerson, transferred to 5th Inf.; mustered out June 9, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY IN THE REORGANIZED THIRD INFANTRY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

Asst. Surg. Philo H. Drake, Hastings; com. Nov. 24, 1864; res. June 20, 1865.

Sergeant-Maj. Geo. W. Sheldon, promoted to 2d Lieutenant May 19, 1865; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Company A.

Francis Rogers, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Company B.

Charles Tichenor, discharged at end of service, March 18, 1866.

Company C.

Corp. Vine E. Welch, Barry; enlisted Sept. 3, 1864; transferred to Co. F.

Richard D. Hudson, mustered out May 23, 1865.

Company D.

Captain Washington K. Ferris, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; res. March 12, 1865.

Corp. Jacob Rhodes, Baltimore; enlisted Aug. 26, 1861.

Corp. James Marvin, Johnstown; enlisted Aug. 17, 1861; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Barry Baulch, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Thomas Boggart, mustered out Nov. 6, 1865.

John H. Day, mustered out June 12, 1866.

Simon Eberly, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

David L. Fereter, mustered out Aug. 11, 1865.

Benjamin G. Foster, mustered out May 26, 1866.

John A. Harrington, mustered out Aug. 5, 1865.

Leonard M. Hyde, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Bayliss T. Sweezy, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 16, 1865.

Anthony B. Wisner, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1865.

Philip A. West, mustered out July 11, 1865.

William H. Watts, mustered out May 2.5, 1866.

Company E.

Captain Reuben P. Lamb, Prairieville; com. July 28, 1864; res. May 12, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Albert H. Ellis, Hastings; cornm. July 29, 1864; hon. discharged, May 15, 1865.

Sergeant Samuel M. Tripp, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 17, 1864; discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Sergeant Edwin King, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; mustered out May 26, 1866.

Sergeant John T. Shelp, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 17, 1864; discharged by order, April 16, 1866.

Sergeant Henry M. Merritt, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 5, 1864; discharged by order, July 3, 1865.

Sergeant John White, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; mustered out May 25, 1866.

Corp. James N. Collister, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 18, 1864; discharged July 12, 1865.

Corp. Samuel Lamb, Prairieville; enlisted July 25, 1864; discharged May 17, 1865.

Corp. Robert Frost, Woodland; enlisted Sept. 3, 1864; discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

Corp. John H. Freeman, Prairieville; enlisted July 28, 1864; discharged by order, Sept. 5, 1865.

Corp. William Wickham, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 30, 1864; discharged by order, Sept. 5, 1865.

Corp. William Scudder, Prairieville; enlisted Aug. 19, 1861; absent sick at muster out.

William Atwood, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 30, 1865.

C. J. Brown, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

Joseph Barnes, mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Eugene A. Beach, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Lewis S. Campbell, mustered out from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 12, 1865.

David F. Campbell, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 10, 1865.

Fabrius Deplanta, mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Jacob Frink, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Stephen Heath, mustered out July 24, 1864.

Stephen Haight, mustered out Oct. 6, 1865.

Benjamin Hass, mustered out Sept. 4, 1865.

William N. Haight, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., December, 1864.

Conrad Kehler, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

Seth Lovell, mustered out July 15, 1865.

William J. McArthur, mustered out May 25, 1866.

John H. McArthur, mustered out May 25, 1866.

William Myers, mustered out Sept. 28, 1865.

William Mills, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Alpheus F. Morse, mustered out July 13, 1865.

James Myers, mustered out Sept. 9, 1865.

Samuel M. Martin, mustered out June 13, 1865.

William McNeil, discharged at end of service, March 2, 1866.

William Nichols, mustered out March 3, 1866.

Oliver P. Nichols, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Nelson H. Orr, mustered out April 16, 1866.

Charles W. Pickle, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Willis Peck, mustered out Sept. 5, 1865,

Samuel A. Phillips, discharged at end of service, May 2, 1866.

Andrew Smith, mustered out May 25, 1866.

David Sisco, mustered out May 25, 1866.

John E. Spaulding, mustered out Sept. 28, 1865.

Gilbert Van Brunt, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., April 19, 1865.

Sidney J. Wiley, mustered out May 25, 1866.

Company F.

Corp. George S. Ward, Barry; enlisted March 2, 1865; mustered out March 2, 1866.

Lewis S. Campbell, mustered out from Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 12, 1865.

Philip Ragle, mustered out June 18, 1865.

Allegan County had no credited representatives in the new regiment.

SIXTH AND SEVENTH INFANTRY.

Formation of the Sixth Infantry-“The Peculiar Regiment”-The Allegan County Company-On Duty in Baltimore-By Ship to New Orleans-Sickness there-Services in Louisiana-Siege of Port Hudson-Converted into Heavy Artillery-Re-enlistment-Services in Arkansas-Reducing Mobile-Subsequent Services-Mustered out-Members from Allegan County-From Barry County Organization and Departure of the Seventh Infantry-Ball’s Bluff -On the Peninsula-Second Bull Run and South Mountain-Terrible Fight at Antietam-Gallant Passage of the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg-Chancellorsville-The March to Gettysburg Hard Fight there-At New York-Re-enlistment-The Great Campaign of 1864 and 1865-Mustered out —The Barry County Members.

SIXTH INFANTRY.

This regiment was formed during the summer of 1861, having for its rendezvous the village of Kalamazoo.

It was afterwards organized as heavy artillery, and on account of its almost entire isolation from other Michigan regiments during its term of service, and of the fact that it served as both infantry and artillery as occasion required, it was denominated at State headquarters the “peculiar regiment of Michigan.”

Allegan County had a large representation in its ranks.

Company G, which started for the front under the command of Captain Chauncey J. Bassett, was most emphatically an Allegan County company, and was the first entire command to leave that county’s borders.

Bearing upon its rolls the names of nine hundred and forty-four officers and enlisted men, and commanded by Col. Frederick W. Curtenius, of Kalamazoo, a veteran of the Mexican war, the regiment left its rendezvous Aug. 30, 1861, and proceeded to Baltimore, Md., where it remained on duty for several months.

Early in March, 1862, it sailed for Ship Island, Miss., and from there in April proceeded to New Orleans, and was one of the first regiments to enter that city upon its surrender to Gen. Butler and Admiral Farragut.

On the 15th of May it sailed up the Mississippi, and was engaged in the battle at Baton Rouge on the 5th of June, and again at the same place on the 5th of August, losing on the latter day fifty-three men.

From Aug. 20, 1862, until December 6th, the regiment was stationed at Metairie Ridge, guarding one of the approaches to New Orleans.

This location was exceedingly unhealthy, and the command was so reduced that on the 6th of December, when it moved to New Orleans, only one hundred and ninety-one, out of an aggregate of seven hundred and fifty-five, were fit for duty; but the men soon recovered upon their arrival in the city.

In January, 1863, the regiment was with the expedition, under Gen. Weitzel, to Bayou Teche, which destroyed a rebel gunboat.

In the early part of February it was stationed a few miles out from New Orleans, and on the 23d of the month accompanied an expedition to Ponchatoula, where it had quite a sharp skirmish, losing two men Captain Bassett was commisioned major of a colored regiment in October, 1862.

He afterwards rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the same regiment, and was killed while in command of it, during the disastrous Red River campaign. Wounded.

On the 12th of May it made a raid on thy Jackson Railroad, destroying a camp at Tangipahoa, capturing sixty prisoners, and destroying property of the value of four hundred thousand dollars.

On the 21st of the month it embarked for Port Hudson, where it arrived on the 23d.

During the siege of this stronghold by Gen. Banks it was in an advanced position, and participated in the assaults of May 27th and June 14th, in which it lost severely.

On the 29th of June a detachment of thirty-five men formed the forlorn hope of an assaulting column which attacked the “citadel,” but were driven back with a loss of eight killed and nine wounded.

By an order of Major-Gen. Banks, commanding the Department of the Gulf, issued on the 10th of July, following the surrender of Port Hudson, the Sixth was converted into a heavy artillery regiment, and on the 30th of the same month the order was approved by the Secretary of War.

The regiment was stationed at Port Hudson from the last-mentioned date until March 11, 1864, engaged in garrison duty.

At the latter date, the men having mostly re-enlisted as veterans, the command proceeded to Kalamazoo, Michigan, on a furlough of thirty days.

On the 11th of May it arrived at Port Hudson, with its ranks well filled by men recruited in Michigan.

On the 6th of June it was ordered to Morganza to serve as infantry, at which place it remained until the 24th, when it proceeded to Vicksburg, where it joined the engineer brigade.

On the 23d of July it was sent to the mouth of White River, Arkansas, and thence to St. Charles, in that State, where it was attached to a regiment of infantry.

A detachment of the regiment, while on a transport en route from Vicksburg to White River, was fired upon by a rebel battery, and lost two men killed and several wounded.

It remained but a short time at St. Charles, when it returned to Morganza, where it was for some time employed on engineer service, but subsequently was returned to duty as heavy artillery by the chief of artillery.

It was present at the surrender of Fort Morgan, Alabama, but not in time to participate in the bombardment.

On the 1st of October portions of the regiment were stationed at Forts Gaines and Morgan, in Mobile Bay.

On the 23d of December, 1864, five companies were detached for an expedition under Gen. Gordon Granger against Mobile, and were temporarily attached as infantry to the brigade of Gen. Bertram, with which they continued until Jan. 27, 1865, when they were returned to the regiment.

On the 31st of March, Companies A and K were detached from the command at Fort Morgan and ordered to report to Gen. Granger at the front, each being equipped with a battery of ten-inch mortars.

On their arrival they were placed in position under the guns of the Spanish Fort, where they did fine execution at fourteen hundred yards’ range.

Upon the surrender of this fort the two companies manned and turned the captured guns, consisting of seven-inch Brooks rifles and one-hundred-pounder Parrotts, on the remaining rebel forts, Huger and Tracy, which soon after surrendered.

April 10th, Company B was placed on picket duty at Navy Cove, and Company E was assigned to duty in garrisoning Fort Powell.

Companies A and K rejoined the garrison at Fort Morgan, April 20th, and on the 9th of July the regiment was ordered to report to Gen. Sheridan at New Orleans, where it arrived on the 11th, and encamped at Greenville, four miles from the city.

At that place it was furnished with new camp-equipage and wagontrain, and placed under orders for Texas; but on the 5th of August orders were received for its muster out, which was completed on the 20th, and on the 30th it arrived at Jackson, Michigan, and on the 5th of September was paid and disbanded.

Its losses during the war were sixty-five men killed or died of wounds, and four hundred and fifty died of disease,-the heaviest loss by disease of any Michigan regiment during the war.

MEMBERS OF THE SIXTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Non- Commissioned Staff.

Com.-Sergeant Leander W. Leighton, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability.

Hosp.-Stew. Geo. W. Moore, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; promoted 1st Lieutenant 11th Regiment Col. Art’y, Aug. 6, 1863.

Drum-Msj. Danl. W. Marbell, enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, March 30, 1862.

Company A.

Win. R. Ashcroft, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company B.

Clayton M. Carr, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company C.

Jefferson Brown, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Wm. Gorman, mustered out Sept. 5, 1865.

Albert Pearsall, died of disease at New Orleans, La., Oct. 9, 1864.

Company E.

Geo. Nichols, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company G.

Captain Chauncey J. Bassett, Allegan; com. Aug. 19, 1861; promoted Major in Louisiana Regiment Col. Troops, Oct. 20, 1862.

Captain Henry Stark, Otsego; com. Oct. 21, 1862; 1st Lieutenant Aug. 20, 1861; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. White, Otsego; com. July 1, 1862; died of disease at Carrolton, La., Oct. 16, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Oscar Haire, Otsego; com. Oct. 21, 1862; enlisted as Sergeant Oct. 21, 1861; res. July 19, 1864.

2d Lieutenant Alfred C. Wa!lin, com. Aug. 21, 1861; res. June 30, 1862.

Sergeant Win. H. White, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; promoted 1st Lieutenant July 1, 1862.

Sergeant Jas. E. Garrison, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, June 26, 1864.

Jas. Stewart, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 29, 1863.

Sergeant Sidney Ruuse, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; veteran, Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Corp. Richard W. Duncan, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; killed at Port Hudson, June 30, 1863.

Corp. Alonzo H. Chandler, enlisted Aug. 20, 1861; discharged for disability.

Sergeant Geo. M. Guest, enl: Aug. 20, 1861; discharged by order, Sept. 28, 1863.

Corp. Walter Wood, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Corp. Rodolplhus Symonds, died of disease at Port Hudson, July 23, 1863.

Corp. Geo. H. Hiarris, discharged Dec, 10, 1863.

Corp. John E. Hopper, discharged for disability, Feb. 19, 1863.

Musician Charles Bassett, died of disease, Nov. 10, 1861.

Musician Curtis Myers, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Musician Warren Johnson, discharged for disability, Jan. 20, 1862.

Wagoner John P. Parish, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Jas. Austin, died of disease at Fort Morgan, Ala., April 12, 1865.

Wm. Bailey, discharged for disability, Oct. 15, 1862.

Daniel Buskerk, discharged for disability, Jan. 20, 1862.

John Born, died in action at Baton Rouge, Aug. 5, 1862.

Jas. H. Booker, died in action at Port Hudson, May 27, 18a3.

John Bartlett, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Milo Baker, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865. Thomas Carey, died of disease at New Orleans, Aug. 15, 1862.

Elijah Crane, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28, 1863.

Richard L. Darling, died of disease, June 28, 1862.

Frederick Dailey, died of disease at Port Hudson, Aug. 24, 1863.

Geo. W. Dailey, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Carlos E. Dexter, discharged for disability, June 5, 1863.

Enoch S. Dexter, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Jas. W. Edwards, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Lewis Eggleston, died of disease, May 28, 1862.

Terry C. Fuller, died of disease at Port Hudson, Aug. 26, 1862.

Geo. W. Frank, discharged at end of service, Aug. 2:3, 1864.

Bevj. Fry, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

James Frew, discharged at end of service, Aug 2:3, 1864.

David C. Frew, discharged by order, April 26, 1864.

William Frew, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Joseph W. Fay, missing in action. Jennings Goring, died of disease, Nov. 18, 1861.

IHenry Guest, discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

Abram E. Garrison, discharged by order, Oct. 8, 1863.

Miles Horn, discharged for disability, June 30, 1862.

Edward Haumer, discharged at end of service, Feb. 20, 1865.

Robert Harrison, died of wounds, July 1, 1863.

Freeman Hudden, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Francis M. Hurd, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Almos J. Jackson, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

William Kerns, discharged for disability, April 10, 1862.

John J. Kennison, dis(ch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

J. E. Kennison, discharged by order, Feb. 26, 18C4.

William Kidder, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28,18C3.

Luke Maloy, died of wounds at Port Hudson, May 28, 1863.

Homer Mankus, died of disease at Vicksburg, July 12, 1864.

William Marshall, died of disease, Sept. 16, 1862.

Henry Marble, died of disease, Oct. 24, 1862.

Leonard Minard, discharged for disability, Dec. 10, 1861.

John J. Maine, discl. for disability, Jan. 30, 1864.

Solomon McBride, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

John McBride, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Ebenezer G. Murma, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Robert H. Norris, (lied of disease at New Orleans, La., Jan. 5, 1863.

George Newton, discharged for disability, Oct. 3, 1863.

Oliver Potts, discharged for disability, Api il 9, 1862.

William H. Parish, discharged for disability, April 11, 1862.

Curtis Z. Pratt, discli. by order, Oct. 8, 1863.

Silas Pratt, died of disease.

Charles Parkhurst, died of disease at Carrollton, La., Feb. 11, 1863.

Robert Payne, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Charles E. Plummer, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out. Aug. 20, 1865.

William Ross, discharged tor disability, Dec. 10, 1861.

Leander Ross, discli. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

Orlando D. Rosenburg, discharged at eind of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

John Rollins, discli. at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Riley Southwell, discharged for disability, Oct. 15, 1862.

Henry Southwell, discharged for disability, Dec. 26, 1862.

John B. Smith, discharged for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

Enoch Simpson, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Csborn Swaney, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Hiram Sliriver, died of disease at Carrollton, La., Sept. 30, 1862.

George H. Starkweather, died of wounds, July 1, 1863.

Samuel Schrickengast, died of disease at Port Hudson, July 23, 1863.

Frank B. Seymour, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20. 1865.

Orvis Sweetland, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Charles Symonds, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

James C. Symonds, veteran, etl.March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Byron Teal, discharged for disability, Oct. 10, 1861.

John W. Van Lent, discli. for disability.

Peter Wyner, died of wounds at Baton Rouge, July 3, 1863.

Henry A. Wiltse, discharged at end of service, Aug. 23, 1864.

Brown Wynne, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Frank Whipple, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Theodore Weed, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

James Youlden, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company I.

George M. Pardee, died of disease at Vicksburg, Sept. 25, 1864.

Company K.

Henry Ilixon, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE SIXTH INFANTRY.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major George T. Griswold, Vermontville; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. H.

Company C.

Chauncey Boyce, discharged to enlist in regular service, Nov. 17, 1862.

William H. Burges-, discharged by order, May 18, 1865.’

G. P. Sterling, discharged to enlist ill regular service, Nov. 17, 1862.

Company G.

Samuel Russell, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Company H.

1st Lieutenant Henry C. Baer, Castleton; com. March 7, 1865; 2d Lieutenant Dec. 2, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

2d Lieutenant George T. Griswold, Hastings; com. March 7, 1865; previously SergeantMajor; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Allen T. Baer, died of disease at Oak Hall, Va., Nov. 18, 1861.

Henry C. Baer, veteran, enlisted March 1, 1864.

Leander Cross, died of disease at New Orleans, La., Dec. 25, 1862.

John A. Gregg, veteran, enlisted Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Ely Myers, died of disease at Natchez, Miss., May 18, 1862.

SEVENTH INFANTRY.

The Seventh Regiment of Infantry was recruited during the summer of 1861, and rendezvoused at Monroe.

It was mustered into the service for three years, August 22d, and, bearing upon its rolls the names of eight hundred and eighty-four officers and enlisted men, set out for Virginia, Sept. 5, 1861.

Arriving there, it was stationed on the upper Potomac.

It was one of the regiments detailed to go to Ball’s Bluff, on the 21st of October, under Gen. Baker, and shared in the losses inflicted by the sudden and overwhelming attack of the enemy on that disastrous day.

In the spring of 1862 it proceeded with the Army of the Potomac to the Peninsula.

At Yorktown, West Point, Fair Oaks, and the “Seven Days’ Fight,” the Seventh was an active participant.

Retiring with the same army from the Peninsula, the enemy was again met at the second Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862, and at South Mountain, September 14th.

Three days later it stood face to face with the foe at Antietam.

Here it was engaged in one of the most terrific struggles of the war, and bravely maintained itself throughout, though the victory it assisted to achieve was purchased at the cost of a list of killed and wounded embracing more than one-half of its force present in action.

After Antietam the Seventh continued with the Army of the Potomac, in its marches through Northern Virginia, until the 11th of December, 1862, when that army stood on the north side of the Rappahannock gazing across at the enemy’s works at Fredericksburg.

During the night of the 10th the Union pontoniers had partially constructed a pontoon-bridge across the stream, but at daylight the rebel sharpshooters soon drove them away.

Volunteers were called for to cross the river and seize a foothold on the opposite shore.

Lieutenant-Col. Baxter, then in command, called on the Seventh for that duty, and as one man they responded to the call.

Foremost of all the army, they sprang into the boats and pulled for the opposite side.

The rebel bullets fell thick and fast among them and many were slain or wounded, among the latter being their gallant commander, but still they held on their way, and at length made good their landing.

Close behind them came a Massachusetts regiment.

The two formed on the bank, dashed up to the heights above, drove the enemy from his entrenchments, and captured several hundred prisoners at the point of the bayonet.

The bridge was then completed, and a portion of the army crossed in safety.

The subsequent disasters which befell the forces there assembled under Gen. Burnside cannot dim the glory gained by the Seventh Michigan Infantry in the execution of this brilliant exploit.

On the 3d of May, 1863, the regiment again crossed the Rappahannock to take part in the battle of Chancellorsville, but was not seriously engaged.

During the Gettysburg campaign the regiment under went more than the usual hardships of that dusty and torrid period.

On the 27th of June it marched thirty-seven miles, six on the 28th, and on the 29th thirty-two miles, making seventy-five in three days,-a remarkable exploit when it is considered that every soldier carried a rifle, bayonet, full cartridge-boxes, belts, blanket, haversack with three days’ rations, and canteen, and that the marching in column in a cloud of dust is far more fatiguing than walking alone.

The Seventh arrived at Gettysburg on the 2d of July, and immediately went into battle on Cemetery Hill.

In this exposed position it remained until the close of the action, meeting and repelling some of the fiercest attacks of the enemy.

So much had the regiment been depleted by its previous conflicts that only fourteen officers and one hundred and fifty-one men went into this fight.

Of this small number twenty-one were killed (including the commander, Lieutenant-Col. Steele) and forty-four wounded, the total casualties being nearly half of the whole number engaged.

Shortly after the Gettysburg victory the regiment was ordered to New York City to assist in preserving order during the enforcement of the draft.

Returning to Virginia, it was engaged in skirmishing, marching, etc., until December 7th, when it went into winter-quarters at Barry’s Hill.

Here one hundred and fifty-three men re-enlisted as veterans, and the regiment was sent home to recruit.

After thirty days’ furlough it returned to Barry’s Hill.

It remained there until the grand advance of the army took place, during the early days of May, 1864.

From that time until the collapse of the Rebellion was rendered certain by the surrender at Appomattox, the Seventh was ever found in the fore-front of battle.

In the campaign from May to November, 1864, it had lost forty-one men killed, one hundred and thirty-one wounded, thirty-six taken prisoners, and thirty reported as missing in action, some of whom were killed.

After the review at Washington, D. C., the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., where it arrived June 23d.

It was mustered out of service at Jeffersonville, Ind., July 5th, and reached Jackson, Michigan, two days later, where it was paid off and disbanded.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE SEVENTH INFANTRY.

Company H.

Thomas Cromp, discharged by order, July 7, 1865.

Company I.

Captain Bezaleel W. Lovell, com. Aug. 22, 1861; res. Aug. 30, 1862.

Captain Elhanan C. Phetteplace, com. Sept. 2, 1862; 1st Lieutenant, Aug. 22, 1861; res. May 11, 1863.

Captain Samuel C. Ilodgman, comr. June 22, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Sept. 2, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, Aug. 25, 1862; res. March 1, 1864.

Corp. Irving Rose, enlisted Aug. 22, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 6, 1862.

Musician P. B. Haman, enlisted Aug. 22, 1861; discharged April 10, 1863.

John B. Ashley, died of wounds at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 2, 1862.

Orman Armstrong, discharged for disability, May 12, 1864.

Joshua Boorum, discharged for disability, April 14, 1863.

John Chapman, discharged for disability. Henry Cromp, discharged by order, July 28, 1865.

Lucius M. Cady, died at Savage’s Station, June 30, 1862.

Wallace Evans, discharged July 23, 1862. Augustus M. Fonts, discharged for disability.

Andrew J. Forber, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Alonzo Fonts, died of disease at Bolivar, Md., about Dec. 1, 1862.

Joseph A. Kidder, died of disease at Camp Benton, Md., Dec. 29, 1861.

Caleb Kelly, discharged for disability, Sept. 2, 1862.

John H. McClelland, discharged for disability, June 30, 1862.

Thomas McLeod, discharged for disability, July 9, 1862. Philander Mead, mustered out July 5, 1865.

James Norton, died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Charles H. Palmer, died of disease at Fort Monroe, May 3, 1862.

Nathaniel S. Pangburn, discharged for disability, March 4, 1863. Xylar Sweet, discharged Nov. 15, 1862.

Charles Scoby, veteran, enlisted Dec. 18, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865.

James M. Travis, died of wounds at Frederick, Md., Oct. 10, 1862.

Henry M. Taylor, discharged May 30, 1862.

Henry L. Valentine, discharged for disability.

Amos W. Warner, discharged for disability.

Charles 0. Wade, discharged for disability, Aug. 5, 1862.

EIGHTH, NINTH, AND TWELFTH INFANTRY.

Formation and Departure of the Eighth Infantry-Takes Part in the Expedition to South Carolina-Its Services and Battles there-Its Casualties-To Kentucky and Mississippi-Back to Kentucky Through Cumberland Gap to East Tennessee-Siege of Knoxville -Re-enlistment-Off to Virginia-Services in the Campaign of 1864-Brilliant closing Services-Muster out-Members from Barry County-From Allegan County-The Ninth Infantry recruited, mustered in, and ordered to Kentucky-Winter-Quarters there Services in Tennessee-Six Companies attacked at Murfreesboro by Forrest’s Division of Cavalry-Suffers Heavy Loss, and is compelled to surrender-Prisoners exchanged-Regiment detailed as Provost-Guard-Re-enlistment- Continuation of Guard Duty through the War-Marches with Sherman’s Army to Atlanta Services at Chattanooga and Nashville-Mustered out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members-The Twelfth Infantry -Mustered in and hurried to the Front-Pittsburg Landing Battle of Metamora-A Detachment defends a Block-House Services in Mississippi-In Arkansas-Close of its Services-Barry County Members-Allegan County Members.

EIGHTH INFANTRY.

This regiment rendezvoused at Detroit.

It was mustered into the service Sept. 23, 1861, and on the 27th of the same month, having on its rolls the names of nine hundred and fifteen officers and enlisted men, it set out for the front, led by the gallant Col. William M. Fenton, of Flint.

At Annapolis, Md., on the 19th of October, 1861, it embarked as part of the expedition which under Gen. T. W. Sherman was to operate against the enemy along the South Atlantic coast.

From this time until the termination of the Antietam campaign the regiment was very actively engaged, participating in nine battles, occurring in four different States, viz.: Hilton Head, S. C.. Nov. 7, 1861; Port Royal Ferry, S. C., Jan. 1, 1862; Fort Pulaski, Ga., April 14, 1862; Wilmington Island, Ga., April 16, 1862; James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862; Bull Run, Va., Aug. 29 and 30, 1862; Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, 1862; South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862; and Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Its casualties at Wilmington Island were fourteen killed and thirty wounded; at James Island, thirteen killed, ninety-seven wounded, thirty-five missing, and thirty-five taken prisoners.

The alterations from the time of its enlistment to Nov. 1, 1862, showed the following astonishing results:

Number of men discharged, two hundred and sixty;

died of disease, fifty-five;

killed in battle or died of wounds received in action, eighty-nine;

wounded in action, two hundred and forty-three;

deserted, ten;

taken prisoner – One hundred of these were discharged because of their enlistment in the regular army.

joined by enlistment, two hundred and seventy-three;

officers resigned, twenty-one.

In March, 1863, it proceeded with the Ninth Army Corps to Kentucky, and in June following to Vicksburg, Miss.; thence in August it proceeded, via Cairo, Cincinnati, and Nicholasville, to Crab Orchard, Ky., and on the 10th of September it marched, via Cumberland Gap, to Knoxville, Tenn., where, with the Ninth Army Corps, under Gen. Burnside, it participated in the stirring scenes there enacted during the fall of 1863.

During the siege of Knoxville by the rebels under Longstreet the Eighth occupied the front line of works, and assisted to repel the fierce assault on Fort Sanders, Nov. 29, 1863.

The regiment during this period endured many hardships and privations from want of sufficient food and clothing.

The enemy were finally compelled to retire, and were pursued by the Eighth as far as Rutledge.

The regiment then re-enlisted as veteran volunteers, and on the 8th of January commenced its march across the mountains via Cumberland Gap. Nicholasville, Ky., was reached January 19th; a march of two hundred miles, through icy passes and over rough mountain-roads, having been performed in ten days.

Arriving home, a large number of recruits was obtained, and on the 9th of March, 1864, the regiment left its rendezvous at Flint, and again proceeded to join the Ninth Army Corps in Virginia.

Thenceforth its history was identified with that of the Army of the Potomac.

In the battle of the Wilderness it lost ninety-nine men, killed, wounded, and missing; at Spottsylvania, forty-nine; at Bethesda Church, fifty-two; at Petersburg, June 17th and 18th, forty-nine men.

At the Crater, Weldon Railroad, Ream’s Station, Poplar Grove Church, Pegram Farm, Boydton Road, and Hatcher’s Run, it was also engaged, losing numerously in killed, wounded, and missing.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, it had lost in killed, or died of wounds received in action, eighty-six men; died of disease, forty; wounded in action, two hundred and eighty-seven; missing in action, twenty-nine; taken prisoners, thirty-seven; while it had gained by reenlistment of veterans two hundred and ninety-nine, and by the joining of recruits, five hundred and forty-two.

In the final campaign in Virginia the Eighth bore a distinguished part.

It assisted to repulse the enemy when he assaulted Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865, and on the 2d of April was engaged in the attack on his position at Fort Mahon, when it carried the works in its front, and was the first regiment to place its colors on that rebel stronghold.

It occupied Petersburg, April 3d, and soon after marched to ‘City Point, whence it embarked on transports to Alexandria, Va.

It was mustered out of service at’ Delaney House, D. C., July 30, 1865, and, arriving in Detroit, Michigan, Aug. 3, 1865, was paid in full and disbanded.

MEMBERS OF THE EIGHTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp. Stwd. John Michael, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 30, 1861; discharged at end of ser, vice, Sept. 23, 1864.

Company B.

Sergeant Saml. Stowell, enlisted Aug. 26, 1861; discharged for disability, March 23, 1863.

James H. Black, discharged to enlisted in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862.

John C. Black, veteran, enlisted Dec. 29, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

David C. Lee, discharged to enlisted in regular army, Oct. 28, 1862.

Company F.

1st Lieutenant Travers Philips, Hastings; cor. Aug. 29, 1861; res. June 11, 1862. 2d Lieutenant

Jacob Maus, Hastings; com. Aug. 29, 1861; res. Jan. 9, 1862. 1st Lieutenant

Austin D. Bates, Irving; enlisted Jan. 9, 1862; sergeant; res. Oct. 23, 1862.

Sergeant Wm. A. Thomas, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Sergeant Jas. F. Mead, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; promoted 2d Lieutenant June 6, 1864; mustered out at end of service, Sept. 23, 1864.

Sergeant Chas. H. Swartout, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 7, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Co. G. Sergeant Chas. Snyder, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; promoted 2d Lieutenant; mustered out Sergeant, July 30, 1865.

Sergeant John M. Bessmer, Hastings; enlisted Aug. 30, 1861; discharged for disability, Dec. 31, 1863.

Corp. Augustus I. Newton, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 9, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Corp. Edgar A. Nye, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; veteran, Dec. 30, 1863; died in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864.

Corp. Wm. H. H. Powers, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 2, 1861; veteran; discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Corp. John H. Wolfe, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; discharged at end of service, Sept. 23, 1864.

Musician Wilbur F. Dickinson, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 8, 1865.

Wagoner Robert D. Gates, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 13, 1861; discharged by order, May 3, 1863.

Saml. Belsom, discharged for disability, Dec. 27, 1862.

Alonzo H. Bennett, discharged for disability, Feb. 13, 1863.

Julius Brazee, discharged at end of service, May 15, 1865.

Win. 0. Barrett, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Wm. C. Barrett, Died of disease at Washington, D. C., August, 1864.

Dorrance E. Burdick, veteran, enlisted Dec. 29, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Sidney D. Cobb, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

Emmett Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862.

Harlan Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Geo. Cross, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Alonzo B. Duffy, discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Alvan B. Durham, veteran, died of disease at Washington, D. C., May 4, 1865.

John G. Dowd, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

William Desmond, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Edward H. Easton, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Henry Grebel, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

William H. Geiger, discharged fQr disability, March 27, 1862.

Abraham Guntrip, discharged Jan. 8, 1863.

Joseph Garnish, died of wounds at Washington, D. C., June 30, 1864.

Oliver H. Greenfield, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, July 6, 1865.

William LI. Holden, veteran, eul. Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Henry W. Hawes, discharged for disability, Jan. 6, 1862.

Edward Johnson, discharged for disability, Sept. 27, 1861.

Elijah Kibbee, discharged by order, Aug. 15, 1865.

Herman Knickerbocker, died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

George W. Kightliner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; died on picket duty before Petersburg, Va., Dec. 9, 1864.

George Lusk, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

James Y. McLellan, died of wounds, June 25, 1862.

John F. Maile, discharged for promotion, Aug. 11, 1864.

Daniel McKenzie, discharged at end of service, March 27, 1865.

John L. Maile, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Jan. 20, 1865.

Duncan McBain, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Daniel Pierce, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 12, 1865.

John F. Phillips, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Nov. 23, 1861.

James S. Perry, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

James I. Fullmer, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862. George W. Peck, discharged for disability.

Close R. Palmer, discharged for disability. Charles M. Runyan, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Gurden Clark Rathbun, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

William Stokes, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Nov. 27, 1861.

Benjamin Sirebury, discharged for disability.

Henry Sliter, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

Hiram Seeley, discharged at end of service, Sept. 22, 1864.

Edward G. Stoffe, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

Richard C. Smith, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; died of disease in Michigan, Feb. 2, 1864.

John B. Tatro, died of disease at Hilton Head, S. C., Dec. 6, 1861.

William S. Turrell, died of wounds at Fredericksburg, Va., June 18, 1864.

Harmon Wanderlish, died in action at James Island, S. C., June 16, 1862.

Luther B. Wilcox, died at Spottsylvania, Va., May 9, 1864.

Myron H. Wells, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

William R. Wheeler, discharged for disability, Dec. 9, 1862.

George Wellman, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; mustered out July 30, 1865.

John W. Waggoner, veteran, enlisted Dec. 30, 1863; discharged by order, Aug. 12, 1865.

Company G.

1st Lieutenant Chas. H. Swartout, Prairieville; enlisted Oct. 18, 1864; promoted Captain Co. K, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 30, 1865.

13 I William Carpenter, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Daidimus M. Darling, mustered out July 30, 1865.

John English, mustered out July 30, 1865.

John Lewis, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Company L

Edgar A. Clark, discharged by order, July 6, 1861.

Edgar H. Clark, discharged by order, Aug. 9, 1865.

Alonzo Gilbert, discharged by order, Aug. 9, 1865.

Elijah P. Guiger, discharged by order Aug. 9, 1865.

Pelingal D. Wright, discharged for disability, Feb. 4, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE EIGHTH INFANTRY.

Company D.

Quincy C. Lamoreaux, died of disease at home, April 25, 1865.

Company G.

Wm. Coleman, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Nathaniel Davis, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Robt. Patterson, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Thos. Welch, mustered out July 30, 1865.

Chas. Wilson, killed on picket before Petersburg, Feb. 18, 1865.

NINTH INFANTRY.

This regiment, so well known in the old Army of the Cumberland, was recruited during the summer and fall of 1861, its rendezvous being at Fort Wayne, near Detroit.

It was mustered into the United States service for three years Oct. 15, 1861, and ten days later proceeded to the seat of war in Kentucky, being the first regiment from Michigan to enter upon active service in the field, west of the Alleghanies.

It reached Jeffersonville, Ind., on the 27th, and the following day embarked for Salt River, Ky.

Soon after, it constructed a defensive work on Muldraugh’s Hill, a point on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, where it remained during’ the winter of 1861-62.

During its stay at that place the men of the Ninth were terribly afflicted with measles and other diseases, and as many as four hundred were on the sick-list at one time.

The regiment remained at its winter cantonment until February, 1862.

Immediately after the capture of Fort Donelson it was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., and after a few weeks to Murfreesboro, Tenn., where it was on garrison duty nearly all the time until July 13, 1862.

During that period, however, it formed part of Gen. Negley’s command, which marched as far south as the Tennessee River, opposite Chattanooga, and then returned to Murfreesboro.

Subsequently four companies were detached and stationed at Tullahoma, Tenn.

On the 13th of July, at four o’clock in the morning, the six companies stationed at Murfreeibboro were attacked by three thousand rebel Cavalry under Gen. Forrest.

The Third Minnesota Infantry, with a battery, was encamped two miles northwest of the town.

The first attack on the camp of five companies-one company was at the courthouse-was repulsed.

Gen. Forrest then attacked the single company in the court-house.

Col. Parkhurst sent to the commander of the Minnesota regiment for aid, which the latter, perhaps for good reasons, declined to give.

The one company in the court-house held the foe at bay two hours, but was obliged to surrender.

Forrest then returned to attack the camp.

The men had meanwhile thrown up some slight defenses, behind which they fought vigorously until past noon, having just one hundred officers and men (out of less than three hundred) killed and wounded.

Finding themselves outnumbered ten to one, and receiving no assistance, they finally yielded to the inevitable, and surrendered.

The enlisted men were paroled at McMinnville, but the officers were not released until several months later.

In the latter part of December, 1862 (the prisoners taken at Murfreesboro having been exchanged and returned to duty) the regiment was detailed as provost-guard of the Fourteenth Corps, with Col. (afterwards General) Parkhurst as provost-marshal.

Gen. Thomas remarked, when he made the detail, that he had fully acquainted himself with the conduct of the regiment in the defense of Murfreesboro, and that he needed just such a force for provost-guard.

The Ninth acted in that capacity throughout the remainder of the war.

Its services at the battles of Stone River and Chickamauga in stopping runaways and maintaining order were arduous in the extreme, and were warmly complimented by Gen. Thomas.

When that gallant officer assumed command of the Army of the Cumberland, after Chickamauga, Col. Parkhurst was made provost-marshalgeneral of the department, and the Ninth became the provost-guard of that army.

In December, 1863, two hundred and twenty-nine of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and returned to Michigan on furlough.

In the latter part of February, 1864, they again appeared at Chattanooga, with their numbers increased to about five hundred men.

The regiment was again ordered to act as provost-guard of the Army of the Cumberland, and during the summer and autumn participated in all the movements of that army in Georgia and Tennessee.

It entered Atlanta on its evacuation by the enemy, and was there engaged in provost duty until that city was abandoned by the Union forces, when it returned to Chattanooga.

It was largely recruited during the season, and, notwithstanding the muster out of non-veterans whose terms had expired, had eight hundred and ninety-seven enlisted men on the 1st of November, 1864.

It remained in Chattanooga until the 27th of March, 1865, when it was moved to Nashville.

There it stayed on duty at headquarters and as guard at the military prison until the 15th of September, when it was mustered out of service.

The following day it set out for Michigan, arriving at Jackson on the 19th, and on the 26th day of September, 1865, the Ninth Michigan Infantry was paid off and disbanded.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company E.

John C. Henry, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Loren Hill, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Geo. H. Kirkland, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Richard C. Kent, died of disease at Nashville, July 2, 1865.

Company H.

Mason F. Rose, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 25, 1865.

Samuel A. Raplee, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Hiram Saxton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Asahel Sprague, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Jas. W. Schemerhorn, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company I.

Christian Sutter, discharged by order, Jan. 7, 1865.

Eli Shuck, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company K.

John E. Kenyon, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Win. L. Torry, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Edwin O. Fenny, mustered out June 8, 1865.

John Weigand, mustered out July 4, 1865.

Company B.

Jas. W. Bennett, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Nicholas Barton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Wm. Corey, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Horace Cook, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Saml. Coleman, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Patrick Colton, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Martin J. Darling, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Miles Woodmansee, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Company C.

Albert Emmons, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Samuel Fisk, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Lorenzo Lawrence, died of disease at Nashville, July 2, 1865.

Company D.

Wm. D. Green, mustered out June 20, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company A.

William W. Ashley, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company B.

Orrin J. Buck, mustered out June 20, 1865.

John H. Crispel, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 19, 1865.

Company E.

Sidney M. Constantine, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

George Gordon, discharged by order, Sept. 27, 1865.

Levi Kingsbury, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 7, 1865.

Company G.

Samuel A. Owen, discharged by order, June 20, 1865.

Company H.

Sheil Pulsifer, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Orrin Potter, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company L

Watson W. Wait, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

Company K.

John Tagle, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865.

TWELFTH INFANTRY.

The Twelfth Regiment of Michigan Infantry was mustered into the United States service at Niles, March 5, 1862, and on the 18th of the same month proceeded to St. Louis, Mo.

From there it was hurried forward to the Tennessee River, and reached Pittsburg Landing in time to take part in the battles fought there on the 6th and 7th of April.

It was also engaged in the battle of Metamora. on the Hatchie River, Oct. 5, 1862.

From the time of its organization to Nov. 1, 1862, it had lost forty-seven men killed, or died of wounds received in action, ninety-two wounded in action, one hundred and six died of disease, and one hundred and six men taken prisoners at Shiloh.

On the 24th of December, 1862, while one hundred and fifteen of the regiment were occupying a block-house at Middleburg, Tenn., they were attacked by a force of the enemy’s Cavalry three thousand strong.

A severe engagement ensued, ending in the complete repulse of the enemy, with a loss to him of nine killed and eleven wounded, left on the field.

Gen. Grant in subsequent orders warmly congratulated the men on account of this heroic defense.

Early in June, 1863, the regiment was ordered to Vicksburg, Miss., and during the siege was stationed on Haynes’ and Snyder’s Bluffs. After the surrender of Vicksburg it was ordered into Arkansas, where the remainder of its service was performed.

It re-enlisted as a veteran regiment at Little Rock, in November, 1863, when it returned to Niles on furlough.

It again took the field -its ranks swelled by numerous recruits-in March, 1864;

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

I returning to Arkansas, where various duties were well performed until Feb. 15, 1866, when it was mustered out of the service at Little Rock.

It arrived at Jackson, Michigan, February 27th, where its members received their final pay and their discharge-papers, on the 6th of March, 1866.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS WHO SERVED IN THE TWELFTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff.

Asst. Surg. Almon A. Thompson, Vermontville; com. Sept. 24, 1862; res. Jan. 28, 1863; asst. surg. in 11th Cavalry., Dec. 23, 1863; mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Company A.

Alfred L. Clyborne, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

Henry Casselman, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

Charles E. Ferguson, discharged by order, Jan. 24, 1866.

John Heath, discharged for disability, Sept. 23, 1865.

Jay Proctor, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., Jan. 7, 1865.

Company C.

Duncan McDonald, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company E.

Perry Brown, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., April 6, 1865.

William Brown, discharged by order, May 27, 1865.

Jesse Callihan, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

George L. Chandler, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Elijah J. Hale, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Charles C. Jenson, discharged by order, Sept. 14, 1865.

Company G.

Joel G. Brown, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Hamilton Brown, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Merritt Everett, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Warren Everett, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Alfred Feighner, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 28, 1864.

John Rinehart, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., Aug. 14, 1864.

Ansel Towle, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Aaron Wright, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 17, 1863.

John Walker, died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 3, 1864.

Company I.

John Hartwell, discharged by order, Aug. 22, 1865.

Solomon Seward, discharged by order, Sept. 30, 1865.

Company K.

Hiram Johnson, died of disease at Washington, Ark., July 11, 1865.

MEMBERS OF THE TWELFTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company B.

Albert Critz, died of disease at Camden, Ark., Sept. 24, 1865.

Edward P. Coots, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company E.

Frederick Hardy, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Jacob Snyder, discharged by order, Sept. 15. 1865.

Company F.

Sergeant Columbus Blake, Gun Plains; enlisted Dec. 10, 1861; died of disease at Pittsburgh, Pa.

Stephen Eldred, discharged September, 1862.

Lawrence B. Green, discl. by order, May 20, 1865.

Stephen M. Hamblen, discharged at end of service, Sept. 9, 1865.

Andrew J. Munger, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

David S. Reynold, discharged Sept. 1, 1862.

Thomas H. Stubbarts, veteran, enlisted Feb. 24, 1864; discharged for disability, Jan. 19, 1865.

Company G.

Benjamirl Alexander, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

Isaiah Rathbone, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Company H.

Milton Burnip, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Sept. 15, 1864.

Alfred Dolittle, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Joseph Pattengill, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

Samuel F. Stainbrook, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Large Representation from These Counties in the Thirteenth-It joins Buell and marches to Pittsburg Landing-Siege of Corinth-Returns with Buell to Kentucky, and again advances to Tennessee Battle of Stone River-Great Bravery and Heavy Loss-Hard Marching-Battle of Chickamauga-Ordered to serve as Engineers -Re-enlistment-Services near Chattanooga-In Northern Alabama-It joins Sherman at Atlanta-The March to the Sea-The Method of the March-Through the Carolinas-Manner of Procedure-The Battle of Bentonville-A Hard Fight-Col. Eaton killed -Carlin’s First Brigade holds its Ground-Repulsing the Enemy -Capturing a Large Force-Heavy Loss-Subsequent Services Muster out-Officers and Men from Allegan County-From Barry County.

The regiment above named, recruited during the fall of 1861, was mustered into the United States service for three years at Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jan. 17, 1862.

Among its officers and enlisted men the counties of Allegan and Barry were largely represented; the former by more than three hundred men,-its greatest representation in any separate command during the war.

It contained, too, a larger number of the sons of Barry County than any other regiment, excepting the Sixth Cavalry.

Commanded by Col. Michael Shoemaker, the regiment left Kalamazoo for the seat of war in Kentucky, Feb. 12, 1862, with nine hundred and twenty-five officers and men, to which number seventy-four were added by enlistment prior to July, 1862.

The Thirteenth joined Gen. Buell’s forces, and with him marched through Kentucky and Tennessee, via Bowling Green and Nashville, to Pittsburg Landing, which place it reached, after a forced march, near the close of the second day’s battle, too late to take part in the conflict.

From that time until the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard, the Thirteenth was engaged in the arduous picket and pick-and-shovel duties performed by Gen. Halleck’s army during the siege.

It then moved with Gen. Buell’s forces into Northern Alabama, and was the last of the command to leave that locality when the general fell back towards Louisville.

It shared all the hardships of that long march across the States of Tennessee and Kentucky, and soon after reaching Louisville, in October, 1862, retraced its weary steps in pursuit of its old enemy, the rebel Gen. Bragg.

It aided in chasing him and his motley forces out of Kentucky, but was not present at any heavy engagement.

It suffered severely from disease, however; the deaths from this cause during the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, numbering seventy-one, while the number discharged for disability during the same time was one hundred and twenty.

After a short stay at Silver Springs, Tenn., the regiment advanced and aided in driving the enemy from Lebanon.

Proceeding to Nashville, it was on duty in that vicinity until the 26th of December, when it marched with Gen. Rosecrans’ army towards Murfreesboro.

On the 29th it was deployed as skirmishers, and lost several in killed and wounded.

On the 31st of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, the regiment was hotly engaged in the battle of Stone River, having twenty-five killed, sixty-two wounded, and eight missing out of two hundred and twenty-four who entered the conflict.

On the 31st of December it recaptured by a bayonet charge two Union guns which had fallen into the hands of the enemy.

After the victory at Stone River the Thirteenth was engaged in building fortifications at Murfreesboro, and in scouting through the adjoining parts of Tennessee, until the 24th of June, 1863, when it advanced with Gen. Rosecrans against Bragg.

After various marches and countermarches in rear of the retreating forces of the latter general, the regiment, with its division, moved from Hillsboro’, Tenn., to cross the Cumberland Mountains.

By a four days’ march, over mountain ranges rising three thousand feet above the valleys, along roads so steep that the artillery and ambulances, and the baggage, supply and ammunition wagons often had to be hauled up by hand, the division reached the Sequatchie Valley.

It then crossed the Tennessee River at Shell Mound, and, marching upon Chattanooga, the Thirteenth was one of the first regiments to occupy that place.

On the 19th and 20th days of September, 1863, the regiment was in the midst of the hotly contested field of Chickamauga, where, although the Union troops, being outnumbered, were forced to retire from the field, the rebel loss far exceeded their own.

The Thirteenth went into this battle with two hundred and seventeen officers and men, and of that number lost twenty-five killed, fifty-seven wounded, and twenty-five missing, some of whom were probably killed.

The total number of those killed or mortally wounded in action during the year ending Nov. 1, 1863, was fifty-one, while there were ninety-two others wounded, sixty-six who died of disease, and one hundred and sixty-two who were discharged for disability.

On the 5th of November the Thirteenth, together with the Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Michigan Infantry and the Eighteenth Ohio Infantry, was organized into a brigade of engineers and assigned to duty at Chattanooga, being attached to the headquarters of the Department of the Cumberland.

It was present at the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain, but was not seriously engaged.

During the months of December, 1863, and January, 1864, it was stationed on the Chickamauga, engaged in picket duty and in, cutting logs for building warehouses at Chattanooga.

The Thirteenth re-enlisted as a veteran organization January 17, 1864, and on the 5th of February started home, arriving at Kalamazoo on the 12th.

After the usual veteran furlough the regiment returned to the front on the 26th of March, with its numbers increased by over four hundred new recruits.

Chattanooga was again reached April 20, 1864, and for five months from that time the regiment was stationed at Lookout Mountain, engaged in the construction of military hospitals and guarding the sick and wounded sent back from Sherman’s army.

It was then relieved from engineer duty and assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.

After a severe march through Northern Alabama, in pursuit of Forrest’s and Roddy’s rebel Cavalry, the regiment joined its brigade at Rome, Ga., on the 1st of November.

As the Fourteenth and other corps retraced their steps towards Atlanta, the towns on the route, bridges, telegraph lines, and railroads were all destroyed.

And when the corps marched into Atlanta, on the afternoon of November 15th, the city was already in flames, no more to be made a rebel stronghold.

On the following morning Gen. Sherman’s army set out on the celebrated “march to the sea” with one day’s rations in the haversacks and none in the supply-trains.

This renowned but comparatively easy achievement was accomplished by sixty thousand men, veterans, all of them, and the flower of the whole Western army, who swept in a resistless mass through Georgia, brushing contemptuously aside the few feeble detachments of militia and conscripts which endeavored to oppose them, without delaying for a moment their own mighty and majestic advance.

Having reached Savannah on the 10th of December, 1864, the regiment was on duty in the trenches before that city until the 21st of the same month, when Hardee’s rebel forces evacuated the place.

On the 17th of January, 1865, The force under the immediate command of Gen. Sherman in his march through Georgia and the Carolinas was composed of the Fifteenth and S nnh and Seventeeth Army Corps, or ” Army of the Tennessee,” under Gen. Howard, as the right wing, and the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps, or “Army of Georgia,” under Gen. Slocum, as the left wing, while Kilpatrick’s division of Cavalry guarded the front, flanks, and rear.

The Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps formed the major portion of the Army of the Cumberland during the Atlanta campaign of 1864, but at the beginning of Gen. Sherman’s ” march to the sea” the name of Army of Georgia was adopted, to distinguish Gen. Slocum’s command from the troops commanded by Gen. Thomas, who still remained in command of the Army and Department of the Cumberland, with headquarters at Nashville, Tenn.

These four army corps already mentioned were composed of three divisions each, except the Fifteenth, which had four divisions, and each corps, having its own artillery, ammunition, ambulance, pontoon and supply trains, was a separate and well-equipped army in itself.

When no enemy appeared the corps moved on parallel roads from ten to fifteen miles distant from each other.

In case fighting was apprehended, the two corps forming a wing were massed upon one road.

The Fourteenth Corps, commanded by Gen. Jeff; C. Davis, with Kilpatrick’s Cavalry, was usually to be found on the extreme left flank of the armies.

Its First, Second, and Third Divisions were commanded respectively by Gens. Carlin, J. D. Morgan, and Baird, and their movements were made in the following order: Carlin, with the First Division, would take the advance for three days; from two to five miles in rear of him was Morgan, with the Second; while in the rear was Baird, encumbered and struggling to bring forward over swamps, creeks, and rivers the corps trains of six hundred wagons, to each of which was attached six mules, guided with single rein by a profane Northern Jehu, who did not seem to enjoy his position unless covered with mud from spur to visor.

On the morning of the fourth day Carlin would fall in in the rear, taking Baird’s position, Baird would move in the centre, while Morgan took the advance, and thus they alternated at the beginning of each fourth day. Meantime, foraging-parties of from fifty to sixty men, detailed daily from each regiment, scoured the country in front and on the flanks for provisions.

Indeed, so anxious were these foragers to ” strike a fresh plantation” before those of other commands that they usually left camp as early as two o’clock A.M., and throughout the day kept in advance of the main column of troops by a distance of from five to ten miles, very frequently being found in advance of Kilpatrick’s Cavalry.

Whether on foot, on mules, or mounted on Southern thoroughbreds, jolting along in a loaded plantation cart, or riding into camp seated in a sumptuous barouche, the foragers of the Fourteenth Corps cared little for Wheeler’s, Butler’s, or I1impton’s rebel Cavalry, and when attacked by them, readily organized their skirmish line and reserve, without officers, and, advancing, cleared their way.

Thus did Sherman’s armies bowl “down to the sea,” and after the proud and defiant city of Savannah was within their grasp the same scenes were re-enacted in the march northwards through the Carolinas.

The regiment advanced with the Army of Georgia up the right bank of the Savannah River to Sisters’ Ferry, where, after much labor and delay, it crossed into South Carolina.

Thence it proceeded, via Barnwell Court-House, Williston, and Lexington, to near Columbia, S. C.; there it crossed the Saluda River, and, moving up the west bank of the Catawba, crossed the latter river at Rocky Mount, where rains, mud, and swollen streams again hindered the Fourteenth Corps for more than a week.

After making the passage of the Catawba, the command was hurried forward by forced marches to Cheraw, where, on the south bank of Great Pedee, the main forces were overtaken. From there to Fayetteville, N. C., skirmishing with the enemy’s Cavalry was a daily occurrence.

The enemy under Hardee was driven out of the latter place and pursued to Averysboro’, N. C., where, on the 16th of March, a sharp engagement ensued; the enemy being driven from the field, losing heavily in killed and wounded, besides many prisoners,among the latter being Col. Rhett and his famous regiment of young South Carolinians.

The Union forces operating in this field were those of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps, commanded by Gen. Slocum; the Army of the Tennessee, or right wing, being some twenty-five or thirty miles to the eastward, moving on Goldsboro’.

One division of the Fourteenth Corps and of the Twentieth were guarding their respective corps-trains, leaving but four small divisions-at the most not more than twenty thousand men, and one third of those shoeless-to engage such numbers as might oppose them.

From Averysboro’ the Fourteenth Corps took the advance, Morgan’s Second Division leading, and Carlin’s First coming next.

Baird was guarding the train, while the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps were in the rear of Carlin.

During the 17th and 18th of March, Morgan’s skirmishers had several encounters with the enemy, but the latter rapidly retired whenever his columns were seen advancing, until late in the afternoon of the 18th, when the Confederates disputed his further progress with artillery, supported by infantry and Cavalry.

Morgan’s First Brigade, composed of the Tenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, Sixteenth and Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, and Seventeenth New York Infantry, being in the advance, immediately formed line of battle and moved forward, when the enemy again retired.

The regiments of this brigade stacked arms on their color-lines and encamped for the night.

Gen. Sherman, with his staff and escort, also established his headquarters in the midst of this brigade the same evening.

Early on the morning of the 19th the general commanding set out to join the right wing, and Carlin’s First Division of the Fourteenth Corps moved to the front, to take the advance for the three succeeding days.

By this time Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, one of the best officers in the Confederate service, had collected all the available rebel troops in Georgia, North and South Carolina, and was prepared with near forty thousand men to make one desperate effort to stop Sherman’s advance toward Richmond, or at least to defeat his left wing.

He accordingly took up a strong position near the little village of Bentonville, which gave its name to the battle which followed.

His presence was unknown to the Union troops in his front, and when Carlin’s troops moved out on the morning of the 19th, they did so with buoyant spirits and the long, swinging stride so characteristic of this army.

Johnston’s army and line of earthworks were scarcely five miles distant from the place where Morgan encamped on the night of the 18th.

Therefore, Carlin had hardly given room for Morgan to place his command on the road when his (Carlin’s) advance struck the enemy, and at once became hotly engaged.

Morgan’s troops hurried forward on the double-quick and took position, by orders of Gen. Davis, on Carlin’s right, while the two divisions of the Twentieth Corps came up with all possible speed and went into line on his left.

At the beginning of the battle the First Division advanced with confident steps to what they expected would be but a repetition of their former easy victories, and at one time the Thirteenth Michigan gained a position within six rods of the enemy’s intrenchments, but the storm of lead was too severe to be withstood.

The brave Col. Willard G. Eaton, of Otsego, was shot dead at the head of his men, and at length the whole division was compelled to fall back to the shelter of a low acclivity within easy musket-range of the enemy’s works.

The battle raged with wavering fortunes all the rest of the day.

Johnston, in the hopes of destroying before reinforcements could come up a force much less than his own, forced the fight, but the men who here represented the Union arms were the surviving heroes of Donelson, Shiloh, Island No. 10, Corinth, Perrysville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, besides the score of battles fought during the Atlanta campaign; while the eastern troops of the Twentieth Corps had breasted the leaden storm on the Peninsula, at Chantilly, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg before joining the Army of the Cumberland.

They were men who had been out two months from Savannah, receiving during that time no mails, letters, or tidings from home, and they did not propose to be balked in their onward march now, or to assist in filling rebel prison-pens, and the oft-repeated assaults of the enemy were met by a withering fire and counter-charges which sent them hurrying to the shelter of the woods.

While Carlin’s division and the Twentieth Corps were so warmly engaged on the open ground, Morgan was equally busy in the pines on the right, and his First Brigade, under Gen. Vandever, composed of the Michigan, Illinois, and New York Regiments previously mentioned, had the best fortune of any of the troops in the battle of that day.

This brigade was stationed on the extreme right, and its right flank was guarded by an impenetrable swamp.

During the intervals between the charges of the enemy, Vandever’s brigade was enabled to erect log breastworks, the trees being felled and cut into the required lengths with hatchets, of which nearly every man carried one in his waist-belt.

Late in the afternoon, during a desperate charge on Morgan’s left, one of his brigades gave way, and a column of the rebels occupied low, swampy ground.

Their position was screened by a dense pine forest, and was approached by the Union forces over cleared fields.

The enemy passed through the gap.

Wheeling to the left, they moved down in rear of Vandever’s brigade, making it necessary for the Union troops to occupy the front side of their own works, from before which their immediate opponents had happily retired.

Here a short sharp fight of a few moments’ duration was ended by Vandever’s men leaping forward in a charge, and compelling the surrender of several hundred rebels.

In this battle the Thirteenth Michigan Infantry lost one hundred and ten officers and men, killed, wounded, and captured.

During the long night which succeeded, Gen. Sherman was marching the Army of the Tennessee to the reinforcement of the almost overwhelmed, but not defeated, Army of Georgia.

He arrived at daylight of the 20th, and a day or so later Johnston was driven from the field.

After his surrender the Thirteenth proceeded with its command to Washington, D. C., and participated in the grand review of Gen. Sherman’s army, May 24, 1864; left that city on the 9th of June, reaching Louisville, Ky., on the 15th of the latter month.

It was mustered out of service at Louisville, July 25th, and on the 27th of July, 1865, arrived at Jackson, Michigan, where it was paid off and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY WHO SERVED IN THE THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff.

Col. Willard G. Eaton, Otsego; com. Feb. 23, 1865; Major, May 26, 1863;

Captain Co. I, Oct. 20, 1862; 1st Lieutenant Co. I, Oct. 3, 1861; killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Lieutenant-Col. P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. May 12, 1865; Major, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865. (See Co. A.)

Adj. Alanson B. Case, Otsego; com. Jan. 20, 1863; mustered out at end of service Jan. 16, 1865. Non- Commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major Alanson B. Case, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 17, 1861; promoted to 2d lieuit.

Co. B.

Sergeant Major Clark D. Fox, Otsego; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. I.

Q.-M. Sergeant Kilburn W. Mansfield, Otsego; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. A, July 4, 1862.

Com. Sergeant John Kirby, Allegan; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. A, April 25, 1865.

Company A.

Captain P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. Feb. 28, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, July 13, 1862; promoted to Major, April 25, 1865. (See Field and Staff.)

1st Lieutenant Kilburn W. Mansfield, Otsego; com. Feb. 28, 1863; 2d Lieutenant, July 4, 1862; promoted to Captain

Co. I. 2d Lieutenant John Kirby, Allegan; com. April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Carlton Barton, discharged for disability, April 30, 1865.

Edgar Barton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Clark B. Brewster, discharged by order, Sept. 8, 1865.

Henry Carmody, died of disease in New York City, Jan. 12, 1865.

Edwin Chamberlain, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John E. Case, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Delevan, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Russell Dyer, died of disease in Allegan, Oct. 1, 1862.

Abial Emmons, discharged for disability, June 25, 1862.

William Ernmons, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Philander J. Edson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Myron C. Finch, discharged by order, July 14, 1865.

Henry Gillespie, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph W. Hershaw, mustered out July 20, 1865.

Edward Howe, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Martin Harter, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Amasa Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Chauncey Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Kipp, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James H. Lewis, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Clark H. Lyman, mustered out Aug. 4, 1865.

Alvin W. Morley, discharged by order, May 20, 1865.

Henry Merchant, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Amos C. Root, died of disease on government steamer, May 7, 1865.

Jacob Schweikert, discharged by order, June 7, 1865.

Alexander W. Sprague, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Abel Stearns, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel Shepard, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Calvin Underwood, discharged for disability, May 16, 1862.

Job Underwood, died of disease at Louisville, July 6, 1862.

George B. Van Arsdale, died of disease at Pittsburgh, May 30, 1865.

I Walter Wood, discharged for disability, Sept. 17, 1862.

Milton B. Williams, discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Company B.

Captain George B. Force, Gun Plains; com. Sept. 23, 1861; res. May 31, 1862.

Captain Dewitt C. Kenyon, Ganges; com. March 19, 1864; let Lieutenant, Jan. 31, 1863; mustered out July 25, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Jacob G. Fry, Ganges; com. May 31, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, Oct. 3, 1861; res. for disability, Jari. 31, 1863.

1st Lieutenant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; com. May 12, 1865; 2d Lieutenant, Aug. 26, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865. 2d Lieutenant

Alanson B. Case, Otsego; com. May 31, 1862; promoted to 1set Lieutenant and adj. (See Field and Staff.)

2d Lieutenant Howell H. Trask, Gun Plains; com. Jan. 20, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant; res. as 2d Lieutenant

2d Lieutenant Leonard E. Perry, Gun Plains; corn, April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Sergeant Spencer H. Banks, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 9, 1861; died at Corinth, Miss., June 12, 1862.

Sergeant Howell IH. Trask, Ganges; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Sergeant Dewitt C. Kenyon, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 10, 1861; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Sergeant William 0. Allen, Ganges; enl, Oct. 2, 1861; missing in action at Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863.

Sergeant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 1, 1861; veteran, Feb. 11, 1864; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. G.

Corp. Joseph Miller, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 4, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. William H1. Sherman, Gun Plains; enlisted Oct. 1, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, March 16, 1862.

Musician Edward Breen, Ganges; enlisted Oct. 17, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Musician William Martin, Ganges; enlisted Dec. 10, 1861; discharged for disability, May 27, 1862.

Elias Anway, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Edson Amidon, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Briggs, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Noah Briggs, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Linus Bathrick, discharged for disability, July 19, 1862.

William Burns, discharged Aug. 8, 1862.

Lewis Bell, discharged at end of service, March 22, 1865.

Horace S. Beach, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William H. Barnes, discharged by order, June 9, 1865.

William II. Briggs, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 21, 1864.

James W. Billings, transferred to Signal Corps, Jan. 13, 1864.

Win. B. Chase, discharged for disability, April 28, 1862.

Henry C. Curtis, discharged for disability, Jan. 15, 1864.

Geo. Curtis, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

John Curtis, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Warren Cushman, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

John Crow, mustered out July 25, 1865.

L. Y. Cady, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Cheney, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Claffy, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Orson W. Davis, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Luzerne Durand, discharged by order, July 11, 1865.

Freeman II. Day, died of disease at Lookout Mountain, June 30, 1861.

James Eggleston, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Herman P. Fisher, discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

Austin Foot, died of disease at Shiloh, Tenn.

Freeland Gray, discharged for disability, June 22, 1864.

Wm. Gould, veteran; enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wallace Goodsell, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Thos. A. Hubbard, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frank Hapgood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jas. Huddlestone, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Elijah Howard, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 17, 1864.

Geo. Hamilton, discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Pembroke Hazen, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Morris A. James, mustered out July 25, 1865. John Knowlton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Daniel Lee, died ot wounds received in action, Dec. 24, 1863.

Cyrille Le Due, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Frank May, discharged for disability, May 21, 1863.

Sylvester Munger, discharged for disability, April 2, 1863.

Wirt J. Morris, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1863.

Chas E. McCarty, discharged for disability, May 22, 1862.

Geo. A. Miller, discharged for disability, May 20, 1862.

Wm. B. Miller, died of disease at Bowling Green, March 14, 1862.

Adam Mil er, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Elliott McRae, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Robert Meldrum, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Geo. H. Newcomb, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Ruloff P. Ockford, discharged for disability, July 9, 1862.

Henry B. Oliver, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Lemuel W. Osborn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edson M. Porter, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John D. Patterson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Stephen G. Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edward Penfold, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Penfold, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 12, 1863.

Milton Pratt, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 15, 1865.

James Pierce, died Qf disease in New York Harbor, April 8, 1865.

Geo. W. Russell, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863.

Irwin L. Ross, discharged for disability, June 2, 1863.

Wm. H. Ross, discharged at end of service, Jan. 18, 1865.

Leroy Root, mustered out July 25, 1865. Melvin Reed, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Seringer, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel E. Stillson, veteran, enlisted Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Albertus Simons, discharged by order, July 19, 1865.

Jos. Sinclair, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Orletus C. Thayer, discharged at end of service, April 28, 1865.

Ormenus Thayer, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Chas. T. Wilson, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Geo. F. Warner, veteran, enlisted Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wm. White, mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Woodbeck, mustered out July 25, 1863.

Company C.

Sergeant Albert G. Wetmore, Allegan; veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Co. F.

Jos. W. Buttrick, died of disease, Jan. 15, 1864.

Lewis M. Bennett, discharged at end of service, Jan. 20, 1865.

Geo. Cook, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Geo. Delabarre, discharged for disability, Oct. 21, 1865.

Leander Fox, killed in action in North Carolina, March 19, 1865.

Alden C. Hand, killed in action at Stone River.

Abram Hofmeister, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Isaac Itofmeister, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Hofmeister, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Saml. Mosier, mustered out July 25, 1865,

Isaac E. Morse, died of disease at Kalamnizoo, Feb. 15, 1862.

Chas. W. Morse, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Francis Murray, discharged by order, Jan. 14, 1864.

Andrew McGaw, discharged for disability, June 2, 1862.

Eliphalet Porter, discharged for disability, April 10, 1862.

Walter Pullman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Burtis Rutgers, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Sweezy, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Staring, discharged by order, June 2, 1865.

J. H. Tanner, died of disease at Corinth, Miss., June 7, 1862.

Salem True, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Chas. Tyler, mustered out July 25, 1865. Geo. Tyler, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Nathan G. Wilson, died of disease at Nashville, Sept. 19, 1862.

Warren W. Wilcox, veteran, entl. Jan. 18, 1861; died of disease at Jackson, Michigan, April 24, 1864.

Samuel Winger, discharged for disability, Nov. 7, 1862.

John Wynn, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joel Yerton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company D.

Lee J. Bishop, discharged for disability, May 1, 1862.

Chas. Butterfield, discharged Aug. 1, 1865.

Harvey D. Culver, discharged for disability, March 27, 1863.

Win. Sloan, discharged July 5, 1862.

Company E.

Chauncey E. Blossom, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Samuel Caruthers, died of disease, Dec. 12, 1863.

Peter Lahman, mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Lowe, discharged May 15, 1865.

Jabez McClelland, discharged for disability, July 7, 1865.

Joseph Misner, mustered out June 26, 1865.

Bela G. Moulton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Philander Palmer, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Ebenezer E. Ross, died of disease at Washington, Oct. 26, 1862.

Alfred W. Sliter, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1862.

Thos. J. Shellman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Caleb Van Vrain, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., May 30, 1865.

James Wood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company F.

2d Lieutenant Albert G. Wetmore, Allegan, May 26, 1864; promoted 1st Lieutenant July 5, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

James Cisnee, mustered out May 15, 1865.

Wm. H. Drake, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Company G.

Captain George M. Rowe, Saugatuck; com. March 9, 1865; 1st Lieutenant Feb. 13, 1863; com. Major July 6, 1865, but not mustered; mustered out as Captain July 25, 1865.

Sergeant John H. Baldwin, Ganges; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company B.

Corp. Fredk. Severance, enlisted Nov. 18, 1861; discharged for disability, Aug. 15, 1862.

Wagoner Win. H. Meade, enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; discharged May 30, 1863.

John S. Black, discharged for disability, July 10, 1862.

Wm. A. Babbitt, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Edwin F. Case, died of wounds, Sept. 24, 1863.

David Cornelius, died of disease in Indiana, Jan. 22, 1865.

Edward Germond, died in Andersonville prison, May 16, 1864.

Henry Hinds, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Nov. 26, 1863.

Chillon Runnels, died of disease, Jan. 15, 1864.

Wm. Starr, died of disease. Feb. 15, 1861.

Byron Teal, discharged for disability, Oct. 20, 1862.

Jeptha Waterman, discharged for disability, July 10, 1862.

Randall C. Waterman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company H.

David Barrington, discharged by order, July 18, 1865.

Wm. H. Cronk, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Elisha W. Call, discharged for disability, Jan. 3, 1863.

Albert M. Dustin, mustered out July 25, 1865. Isaac Fisher, mustered out July 29, 1865.

Henry Germond, discl. at end of service, Jan. 17, 1865.

Seth Loveridge, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James Orr, discharged by order, May 27, 1865.

John M. Pinney, discharged for disability.

Wm. H. Rumsey, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

James Shattuck, discharged for disability, July 13, 1862.

Orville Whitlock, discli. for disability, Dec. 22, 1862.

Company L

Captain Henry C. Stoughlton, Otsego; com. Oct. 3, 1861; res. Oct. 20, 1862.

Captain Willard G. Eaton, Otsego; com. Oct. 20, 1862; let Lieutenant Oct. 3, 1861; promoted to Major May 26, 1863.

Captain Clark D. Fox, Otsego; com. June 13, 1863; 1st Lieutenant Oct. 20, 1862; Sergeant Major; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863.

Captain K. W. Mansfield, Otsego; cornm. March 19, 1864; 1st Lieutenant Feb. 28, 1863; mustered out July 25, 1865.

2d Lieutenant P. Van Arsdale, Saugatuck; com. Oct. 3, 1861; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. A, July 13, 1862.

2d Lieutenant Geo. M. Rowe, Saugatuck; com. July 13, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. G, July 13, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Geo. Nelson, Otsego; com. June 13, 1863; wounded, and discharged June 1, 1864.

2d Lieutenant John H. Stephens, com. April 25, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Sergeant Isaiah Beard, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1862.

Sergeant Clark D. Fox, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 16, 1861; appointed Sergeant-Major

Sergeant K. W. Mansfield, Otsego; promoted to 2d Lieutenant,

Co. A.

Sergeant Geo. M. Rowe, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. I.

Sergeant Geo. Nelson, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 21, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Co. I.

Sergeant John W. Travis, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; died of disease at Nashville, April 20, 1862.

Sergeant John H. Stephens, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 26, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Corp. Amos. Dunning, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; died of disease in Alabama.

Corp. Hugh W. Dixon, Manlius; enlisted Oct. 26, 1861; transferred to Co. A.

Corp. G. H. Slotman, Overisel; ertl. Nov. 12, 1861; discharged at end of service, May 22, 1865.

Corp. Edward M. Bissel, Otsego; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps; discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Corp. Edward Stowe, Manlius; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps, Aug. 1, 1863.

Corp. Jacob M. Chapman, Manlius; enlisted Jan. 9, 1862; died at St. Louis, May 25, 1862.

Musician Clark C. Bailey, Fillmore; enlisted Dec. 3, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Musician Herbert Day, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wagoner John A. McClaire, Saugatuck; enlisted Dec. 16, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cyrus E. Ames, shot in a quarrel, Sept. 20, 1863.

Samuel Agan, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjamin T. Binn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles Barry, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles L. Bard, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjanmin B. Brush, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Boswell R. Burlinghame, died of disease at Otsego, Michigan

Isaac Brundage, died of disease at New Albany, Ind.

Erritt Brockman, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862.

Oscar Bissell, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 3, 1863.

Martin S. Brown, died of disease at Salina, Michigan, April 17, 1863.

William C. Brundage, discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1862.

Peter H. Billings, discharged for disability, Nov. 5, 1862.

Edward Bissell, discharged by order, Aug. 26, 1863.

Leander Ballard, discharged for disability, Dec. 5, 1863.

Henry L. Beach, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. T

homas Cooper, mustered out Jlly 25, 1865.

Jan. Dannenborg, died of disease, April 28, 1862.

William W. Dormer, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

James K. Dole, discharged for disability, Oct. 4, 1862.

William Dusenbury, discharged for disability, Nov. 15, 1862.

Charles 0. Edwards, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 1, 1863,

Daniel Eaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Miles B. Eaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Charles Francisco, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William E. Fields, mustered out July 25, 1865.

James L. Fairbanks, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frederick R. Fuller, died of disease at Louisville, Oct. 1, 1862.

Charles Garlock, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Henry Holt, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

David Hammond, discharged for disability, June 1, 1863.

John Hackhouse, discharged for disability, May 4, 1864.

Charles Hogle, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jacob Hazen, mulst. out July 25, 1865.

John Inman, mustered out July 18, 1865.

John P. Jones, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George N. Joslyn, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William Joslyn, discharged for disability, Aug. 1, 1863.

James C. Jones, discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1863.

O. P. Kingsbury, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn.

Martin Kramer, died of dise:se at Lookout Mountain, Aug. 2, 1864.

John Kramer, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John Knight, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Smith Larkin, discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Jasper Lusk, discharged for disability, Nov. 11, 1862.

Jacob Mooney, died of disease at Danville, Va., May 14, 1862.

William McKee, died of disease, April 16, 1862.

George C. Miner, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 4, 1863.

William Miner, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Andrew J. Myers, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George A. Myers, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Masterson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John McQueen, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; died in action at Bentonville, March 19, 1865.

Robert Nelson, veteran, enlisted Jan.18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Newton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Hezekiah B. Niles, discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Stephen Pratt, discharged for disability. Sylvanus S. Palmer, died of disease, May 15, 1862.

Philander Palmer, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

John W. Purdy, died of wounds, April 22, 1865.

Thomas L. Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

George E. Reynolds, died of disease, July 13, 1862.

Alonzo Rouse, died of wounds, Sept. 26, 1863.

Stephen Rowe, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Peter Rauf, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Allen Smith, discharged for disability, Nov. 11, 1862.

Ward P. Smith, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

James Smith, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William Simmons, veteran, eil. Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

David Simmonds, discharged by order, July 14, 1865.

Perry Slaw, died of disease, May 22, 1862.

Harvey H. Sqnlier, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Dec. 31, 1864.

Norton Schermerhorn, mustered out July 25, 1865.

John H. Slotman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1865; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Wm. A. Upson, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Burd Vanderhoop, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

John R. Ward, discharged by order, Aug. 14, 1865.

Danl. Warne, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Henry Wilson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Eldridge Wilson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Levi Wilson, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Enos Warner, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Geo. W. Wise, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Itha Xocum, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company K.

Frank A. Beardsley, discharged by order,June 8, 1865.

Win. Gibson, died of disease at David’s Island, New York Harbor, June 28, 1865.

Robert Nelson, discharged for disability, Aug. 28, 1862.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE THIRTEENTH INFANTRY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

1st Lieutenant and Q.-M. Charles H. Ruggles, Prairieville; com. March 19, 1864; 2d Lieutenant; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Q.M. Sergeant Daniel B. Hosmer, Castleton; promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Co. D, Sept. 17, 1862.

Com. Sergeant Fitz Allen Blackman, Prairieville; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company A.

2d Lieutenant Charles H. Ruggles, Prairieville; con, Feb. 28, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and quartermaster.

Sergeant Thos. B. Dunn, Prairieville; enlisted Dec. 25, 1861; died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., July 6, 1863.

Sergeant Nathaniel P. Bunnell, Barry; enlisted Dec. 18, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Wm. L. Gunton, Thornapple; enlisted Dec. 13, 1861; discharged July 25, 1862.

Corp. Dyer Russell, Maple Grove; enlisted Dec. 14, 1861; died of disease at Allegan, Oct. 1, 1862.

Corp. Wm. J. Storms, Prairieville; enlisted Oct. 23, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; absent sick at muster out.

Musician Anson G. Philips, Prairieville; enlisted Nov. 1, 1861; discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Robert Allen, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Noah J. Bowker, discharged for disability, April 30, 1861.

Aaron Borie, discharged July 4, 1862. Jacob Bennett, died of disease at Iuka, Ala., June 11, 1862.

James Brew, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

James Cook, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Lyman A. Cross, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 29, 1862.

Horace Castle, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Oct. 21, 1862.

Elnathan H. Case, discharged for disability, Aug. 16, 1862.

Benjamin T. Cobb, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

William Campbell, discharged for disability, Aug. 18, 1862.

Marcine B. Chamberlain, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Edward C. Cole, discharged for disability, Oct. 21, 1862.

Warren Easton, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Horace J. Easton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Levi Gilespie, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Joshua P. Iart, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 30, 1862.

William S. Harris, died of disease, Dec. 31, 1862.

Harvey A. Havens, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

Benjamin L. Harper, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John P. Hart, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Jay R. Lathrop, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 31, 1862.

Theodore V. Linderman, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Samuel Lightner, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James B. Miller, discharged for disability, Oct. 26, 1862.

George Nickols, died of disease near Corinth, Miss., May 26, 1862.

Samuel A. Owen, discharged for disability, May 13, 1862.

David A. Randall, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

Ebenezer Rathbone, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1862.

Ira Smith, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Aaron D. Staley, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Samuel S. Tyler, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 20, 1862.

Geo. W. Tuttle, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

George S. Tuft, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

George W. Wilber, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cornelius S. Wbitcomb, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Frederick W. Williams, discharged at end of service, Jan. 16, 1865.

Company B.

Sergeant Calvin Hill, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 2, 1861; discharged Sept. 8, 1862.

Corp. Geo. W. Knickerbocker, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; veteran, Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Leander B. Pryor, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Irwin L. Ross, Trowbridge; enlisted Oct. 7, 1861; discharged July 24, 1862.

Corp. Lewis Slater, Yankee Springs; enlisted Oct. 8, 1861; discharged Feb. 11, 1863.

Rollo Bishop, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 9, 1863.

Charles Bishop, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1861; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Littlejohn Baker, veteran, enlisted Feb. 13, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

John D. Bishop, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Rockwell D. Corwin, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Joseph Case, died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., April 26, 1862.

Andrew J. Case, discharged at end of service, March 24, 1865.

John B. Crandall, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

William F. Edgitt, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Thomas A. Hubbard, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Richard Hecox, died of disease at Prairieville, Michigan, Jan. 18, 1862.

John C. Henry, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 18, 1863.

Newton Hubbard, discharged for disability, May 23, 1862.

Henry W. Knickerbocker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Alva J. Morehouse, died of disease at Illinois, Nov. 18, 1862.

Squire M. Nichols, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Edward Pryor, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 5, 1862.

Orville J, Pryor, died of disease at Detroit, Michigan, Feb. 17, 1865.

Robert E. Pryor, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Leonard E. Perry, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Leander B. Pryor, discharged for disability, March 7, 1863.

Orwin Potter, discharged for disability, Feb. 22, 1862.

Johnt W. Rodgers, discli. by order, June 8, 1865.

Charles H. Rodgers, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Orvis Stater, discharged at end of service, March 14, 1865.

Winton Smith, discharged May 27, 1862.

Henry Smith, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

William B. Williams, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Joseph J. Wrist, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

Harrison C. Wrist, discharged for disability, May 21, 1862.

John Withey, discharged for disability, Feb. 1, 1863.

Francis Withey, mustered out July 25, 1865.

William Withey, killed in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Francis Young, died of disease at Kalamuazoo, Michigan, Feb. 14, 1862.

Company C.

Milo Bunce, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Isaac Burget, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

James H. Durkee, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Franklin A. Durfee, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

William O. Hurd, discharged by order, May 26, 1865.

Jacob Heaton, discharged by order, June 22, 1865.

George Hindmarch, died of disease at Gallatin, Dec. 19, 1862.

Horace E. Ludlow, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

John W. Pryor, died of disease, June 26, 1865.

Stephen V. Wheaton, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company D.

Captain Daniel B. Hosmer, Castleton; enlisted June 19, 1863; 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 17, 1862; Sergeant; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863.

Robert E. Ferguson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 18, 1864.

Company E.

George H. Durkee, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Cyrus A. Morse, discharged May 15, 1865.

William McConley, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Henry P. Ralston, discharged by order, Jan. 16, 1865.

Company F.

Dewitt C. Dye, discharged Feb. 24, 1863.

Company G.

Calvin P. Angell, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Lyman C. Angell, died of disease, Dec. 2, 1864.

Richard Blucher, died of disease at Huntsville, Ala., Aug. 27, 1862.

Thomas Besinger, discharged for disability, July 18, 1862.

William H. Mead, discharged for disability, May 30, 1863.

Justice Mudge, died of disease at Milledgeville, Ga., Dec. 4, 1864.

George A. Willard, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 4, 1863.

Company H.

Corp. Geo. P. Coon, Orangeville; enlisted Dec. 20, 1861; discharged April 8, 1863.

Celo C. Colley, discharged for disability, Aug. 7, 1865.

Jehiel Chalker, discharged by order, June 8, 1865.

Joln Daggett, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 12, 1862.

George H. Ford, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864.

William H. Gilbert, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Jesse McVane, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Benjamin Smith, discharged at end of service, April 7, 1865.

James H. Smith, veteran, eul. January, 1864.

Company I.

Benjamin Jones, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1864.

Company K.

George W. Boen, died of disease at Savannal, Ga., Feb. 2, 1865.

Wallace Coryden, discharged by order, June 9, 1865.

William P. Sidman, discharged by order, May 6, 1865.

Jacob Young, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 7, 1865.

FOURTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, AND NINETEENTH INFANTRY.

The Fourteenth goes to Northern Mississippi-Brigaded for the War -Arduous Service in Tennessee-The Long Combat from Dallas to Atlanta-The March to the Sea-Through the Carolinas-Muster out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members-The Gallant Seventeenth-Company D, from Allegan and Barry-Off to the War-Attacking the Enemy-Brilliant Success-Heavy Loss-Battle of Antietam-Through the Winter in Virginia-Under Grant in Mississippi-Back to Kentucky-With Burnside to East Tennessee -The Campaign of the Wilderness-Hard Fight at Spottsylvania -Engineer Duty-Subsequent Services-Muster out-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County-Organization and Departure of the Nineteenth Infantry-On Duty in Kentucky -Transferred to Army of the Cumberland-Ordered to Franklin, Tenn.-The Brigade on a Reconnoissance-Attacked by Seven Brigades of Cavalry-A Long and Desperate Fight-The Enemy again and again repulsed-Ammunition exhausted-New Rebel Forces appear-Unionists compelled to surrender-Exchanged and Reorganized-Services in Tennessee-Captures a Battery at Resaca -Its Colonel killed-Averysboro and Bentonville-The CloseAllegan County Officers and Men-

Members from Barry County.

FOURTEENTH INFANTRY.

THE Fourteenth Infantry, which represented many portions of the State, was mustered into service at Ypsilanti, Feb. 13, 1862, and left for the seat of war in Northern Mississippi on the 17th of April following.

At Hamburg Landing, Miss., it was assigned to Gen. Pope’s Army of the Mississippi, and joined a brigade made up of the Tenth, Sixteenth, and Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, and the Tenth and Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, of which it was composed during the remainder of the war, except that the Tenth Illinois gave place, in July, 1864, to the Seventeenth New York.

After the retreat of Beauregard from Corinth the brigade was employed in various duties in Northern Alabama and Mississippi until September, 1862, when, with Gen. J. M. Palmer’s division, it marched to Nashville, Tenn., and assisted to hold that place while Buell was advancing toward Louisville, Ky.

After Gen. Rosecrans assumed command of the Department of the Cumberland, and marched his forces from Kentucky to the relief of Nashville, Palmer’s division was transferred from the Army of the Mississippi to the Army of the Cumberland, and thereafter the regiments composing it operated in the Department of the Cumberland.

The Fourteenth performed arduous service until the close of the war.

It served as mounted infantry in Tennessee from September; 1863, until the spring of 1864, when it re-enlisted, and after the usual veteran furlough rejoined its brigade at Dallas, Ga., June 4, 1864.

It then participated in all the movements of the Army of the Cumberland until the fall of Atlanta.

On the 16th of November, with the brigade, it moved southward from Atlanta on the march “through Georgia,” assisted in the capture of Savannah, and thence, in January, 1865, with its command,-viz., First Brigade, Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, proceeded northward through the Carolinas.

At Averysboro’ and Bentonville, N. C., the brigade particularly distinguished itself. (See history of Thirteenth Infantry.)

After the surrender of Johnston the command marched to Washington, D. C., vid Raleigh and Richmond.

It passed in review at the National capital, May 14th, and on the 13th of June proceeded, via the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, to Parkersburg, W. Va.; going thence by steamer to Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out of the service on the 18th of July, 1865.

It arrived at Jackson, Michigan, on the 21st, and on the 29th of the same month was paid off and disbanded.

MEMBERS OF THE FOURTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company A.

M. D. Hulenberg, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Eli P. Spaulding, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company B.

Nathaniel C. Austin, mustered out July 18, 1865.

James Conlan, discharged for wounds, June 5, 1865.

Moses Green, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Judson Kitchen, mustered out July 18, 1865.

John McCreery, mustered out July_8, 1865.

Company D.

Erastus N. Bates, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Ashel S. Carr, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Nicholas Mateen, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company F.

Sylvester Auway, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Geo. H. Leavitt, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Chas. H. White, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company G.

Fred. Hoffer, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Lambert Van Valkenberg, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

Company I.

Jerry Monroe, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Company B.

Harvey H. Austin, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Company D.

Thomas B. Luce, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Michael Roush, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Nelson Vanevery, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Charles W. H. Cassady, mustered out July 18, 1865. William S. Sibbs, must out July 18, 1865.

David Roush, mustered out July 18, 1865.

SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY.

This gallant command, celebrated as the “Stonewall” regiment of Gen. Wilcox’s division of the Ninth Army Corps, was organized at Detroit Barracks, in the summer of 1862, by State Inspector-General James E. Pittman.

Its original commanding officer, Col. William H. Withington, was commissioned Aug. 11, 1862, and on the 21st of the same month the regiment was mustered into the United States service for three years.

Company D embraced a large majority of the members of the regiment from Allegan and Barry Counties. Under the command of Col. Withington, the regiment left its rendezvous on the 27th of August, 1862, and proceeded directly to Washington.

Scarcely had it arrived at that place when it was assigned to Gen. Wilcox’s division, and in less than three weeks from the time of leaving Michigan its members were gallantly battling for their country at South Mountain.

On the evening of the 13th of September the regiment marched from Frederick City, Md.,-where it had bivouacked the night before with the rest of the Ninth Army Corps,-over the National turnpike in the direction of South Mountain, and about midnight rested for a few hours not far from Middletown.

Before daybreak of the 14th Middletown was passed; the base of the mountain being reached about nine o’clock A.M.

The enemy was found in force on each side of a gap, holding each crest of the mountain, and strongly posted behind stone fences and other available shelter, with his batteries in commanding positions enfilading the main road.

The regiment was then ordered to advance up the Sharpsburg road.

This movement was executed in common by the whole of Wilcox’s division, which proceeded far up towards the crest of the mountain and moved to the support of a section of Cook’s battery, which had been sent up to open on the enemy’s guns on the right of the gap.

The division was about to deploy, when the rebels suddenly opened at two hundred yards with a battery, throwing shot and shell, killing several in the regiment, and driving back the battery; the cannoniers of which, with their horses and limbers, rushed back through the ranks of the infantry, causing a temporary panic among some of the troops, that might have resulted in the loss of the guns had the enemy taken advantage of it.

The Seventeenth promptly changed front under a heavy fire, and moved out with the Seventy-Ninth New York to protect the battery, lying in line of battle until nearly four P.M., exposed to a severe fire from Drayton’s brigade of South Carolina infantry, posted in its immediate front.

Being unable to reply to this fire, and having become impatient and anxious to advance, the order to charge upon the enemy was received with enthusiastic cheers.

The regiment, being on the extreme right of Wilcox’s division, moved rapidly forward through an open field upon the enemy’s position, under a terrific storm of lead and iron from the stone fences in front and the batteries on the right; then, with cheer after cheer, sent up in defiant answer to the peculiar rebel yell, the Seventeenth gallantly advanced to within easy musket-range without firing a shot.

It then opened a murderous fire upon the enemy, and, steadily advancing the extreme right of the regiment, it swung round, obtaining an enfilading fire upon the rebels intrenched behind the stone walls.

Unable to withstand this destructive fire, the enemy broke in confusion, and the left of the regiment charged over the walls with shouts of triumph, pursuing the fleeing remnants of Drayton’s command over the crest and far down the mountain slope, gaining and holding the key-point of the battle-field.

The splendid valor and extraordinary coolness of the raw recruits of the Seventeenth in this engagement gave the regiment much celebrity, and this conflict has since been mentioned in history as one of the most brilliant achievements of the war.

The regiment suffered severely at South Mountain, having twenty-seven officers and men killed and one hundred and fourteen wounded.

Three days later, at Antietam, it was again hotly engaged, sustaining a loss of eighteen killed and eighty-seven wounded.

After following Lee’s defeated army through Northern Virginia, and camping for a while at Falmouth, the regiment crossed the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, but did not participate in the battle of that place.

It remained in the Army of the Potomac through the winter, but in the spring was ordered to Kentucky.

After a short stay in that State, it proceeded with the Ninth Army Corps to Mississippi, and joined Gen. Grant.

It was stationed at Haynes’ Bluff and Milldale, and was slightly engaged before Jackson on the 10th of June.

It soon returned to Kentucky, and moved thence with Burnside’s army into East Tennessee.

It took part in numerous movements and counter-movements for which the forces in East Tennessee became famous, and on the 16th of November was acting as the rear-guard of the army, which was falling back towards Knoxville.

While it was crossing Turkey Creek, near Campbell’s Station, the enemy attacked in force, and a sharp engagement followed.

The Seventeenth, with its brigade, steadily covered the rear of the army, having twenty-six officers and men killed and wounded during the fight.

That night the whole Union force moved into Knoxville, and from then until the retreat of the enemy, on the 4th of December, the regiment was busily engaged in the defense of that place, suffering greatly from want of rations, but gallantly performing its duty.

After the defeat of the Confederates, the marching up and down the Tennessee Valley was resumed, and was kept up, with some intervals of rest, throughout the winter.

On the 20th of March, 1864, the regiment set out with the Ninth Corps from Knoxville, and marched over the Cumberland Mountains to Nicholasville, Ky., whence it moved at once to Maryland. With the same corps the Seventeenth passed through the great campaign of 1864.

It was sharply engaged in the Wilderness on the 6th of May, having forty-six men killed and wounded.

At Spottsylvania, on the 12th of May, the regiment charged gallantly on the rebel works, but was surrounded by a superior force in the dense woods, and had twenty-three killed, seventy-three wounded, and ninety-three taken prisoners, out of two hundred and twenty-five engaged.

So small a squad remained for duty that on the 16th of May it was detailed for engineer service, though still retaining its regimental number.

It served throughout the winter of 1864-65 either in this capacity or as provost-guard.

During the Confederate attack on Fort Steadman, however (March 25, 1865), the Seventeenth advanced as skirmishers, drove back the enemy’s skirmishers, and captured sixty-five prisoners.

After the capture of Petersburg and the surrender of Lee the regiment moved north to Washington, set out for Michigan on the 4th of June, 1865, reached Detroit on the 7th, and was forthwith paid off and discharged at the latter place.

MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Surg. Abram R. Calkins, Allegan; com. June 26, 1862; res. Oct. 14, 1862.

Company D.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. White, Wayland; com. June 17, 1862; res. March 20, 1863.

Corp. Chas. Parsons, Wayland; enlisted July 31, 1862; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., April 25, 1853.

Corp. Peter J. Murphy, Wayland; enlisted July 31, 1862; mustered out June 3, 1865.

Orville Slade, Wayland; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; killed in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862.

Daniel Ball, discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1863.

Calvin Ball, discharged for disability, April 28, 1863.

Chas. L. Burrell, promoted in U. S. C. T., Nov. 3, 1863.

Myron Burrell, tralns. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864.

Wm. M. Coleman, discharged for disability, Oct. 25, 1864.

Cornelius Devenwater, discharged for disability, Jan. 4, 1863.

Richard Dennis, died at Weverton, Md., Nov. 4, 1862.

Luther E. Ellis, discharged for disability, Jan. 15, 1863.

Joseph G. Fenner, discharged for disability, Jan. 11, 1863.

Saml. Potter, died of wounds near Jackson, Miss., Oct. 28, 1862.

Wm. Parker, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Stephen Springer, mustered out June 3, 1865. E

dward H. Schofield, discharged for disability, Dec. 7, 1862.

John Truax, discharged by order, May 10, 1865.

Henry Tomlinson, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Benj. Ward, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Martin White, mustered out July 18, 1865.

Company E.

Sergeant Philo M. Lonsbury, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; absent sick at muster out.

Musician Jas. C. Leggett, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 3, 1865.

Herbert W. Lonsbury, Allegan; killed in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864.

Company I.

Hiram Bushnell, died of wounds.

Samuel Buchanan, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Alfred Cook, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Oliver P. Carmen, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Levi B. Davis, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Jas. Hibberdine, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Geo. Kitchen, discharged for disability, Nov. 3, 1862.

David V. Lily, (lied in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Frederick Leonard, discharged for disability, Jan. 1, 1863.

James V. Orton, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Samuel Parker, died of disease at Covington, Ky., April 9, 1865.

Daniel Polk, discharged by order, May 12, 1865.

Penter Ross, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Nahum Snow, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Alvin H. Stillson, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Simon Starring, mustered out June 3, 1865.

M. V. B. Smith, died of disease at Memphis, June 24, 1863.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY.

Company D.

2d Lieutenant David L. Morthland, Barry; mustered out as Sergeant, June 3, 1865.

Sergeant Wallace H. Scoville, Johnston; discharged for disability, Feb. 25, 1863.

Musician James Goodman, Hastings; discharged by order, Sept. 16, 1862.

Andrew E. Breese, discharged for disability.

David Brotherton, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Jalo W. Convin, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Charles W. Convin, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Zenas S. Clark, died of disease at Newport News, Va., March 17, 1865.

Charles D. Cowles, discharged for disability, Jan. 30, 1865.

Charles Dickinson, discharged for disability, Oct. 25, 1864

Hector M. Dodge, mustered out June 3, 1865.

David Eldridge, died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1865.

W. S. Hinckley, discharged for disability, April 10, 1863. D

aniel Hoffman, discb. for disability, Jan. 6, 1863.

William H. Hoffman, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Nov. 28, 1862.

Martin Moore, killed in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862.

Herman W. Manford, transferred to navy.

John P. Manning, mustered out June 3, 1865.

A. Palmatier, killed in action at South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862.

Nathan F. Powers, died of disease at Big Spring Hospital, Oct. 28, 1862.

Harlan A. Poor, killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

William W. Seebore, discharged for wounds received, Sept. 14, 1862.

Charles Shoemaker, mustered out June 3, 1865.

Company H.

William H. Godsmark, discharged Dec. 31, 1862.

Jerome M. Lampman, discharged for disability, May 17, 1864.

Martin Mallet, discli. for disability, Jan. 4, 1865.

Isaac Vantyle, mustered out July 3, 1865.

NINETEENTH INFANTRY.

The Nineteenth Regiment of infantry was recruited during the summer of 1862 from the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren, and Allegan, Company B including within its ranks a large majority of those from the latter county.

The regimental rendezvous was at Dowagiac, Cass Co., where the regiment was mustered into the United States service on the 25th of August, 1862.

On the 14th of September following, under the command of Col. Henry C. Gilbert, the Nineteenth proceeded to Cincinnati, Ohio, thence to Nicholasville, Ky., and later, towards the close of the year, to Danville, Ky.

It was first assigned to duty with the Fourth Brigade, First Division, Army of the Ohio, which brigade, on the formation of the Department and Army of the Cumberland, was transferred to that army as part of the Reserve Corps.

The regiment moved from Danville early in February, 1863, and reached Nashville on the 7th, proceeding thence to Franklin, Tenn.

Immediately after, Col. Coburn’s brigade, consisting of the Nineteenth Michigan, Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana, and the Twenty-Second Wisconsin Regiments of infantry, numbering fifteen hundred and eighty-seven men, strengthened by two hundred men of the One Hundred and Twenty-Fourth Ohio Infantry, with detachments of three regiments of Cavalry, about six hundred strong, and a full battery of artillery, moved out from Franklin on a reconnaissance in force.

After a march of about four miles the enemy’s outposts were encountered, but they retired before the Union skirmishers, and the brigade bivouacked there for the night.

Resuming the march on the following day, the Union column found the enemy in force and strongly posted, at Thompson’s Station, nine miles from Franklin.

At the point where the railroad crosses the turnpike the rebels opened fire on the forces of Col. Coburn, who immediately formed his men, and ordered a section of the battery to occupy a bill on the left of the road, sending the Nineteenth Michigan and the Twenty-Second Wisconsin to support it.

The Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana, with the other guns of the battery, took position on a hill at the right.

The enemy had two batteries posted on a range of hills three-fourths of a mile in front and south of the position occupied by Coburn’s troops.

The Indiana regiments made a demonstration on the left of the enemy, to draw him out or charge his batteries, as circumstances might dictate.

This movement was made under a most galling fire from the enemy’s batteries, and when the position was reached two entire brigades of dismounted rebel Cavalry were disclosed strongly posted behind stone walls and other defenses.

As it was found impossible to advance farther under the severe and incessant fire, these regiments were ordered to return to their former position on the hill, supported by a squadron of Cavalry; but for some unexplained reason the Cavalry failed to occupy the supporting position, as intended.

No sooner had the two regiments commenced to fall back than they were pursued by two rebel regiments, firing rapid volleys into the retiring Union force, which was at the same time under fire from the enemy’s artillery.

But as soon as they reached the hill the Indianans turned upon their rebel pursuers and drove them back on the run; killing Col. Earle, of Arkansas.

The enemy rallied, charged desperately, and was again handsomely repulsed; but it soon became evident that Col. Coburn’s command had here encountered the entire Cavalry force of Bragg’s army, eighteen thousand strong, consisting of brigades commanded respectively by Gens. Forrest, Wheeler, French, Armstrong, Jackson, Crosby, and Martin, all under the command of Gen. Van Dorn.

The enemy, under Forrest, then advanced on the position occupied by the Nineteenth Michigan and its companion regiment, the Twenty-Second Wisconsin.

At the time the attack was made the section of artillery posted with these regiments hurriedly left its position, and at the same time three companies of the Wisconsin regiment, with their lieutenant-colonel (Bloodgood), abandoned the field without orders, moving off by the left flank, and joining the retreating Union Cavalry and artillery.

The Nineteenth Michigan and the remainder of the Twenty-Second Wisconsin, however, bravely poured in their fire, and held their assailants at bay fully twenty minutes. Forrest, checked in his advance, made a circuit to the east with his whole force, beyond the ground occupied by Col. Coburn, with the intention of turning his (Coburn’s) left flank.

The Nineteenth and Twenty-Second were then moved to the west side of the turnpike, leaving the Thirty-Third and Eighty-Fifth Indiana to protect the southern acclivity of the hill.

The four regiments had scarcely formed in line behind the crest when Armstrong’s rebel brigade charged from the east and the Texans from the south.

The battle now became terrific.

Three times the enemy charged gallantly up the hill, and thrice was he forced back with severe loss.

In one of these charges the colors of the Fourth Mississippi were captured by the Nineteenth Michigan.

The fighting became still more desperate.

The enemy, having gained possession of the hill on the east of the road, was sweeping the Northern ranks with canister, and, bravely as the Union troops fought, it soon became evident that the struggle was hopeless.

Their ammunition was nearly exhausted, and Forrest, who had already cut them off from Franklin, was advancing on their rear. Col. Coburn faced his command to the north to repel this new danger, and thus Forrest was held in check until the Union men had expended their last round of ammunition.

Then the brave band fixed bayonets, determined to charge through the enemy’s lines and escape; but just then it was discovered that still another line lay in reserve, and still another battery opened on them from an unexpected quarter.

Escape was now hopeless, and to avoid a further and useless loss of life the command surrendered. Col. Gilbert had had his horse shot under him in the early part of the fight, and throughout all the fierce engagement had borne himself most gallantly.

When he offered his sword to the Confederate commander the latter declined to receive it, with the remark that “so brave an officer, commanding so gallant a regiment, deserves to retain his arms.”

A part of the Nineteenth had escaped capture at Thompson’s Station.

This small body, with those who had been left in camp at Franklin, were sent to Brentwood, organized with the remaining fragments of the brigade, and placed under command of an officer of another regiment.

This force was surrendered to the rebel general Forrest on the 25th of March, 1863, without the firing of a gun.

The enlisted men were soon paroled and sent North; the commissioned officers were exchanged on the 25th of May following.

The regiment was reorganized at Camp Chase, Ohio, and on the 8th of June, 1863, left Columbus to engage once more in service at the front.

It reached Nashville on the 11th, and from that time was employed in ordinary camp and picket duty until July, when it formed a part of Rosecrans’ column advancing on Tullahoma.

The regiment was ordered back to Murfreesboro on the 23d of July, to do garrison duty in the fortifications at that point and along Stone River, where Company D was captured on the 5th of October by a rebel Cavalry force, under Gen. Wheeler.

After having been plundered, the men were released on parole.

About the last of October the Nineteenth was ordered to McMinnville, Tenn., where it remained engaged in the construction of fortifications and similar duty until the 21st of April, 1864, when it was ordered to join its division and march with the strong columns of Sherman into Georgia.

It reached Lookout Valley on the 30th, and moved forward with the army on the 3rd of May, being then in the Twentieth Army Corps.

Moving by way of Buzzard Roost and Snake Creek Gap to Resaca, it was, of five hundred and twelve officers and men who went into action, one hundred and thirteen were killed and wounded.

With its brigade, desperately engaged in the battle at that place on the 15th; on which occasion it gallantly charged and captured a battery of the enemy, afterwards holding the position against all efforts to retake it.

It was in that charge that Col. Gilbert received the wound from which he died at Chattanooga, on the 24th of May.

The total loss of the Nineteenth in killed and wounded was eighty-one.

The regiment was also engaged at Cassville, Ga., on the 19th of May, at New Hope Church on the 25th, at Golgotha on the 15th of June, and at Culp’s Farm on the 22d of June; having in these engagements eighty-three officers and men killed and wounded.

Joining in the pursuit of the enemy after his evacuation of the position and works at Kenesaw Mountain, the Nineteenth, then under command of Major John J. Baker, crossed the Chattahoochee and took part in the battle of Peach-Tree Creek, on the 20th of July, in which its loss was thirty-nine killed, among the latter being its commander, Major Baker.

During the remainder of the siege of Atlanta the regiment was constantly on duty, much of the time under artillery-fire; its loss during that time being eight killed and wounded.

In the early days of November, 1864, the Nineteenth was quartered in the city of Atlanta, and on the 15th of that month moved with its brigade (the Second of the Third Division, Twentieth Corps) on the storied march to Savannah; taking an active part in the siege of that city, until its evacuation on the 21st of December.

It remained near Savannah until Jan. 1, 1865, when, with the companion regiments of its command, it moved across the Savannah River into South Carolina.

It crossed the Pedee River at Cheraw on the 2d of February, arrived at Fayetteville March 11th, assisted to destroy the arsenal and other public buildings at that place, and moved thence toward Raleigh.

On the 16th the enemy was found in heavy force at Averysboro’.

Here the Second Brigade was ordered to assault the works, and carried them with great gallantry, capturing the guns and a large number of prisoners, the loss of the Nineteenth being nineteen in killed and wounded.

During the battle of Bentonville, on the 19th of March, the regiment stood in line of battle, but was not engaged.

From Bentonville the regiment moved to Goldsboro’, arriving there on the 24th of March, and then marched to Raleigh.

Here it remained until the war was virtually closed by the surrender of Johnston’s army.

Then, with its corps, it faced northward and marched through Virginia to Alexandria, where it arrived on the 18th of May.

Six days later it marched with the bronzed and battered veteran’s of Sherman’s army, on the 24th of May, through the streets of the national capital.

From that time it remained in camp near Washington till June 10th, when it was mustered out of the service and ordered to Michigan.

Covered with honor, the men of the Nineteenth returned to Jackson, and were there paid off and discharged, on or about the 15th of June, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY OFFICERS AND MEN.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Q.M.-Sergeant George L. Clark, Allegan; enlisted June 1, 1863; promoted in U. S. C.T. June 20, 1864.

Company A.

Captain Joel H. Smith, Allegan; com. July 28, 1862; res. July 11, 1864.

Herman F. Dibble, died in action at Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864.

Company B.

Captain Samuel M. Hubbard, Otsego; com. June 24, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, May 1, 1863;

2d Lieutenant, Aug. 11, 1862; wounded in action May 28, 1864; hon. discharged Nov. 30, 1864.

1st Lieutenant William T. Darrow, Allegan; com. July 28, 1862; res. Feb. 6, 1863.

1st Lieutenant John W. Duel, Allegan; com. May 8, 1865; mustered out June 10, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Augustus Lily, Allegan; com. May 1, 1863; promoted to 1st Lieutenant May 15, 1864; discharged 2d Lieutenant, April 9, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Robert Mabbs, Allegan; mustered out as Sergeant, June 10, 1865.

Sergeant Jeremiah Dugan, Martin; enlisted Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sergeant Phineas A. Hager, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died of wounds, Aug. 8, 1864.

Sergeant George L. Clark, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; appointed q.m-Sergeant, June 1, 1863. Sergeant Julius E. Bigsby, Heath; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Sergeant John W. Duel, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Corp. Robert A. Patterson, Martin; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. David R. Anderson, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1864.

Corp. Pascal A. Pullman, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; died in action in Georgia, July 20, 1864.

Corp. George L. Baird, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1864.

Corp. David 0. Brown, Martin; enlisted Aug. 6, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. Joseph W. Ely, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Corp. John J. Young, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Musician Benjamin F. Chapin; Cheshire; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; absent sick.

Musician James J. Bachelder, Martin; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Musician Martin R. Parkhurst, Heath; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

John Ailes, mustered out June 10, 1865. Emerson Allen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Judson L. Austin, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Pascal L. Austin, died in action at Thompson’s Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863.

William Anderson, discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1865.

James Billings, discharged for disability, March, 1863.

Harvey Bell, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Ilenry L. Blakeslee, died in action at Thompson’s Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863.

John H. Brinkman, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dec. 26, 1863.

Ansel T. Baird, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward A. Baird, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Milo H. Barker, mustered out June 10, 1865.

David Bellinger, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Horace C. Beverly, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Alplieus G. Bradley, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry W. Brown, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Sidney Brundage, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Carlos Baker, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Todorus Botren, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Guilford D. Case, died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., Dec. 27, 1862.

Frederick Campbell, died in action at Altoona, Ga., May 25, 1864.

Timothy Dygert, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Henry W. Durand, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Albert French, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Edwin Griffin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jacob Gunsaul, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jerome Green, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 3, 1863.

Leander S. Goff, died in prison at Richmond, Va., March 3, 1863. J

ohn H. Howard, died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, November, 1862.

John Hogle, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Charles H. llogeboom, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Martin M. Jones, died of wounds at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1864.

Isaac M. Kinney, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Feb. 10, 1863.

Joel R. Kuper, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March, 1863.

Stephen Knapp, discharged for disability, March 27, 1865.

Thomas R. Kincaid, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Egbert Kluffman, mustered out June 15, 1865.

Neil Livingston, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Garrett Lohies, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Alfred Leonard, died of disease at Nashville, March, 1863.

W. Merchant, died of disease at Annapolis, March, 1863.

James McIntee, died of wounds at Columbia, Tenn., April 20, 1863.

Donald McLeod, discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1864.

William Manchester, transferred to 10th Inf.

James H. Martin, mustered out June 15, 1865.

George A. Martin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Lawrence Montague, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Eldridge Morris, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Thomas McCormick, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Carlton Norton, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry Noble, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Francis C. Newton, transferred to 10th Inf.

John B. Nelson, died of disease at McMinnville, Tenn., March 20, 1864.

Stephen Ostrander, mustered out June 22, 1865.

Harvey Pullman, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Erastus Purdy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Charles H. Prentiss, mustered out June 3, 1865.

George W. Platt, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Elisha Platt, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Comstock H. Platt, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1865.

Newton S. Peabody, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Feb. 1, 1863.

Vernon A. Rose, died of disease in Indiana, June 18, 1864.

John Rutgers, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Peter Starring, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Stephen Sampson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Benjamin Stephens, mustered out June 10, 1865.

S. B. Stephens, died of disease in Indiana, Feb. 13, 1863.

Charles Southworth, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1864.

John Southwell, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Solomon Springer, discharged for disability, Feb. 4, 1863.

Andrew Schoener, discharged for disability, June 22, 1863.

Joseph A. Trutsch, mustered out May 24, 1865.

Charles L. Vahen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Norman Wilson, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 20, 1862.

William Watson, died of disease in Michigan, July 18, 1863.

Cyrus B. Wheeler, died of wounds, Aug. 3, 1864.

Henry W. Wilcox, transferred to Mississippi marines.

Company F.

Musician Charles W. Owen, Martin; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company G.

Eli B. Baker, transferred to 10th Inf.

Benjamin Brown, transferred to 10th Inf.

William C. McLeod, transferred to 10th Inf.

Company K.

A. J. Myers, discharged for disability, March 31, 1863.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company E.

William Henry, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

George Ii. Martin, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Hiram Rodgers, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 21, 1864.

George H. Snyder, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

John W. Snyder, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Henry Smith, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Walter Searles, mustered out July 15, 1865.

Company F.

William H. Allen, died July 20, 1864.

Mylon Angel, mustered out June 10, 186.5.

David N. Griffith, mustered out June 1(0, 1865.

John B. Nichols, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Thomas Pennock, discharged for disability, July 1, 1863.

Austin Smith, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 1, 1863.

David Searles, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

James Searles, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Otis P. Taller, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company G.

Alonzo P. Beaman, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

George H. Clark, transferred to 10th Michigan Inf.

Company K.

William Harvey, mustered out June 10, 1865.

TWENTY-FIRST, TWENTY-EIGHTH, AND THIRTIETH INFANTRY.

The Big District which sent out the Twenty-First Infantry-Company C from Barry County-The Regiment joins Buell-Battle of Perryville-Battle of Stone River-Death of Captain Fitzgerald – Gallantry of Sheridan’s Division-

The Advance through Tennessee -Battle of Chickamauga-Subsequent Service in Company with the Thirteenth Infantry-Battle of Bentonville-Officers and Soldiers from Barry County-The Twenty-Eighth Infantry goes to the Front in 1864-Battle of Nashville-Ordered to North Carolina, Fight at Wise’s Forks-Subsequent Services-Muster out-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County-Thirtieth Infantry raised to protect Frontier-Its Services-Members from Allegan County-Members from Barry County.

TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY.

This regiment, which so nobly distinguished itself on several hard-fought fields during the war for the Union, was recruited in the summer of 1862 from the Fourth Congressional District.

The unit was a very large one, comprising the counties of Barry, Ionia, Montcalm, Kent, Ottawa, Muskegon, Oceana, Newaygo, Mecosta, Mason, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Leelenaw, Manitou, Oceola, Emmet, Mackinac, Delta, and Cheboygan.

Ionia was the place of rendezvous, and, until the regiment was organized.

J. B. Welch, Esq., was the commandant of the camp. Company C, which was led into the field by the brave Captain Leonard O. Fitzgerald, of Hastings and was Barry’s representation in the Twenty-First.

The regiment was mustered into the United States service Sept. 4, 1862, and eight days later.

The 21st consisted of one thousand and eight officers and enlisted men, commanded by Col. Ambrose A. Stevens, left Ionia, with orders to report at Cincinnati.

It was immediately pushed forward to join Gen. Buell’s forces in Kentucky, and on the 8th of October, as part of Gen. Sheridan’s division, was engaged in the battle of Perryville, where it suffered a loss of twenty-seven men killed, wounded, and missing.

With other troops of Gen. Rosecrans’ command it then marched forward to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived Nov. 10, 1862.

On the 26th of December, as part of Gen. Sill’s brigade, of Sheridan’s division, it moved forward with Gen. Rosecrans’ army to attack Bragg, then lying in front of Murfreesboro.

In the great battle of three days’ duration which ensued on the banks of Stone River, during the last day of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, the Twenty-First covered itself with glory; suffering a loss, however, of one hundred and thirty-nine brave men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Among those who relinquished their command on that field and joined the battalions gone before was Captain Fitzgerald, of Company C, who was mortally wounded on the 31st of December, and died at Nashville on the 8th of January following.

In the terrific engagement fought on the morning of December 31st, which was commenced by Cheatham’s, Cleburn’s, and McGown’s rebel divisions of Hardee’s corps, which fell unexpectedly on McCook, who commanded the right wing of the national forces, first Johnson’s and then Davis’ division was driven back in inextricable disorder.

Their defeat was almost simultaneous with the attack, and upon Sheridan’s division of McCook’s corps-composed of Sill’s, Roberts’, and Shaefer’s brigades-devolved the task of checking the impetuous onset of the victorious foe.

This single division, outflanked and surrounded by panic-stricken fugitives, must give battle to three divisions of a triumphant and exultant enemy, and must at least hold them in check until the general in command could make dispositions to meet the terrible emergency.

Most nobly did Gen. Sheridan and his division fulfill their task.

Four times they repulsed the rebel host.

Surrounded, outflanked, outnumbered, in danger of utter destruction, and pressed back into the cedar thickets in their rear, they fought on till one-fourth of their number lay bleeding and dying upon the field,-till two out of three of their brigade commanders were killed,-till every gun and cartridge-box was empty, and then they retired slowly, steadily, and in good order.

As they passed Gen. Rosecrans, while deliberately falling back to make way for reinforcements, Gen. Sheridan was heard to say to his commanding general, with touching pathos, ” Here is all that is left of us, general.”

His men were even then clamoring for ammunition, and an hour later were again in line of battle.

His division consisted of six thousand four hundred and ninety-five men.

They lost in that fearful conflict among the cedars seventeen hundred in killed, wounded, and missing, including seventy officers, two of whom were brigadiers, and the only remaining brigadier fell before nightfall.

After the defeat of Bragg’s army at Stone River, the Twenty-First remained in the vicinity of Murfreesboro, employed on picket duty and as guard for forage-trains, until June 24th, when, commanded by Col. William B. McCreery, it advanced with Rosecrans on Tullahoma.

During July it was located at Cowan and Anderson, stations on the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.

Subsequently it occupied Bridgeport, Ala., under Gen. Lytle, who succeeded to the command of the brigade after the death of Gen. Sill at Stone River.

On the 2d of September the command crossed the Tennessee River, and advanced with the corps of Major-Gen. McCook to Trenton, Ga., whence it crossed the mountains to Alpine, thence made a forced march between mountain ranges towards Chattanooga, and on the 19th of September the regiment was formed in line of battle at Chickamauga.

During the succeeding day the Twenty-First, with other regiments of Sheridan’s division, stubbornly contested the rebel advance on the field of Chickamauga, but with its shattered corps was finally compelled to fall back to Chattanooga, after sustaining a loss of one hundred and seven officers and men in killed, wounded, and missing.

Of the thirty-five missing, twenty-one were known to be wounded.

Among the wounded and captured was Col. McCreery, while Lieutenant-Col. Morris B. Wells was left dead on the field.

Gen. Lytle, the brigade commander, was also killed.

On the 5th of November this regiment, the Thirteenth and Twenty-Second Michigan Infantry, and the Eighteenth Ohio Infantry were organized as an engineer brigade, and from that time until Sherman’s victorious armies marched into the national capital, in May, 1865, the field-services of the Thirteenth and Twenty-First Michigan Infantry were performed side by side, both regiments performing engineer duty for a period of five months, and both being assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, early in November, 1864. (See history of the Thirteenth Infantry.)

At Bentonville, N. C., on the 19th of March, 1865, the regiment was heavily engaged, losing six commissioned officers and eighty-six enlisted men killed and wounded, out of two hundred and thirty present in action.

The Twenty-First participated in the grand review at Washington, D. C., May 24, 1865.

It was there mustered out of service June 8th, arrived at Detroit, Michigan, on the 13th, and on the 22d of the same month was paid and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Field and Staff and Non-Commissioned Staff.

Chaplain Theo. Pillsbury, Hastings; com. Aug. 29, 1862; res. Dec. 15, 1862.

Com. Sergeant Horatio G. Steadman, Thornapple; enlisted Nov. 1, 1864; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Company A.

George Adgate, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Richard Benjamin, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Albert W. Dillenbeck, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Newell Hotchkiss, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Wallace Lovewell, discharged for disability, May 30, 1863.

John Rowleader, discharged for disability, May 13, 1863.

Company B.

Captain L. C. Fitzgerald, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; killed in action at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Perry Chance, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; res. Jan. 17, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Marion C. Russell, Hastings; con. July 30, 1862; res. Feb. 25, 1863.

2d Lieutenant James Houghtalin, Hastings; com. Jan. 17, 1863; res. June 11, 1864.

Sergeant Henry H. Striker, Baltimore; enlisted July 21, 1862; died at Danville, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862.

Sergeant Wm. H. H. Powers, Hastings; enl. July 21, 1862; discharged for disability, May 1, 1863.

Sergeant Jas. Houghtalin, enlisted July 21, 1862; promoted to 2d lieut.

Sergeant Geo. Miller, Hastings; enlisted July 26, 1862; died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 25, 1863.

Sergeant Ilor. G. Steadman, Thornapple; enlisted July 13, 1862; promoted to com. Sergeant, Nov. 1, 1864

Corp. Jas. H. Smith, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 5, 1862; died of disease, May 6, 1863.

Corp. Chas. Miller, Castleton; enlisted July 26, 1862; discharged for disability, March 31, 1863.

Corp. Jas. H. Foote, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 28, 1863.

Corp. John H. Mills, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Corp. Justus Mudge, Castleton; enlisted Aug. 8, 1862; discharged by order, Oct. 2, 1862.

Corp. Wallace W. Stillson, Hastings; enlisted July 26, 1862; mustered out May 31, 1865.

Musician Robt. D. Searles, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; discharged for disability, April 23, 1863.

Musician Leslie T. Mosely, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865.

Wagoner Chas. Loomis, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 9, 1862; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 8, 1863.

Edson Andrus, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863.

W. H. Bennett, died of disease.

Tracy Baldwin, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 8, 1862.

Alfred Baldwin, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 30, 1864.

Daniel D. Brown, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Henry C. Bronson, discharged for disability, March 11, 1863.

Nathaniel Barbour, discharged to enlisted in marine service, March 11, 1863.

George Brown, missing at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 20, 1863.

Americus Barnum, mustered out July 5, 1865.

John Bolton, mustered out June 8, 1865.

David C. Bussell, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863; mustered out Aug. 2, 1865.

James R. Chase, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Alexander T. Cramer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Harrison Carpenter, discharged for disability, Nov. 8, 1862.

William J. Crablb, died of wounds at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1863.

Andrew M. Cure, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 19, 1863.

Henry Demund, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Vinal Dean, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863.

Philander Durkee, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

Asa B. Durkee, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Silas Foster, mustered out June 8, 1865.

John Fisher, discharged for disability, Aug. 11, 1863.

Benjamin L. Francisco, discharged for disability, Nov. 18, 1862.

Leon Fry, discharged to enlisted in marine service, Jan. 3, 1863.

David W. Fry, killed in action at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 30, 1863.

Augustus M. Fontes, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 29, 1865.

James Gibson, died of disease at New York Harbor, April 25, 1865.

Eli Gleason, missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Alfred Gibbs, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James B. Holis, mustered out June 27, 1865.

John H. Hall, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Hoel P. Hosier, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Frederick W. Harris, mustered out July 3, 1865.

Schuyler Heath, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 13, 1865.

Myron Heath, died of disease at Andersonville prison, July 31, 1864.

David D. Hall, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 26, 1863.

Thomas J. Hallock, died of disease at Crab Orchard, Ky.

Lester M. Jones, died of wounds, Jan. 2, 1863.

David Jordan, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Nelson Kilmer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Peter Kilmer, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

John A. Kelly, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 23, 1863.

Edgar C. Leonard, discharged for disability, April 27, 1863.

Francis Mead, discharged for disability, Oct. 12, 1863.

James Moulton, discharged for disability, April 7, 1863.

Francis W. Maynard, discharged for disability, June 18, 1863.

Alexander McArthur, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1862.

Eber C. Moffitt, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1862.

John Mead, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 17, 1862.

Byron H. Melroy, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 19, 1863.

Leonard Mauch, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Lewis Massacar, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

Robert Mitchell, killed in action at Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

James D. Miller, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865.

William Miller, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Nelson J. Millard, mustered out July 7, 1865.

John Osborn, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Joseph Osborn, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Henry G. Orwing, discharged for disability, Feb. 10, 1863.

Adam Pratt, discharged for disability, July 7, 1863.

Henry D. Pierce, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Calvin H. Palmer, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Allen Roush, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Thomas W. Roush, must out June 8, 1865.

George M. Reed, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Frederick Rickle, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1863.

Horatio N. Sackett, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 28, 1862.

Daniel P. Sixberry, died of disease, March 3, 1865.

John Smith, died of wounds at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 16, 1863.

John F. Swaine, missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862.

Silas W. Steelman, discharged for disability, July 22, 1863.

George P. Sweet, discharged for disability, Oct. 16, 1863.

W. H. S. Smoke, mustered out June 12, 1865.

James H. Sawdy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

John C. Spencer, mustered out June 26, 1865.

John Strouse, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Anthony Thompson, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Byron W. Tomlinson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Ansel S. Thrasher, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 6, 1862.

Elisha Tracy, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1863.

William Varney, mustered out June 8, 1865.

George Varney, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Michael Vanderhoof, mustered out July 5, 1865.

William B. Warner, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James Williams, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Isaac B. Wooley, mustered out May 30, 1865.

Company D.

Joseph Kilmer, died of disease at Bardstown, N. Y.

Jacob Young, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Selden E. Turner, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; res. Jan. 13, 1863.

Musician George Croninger, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Feb. 15, 1861.

William E. McConnell, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Benjamin R. Ogden, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Samuel F. Rosencrans, died of disease at Stone River, Tenn., March, 1862.

Company I.

1st Lieutenant Herman Hunt, Hastings; com. July 30, 1862; died of disease, Dec. 16, 1862.

Robert M. Gamble, mustered out June 8, 1865.

James M. Hale, discharged by order, April 15, 1863.

Charles D. Kellogg, died of disease at Lancaster, Pa., Feb. 3, 1862.

MEMBERS OF THE TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company C.

Almon D. Bisbee, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Reuben Fisher, died of disease in New York Harbor.

Frederick Leonard, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Feb. 12, 1865.

Company E.

William H. French, mustered out May 26, 1865.

TWENTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY.

This regiment was recruited during the summer and early autumn of 1864, and finally completed its organization by the consolidation of several partially-formed companies intended for the Twenty-Ninth Infantry.

It left Kalamazoo, under the command of Lieutenant-Col. Delos Phillips, October 26th, and arrived in Louisville, Ky., on the 29th.

On the 10th of November it was ordered to Camp Nelson to guard a wagon-train from that point to Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived on the 5th of December.

The advance of Hood’s rebel army on Nashville soon brought the regiment to face the realities of war, and, under the command of Col. William W. Wheeler, it participated in the defense of that city by Gen. Thomas, from the 12th to the 16th of December, 1864, fully establishing its reputation as a gallant command, and reaching the uniform high standard of Michigan troops.

After the battle of Nashville the regiment was attached to the Twenty-Third Army Corps, which was sent to the Atlantic seaboard to constitute a part of the force concentrating in the vicinity of Wilmington, N. C., to cooperate with Gen. Sherman’s army on its approach to the coast.

The regiment was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division (Ruger’s), and arrived at Morehead City Feb. 24, 1865, and on the 2d of March marched with its division towards Kinston, joining Gen. Cox.

Meeting the enemy at Wise’s Forks, the Twenty-Eighth, commanded by Col. Wheeler, took an active part in the battles of the 8th, 9th, and 10th of March at that point.

On the 8th the regiment was engaged in heavy skirmishing during the entire day and night.

On the succeeding day the enemy pressed Cox’s lines strongly without making an assault, and at the same time attempted to turn his right, but failed on account of a prompt reinforcement, of which the Twenty-Eighth formed a part.

On the morning of the 10th the rebels made a fierce and determined charge upon the left, breaking the lines, but were finally repulsed.

The Second Brigade charged the rebels on the double-quick, driving them back, and taking over three hundred prisoners, among whom were several field-officers.

About two P.M. the enemy made a heavy and desperate onset on the left and centre of Gen. Cox’s lines, but again most signally failed by reason of reinforcements coming up so promptly from the right.

The Second Brigade, among the first to arrive, fought most gallantly for about two hours, when the enemy retired from the field, leaving his dead and wounded and a large number of prisoners.

In this spirited engagement the regiment lost seven men killed and thirteen wounded.

Continuing the march, the regiment reached Kinston on the 14th, and Goldsboro’ on the 21st.

It was then placed on guard duty along the line of the Atlanta and North Carolina Railroad.

On the 9th of April it marched again to Goldsboro’, and on the 13th arrived in Raleigh.

After the cessation of hostilities it was on duty at Goldsboro’, Raleigh, Charlotte, Lincolnton, Wilmington, and Newbern, N. C., until June 5, 1866, when it was mustered out of service.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Adj. Hiram R. Ellis, Saugatuck; com. Sept. 10, 1861; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Non-commissioned Staff.

Sergeant-Major John M. G. Mavers, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 20, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company D.

E. A. Lindley, died by suicide, March 6, 1865.

Henry C. Meeker, died of disease at Alexandria, Feb. 11, 1865.

Company E.

Captain Samuel S. Thomas, Allegan; com. Aug. 15, 1864; res. May 15, 1865. Sergeant

Jeremiah Walter, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 25, 1864; discharged Nov. 1, 1865.

Corp. Wm. A. Lisco, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 31, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Corp. George Cady, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 23, 1864; discharged by order, June 18, 1865.

George W. Cummings, mustered out June 5, 1866.

William Eggleston, discharged for wounds, Aug. 17, 1865.

William French, discharged for wounds, June 16, 1865.

FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS.

John Hamilton, discharged by order, Sept. 3, 1865.

Jacob Killam, mustered out Nov. 17, 1865.

Lyman Lamoreaux, mustered out June 5, 1866.

John Moore, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Ashley R. Nichols, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Alva L. Pierce, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Herman H. Palmer, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Frederick Porter, nust. out June 5, 1866.

James B. Paul, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Peter Sergeant, discharged for disability, April 26, 1865.

Aaron Van Patten, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Allen N. Wait, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Ira Woodstock, died of disease at Alexandria, February, 1865.

Company H.

James G. Lindsley, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 19, 1865.

Company I

Sergeant Charles W. Hoskins, Hopkins; enlisted Sept. 12, 1864; discharged by order, April 7, 1865.

Corp. Lewis H. Fountain, Hopkins; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1866.

Henry Bryant, mustered out Oct. 24, 1865.

Company K.

1st Lieutenant Jeremiah B. Haney, Leighton; com. Oct. 18, 1864; res. Nov. 8, 1865.

2d Lieutenant William Duryea, Lee; com. Oct. 18, 1864; res. July 6, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company B.

Sergeant Isaac J. Brooks, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 2, 1864; mustered out June 5, 1863.

Corp. Charles J. Hanley, Maple Grove; enlisted Sept. 10, 1864; died of disease at Nashville, Jan. 8, 1865.

Emanuel Briggs, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 14, 1865.

Levi Briggs, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Nov. 12, 1864.

Charles Edwards, discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1865.

Isaac Green, mustered out April 4, 1865.

William S. Hyde, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

S. T. Lazarus, mustered out June 5, 1866.

C. R. Palmer, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

Ephraim Trimm, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 13, 1865.

John E. Wilcox, discharged at end of service, Feb. 21, 1866.

Company C.

Theodore Steinkram, mustered out June 5, 1866.

George W. Howell, mustered out June 5, 1866.

F. Havens, discharged at end of service, April 12, 1866.

Company D.

Dallas Downs, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company E.

John Sell, mustered out June 5, 1866.

Company K.

David Pott, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., July 10, 1865.

THIRTIETH INFANTRY.

On account of the numerous attempts made by the enemy in Canada to organize plundering raids against our northern border, authority was given by the War Department to the Governor of Michigan, in the autumn of 1864, to raise a regiment of infantry for one year’s service, especially designed to guard the Michigan frontier.

Its formation, under the name of the Thirtieth Michigan Infantry, was begun at Jackson in November, 1864, and was completed at Detroit on the 9th of January, 1865.

To this regiment Allegan and Barry Counties furnished between sixty and seventy men, who were scattered among various companies.

When the organization was completed, the companies were detached and stationed at different points along the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers,-at Fort Gratiot, St. Clair, Wyandotte, Jackson, Fenton, Detroit, and Detroit Barracks.

But the speedy collapse of the Rebellion put an end to Canadian raids, and the regiment, although the men were ready for service, had no active duty to perform.

It remained on duty until the 30th of June, 1865, and was then mustered out.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Non-commissioned Staff.

Principal Musician Chas. Barton, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 21, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company A.

Corp. Oliver Westfall, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Henry H. Saunders, Otsego; enlisted Nov. 30, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Addison Childs, Otsego; enlisted Dec. 5, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Thos. Baxter, Wm. F. Cole, Clas. Davey, Thos. Jackson,

Samuel G. Mills, Win. G. Stearns, Michael Shaughnessy,

Harvey Sutton, John Shea, Ebenezer Warren, Chas. W. Wood, Wm. E. Yale,

Merrick Zautz, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company B.

Arnson A. Culver, Daniel Wasker, Doctor M. Wasker, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company C.

Mathew J. Allegan, Chas. K. Bowlin, Melvin Eastwood, Harvey McDonald, Jesse Van Camp, Sr., Jesse Van Camp, Jr., L. Van Camp, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company E.

Wm. Curry,

Birney Hathaway, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company F.

Wm. J. Durand, Wm. W. Freese, John McEwen, Edward Norman, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company G.

Leander Fuller, Milford Roosa, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company H.

Sergeant Saml. P. Spaulding, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 19, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Sergeant James R. Londray, Gun Plain; enlisted Nov. 26, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. E. M. T.Silliman, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 19, 1861; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Corp. Jacob Hildebrand, Martin; enlisted Dec. 28, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Wm. A. Bratt, Frederick Bless, Franklin Burlingame, Thos. Carroll, Ralph B. Clark, Nelson Degraff, Marshall H. Ensign, Frederick Green, Gregory Navarre, Sylvester D. Randall, Sylvanus H. Randall, Orlando Ryan, Chas. Williams, Patrick Walch, all mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company K.

Sergeant James Shippie, Overisel; enlisted Dec. 24, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865. Wm. P. Hunter, Chas. Maxon, Andrew J. Parsons, mustered out June 30, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company F.

William P. Fifield, Theodore A. Healey, Silas N. Miller, John H. Rook, Asa D. Rook, mustered out June 30, 1865.

Company I.

1st Lieutenant Geo. M. Brooks, Orangeville; com. Jan. 9, 1865; mustered out June 30, 1865.

FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS.

Organization of the Regiment-Departure for the Front-Service by Detachments-Building Bridges, etc.-Difficulties regarding Pay -Fight at Lavergne-The Regiment defeats Wheeler’s and Wharton’s Brigades-Service in the Summer of 1863-Placed on a Footing with Regular Engineers-Building Bridges in the Winter -Erecting Block-Houses-Importance of the Engineers’ Services -Close of Original Term-The March through Georgia-Through the Carolinas-A Detachment left in Tennessee-It rejoins the Regiment-Closing Services-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members.

THIS regiment, every company of which contained men from Allegan and Barry Counties, was organized under the.law of Aug. 3, 1861, authorizing the President to receive into service five hundred thousand volunteers.

Its original members rendezvoused at Marshall during the months of August and September, 1861, remaining there in camp of instruction, busily preparing for their duties in the field, until the 17th of December, 1861.

It was then, with an aggregate force of one thousand and thirty-two men and officers, commanded by Col. William P. Innes, transferred by rail to Louisville, Ky., joining there the army commanded by Major-Gen. Buell.

From this time it began a series of varied services, principally by detachments.

One of these detachments, then under Gen. O. M. Mitchell, was the first Union force to enter Bowling Green, Ky., after its evacuation by the enemy, and another was at the battle of Chaplain Hills.

During the spring and summer of 1862 the regiment was mostly employed in the repair or reopening of the railroads between Nashville and Chattanooga, Nashville and Columbia, Corinth and Decatur, Huntsville and Stevenson, and Memphis and Corinth, and twice assisted in reopening the road between Louisville and Nashville.

In the month of June, 1862, alone, it built seven bridges on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, each from eighty-four to three hundred and forty feet in length-in the aggregate nearly three thousand feet-and from twelve to sixty feet in height.

After the battle of Pittsburg Landing it was engaged at that point eight weeks in the construction of steamboat-landings, etc., with only one day’s rest.

Serious difficulties existed in the regiment during the first months of its service, owing to a misunderstanding as to the pay the men were to receive, it having been found after their organization that there was no law by which they could receive the pay expected.

This trouble was finally remedied by an act of Congress, which act also proposed to increase the regiment’s strength from ten to twelve companies of one hundred and fifty men each, forming three battalions, each commanded by a major.

Half the men, as artificers, drew seventeen dollars per month, and the others thirteen dollars per month.

On the 1st of November, 1862, the regiment was encamped at Edgefield, Tenn., when the alterations and casualties to that date aggregated as follows:

Died of disease, seventy-five;

died of wounds received in action, two;

killed in action, one;

wounded in action, seventeen;

discharged, one hundred and twenty-four;

taken prisoners, fifteen;

deserted, twenty;

recruits received, sixty-seven.

Until June 29, 1863, the regiment was stationed at Edgefield and Mill Creek, near Nashville, at Lavergne, Murfreesboro, and Smyrna, and at a point near Nashville on the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad.

During this time the regiment built nine bridges, besides a number of magazines and buildings for commissary, quartermaster, and ordnance stores, and also repaired and re-laid a large amount of railroad track.

At Lavergne, Tenn., on the 1st of January, 1863, it was attacked by the rebel Gens. Wheeler and Wharton, who, with a force of over three thousand Cavalry and two pieces of artillery, were compelled to retire with loss, the loss of the regiment in this action being but one man killed and six wounded.

On the 29th of June, 1863, the regiment moved south from Murfreesboro and during the two succeeding months was engaged repairing and opening the railroad from Murfreesboro, Tenn., to Bridgeport, Ala.

Of five bridges completed in July, the one over Elk River was four hundred and sixty feet in length; that over Duck River, three hundred and fifty feet long.

During September and October detached companies were employed in building an immense bridge over the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Ala., constructing commissary buildings at Stevenson, Ala., and building and repairing bridges, etc., on the lines of the Nashville and Chattanooga and the Nashville and Northwestern Railroads; the headquarters of the regiment being at Elk River Bridge, Tenn.

By an act of Congress passed in 1862, regiments and independent companies which had been ” mustered into the service of the United States as volunteer engineers, pioneers, or sappers and miners” were ” recognized and accepted as volunteer engineers, on the same footing, in all respects, in regard to their organization, pay, and emoluments, as the corps of engineers of the regular army of the United States.”

The standard of organization thus established allowed the regiment twelve companies of one hundred and fifty enlisted men each, viz., two musicians, ten sergeants, ten corporals, sixty-four artificers, and sixty-four privates.

The alterations and casualties for the year, to Nov. 1, 1863, were:

Died in action or of wounds, six;

died of disease, fifty-eight;

discharged for disability, one hundred and eighty-nine;

discharged for other causes, fourteen;

deserted, twenty-seven;

officers resigned, ten;

joined as recruits, three hundred and seventy-two;

aggregate strength, nine hundred and sixty-five.

In the months of November and December, 1863, and January and February, 1864, the regiment was engaged in building trestle-work and bridges on the line of the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad, and in the construction of store houses and other buildings at Chattanooga, Tenn., and Bridgeport, Ala., for the quartermaster, ordnance, and other departments of the army.

At the same time one battalion was engaged at Chattanooga in refitting saw-mills, where it continued during the months of March, April, and May, employed in running saw-mills, getting out railroad-ties, building hospital accommodations, and working on the defenses.

Detachments from the other battalions were engaged erecting block-houses on the lines of the Tennessee and Alabama, the Nashville and Chattanooga, and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads.

Two companies were at Bridgeport, Ala., building artillery block-houses.

Two companies were at Stevenson, Ala., completing its defenses, while another battalion was stationed on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, building block-houses at various points between Decatur and Stevenson.

The major portion of the regiment was finally concentrated upon the line of the Atlantic and Western Railroad during the summer months of 1864, where it built and repaired railroads, block-houses, etc.

The task allotted to this regiment during the fierce campaign of Sherman’s army, in 1864, was one of great magnitude, and most nobly did its members fulfill their duty.

But for such men as composed the Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, and the rapidity with which they repaired the railroad right up to the enemy’s skirmish-line, the more than one hundred thousand Union soldiers in front would many times have gone to sleep without their usual rations of “hard tack, sow belly, and coffee.”

As Johnston’s army fell back from one chosen position to another before the fierce attacks and flank movements of Sherman’s veterans, the railroad was invariably destroyed by the enemy, and in a manner, too, that would seem to require days to repair it.

Imagine, then, the surprise and chagrin of the “Johnnies,” when, in the course of a very few hours, a locomotive bearing the legend “United States”,

At the close of the Atlanta campaign, headquarters of the regiment were established in the latter city.

The alterations and casualties for the year were reported as follows:

Died of disease, one hundred and twelve; transferred thirty-six; discharged for disability, etc., fifty; re-enlisted as veterans, one hundred and forty-eight.

On the 31st of October, 1864, the original term of the regiment expired, and such officers as desired to leave the service were mustered out, as were also the enlisted men whose terms had expired.

The re-enlisted veterans, together with the recruits who had joined the regiment, enabled it to maintain its organization entire and nearly its full strength.

From the 1st to the 15th of November, 1864, the regiment, with the exception of Companies L and M, was stationed at Atlanta, Ga., being employed in constructing defenses, destroying rebel works, depots, rolling-mills, foundries, gas-works, and other rebel property, and in tearing up and rendering useless the various railroad-tracks in the vicinity.

After the complete destruction of Atlanta, the regiment set out on the morning of November 16, with the Fourteenth Army Corps, as part of the engineer force of Gen. Sherman’s army; going to Sandersville, Ga., and thence with the Twentieth Army Corps, to Horse Creek, where it received orders to join the Seventeenth Army Corps, with which it continued on to Savannah, Ga., reaching there Dec. 10, 1864.

During this march the regiment was required to keep pace with the movements of the army, traveling over twenty miles a day, and meanwhile was engaged tearing up railroad-tracks, twisting rails, destroying bridges, repairing and making roads, building and repairing wagon-bridges, etc.

On the 10th and 11th of December the regiment built a dam across the Ogechee Canal under the fire of rebel batteries.

From that time until after the evacuation of Savannah by the enemy, the regiment was constantly at work tearing up railroad-track and destroying the rails of the several railroads leading out of the city, and in constructing long stretches of corduroy-road for the passage of army-trains.

On the 23d of December it moved into the city, and five days later commenced work on the fortifications laid out by direction of Gen. Sherman.

These works, constructed by and under the supervision of this regiment, were over two miles in length, and included several strong battery-positions and lunettes.

The regiment was again put in motion on the 3d of January, 1865; marching to Pooler Station, converting the railroad into a wagon-road, and then returning to Savannah.

It embarked on board transports for Beaufort, S. C., January 26, 1865, and on the 31st started with the victorious Military Railroad,” driven by a greasy Northern mechanic, would dash up in their very midst, as it were, saluting them with several toots, and then a prolonged shrill whistle.

The salute, however, as well as the cheers from the “Yanks,” usually, and very quickly, too, received a response in the shape of shells from a rebel battery.

Afternoon and night of Nov. 15, 1864. army on its march to Goldsboro’, N. C.

It moved with the Fifteenth Army Corps to Banbury, S. C., thence with the Twentieth Army Corps to Columbia, S. C., thence with the Seventeenth Corps to Fayetteville, N. C., and thence with the Twentieth Army Corys to Goldsboro’, N. C., where it arrived March 23, 1865.

It is estimated that during this campaign, besides making and repairing a great distance of corduroy-road, the regiment destroyed and twisted the rails of thirty miles of railroad-track and built eight or ten important bridges and crossings.

At Edisto the bridge was constructed under fire from the enemy’s sharpshooters.

At Hughes Creek and at Little and Big Lynch Creeks the bridges and approaches were built at night.

At the last-named stream the men worked in water waist-deep.

A foot-crossing was made there in one night, nearly a mile in length, and the next day the space was corduroyed for the heavy army-trains and artillery to pass over.

The regiment destroyed factories and rebel army supplies at Columbia, rebel ordnance and stores at Cheraw, and the old United States arsenal at Fayetteville, N. C., etc.

Companies L and M, which had been detached from the regiment early in the summer of 1864 and placed upon the defenses at Stevenson, Ala., having completed those works, which consisted of a system of eight block-houses, were retained in the Army of the Cumberland.

They assisted to fortify and defend the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad for some weeks, and on the 28th of November, 1864, were moved to Elk River Bridge.

For some time after that, when not interrupted by Hood’s rebel army, they were engaged in building block-houses between that bridge and Murfreesboro, Tenn.

During the most of the month of December a portion of the Engineers and Mechanics was engaged in completing and repairing Fort Rosecrans, Murfreesboro, Tenn., while the rebels, under Hood, were investing Nashville.

A detachment, consisting of Company L of this regiment, with several companies of an Illinois regiment which had been sent out to bring through from Stevenson, Ala., a railroad-train of supplies, was captured Dec. 15, 1864, after several hours’ hard fighting.

On the 1st of March, 1865, Companies L and M left Murfreesboro, Tenn., to rejoin their regiment, and proceeding by rail, via Louisville, Indianapolis, Crestline, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia, to New York, they then took steamer to Beaufort, N. C., thence by rail to Newbern, and finally joined their comrades at Goldsboro’, N. C., March 25, 1865. Gen. Sherman’s army began its last campaign April 10, 1865.

By breaking camp at Goldsboro’ and moving rapidly to the northward, Johnston’s fleeing forces were pursued to, through, and beyond Raleigh.

The Engineers and Mechanics marched with the Twentieth Army Corps, but proceeded no farther than Raleigh, where they remained until after Johnston’s’ surrender on the 30th April the regiment moved out on its homeward march with the Seventeenth Army Corps.

It crossed the Roanoke River at Monroe, and, passing through the cities of Petersburg, Richmond, and Alexandria, Va., arrived at Washington, D. C.  April 26, 1865.

During the latter part of May, 1865, it participated in the grand review of two hundred thousand veteran soldiery held at the nation’s capital, May 23 and 24, 1865, and then went into camp near Georgetown, D. C.

Early in June the regiment was ordered to Louisville, Ky., thence to Nashville, Tenn., where it was employed upon the defenses until September 22d, when it was mustered out of the United States service.

It arrived at the designated rendezvous, Jackson, Michigan, September 25th, and on the 1st day of. October, 1865, was paid off and disbanded.

The battles and skirmishes which by general orders it was entitled to have inscribed upon its colors were those of Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862; Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862; Lavergne, Tenn., Jan. 1, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 6, 1863; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to Sept. 2, 1864; Savannah, Ga., Dec. 11 to 23, 1864; Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company A.

Charles R. Averill, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Edward Averill, discharged by order, July 18, 1865.

Cvrus E. Babbitt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Hiram Bisby, died of disease at Willets’ Point, N. Y., May 14, 1865.

Theodore Crapey, discharged by order June 6, 1865.

William Degoit, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

David Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Henry Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Samuel Frank, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

0. L. Gleason, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Cyrus E. Goodspeed, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

George H. Goodspeed, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 9, 1865.

Russell H. Jones, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Hugh Johnson, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Riley Miller, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Jefferson Reed, died of disease at Goldsboro’, N. C., March 28, 1865.

William M. Shepherd, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

J. M. Sterling, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Mathias Van Tassell, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company B.

Philip Bovee, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Walter Curtis, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 8, 1865.

Lyman M. Henderson, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 4, 1865.

Myron Heffron, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Elisha Poland, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

George R. Roach, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Myron Sullivan, disch by order, June 6, 1865.

Michael Strayer, discharged by order, May 22, 1865.

William E. Ticknor, died of disease in Indiana, May 17, 1864.

Company C.

Augustus P. Howe, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

William H. Wallace, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company D.

Corp. George H. Fausler, died of disease in Kentucky, Feb. 7, 1863.

David F. Ayers, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Theodore M. Ayers, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Richard Boyle, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Jan. 26, 1865.

Leaider Brewer, discharged for disability, Dec. 11, 1865.

Andrew E. Bates, veteran, enlisted Jan. 3, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Joseph Douglass, discharged for disability, Jan. 18, 1863.

William Everhardt, died of disease at Nashville, March 28, 1863.

Moses H. Fausler, died of disease at Nashville, May 3, 1862.

Samuel Hunter, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

John C. Hirspool, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Leonard T. Kinner, died of disease, March 11, 1862.

Henry Leslie, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Hezekiah Mason, disch by order, June 6, 1865.

Lyman Mathews, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Leroy Root, discharged for disability, July 8, 1862.

Andrew J. Ross, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John Parsons, discharged for disability, March 9, 1863.

Edgar A. Thompson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 3, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Witherell, discharged for disability, June 20, 1865.

Company E.

1st Lieutenant John W. Spoor, Allegan; com. Nov. 3, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, Jan. 1, 1864; Sergeant; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Philip J. Coon, Wayland; enlisted Sept. 11, 1861; discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Amasa B. Carpenter, died of disease, Feb. 25, 1863.

Marshall Darrow, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Francis M. Filkins, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

James Goodspeed, died of disease at Alexandria, May 8, 1865.

Cyrus E. Hollister, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Lucius F. Hill, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Minot Hoyt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Isaac N. Hoyt, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Charles W. King, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Curtis Murray, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Chester D. Walchl, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company F.

Ambrose Mudge, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Jacob W. Ridgely, died of disease in Tennessee, March 11, 1865.

Company G.

Gilbert Eagle, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Henry H. Jennings, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Albert H. Lillie, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William Osman, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Frank F. Russell, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Henry Starring, discharged for disability, June 23, 1862.

Charles Stratton, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Osmer Eaton, Otsego; cornm. Jan. 1, 1864; discharged at end of service, Oct. 26, 1864.

Albert Brundage, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

David Fargo, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Perly Mann, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

George Robbins, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Parker Truax, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Aaron Wing, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Company L

Ephraim Prindle, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

James B. Yeamans, discharged by order, June 29, 1865.

Company K.

Clement C. Bement, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 10, 1864.

John Dean, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Ira S. Harriman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John B. King, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Francis P. Williams, discharged for disability, June 18, 1862.

Robert Williams, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company L.

Sergeant Cornelius Engles, Otsego; enlisted Jan. 1, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Augustus Dean, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William Heydenberg, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Sanford Scott, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company M.

John W. Leoply, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William F, Leoply, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company A.

William Scott, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

Company B.

Charles Dowse, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 24, 1862.

William C. Goodyear, discharged for disability, Dec. 19, 1863.

Company C.

Sergeant Zophar Sidmore, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 14, 1861; discharged for disability, April 17, 1863.

Sergeant Andrew J. Beers, Irving; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; veteran, Jan. 1, 1864; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. L.

Corp. Joseph L. Hewett, Irving; enlisted Sept. 17, 1861; discharged by order, July 14, 1863.

Musician Jonathan R. Russell, Thornapple; enlisted Oct. 9, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 2, 1862.

George H. Brownson, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1863.

Nathaniel Birdsall, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William H. Bayless, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Eliphalet R. Cartwright, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

James Curtis, discharged for disability, Sept. 9, 1862.

Benona A. Cotant, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 15, 1863.

James Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James W. Cutler, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Oliver Cheeney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Darmat, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Frederick A. Fuller, discharged at Nashville, Tenn.

James M. Flanigan. veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Alson Gray, discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Oliyer P. Hewitt, discharged for disability, March 7, 1862.

William Hazen, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Abner Hall, died of disease-at Nashville, Tenn., March 29, 1864.

Solomon Hardenburgh, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 15, 1864.

T homas Haney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865. H

iram Jones, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Horatio Morgridge, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John MeOmber, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 15, 1864.

Orson Myers, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 17, 1864.

Daniel S. Mead, died of disease at Hastings, Michigan, Feb. 5, 1864.

Liberty Marble, discharged for disability, March 3, 1863.

William Morgan, discharged for disability, Nov. 28, 1863.

John H. McLellan, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Theodore R. Mattison, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Francis Nye, veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George W. Osborn, discharged for disability, July 25, 1862.

William Roberts, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Walter Robinson, discharged by order, June 27, 1865.

Mathias Reiser, died of wounds at Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 25, 1863.

David H. Sanford, discharged for disability, April 30, 1862.

Samuel Sweet, discharged for disability, Oct. 6, 1862.

Norman Seaver, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Ezra Sweet, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Charles W. Sheldon, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Edwin B. Sidmore, veteran, enlisted Jan. 2, 1864; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Abel Shepard, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles 11. Stone, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Washington Topping, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jefferson Turner, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Alonzo Van Horn, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

William D. Vaughan, discharged for disability, July 28, 1862.

William Vester, discharged for disability, Jan. 25, 1863.

John Vredenburgh, discharged for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Watson E. Woodruff, discharged for disability, June 3, 1863.

Amos W. Warner, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

James C. Woodruff, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

John Weisert, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Oscar H. Young, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company D.

James H. Gault, died of disease at Ypsilanti, Michigan, May 25, 1862.

Matthew A. Patrick, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1865.

Roswell Webster, discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Company F.

Samuel Gibbs, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Robert Holliday, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Johnson, discharged by order, Aug. 4, 1865.

Albert B. Sayles, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company G.

Edwin M. Bowman, died of disease at Town Creek, Ga., Nov. 24, 1864.

Lewis C. Bugby, died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 16, 1865.

Andrew E. Breese, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Stephen E. Crandall, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Haugh, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Wilson F. Hart, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Southern Monroe, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Levi Palmatier, discharged by order, June 6, 1865.

Company H.

Stephen Downs, discharged at end of service, Oct. 31, 1864.

Lewis Ives, discharged for disability, April 26, 1862.

Company K.

John Jacobs, veteran, enlisted Dec. 31, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. H. Miller, discharged for disability, Feb. 18, 1863.

John Vandermere, died of disease at New York Harbor, May 4, 1865.

Company L.

Andrew J. Beers, 1st Lieutenant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CAVALRY.

The First Cavalry goes to Virginia in October, 1861-Winters in Maryland-Its Battles in 1862-Assigned to the “Michigan Brigade”-Defeats Hampton’s Legion-The New Battalion-Loss in the Wilderness-At Trevillian-At Front Royal, Winchester, and Cedar Creek-In at the Death of the Rebellion-Ordered to the Rocky Mountains-Disbanded in March, 1866-Allegan County Soldiers-Barry County Soldiers-The Second Cavalry goes to St. Louis-Operates on the Mississippi-Services around Corinth Philip H. Sheridan its Colonel-Ordered to Kentucky-A March to East Tennessee-Then to Middle Tennessee-A Fight with Forrest -More Fighting in Middle and East Tennessee-Re-enlistment Resisting Hood’s Advance in the Fall of 1864-Closing Services Officers and Soldiers from Barry County-From Allegan County Allegan County’s Representation in the Third Cavalry-Operations on the Mississippi and around Corinth-A Gallant Achievement Battle of Iuka-Fights in the Winter of 1862-63-Fighting Guerrillas in 1863-Description of that Kind of Warfare-Re-enlistment -Subsequent Services-Ordered to Texas-Mustered out-Officers and Men from Allegan County-Soldiers from Barry County.

FIRST CAVALRY.

The First Regiment of Michigan Cavalry was organized during the summer of 1861, and left its rendezvous at Detroit for the seat of war in Virginia, under the command of Col. T. F. Brodhead, on the 29th of September of the same year.

Among its original members were several from Allegan County, and before the close of the war some fifty men had joined its ranks from the counties of Barry and Allegan.

The regiment passed the winter of 1861-62 in camp near Frederick, Md., and in the following spring entered upon active service on the Upper Potomac, in the Shenandoah Valley, and near the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge.

It was in battle at Winchester, Va., March 23, 1862; at Middletown, Va., March 15th; at Strasburg, March 27th; at Harrisonburg, April 22d; at Winchester again, May 24th; at Orange Court-House, July 16th; at Cedar Mountain, August 9th; and at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862.

In the last-named battle Col. Brodhead was mortally wounded, and the regiment lost twenty men killed and wounded, seven prisoners, and one hundred and six missing.

To Nov. 1, 1862, ten others had died of wounds received in action, and sixty of disease.

After passing another winter near Frederick, Md., the regiment again entered the field, and during the early part of 1863 performed picket duty along the line of Union defenses extending from Edward’s Ferry to the mouth of the Occoquan.

On the 27th June it moved northward in the Gettysburg campaign, and for fifteen days it was almost constantly engaged in conflicts with the enemy.

The First formed part of the celebrated “Michigan Cavalry Brigade,” of which Gen. Custer was so long the commander, and which contributed very largely to the renown of that distinguished Cavalry leader.

At Gettysburg, on the 3d of July, 1863, the First met and charged Hampton’s Legion, consisting of three regiments of rebel Cavalry, and defeated it in six minutes, having eleven officers and eighty men killed and wounded out of three hundred who went into the action.

In September, 1863, the War Department authorized the consolidation of the twelve companies into eight and the raising of a new battalion of four companies.

These were speedily raised, and the new battalion was mustered into service at Mount Clemens, in December, 1863.

This battalion went to Camp Stoneman, near Washington, in December, 1863, and remained there until the spring of 1864.

Meanwhile, the two old battalions re-enlisted, came home on veteran furlough, and joined the new levies at Camp Stoneman.

The three battalions went to the front together, and in the latter part of March, 1864, joined Gen. Sheridan’s Cavalry corps at Culpeper, Va., being still a part of the “Michigan Cavalry Brigade.”

The regiment had ten men killed and twenty wounded in the battle of the Wilderness.

It was engaged at Hanovertown, on the 27th of May, and at Hawes’ Shop on the 28th, where fifteen of its members were killed and wounded, and at Old Church on the 30th, where fifteen were killed and wounded.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with other Cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought, dismounted, in advance of the infantry; having eighteen men killed and wounded.

It shared the fortunes of the brigade throughout the summer; having fifty-one men killed and wounded at Trevillian Station (where six commissioned officers were killed), eleven killed and wounded at Front Royal in the Shenandoah Valley, thirty-two at Manchester, and twenty-seven at Cedar Creek.

During the six months closing on the 1st of November, 1864, the regiment had eighty-two men killed or mortally wounded in action, and one hundred and two less seriously wounded, while only thirty-three died of disease.

After being in quarters with the brigade near Winchester through the winter, the First went with it in Sheridan’s great raid in March, 1865, and was warmly engaged in the closing scenes of the Rebellion.

After this the regiment moved into the edge of North Carolina, then returned to Washington, and immediately after the review of the Army of the Potomac, on the 23d of May, 1865, was sent by rail and steamer to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., whence it was ordered across the Plains.

There was much dissatisfaction, but most of the regiment set out on the march; reaching Camp Collins, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, on the 26th of July.

Its headquarters remained there until about the 1st of November, when it was moved to Fort Bridger.

There it was consolidated with those men of the Sixth and Seventh Michigan Cavalry who had the longest time to serve; forming an organization known as the First Michigan Veteran Cavalry.

Company K was distributed among several other companies.

After the consolidation eight companies were sent to Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, while four remained at Fort Bridger.

The regiment garrisoned those two stations until the 10th of March, 1866, when it was mustered out, paid off, and disbanded.

The men were given their choice,-to be disbanded in Utah then, or to remain till June and then be marched to Fort Leavenworth, without horses or tents.

All but about seventy made the former choice.

The commutation paid them in lieu of transportation, however, was not enough to carry them home, and, on representation of the injustice to Congress, that body voted three hundred and twenty-five dollars to each member of the regiment, minus the amount already paid as commutation money.

This gave each member about two hundred and ten dollars extra, which was duly paid them by the government.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Company A.

John Rutan, (lied of disease at Alexandria, Va., June 10, 1862.

Company B.

Robert W. Martin, mustered out May 14, 1866.

Amos Ruland, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company C.

Miles Wright, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company E.

George Brown, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Aretus E. Black, mustered out March 10, 1866.

James H. Birkhead, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Henry L. Monteith, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Florence Sullivan, mustered out Dec. 5. 1865.

Company F.

Hiram O. Miller, mustered out March 25, 1866.

Company G.

Darius J. Cushman, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Darwin E. White, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company H.

Thomas Hoagland, mustered out.

Origen Hamilton, mustered out.

Company I.

2d Lieutenant Orrin M. Bartlett, Gun Plain; cor. March 7, 1865; killed in action at Five Forks, Va., April 1, 1865.

1st Sergeant Nahum Gilbert, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, July 14, 1863.

Corp. Charles W. Belcher, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; missing in action at Brandy Station, Oct. 11, 1863.

Corp. Otis A. Cackler, Otsego; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 7, 1862.

MusicianThomas Jeffs, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; veteran, Dec. 21, 1863; transferred to Co. L; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Saddler William J. Monteith, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1861; veteran, Dec. 21, 1863; transferred to Co. L; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Company K.

Franklin J. Church, mustered out.

Company L.

Jefferson Brown, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

William Brown, mustered out by order, June 7, 1865.

Horace Dunning, discharged by order, Sept. 12, 1864.

Isaac Furgeson, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Nelson Russ, mustered out Nov. 14, 1865.

Friend Reed, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Thomas Schlayer, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

David C. Smith, discharged at end of service, Aug. 22, 1865.

Company M.

Barzillai Houston, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Johnson Mellott, mustered out July 24, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company D.

Andrew L. Barnum, died in action at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.

Company E.

William D. Mathews, must out March 2, 1865.

Rollin C. Norton, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company F.

Grant H. Van Voorhies, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Company G.

William M. Davis, mustered out Dec. 5, 1865.

Company K.

Alfred Train, mustered out March 25, 1866.

Company L.

Clinton J. Williamson, died of disease at Fort Kearney, July 23, 1865.

FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CAVALRY.

SECOND CAVALRY.

Allegan and Barry Counties were both represented by good men in the Second Cavalry.

The companies comprising this fine regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids early in the fall of 1861.

On the 28th of November, 1861, the Second proceeded to St. Louis, Mo., where it was encamped at Benton Barracks until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined the forces organizing under Gen. John Pope to operate against New Madrid and Island No. 10.

After the capture of those rebel strongholds the regiment proceeded with Pope’s ” Army of the Mississippi,” via the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Hamburg Landing, Tenn.

It was engaged in the battle of Farmington, Miss, May 5, 1862, and in the subsequent siege of Corinth during the remainder of that month.

It pressed closely upon Beauregard’s retreating columns when they fled south from Corinth, and fought them at Boonville, Blackland, and Baldwin, Miss.

Thereafter, throughout the summer of 1862, the regiment was actively employed on various duties in Northern Mississippi and Western Tennessee.

Its colonel was then Philip H. Sheridan, now lieutenant-general, who had recently been detailed fiom duty as a captain in the regular army to receive the colonelcy lately vacated by the promotion of Gen. Gordon Granger.

Col. Sheridan commanded a brigade, consisting of the Second Michigan, Second Iowa, and Seventh Kansas Cavalry, and at its head made numerous excursions through the country around Corinth, to keep down guerrillas and learn the movements of the enemy.

Early in the autumn, however, Col. Sheridan was made a brigadier-general of volunteers and transferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and about the same time the Second Cavalry was sent to Kentucky.

In December, 1862, and January, 1863, it was engaged in a movement into East Tennessee, the men being in the saddle twenty-two days and taking part in several sharp skirmishes.

Soon afterward it moved into Middle Tennessee, and for several months its headquarters were at or near Murfreesboro, while it was almost constantly engaged in scouts and raids through that region.

On the 25th of March, 1863, it had a sharp encounter with a large rebel force under Gen. N. B. Forrest, killing and wounding many and capturing fifty-two prisoners.

The Second had seven men killed and wounded.

On the 4th of June it had another brisk skirmish between Franklin and Triune, Tenn., five of its men being killed and wounded.

When the army advanced from Murfreesboro in June, 1863, the Second accompanied it in the Cavalry division, driving the enemy from Shelbyville, Middletown, and other points.

In the autumn it was engaged in scouting around Chattanooga, at one time being part of a force which chased Gen. Wheeler’s Cavalry one hundred and ninety-one miles in six days (October 3d to 8th, inclusive).

In November it marched into East Tennessee, and on the 24th of December it participated in an attack on a large force of the enemy at Dandridge, Tenn., having ten men killed and wounded.

On the 26th of January, 1864, the Second with other forces attacked a brigade of rebel Cavalry on Pigeon River, capturing three pieces of artillery and seventy-five prisoners, and having eleven of its own men wounded.

Three hundred and twenty-eight of the men re-enlisted as veterans, and in April went home on veteran furlough.

The rest of the regiment accompanied Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, having several sharp skirmishes with the enemy, but being ordered back from Lost Mountain to Franklin, Tenn., where it was rejoined by the veterans in July.

During the summer and autumn the Second was busily engaged in marching through Middle Tennessee, fighting with the horsemen of Forrest and other rebel generals.

On the 5th of November, 1864, the regiment was attacked at Shoal Creek, Ala., by a large Confederate force (a part of Hood’s army, then advancing against Nashville), and was forced back with heavy loss.

It steadily fell back, skirmishing almost constantly with the enemy, and at Franklin, on the 30th of November, it resisted his advance all day, having eighteen officers and men killed and wounded.

After Hood’s defeat before Nashville, the Second pressed hard on his rear, and at Richland Creek, on the 24th of December, charged repeatedly, driving the foe sixteen miles, and having seven men killed and wounded.

After Hood’s final retreat from the State the regiment remained mostly in Middle Tennessee until March 11, 1865, when it set out on a long raid through Northern Alabama to Tuscaloosa, and thence through Talladega to Macon, Ga., where it arrived on the 1st day of May, 1865.

After remaining in Georgia on garrison duty until the 17th of August, the regiment was mustered out and sent home, arriving at Jackson on the 25th of August, 1865, where it was paid off and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Marshall J. Dickenson, Vermontville; c, m. July 31, 1865, but not mustered; Major Sept. 13, 1863; Captain Co. B, May 17, 1862; 2d Lieutenant Sept. 2, 1861; mustered out as major, Aug. 17, 1865.

Company B.

Captain Marshall J. Dickenson. (See Field and Staff.)

Captain Isaac Griswold, Vermontville; com. Jan. 31, 1865, but not mustered; 1st Lieutenant Oct. 1, 1864; mustered out as 1st Lieutenant Aug. 17, 1865.

Company C.

Captain Martin L. Squier, Vermontville*; com. Oct. 22, 1864; 1st Lieutenant March 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant April 15, 1863; sergeant; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Musician Augustus Atkins, died of disease in Iowa, July 26, 1862.

James W. Hotchkiss, discharged for disability, Sept. 11, 1862.

James R. Shadden, mustered out July 26, 1865.

Herman E. Wood, discharged for disability, May 2, 1862.

Company F.

Philip Arthur, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Lorenzo Livingston, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Charles I. McMurray, discharged for disability.

Julius Otto, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Company G.

James Heaton, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864.

Company H.

Henry Parker, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Company L

Franklin Austin, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Myron S. Cook, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Highland Honeywell, discharged at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864.

George Henshaw, discharged at end of service, Oct. 22, 1864.

Richard Hoffenden, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Frank M. Osgood, discharged by order, May 23, 1865.

Samuel N. Woodman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864.

Company L.

John Lamaure, mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE SECOND CAVALRY.

Company I

Corp. Alonzo Mapes, Martin; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; sick in hospital.

Corp. Joseph Lindsley, Otsego; enlisted Sept. 15, 1861; discharged for disability, July 31, 1862.

Albert Brewer, discharged for disability, March 22, 1862.

John C. Bugbee, died of disease at Benton Barracks, Feb. 13, 1862.

Leonard Camhout, discharged for disability, July 31, 1862.

William Fessenden, died of disease at Stevenson, Ala., Nov. 22, 1863.

Elick Elickson, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Seward Harrington, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

Stillman Shepherd, veteran, enlisted Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

THIRD CAVALRY.

This regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids in the summer of 1861, and was there mustered into the United States service, November 1st of the same year.

Company A, which proceeded to the front under the command of Captain Gilbert Moyers, was an Allegan County company, and the same county was also represented in every other company of the Third.

Barry had but few men in the regiment, and they were scattered among Companies E, K, L, and M. Under the command of Lieut Col. Robert H. G. Minty, previously major of the Second Michigan Cavalry, the regiment left its rendezvous Nov. 28, 1861, and proceeded to Benton Barracks, Mo., where Col. John K. Mizner soon after assumed command.

It remained at St. Louis until early in the spring of 1862, when it joined Gen. John Pope’s “Army of the Mississippi,” and actively participated in the operations which resulted in the capture of the rebel strongholds Island No. 10 and New Madrid.

With Gen. Pope’s army it then proceeded, via the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers, to Pittsburg Landing, where it arrived soon after the battle of Shiloh, and took an active part in the advance of Gen. Halleck’s army upon Corinth, Miss.

Immediately after the evacuation of Corinth by Beauregard the Third was ordered to Booneville, Miss., to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy.

While in the performance of this duty a small detachment of the regiment was sent out in advance, under Captain Botham.

It ran on to a rebel force of all arms, drove them from their position, halted, and bivouacked for the night.

The following morning, while eating breakfast, a Union scout discovered the enemy in the vicinity.

The men left their breakfast half eaten, mounted, and hurried forward.

They soon found a small body of rebel Cavalry, who fled before them.

The Union horsemen advanced at a rapid pace, and soon came upon an entire regiment of rebel Cavalry drawn up to dispute their further progress.

There was no time for consideration.

If the little command had then retreated, it would have been attacked and crushed by the elated Confederates.

Captain Botham knew it was essential for Cavalry to get the advantage of its own momentum in a combat, and accordingly shouted the order to charge.

The detachment dashed forward at the top of its speed, burst through the Confederate lines, and then turned and charged back.

The enemy was so demoralized by these movements that no attempt was made to follow.

How many of the foe were killed and wounded was not known, but it was certain that at least eleven were dismounted, for eleven of their horses accompanied the Union force on its returning charge.

After retreating a short distance, Captain Botham halted and sent a dispatch to camp.

About four o’clock in the afternoon he was relieved by the Second Michigan Cavalry, under the command of Col. Philip H. Sheridan.

The latter drove back the enemy four or five miles, and then rejoined the main army.

The regiment was actively engaged in the usual Cavalry duty of picketing and scouting throughout the whole season.

Through the month of August it was at Tuscumbia and Russellville, Ala. On the approach of Price’s rebel Cavalry it returned to the vicinity of Corinth. At Iuka, Miss., on the 19th of September, 1862, while in command of Captain L. G. Wilcox,-Col. Mizner being chief of Cavalry,-the regiment was actively engaged, and was specially mentioned in Gen. Rosecrans’ report of that battle.

When Price and his defeated rebel army retired from the field the Third hung on his flanks and rear for many miles; becoming several times hotly engaged, and causing him repeatedly to form line of battle to check the Union advance.

At the close of the year ending Nov. 1, 1862, the regiment had lost one hundred and four men who died of disease, seven killed in action, forty-five wounded in action, and fifty-nine taken prisoners.

Its battles and skirmishes to that date were New Madrid, Mo., March 13, 1862; siege of Island No. 10, Mo., March 14th to April 7th; Farmington, Miss., May 5th; siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10th to 31st; Spangler’s Mills, Miss., July 26th; Bay Springs, Miss., September 10th; Iuka, Miss., September 19th; Corinth, Miss., October 3d and 4th; and Hatchie, Miss., October 6th.

It advanced with Gen. Grant’s army into Mississippi in November and December, 1862, and engaged the enemy at Holly Springs, November 7th; at Hudsonville, November 14th, where it captured an entire rebel company; at Lumkin’s Mill, November 29th; and at Oxford, December 2d; and shared in the defeat of the Union Cavalry at Coffeeville, December 5th.

The following winter it was on active duty in North Mississippi and West Tennessee.

During the year 1863 the Third Cavalry was principally engaged in the arduous service of driving out the numerous bands of guerrillas which infested Western Tennessee and Northern Mississippi, and repelling the incursions of Confederate forces from other quarters; its camp being most of the time at Corinth, Miss.

There were few very severe battles in this kind of warfare, and few opportunities for winning martial glory amid the shock of charging squadrons, but it tested to the utmost the endurance, the fortitude, and the patriotism of the hardy sons of the West.

Day and night, in sun and rain, the Cavalry was kept in motion.

Often, when all the camp lay locked in the deep slumbers of two o’clock in the morning, the silence would suddenly be broken by the stirring sounds of the bugle, and a moment later the officers would be heard going from tent to tent, arousing the half-awakened men with the orders, “Turn out here, Company B.” “Turn out, Company F.” ” Get ready to march with three days’ rations.”

“Lively now; lively, I say.”

Then would follow a hurried drawing of rations, the filling of haversacks and saddle-bags with coffee, pork, and ” hard tack,” and perhaps the cooking of a hasty meal for immediate consumption.

Presently the bugles would sound ‘ Boot and Saddle,” the horses would be speedily equipped, mounted, and ridden into line, the voices of a dozen captains would be heard in succession commanding “Fours Right-Column Right-March!” and away into the darkness would go the Third Michigan, or the Seventh Kansas, or the Third Iowa, or any two of them, or all of them, as the occasion might seem to require.

Nobody would know where they were going except the field-officers, and very frequently they didn’t; but all sorts of rumors would pass rapidly among the boys: “Forrest is coming to attack the camp ” “Roddy is out here ten miles;” ” Chalmers is raising the devil over at Holly Springs,” etc.

A ride would follow, perhaps lasting two or three hours, perhaps extending through three or four days and half as many nights, and sometimes embracing a period of one, two, or three weeks, during which the bold riders were generally compelled to live upon the country they traversed.

In that half-cleared country there was seldom an opportunity for the dashing charge which one naturally associates with the idea of Cavalry service; but whenever they met the foe, which was quite frequently, both sides dismounted, and a lively skirmish with carbines against shot-guns ensued, which lasted until one party or the other retreated.

The retreating party was usually, though not always, the rebels, for notwithstanding the best Confederate troops, after the battle of Corinth, in October, 1862, were taken away to other sections, leaving only undisciplined bands of what was called ” shot-gun Cavalry” in Northern Mississippi and Western Tennessee, the ” chivalry” fought well.

In such tasks the Third Michigan Cavalry was engaged throughout 1863, taking part in sharp fights (and generally defeating the enemy) at Clifton on the 20th of February; at Panola, Miss., on the 20th of July; at Byhalia, Miss., on the 12th of October; at Wyatt’s Ford, Miss., on the 13th of October.

At Grenada, Miss., also, on the 14th of August, the Third led the Union advance, and, after a vigorous fight, drove back the enemy, captured the town, and destroyed more than sixty locomotives and four hundred cars, gathered there by the Confederate authorities.

In the latter part of January, 1864, the regiment being then in winter-quarters at Lagrange, Tenn., three-fourths of the men re-enlisted, and the command became the Third Michigan Veteran Cavalry.

After the men had enjoyed their veteran furlough the command went to St. Louis in March, 1864, and in the latter part of May proceeded, dismounted, to Little Rock, Ark.

It was not mounted until the 1st of August, when it resumed the work of chasing guerrillas, scouting for information, etc., with an experience similar to that already described.

From November, 1864, to February, 1865, the Third was in garrison at Brownsville Station, on the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad, where the men built such a fine16 I appearing set of quarters and stables that the place was commonly called Michigan City, instead of Brownsville Station.

In March, 1865, the regiment, as a part of the First Brigade, First Division, Seventh Army Corps, proceeded to New Orleans, and in April continued its course to Mobile.

After the capture of that place the Third was on outpost duty in that vicinity until the 8th day of May, when it marched across the country to Baton Rouge, La.

In June it set out for Texas by the way of Shreveport, and on the 2d of August arrived at San Antonio, in that State.

Its headquarters remained at San Antonio until the 15th of February, 1866, while successive detachments were scouting the country, protecting the frontier against Mexicans and Indians.

In February, 1866, the regiment was dismounted, mustered out, and sent home; being paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan, on the 15th of March, 1866, after a service of four years and a half unsurpassed as to hardship and fidelity by that of any other regiment in the army.

It is claimed to have captured during the time over two thousand five hundred prisoners, besides those taken in co-operation with other regiments.

OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Gilbert Moyers, Allegan; com. Aug. 13, 1862; Major, Feb. 27, 1862; res. Dec. 2, 1864. (See Co. A.)

Major James G. Butler, Allegan; com. July 4, 1865; Captain, Sept. 7, 1864; 1st Lieutenant and q.m., Sept. 15, 1862; 2d Lieutenant, May 25, 1862; com. Sergeant, Sept. 2, 1862; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company A.

Captain Gilbert Moyers, Allegan; com. Aug. 28, 1861; promoted to Major, Feb. 27, 1862. (See Field and Staff.)

Captain Thomas Dean, Allegan; com. Oct. 26, 1864; 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1863; 2d lieut., Oct. 1, 1862; enlisted Sept. 1, 1861; res. Oct. 17, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Horace H. Pope, Allegan; com. Aug. 28, 1861; transferred 1st Lieutenant to Co. I, Feb. 27, 1862. 1st Lieutenant

Isaac Wilson, Saugatuck; com. Feb. 27, 1862; 2d Lieutenant Sept. 7, 1861; promoted to Captain Co. K, Oct. 1, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Nathan V. Btuck, Allegan; com. Oct. 26, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 13, 1864; res. June 2, 1865.

1st Sergeant Frank W. Mix, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 1, 1861; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. G, March 26, 1862.

Q.M.-Sergeant George R. Stone, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 6, 1861; discharged by order, Jan. 15, 1863, for promoted in 4th Cavalry.

Sergeant Nelson 0. Moon, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862.

Sergeant Robert W. Helmer, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 12, 1861; discharged for promoted June 27, 1863.

Corp. Martin C. Garver, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; died in Tennessee of accidental wounds.

Corp. Nathan V. Buck, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864, Sergeant; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Corp. William W. Pullen, Allegan; enl Sept. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, July 14, 1862.

Corp. Stephen Odell, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 9, 1861; veteran, Jan. 19, 1864; Sergeant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Corp. William Lawrie, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 2, 1861; discharged for disability, July 24, 1863.

Musician Osteen G. Pike, Allegan; enlisted Sept. 3, 1861; discharged for disability, June 14, 1862.

Farrier Solomon Stanton, Saugatuck; enlisted Sept. 4, 1861; discharged for disability, Oct. 28, 1862.

Wagoner William Fisher, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; discharged for disability, Nov. 10, 1862.

Joseph Agan, died of disease in Tennessee.

Samuel Andrews, mustered out Aug. 25, 1865.

James Alger, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864: mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George D. Bronson, died of disease in Arkansas, March * 1862.

William Bignall, died of disease in Arkansas, Nov. 23, 1864.

Charles Billings, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Lewis Blaisdell, discharged by order, June 2, 1865.

Edgar Blaisdell, mustered out June 7, 1865.

Lorenzo Brown, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Elijah Brown, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Morris Burr, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George Bowman, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Benjamin F. Briggs, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Reuben D. Barker, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Daniel Collins, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

George Cody, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Joshua Cornwell, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1862.

Lucius T. Cobb, discharged for disability, Jan. 23, 1863.

John Cummins, discharged for disability, March 28, 1864.

William A. Cheney, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Ralph Cass, died of disease at Cairo, Ill., July 20, 1864.

William Colon, died of disease at Austin, Texas, July 29, 1865.

Warren K. Carman, died of disease at San Antonio, Texas, Oct. 4, 1865.

Andrew Cochrane, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

James K. Dale, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Seymour Dye, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Horatio E. Emery, veteran, enlisted Feb. 1, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Frederick Edwards, died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 25, 1862.

A. H. Esterbrook, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Albert Fenn, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Theo. Flitcraft, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Joseph Gray, mustered out June 7, 1865.

John Garrison, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Hiram N. Goodell, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Kneeland Graves, died of wounds, April 25, 1863.

Horace P. Haight, died of disease, March 2, 1862.

Washington Howe, died of disease on steamer, June 15, 1865.

Wesley E. Howe, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Jacob Herringer, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Henry Hoak, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Charles H. Jones, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Morris Kent, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Theo. Kleeman, discharged for disability, Nov. 9, 1862.

Bertrand Loomis, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., March 27, 1864.

Isaac Laws, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Ark., July 15, 1864.

Oliver Martin, died of disease at Monterey, Michigan, Sept. 12, 1864.

William H. McCormick, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

William McMillan, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Christopher Martin, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William E. Martin, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John Mocklencute, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged for promotion, March 21, 1865.

Morgan Maybee, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged for promotion, June 5, 1865.

Thomas McQueeny, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Martin Millis, discharged for disability, Feb. 16, 1865.

Bernard McKerney, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 6, 1863.

John Pangburn, died of disease, Sept. 24, 1862.

Alonzo Prentiss, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, July 6, 1864.

Edward Phelan, discharged for disability, March 28, 1864.

George Pierce, discharged for disability, Dec. 24, 1862.

Benjamin C. Palmer, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 18C4.

Benjamin F. Parker, veteran, eul. Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1865.

John Priest, veteran, enlisted Feb. 27, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Charles F. Peck, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Washington Pound, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John Piersons, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Freeman Ross, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Martin V. Reed, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Lyman Reed, discharged for disability, Aug. 26, 1862.

Miles Reed, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1862.

William Rull, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1862.

Charles Ruber, died of wounds at Memphis, Feb. 15, 1864.

Stephen D. Stone, discharged for disability, Oct. 12, 1862.

Edward Slocum, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Seely Squires, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; discharged by order, Oct. 22, 1865.

John Stone, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William L. Stannard, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John H. Sage, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866. Henry Starring, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Edmund Starring, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., April 13, 1864.

Thomas J. Stilson, died of disease at Cairo, Ill., Aug. 8, 1864.

Charles Tiefenthal, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Frederic Wiseman, discharged at end of service, Oct. 24, 1864.

Seth H. Winn, discharged for disability, Nov. 10, 1862. /

Ralph Winn, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David White, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; 2d Lieutenant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Alonzo Wilcox, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Emmett Ward, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Edward Warren,mustered out Feb. 12, 1866. Albert Wilson, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Joshua C. Young, died of disease at New Madrid, Mo., March 8, 1862.

Company B.

2d Lieutenant David White, Saugatuck; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company C.

1st Lieutenant Frank W. Mix, Saugatuck; comm. May 25, 1862; promoted to Captain in 4th Cavalry. Aug. 13, 1862. (See Co. G.)

Company D.

Chas. Hartwell, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Jas. G. Butler, com. May 25, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and q.m., Sept. 15, 1862.

Chas. H. Allen, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Wm. Ballinger, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Almon J. Boyles, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Aug. 2, 1864.

Mortimer Culver, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Columbus Greenman, discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Wm. Orr, discharged by order, Jan. 8, 1865.

John H. Rhodes, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Solomon Staunton, mustered out Sept. 23, 1865.

Company F.

Captain Jas. G. Butler, com. Sept. 7, 1864; promoted to Major, July 4, 1865.

Dennis Considine, mustered out Feb. 12,18t6.

Clias. Deval, discharged for disability, Nov. 1, 1864.

Spencer Deval, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, Aug. 16, 1864.

Clias. Gleason, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

John L. Simpkins, discharged for disability, Jan. 31, 1863.

Company G.

1st Lieutenant Wm. H. Campion, Allegan; com. Nov. 17, 1864; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

2d Lieutenant Frank W. Mix, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, Co. C, May 25, 1862.

Company H.

James Burnham, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Ephraim Gleason, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Adolphus Haire, died of disease at Duvall’s Bluff, July 24, 1864.

John Muunger, mustered out Sept. 23, 1865.

Geo. G. Manning, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Harmon Vosburgh, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company I.

Captain Horace H. Pope, com. June 11, 1862; 1st Lieutenant, Feb. 27, 1862; resigned Nov. 7, 1864.

John Frank, discharged for disability, Sept. 18, 1862.

Israel McCall, veteran, enlisted Jan. 19, 1864.

Company K.

Captain Isaac Wilson, Saugatuck; com. Oct. 1, 1863; honorably discharged June 6, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Chas. W. Tenny, Allegan; com. Nov. 8, 1865; 2d Lieutenant, Jan. 2, 1865; sergeant; mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Stephen M. Finch, died of disease at Chicago, Dec. 18, 1864.

Company L.

Nelson Beer, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Thos. C. McGinley, mustered out Aug. 11, 1865.

Company M.

Ezra D. Barlow, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David Barney, mustered out May 25, 1865.

Robert Buchan, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Henry Earl, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

David Fox, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Albro Gardner, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

James Jones, died of disease in Arkansas, Aug. 29, 1864.

Myron Lighthieart, discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1865.

Silas B. Pike, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Samuel Reed, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

William Shoemaker, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Absalom Walker, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company E.

Francis A. Benson, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., June 28, 1864.

William F. Benson, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company K.

James Ward, veteran, enlisted Jan. 20, 1864; mustered out June 2, 1865.

Company L.

William Ransom, mustered out Feb. 12, 1866.

Company M.

Leonidas Wright, died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 2, 1862.

FOURTH CAVALRY.

The Regiment recruited by Col. Minty-Company L, under Captain Pritchard, from Allegan-Other Allegan and Barry Men-Fighting Qualities of the Fourth-It moves to Kentucky in September, 1862 -Chasing John Morgan-Capture of Franklin, Tenn.-Battle of Stone River-Expedition to Harpeth Shoals-Charging and routing a Confederate Brigade-The Battle of Shelbyville-Col. Minty’s Report-In Advance of Rosecrans’ Army-The Battle in Lookout Valley-Seven thousand Infantry and Cavalry fought all Day by Minty’s Brigade-Full Report by Col. Minty-Covering the Retreat from Chickamauga-Fighting Wheeler’s Cavalry-All but One Hundred and Twenty-Eight Horses worn out by Service-The Regiment remounted at Nashville-Forward to Atlanta-Fight at Tanner’s Bridge-Gallant Service near Kingston-Continuous fighting Brilliant Conflict at Lattimore’s Mill-Repulsing an Overwhelming Force-A Rebel Correspondent praises Yankee Valor-Minty’s Reports-Advancing and Fighting-In the Trenches as Infantry Mounted and off under Kilpatrick-Defeating the Rebel Horse at Fairburn-March to Lovejoy’s-Surrounded by Confederates of all Arms-Cutting out-Minty’s Brigade on the Advance-A Splendid Charge-The Cincinnati Commercial’s Report-In Pursuit of Hood -Routing the Enemy at Rome-A Corporal’s Gallant Defense of a Block-House-The Regiment remounted at Louisville-Once more to the Front-Wilson’s Great Raid through Alabama-Dangers of the March-Arriving at Selma-Its Strong Defenses-The Fierce Attack-Splendid Success-Forward into Georgia-Capture of Macon-Pursuit of Jefferson Davis-Surprising his Camp-Particulars of his Capture-A Stalwart Mother-in-law-” Don’t shoot him” An Unfortunate Rencontre-A Lucky Scamp-A Special Escort to Washington-The Regiment disbanded-Officers and Soldiers from Allegan County-From Barry County.

THE Fourth Michigan Cavalry, which gained such renown in the Department of the Cumberland during the war for the Union, was recruited and organized during the summer of 1862 by Col. Robert H. G. Minty, previously lieutenant-colonel of the Third Cavalry.

It rendezvoused at Detroit, and was there mustered into the United States service, Aug. 29, 1862.

Of its twelve companies, of one hundred men each, Company L, which took the field under the command of Captain Benjamin D. Pritchard, was recruited almost entirely from Allegan County, while the same county was also represented in the field and staff, non-commissioned staff, and Companies A, C, D, E, F, and G. Barry’s representation of less than thirty men was distributed among eight companies.

During its whole term of service it proved a most reliable and gallant regiment.

It was justly proud of its fighting reputation, and accomplished an unusual amount of duty.

In fact, the fighting of the Fourth seems to have been so uniformly vigorous and effective that much difficulty is found in particularizing those engagements in which it was most distinguished.

On the 26th of September, 1862, the regiment left Detroit for the seat of war in Kentucky, receiving its arms at Jeffersonville, Ind.

It at once crossed the Ohio River, and was soon engaged with the redoubtable guerrilla Gen. John H. Morgan.

It was in the advance on the attack on Morgan at Stanford, Ky., Oct. 14, 1862, and pursued him as far as Crab Orchard.

It also led in the attack on Lebanon, Ky., on the 9th of November, five hundred and forty-three of its men pushing in Morgan’s pickets at a gallop, entering the town two miles in advance of the infantry, and driving out the guerrilla leader with seven hundred and sixty followers.

After a short stay at Nashville the regiment marched, on the 13th of December, to Franklin, Tenn., drove out the rebels, thirteen hundred strong, killed, wounded, and captured a number of them, and also captured their colors.

On the 26th of December it moved in advance of the army towards Murfreesboro, and began the fighting at Lavergne.

At Stone River, on the 31st, it charged the enemy three times, each time driving a brigade of rebel Cavalry from the field, and having ten of its own men killed and wounded.

The Fourth was the first regiment to enter Murfreesboro on the morning of Jan. 5, 1863, and from the 9th to the 19th of the same month it was engaged in an important Cavalry expedition to Harpeth Shoals, by which Wheeler’s, Forrest’s, and Wharton’s mounted rebels were driven beyond Harpeth River.

In this movement the men suffered terribly from lack of supplies, cold weather, and constantly wet garments.

During the month of February the regiment was constantly on the move, and captured one hundred and forty-five prisoners, including two colonels and fourteen other commissioned officers.

Numerous other expeditions were made from Murfreesboro during the spring of 1863, in all of which more or less prisoners were taken and stores destroyed.

On the 22nd of May following, the regiment, with two companies of United States Cavalry, charged into the camp of the Eighth Confederate, First Alabama, and Second Georgia Cavalry, at Middleton, Tenn., and after a sharp engagement routed them, taking fifty-five prisoners and destroying their camp.

The colors of the First Alabama were captured by the Fourth Michigan, and are now in the office of the State adjutant-general.

At Shelbyville, Tenn., on the 27th of June, 1863, the success attending the brigade commanded by Col. Minty was mainly accomplished by the brilliant and tenacious fighting of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, then commanded by Major Frank W. Mix. Col. Minty, in his report of this battle, says: – Gen. Benjamin D. Pritchard was born in Nelson, Portage Co., Ohio, in 1835.

He received an academical course of instruction in the public schools, and at the Western Reserve College, in his native State, where he continued to reside until 1856, when he became a resident of Allegan, Michigan

Engaging in the study of law, he completed his course in the law department of the University of Michigan in 1860, and soon after formed a law-partnership with Hon. William B. Williams, late member of Congress, and now commissioner of railroads.

He recruited Company L of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry in the summer of 1862, and was commissioned its captain August 13th of the same year.

From that time until the close of the war he performed most gallant and efficient service, which is described at length in the accompanying history of his regiment.

He was brevetted a brigadier-general of United States Volunteers, to rank from May 10, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services in the capture of Jeff Davis, and was mustered out of service with his regiment July 1, 1865.

He again resumed his law-practice with Mr. Williams, and in 1866 was elected, on the Republican ticket, commissioner of the land-office of the State, and was re-elected in 1868.

In 1878 he was elected State treasurer by the Republicans, over Alex. McFarlan, Democrat, and Herman Goeschel, National. Gen. Pritchard is still a resident of Allegan, and, besides attending to his professional duties, is president of the First National Bank of that village.

At Shelbyville I found myself, with a force of fifteen hundred men, in front of formidable breastworks, with an abatis of over one fourth of a mile in width in front of them, behind which Gens. Wheeler and Martin had an opposing force of four thousand men and three pieces of artillery.

I detached the Fourth Michigan, in command of Major Mix, well to the right, with orders to force their way through the abatis, and assault the works, and if successful to turn to the left and sweep up the entrenchments, promising that so soon as I heard their rifles speaking I would make the direct assault on the Murfreesboro and Shelbyville pike.

They did their work so well that as I entered the works on the main road they joined me from the right, having carried the works and taken prisoners from six different regiments.

The fruits of that day’s work were the whole of the enemy’s artillery and six hundred prisoners, while over two’hundred dead bodies were afterwards taken out of Duck River, into which I had driven Wheeler and his entire command.”

After two or three minor skirmishes the regiment entered Chattanooga, Tenn., on the 11th of September, 1863.

On the 13th, Col. Minty’s command-viz., the Fourth United States, Fourth Michigan, and Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry regiments, and one section of the Chicago Board of Trade battery-marched from Chattanooga and reported to Major-Gen. Crittenden, commanding the Twenty-First Army Corps, at Gordon’s Mills.

The brigade was ordered to cross Mission Ridge into Lookout Valley on the 14th, and on the three succeeding days was employed in learning the enemy’s whereabouts.

On the 18th it was warmly engaged with a large force of the enemy’s infantry, the combat being thus described in Col. Minty’s report:

“At six A.M. of September 18th I sent one hundred of the Fourth United States Cavalry towards Leet’s, and one hundred from the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania towards Ringgold.

At about seven A.M. couriers arrived from both scouts, with information that the enemy was advancing in force.

I immediately strengthened my pickets on the Lafayette road, and moved forward with the Fourth Michigan and one battalion of the Fourth Regulars and the section of artillery, and took up a position on the eastern slope of Pea Vine Ridge, and dispatched couriers to Major-Gen.

Granger, at Rossville; Col. Wilder, at Alexander’s Bridge; Gen. Wood, at Gordon’s Mill; and Gen. Crittenden, at Crawfish Springs.

The enemy’s infantry in force, with about two hundred Cavalry, advanced steadily, driving my skirmish-line back to my position on the side of the ridge.

The head of a column getting into good range, I opened on them with the artillery, when they immediately deployed and advanced a strong skirmish-line.

At this moment I observed a heavy column of dust moving from the direction of Graysville towards Dyer’s Ford.

“I sent a courier to Col. Wilder, asking him to send a force to hold the ford and cover my left, and sent my train across the creek.

As the force from Graysville advanced I fell back until I arrived on the ground I had occupied in the morning.

Here Col. Miller, with two regiments and two mountain howitzers, reported to me from Col. Wilder’s brigade.

I directed Col. Miller to take possession of the ford, and again advanced and drove the rebel skirmish-line over the ridge and back on their line of battle in the valley, where a force was in position which I estimated at seven thousand men, thirteen sets of regimental colors being visible.

“The rebel line advanced, and I was steadily driven back across the ridge.

My only means of crossing the creek was Reed’s bridge, a narrow, frail structure, which was covered with loose boards and fence-rails, and a bad ford about three hundred yards higher up.

I masked my artillery behind some shrubs near the ford, leaving one battalion of the Fourth United States to support it, and ordered the remainder of that regiment to cross the bridge, holding the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania in line to cover the movement. ”

Before the first squadron had time to cross, the head of a rebel column carrying their arms at ‘right shoulder shift,’ and moving at the double-quick, as steadily as if at drill, came through the gap not five hundred yards from the bridge.

The artillery opening on them from an unsuspected quarter evidently took them by surprise, and _.. 4.

I immediately checked their advance, again causing them to deploy immediately checked their advance, again causing them to deploy.

The Fourth Michigan followed the Fourth United States, and the Seventh Pennsylvania the Fourth Michigan, one squadron of the Fourth United States, under Lieutenant Davis, most gallantly covering the crossing of the Seventh Pennsylvania.

One squadron of the Fourth Michigan, under Lieutenant J. H. Simpson, on picket on the Harrison road, was cut off by the rapid advance of the enemy.

They made a gallant resistance, and eventually swam the creek without the loss of a man.

The artillery crossed the ford in safety, and I placed it in position to dispute the crossing of the bridge, from which Lieutenant

Davis’ men had thrown most of the loose planking.

“Here I was soon hotly engaged, and was holding the rebels in check, when I received a note from the officer in charge of my wagon-train (which I had sent back to Gordon’s Mill), stating, ‘ Col. Wilder has fallen back from Alexander’s Bridge; he is retreating towards Gordon’s Mill, and the enemy is crossing the river in force at all points.’

I sent an order to Col. Miller to join me without delay, and on his arrival I fell back to Gordon’s Mill, skirmishing with the enemy, who followed me closely.

“With less than one thousand men, the old ‘ First Brigade’ had disputed the advance of seven thousand from seven o’clock in the morning until five o’clock in the evening, and during that time fell back only five miles.

“On arriving at Gordon’s Mill my men were dismounted, and with Col. Wilder’s brigade of mounted infantry, and a brigade from Gen. Van Cleve’s division, repulsed a heavy attack about eight o’clock P.M.

We lay in position all night within hearing of the enemy, and were without fires, although the night was bitterly cold.

At break of day Gen. Palmer’s division relieved us.

I then moved to the rear and procured forage for our horses and rations for the men, who had been entirely without since the previous morning.”

During the 18th the regiment lost fourteen men, killed, wounded, and missing.

Among the wounded was Captain Pritchard, then in command of a battalion.

The next day it fired the first shots in the disastrous battle of Chickamauga, and subsequently protected the left and rear of Rosecrans’ army and the trains moving to Chattanooga.

On the 20th, while assisting to hold the enemy in check until the shattered Union forces could retire from the field, Minty’s brigade attacked and defeated Scott’s rebel brigade of Cavalry and mounted infantry, driving it back across the creek.

The regiment bivouacked on the ground it had held, but the next day was compelled to share in the general retreat.

On the 30th of September it was driven by Wheeler’s rebel Cavalry near Cotton’s Ferry, on the Tennessee; but from the 1st to the 3d of October the tables were turned, and the Fourth had the pleasure of following its late pursuers with ardor and success.

By the 1st of November, 1863, the service of the regiment had been so severe that only three hundred of the men were mounted.

This battalion was actively engaged on picket and scout duty in Southeastern Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Alabama throughout the winter; the number of mounted men being reduced by the latter part of March, 1864, to one hundred and twenty-eight.

Meanwhile, the dismounted men had been employed in various duties in the same locality, and also in Middle Tennessee.

The regiment, except the one hundred and twenty-eight mounted men, set out for Nashville on the 28th of March, 1864, where, under the supervision of Captain Pritchard, the men received new horses and equipments, and were armed with Spencer carbines.

On the 14th of April, under the command of Major F. W. Mix, the regiment joined the Second Cavalry Division at Columbia, Tenn.

Thence it advanced with eight hundred and seventy-eight men into Captain Pritchard led the advance battalion in this assault.

In Georgia, where the Cavalry began its arduous and dangerous labors in co-operation with Gen. Sherman’s army, which was then advancing on Atlanta.

On the 15th of May the command attacked the enemy’s Cavalry at Tanner’s Bridge, nine miles from Rome, Ga., routing and pursuing them seven miles, when, meeting a superior force with artillery, it retired; this regiment having lost in the affair ten wounded and missing.

From Woodland, on the 18th, seven companies, under Captain Pritchard, were sent toward Kingston on a reconnoissance.

Meeting the enemy’s Cavalry, the detachment drove them several miles, until at length it was stopped by the rebel infantry.

The opposing horsemen then threw themselves on the flanks and rear of the Michigan men, but the latter drew their sabres and cut their way out, with a loss of twenty-four in killed, wounded, and missing.

Crossing the Allatoona Mountains and Etowah River, Col. Minty’s command moved on to Dallas, where it was warmly engaged, and captured many prisoners.

It also participated in all the flank movements which forced Gen. Johnston’s rebel army back from one stronghold to another, resulting in the engagements at New Hope Church and Big Shanty.

On the 9th of June the regiment assisted in driving the enemy’s Cavalry, supported by infantry, to the base of Kenesaw Mountain, capturing a number of prisoners, and on the 12th again encountered the enemy at McAfee’s Cross-Roads, where a line of rebel entrenchments was carried.

Skirmishing with the enemy’s Cavalry was daily continued until the 20th of June, 1864, on which day, at Lattimore’s Mill, on Noonday Creek, two battalions of the Fourth performed one of the most brilliant feats of the war.

A small detachment of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry had crossed the creek, and, becoming hotly engaged with a superior force of the enemy, Captain Pritchard, with two battalions of the Fourth Michigan, was ordered across to its support.

This force had scarcely reached the position assigned it when a whole rebel division, eight times their own number, swept down upon the Pennsylvania and Michigan men, with the evident purpose of driving them back across the creek.

They did not, however, propose to go immediately, so, dismounting and availing themselves of the protection afforded by the inequalities of the ground, they met their assailants with terrific and continuous volleys from their Spencer carbines.

Again and again did the rebels bear down upon them, making desperate efforts to destroy the little force of Unionists, but being as often repulsed.

At length, after holding their ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for more than two hours, they retired slowly and in good order at the command of Col. Minty.

The following extract from a letter published in the Memphis Appeal, at Atlanta, Ga., June 25, 1864, gives the rebel version of this fight, and shows very plainly the gallantry of Minty’s brigade and the immense preponderance of the rebel force: “On the 20th instant two divisions, Kelly’s and Martin’s, and one brigade, Williams’, of our Cavalry, went round to the left flank and ‘The Memphis Appeal was published at half a dozen different places, to which it was successively driven by the victorious Unionists. rear of Sherman’s army, it was said to capture a brigade of Yankee Cavalry situated at McAfee’s.

We succeeded in getting to the right place, where the enemy, Minty’s brigade, was vigorously attacked by Williams’ and a portion of Anderson’s brigade.

After a sharp conflict the enemy was driven from the field, Ilannon’s brigade having come up and attacked them on the flank.

The Yankees fought desperately and fell back slowly, with what loss we are unable to ascertain, as they carried off their wounded and most of their dead.

To one who was an eye-witness, but not an adept in the ‘art of war,’ it seemed very strange that the whole Yankee force was not surrounded and captured.

Dibrell’s brigade was drawn up a few hundred yards from and in full view of the battle-ground, with Martin’s whole division immediately in the rear.

This is one of the best fighting brigades the Yankees have, and to have captured or routed it would have added a bright feather to the plume of the successful hero accomplishing the feat.

After he (Minty) had been driven from his first position, Martin’s whole division was brought up, and lost several men of Allen’s brigade.

Brig.-Gen. Allen had his horse shot.

The Eighth Confederate and Fifth Georgia of Anderson’s brigade lost several killed and wounded.

Williams’ Kentucky brigade also lost several good soldiers.”

Col. Minty, in his report, after quoting this statement, added:

“According to the above, there was the following rebel force in the field: Kelly’s and Martin’s divisions, consisting of the brigades of Anderson, six regiments; Hannon’s, five regiments; Allen’s, five regiments; and Johnson’s, five regiments; and the independent brigades of Williams and Dibrell, composed of five regiments each; say in all, thirty-one regiments, of which the Fifth Georgia numbered over eight hundred.

The entire force I had engaged was, of the Seventh Pennsylvania one hundred and seventy men, and of the Fourth Michigan two hundred and eighty-three; in all, four hundred and fifty-three.

These few men held their ground against the repeated assaults of the enemy for over two hours, and when I ordered them to fall back, they retired slowly, in good order.

I beg to call the attention of the general commanding to the heavy loss sustained by this small force.

In a loss of over twelve per cent., the very small proportion reported missing shows how steadily and stubbornly they fought.”

In a note appended to this report, Col. Minty said: “My loss in this engagement was two officers and sixty-five men.

The Marietta (Ga.) papers acknowledge a loss of ninety-four killed and three hundred and fifty-one wounded.

Two battalions of the Fourth Michigan repulsed three sabre charges made by the Eighth Confederate and Fifth Georgia, numbering over one thousand men, and one battalion led by Captain Hathaway repulsed a charge made by Williams’ Kentucky brigade by a counter-charge.”

Of the two hundred and eighty three officers and men of the Fourth engaged at Lattimore’s mill, thirty-seven were killed and wounded, and three were reported missing, Lieutenant T. W. Sutton being among the killed.

Having crossed the Chattahoochee River, the regiment, under the command of Major F. W. Mix, participated in a constant succession of raids and fights until the 1st of August, 1864, during which many miles of railroad-track and many bridges were destroyed, thus impeding the operations of the enemy and facilitating those of Gen. Sherman, who had steadily advanced to the front of Atlanta.

From the 1st to the 14th of August it was employed as infantry, occupying a portion of the trenches before the besieged city. Col. Minty’s brigade then received orders to report to Gen. Kilpatrick.

At one o’clock on the morning of the 18th the command broke camp, and quietly moved out to the rendezvous of the expedition at Sandtown, arriving there at six A.M.

The movement was commenced under cover of darkness, to prevent, if possible, any information being obtained by the enemy, yet a rebel letter captured on the 20th, dated at Atlanta on the 18th, gave the number of Minty’s command and the destination of the raiders.

Gen. Kilpatrick’s force consisted of the Third Cavalry Division, commanded by himself in person, and Minty’s and Long’s brigades of the Second Cavalry Division, in all some five thousand men, with two sections of the Chicago Board of Trade Battery.

On the evening of the 19th the combined forces moved out toward the West Point Railroad, which was reached near Fairburn, where the first rebel assault was made.

Ross’ and Ferguson’s brigades of rebel Cavalry struck the Union column on the left flank with so much force as to cut the Seventh Pennsylvania in two, but it was immediately reinforced by the Fourth Michigan, when a vigorous and irresistible attack was made on the enemy, driving him from the ground in great disorder.

The rebels were pursued to Flint River, and finally into the town of Jonesboro’, two thirds of the town being destroyed by fire.

While this was being done the rebel Cavalry was reinforced by a brigade of infantry.

Kilpatrick’s main object being to destroy the railroad rather than to whip the enemy, except when necessary in the execution of his purpose, he left Jonesboro’ and marched directly toward Lovejoy’s Station, on the Macon road.

At a point one and one-half miles from the station the command began destroying the railroad.

In the mean time the enemy was hurrying forward heavy bodies of troops by rail from Atlanta and Macon, and ere much time had elapsed Kilpatrick was surrounded by from eighteen to twenty thousand rebel troops of all arms, commanded by Gens. Cleburn, Reynolds, Jackson, Armstrong, Ferguson, and Ross.

The position of Gen. Kilpatrick’s force and the overpowering numbers opposing him rendered his condition most critical, leaving him to choose between surrender and the imminent prospect of destruction in the effort to extricate himself.

He chose the latter alternative, and Minty’s brigade was instantly formed in a line of regimental columns to lead the charge.

The Seventh Pennsylvania was on the right, the Fourth Michigan in the centre, and the Fourth United States on the left, with Long’s brigade in the rear, and the Third Division, under Kilpatrick, on the left of the road.

The advancing enemy was immediately charged upon by Minty’s men, who, with drawn sabres, burst through the ranks of the rebels like a whirlwind, chasing them off the field, opening the way for the safe passage of other commands and the accomplishment of the objects of the expedition.

A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial described this charge of Minty’s brigade as follows:

“While the various regiments were being maneuvered into position to meet the onslaught of the rebels, who were sweeping down upon them, the men had time to comprehend the danger that surrounded them,-rebels to the right of them, rebels to the left of them, rebels in rear of them, rebels in front of them; surrounded, there was no salvation but to cut their way out.

Visions of Libby prison, Andersonville, and starvation flitted through their imagination, and they saw that the deadly conflict could not be avoided.

Placing himself at the head of his brigade, the gallant and fearless Minty drew his sabre, and his voice rang out clear and loud: ‘Attention, column! Forward, regulate by the centre regiment, trot, March!-gallop, march!’ and away the brigade went with a yell that echoed away across the valleys.

“The ground from which the start was made, and over which they charged, was a plantation of about two square miles, thickly strewn with patches of woods, deep water-cuts, fences, ditches, and morasses.

At the word away went the bold dragoons at the height of their speed.

Fences were jumped, and ditches were no impediment.

The rattle of the sabres mingled with that of the mess-kettles and frying-pans that jingled at the side of the pack-mule brigade, which was madly urged forward by the frightened darkies who straddled the animals.

Charging for their lives and yelling like devils, Minty and his troopers encountered the rebels behind a hastily constructed barricade of rails.

Pressing their rowels deep into their horses’ flanks, and raising their sabres aloft, on, on, on, nearer and nearer to the rebels they plunged.

The terror-stricken enemy could not withstand the thunderous wave of men and horse that threatened to engulf them.

They broke and ran just as Minty and his men were urging their horses for the decisive blow.

In an instant all was confusion.

The yells of the horsemen were drowned in the clashing of steel and the groans of the dying.

On pressed Minty in pursuit, his men’s sabres striking right and left, and cutting down everything in their path.

The rebel horsemen were seen to reel and pitch headlong to the earth, while their frightened steeds rushed pell-mell over their bodies.

Many of the rebels defended themselves with almost superhuman strength; but it was all in vain.

The charge of Federal steel was irresistible.

The heads and limbs of some of the rebels were actually severed from their bodies.

It was, all admit, one of the finest charges of the war.

The individual instances of heroism were many.

Hardly a man flinched, and when the brigade came out more than half the sabres were stained with human blood.”

The command reached Lithonia on the 21st; having made a circuit around Atlanta and the rebel armies, and having been in the saddle, and almost constantly engaged, since early in the morning of the 18th.

After the fall of Atlanta the regiment moved northward, and on the 4th of October, 1864, joined its division-the Second-at Marietta, Ga., with which it started in pursuit of Hood’s rebel army, then on its way into Middle Tennessee; having had numerous skirmishes with its rear-guard.

One of the sharpest of these encounters occurred near Rome, Ga., on the 13th of October.

A body of Union troops was occupying Rome, and a force of mounted rebels undertook to drive it out.

While a brisk skirmish was going on, Minty’s brigade crossed the Oostenaula River and made a sabre charge on the flank of the Confederates.

The latter fled in the utmost confusion.

The Unionists rode over a rebel battery, captured it in an instant, and then pursued the enemy several miles, capturing many prisoners, and sabring those who resisted.

The Fourth Michigan alone took one hundred and twenty-eight prisoners, which was about the number of the mounted men in the regiment; nearly all the horses having been worn out by the severity of the service.

The regiment, in pursuit of Hood’s forces, then re-crossed the Oostenaula and marched, vid Rome, Kingston, Adairsville, Resaca, Summersville, and Galesville, Ala., to Little River, where, on the 20th, it engaged Wheeler’s Cavalry; forcing the enemy to retire.

Meanwhile the dismounted men, whose horses had been killed and worn out by the arduous service of the past six months, were sent to the rear from time to time, and employed in garrisoning block-houses on the line of the Nashville and Huntsville Railroad.

On the 17th of September, 1864, Corp. Charles M. Bickford and seventeen men of the regiment, stationed in a block-house, were attacked by Wheeler’s rebel Cavalry, a force of several thousand, with artillery, but, although the assailants shelled the blockhouse for over five hours, they could not compel the gallant little squad to surrender, and finally retired, after having eight men killed and sixty wounded.

The corporal was promoted to be a commissioned officer, and the names of his men were honorably mentioned in general orders.

After the fight at Little River, before mentioned, the mounted men of the regiment, then numbering but about one hundred, transferred their horses to the Third Brigade, and proceeded to Louisville, Ky.

The dismounted men also concentrated at the same point.

They remained there until the latter part of December, 1864, being in the mean time remounted and furnished with new Spencer seven-shot carbines.

On the 28th of December, commanded by Lieutenant-Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard, the Fourth again moved southward, with twenty-six officers and six hundred and ninety-six enlisted men.

It proceeded by way of Nashville to Gravelly Springs, Ala., where it remained until the 12th of March, 1865.

Here its members suffered severely for want of rations, and were obliged to live on parched corn for several days.

On the latter day the regiment broke camp, and set out on Gen. Wilson’s great Cavalry movement through Alabama and Georgia.

Four divisions of Cavalry stretched in an almost interminable line as the command made its way southward over mountains, rivers, creeks, and swamps, building miles of corduroy-roads, etc.

It crossed the Black Warrior River on the 29th of March by swimming the horses, losing one man and from thirty to forty horses.

During the night the Locust was crossed in the same manner, and on the 31st Shades Creek and the Cahawba River was crossed by passing the accompanying battery over the railroad bridge, which was temporarily floored with ties; five or six horses and mules being killed by falling nearly a hundred feet from the bridge to the river.

The enemy’s Cavalry under Forrest was encountered and defeated at Mulberry Creek on the 1st of April, and on the 2d, Minty’s brigade, being in the advance, started at four A.M. on the direct road to Selma; arriving in front of that place at two o’clock P.M.

This, the chief city of Central Alabama, was surrounded by two lines of bastioned entrenchments.

The works were found to be stronger and more perfect than those at Atlanta; consisting of an inner line of redans and redoubts, mounted with 12-pounder howitzers and 20-pounder Parrots.

The main and outer line, which extended entirely around the city from river to river, consisted of twenty-five redoubts or bastions connected by curtains, the parapet being about twelve feet high and surrounded by a ditch and well-built palisade, in front of which was swampy ground, partially covered with abatis.

These works were defended by Gen. Forrest with a force estimated at nine thousand.

The Second Division, in which was the Fourth Michigan, was ordered to assault the works on the Summerville road, and the Fourth Division those on the Plantersville road.

About the time the assault was to take place, the rebel Gen. Chalmers attacked the rear of the Second Division.

Three regiments were detached to oppose him; the remainder, including the Fourth Michigan, swept forward to the assault.

Besides the men holding the horses, the force resisting Chalmers, and other detachments, there were about fifteen hundred men of the Second Division in the assaulting column.

These moved forward under a terrific fire from the breastworks, which was followed by a swift succession of volleys from the Spencer carbines of the Unionists steadily aimed at the top of the parapet.

Col. Long, the division commander, was shot in the head at the beginning of the assault, and Col. Minty,* of the Fourth Michigan, assuming command, led the division against the works.

Increasing their pace, the Unionists dashed forward with resounding cheers, swarmed into the ditch and over the breastworks, killed, captured, or drove away the rebels almost in an instant, and took possession of the enemy’s main line in twenty minutes after the first advance.

Three hundred and twenty-four out of the fifteen hundred assailants were killed and wounded in this brief period.

The inner line of works was also taken by the Second Division by the time the Fourth Division arrived at the outer line.

The result of the whole operation was the capture of one hundred pieces of artillery, two thousand eight hundred prisoners, and an immense amount of ammunition and stores.

On the 7th of April the command moved eastward; passing through Montgomery and Columbus into Georgia.

A portion of Minty’s brigade,-the Fourth Michigan and Third Ohio, commanded by Lieutenant-Col. Pritchard, marched all the night of the 17th of April to save the double bridges over the Flint River, reaching them early in the morning of the 18th, when a gallant sabre charge was made by one battalion of the Fourth Michigan, which carried the bridges and captured every man of the rebel force left to destroy them.

The Second Division, which was in the advance, after a rapid march of twenty-seven miles on the 20th of April, was met some twelve or fifteen miles from Macon, Ga., by a rebel officer with a flag of truce, who informed Col. Minty that an armistice had been stipulated between the contending armies, and requested him not to enter Macon. Col. Minty immediately reported the matter to Gen. Wilson, and awaited orders.

The general replied that he had no notification of any armistice existing and that he should not stay out of Macon; and ordered Col. Minty to move forward.

Thereupon Col. Minty said to the rebel officer, ‘ I will give you five minutes start (taking out his watch) in returning to Macon, and you had better make good use of it.”

The officer and his escort set out on the gallop.

Col. Minty sat on his horse, watch in hand, until the five minutes had elapsed, when he returned the watch and gave the order:

” Forward! Gallop, March!”

The division dashed forward, in thundering column, toward Macon.

Over hill and down dale it pursued its headlong course.

The flag-bearers were run down and passed; some small detachments stationed along the road were swept away like chaff, and at six p.M. the division dashed forward.

It is reported that Col. Minty was the first man to get inside the enemy’s works alive.

In this charge the Fourth United States and Third Ohio were at first repulsed, but the Fourth Michigan, under Lt.-Col. Pritchard, pressed steadily onward, and were the first to leap over the works.

On into Macon, where it received the unconditional surrender of Gen. Howell Cobb and about two thousand men, with sixty-two pieces of artillery.

Being there officially notified of the surrender of the rebel armies under Lee and Johnston, Gen. Wilson stayed the farther advance of his corps.

Gen. Cobb was highly indignant at the unceremonious manner in which the Union officers possessed themselves of Macon, and gave it as his opinion that when the matter was referred to the proper headquarters the Union troops would be ordered to withdraw.

On the other hand, Gen. Wilson replied in most emphatic language that when his troops left the city, under such circumstances, there would not remain one brick upon another.

On the 7th of May the Fourth Michigan, four hundred and forty strong, under Lieutenant-Col. Pritchard, left Macon for the purpose of capturing Jefferson Davis and his party, who were known to be making their way toward the coast.

Having struck the trail of the fugitives at Abbeville on the 9th of May, Col. Pritchard selected one hundred and fifty-three of his best-mounted officers and men, and moved rapidly by a circuitous route to intercept them.

At Irwinsville, at one o’clock in the morning of the 10th of May, the colonel learned that a train, which probably belonged to Davis, was encamped a mile and a half distant.

Moving out into the vicinity of the camp, he sent Lieutenant Purinton, with twenty-five men, to wait on the other side of it.

At daybreak Col. Pritchard and his men advanced silently, and without being observed, to within a few rods of the camp, then dashed forward and secured the whole camp before the astonished inmates could grasp their weapons, or even fairly arouse themselves from their slumbers.

A chain of mounted guards was immediately placed around the camp, and dismounted sentries were stationed at the tents and wagons.

While this was going on, Corporal George M. Munger, of Company C, and Private Andrew Bee, of Company L, observed two persons in women’s dress moving rapidly away from one of the tents.

“That ought to be attended to,” said one of the soldiers.

Yes,” replied the other; and Munger immediately rode around in front of the two persons and ordered a “Halt!”

“This is my mother-in-law,” said one of them; “she is going after some water; can’t you let her pass?”

Her companion, a tall person, much bent, wrapped in a woman’s “water-proof,” with a shawl over the head and a pail in one hand, remained silent.

“No, you can’t pass,” replied Munger.

At that moment other soldiers rode up, and the hitherto silent personage, seeing that further disguise was useless, straightened up, dropped the pail, threw off the water-proof and shawl, and disclosed a tall, thin, sharp-faced, sour-looking man, with gray hair, gray whiskers under his chin, and one blind eye.

No one at first seemed to recognize in this forlorn fugitive the renowned chief of the defunct Confederacy.

Mrs. Davis, however (for she was his companion), had her wifely fears aroused by the grim faces and clanking arms around her, and threw her arms around her husband’s neck, exclaiming, “Don’t shoot him! Don’t shoot him!”

“ I’ll Let them shoot,” said Davis, “if they choose; I may as well die here as anywhere.”

But no one was inclined to be his executioner, and the squad, with the two prisoners, moved back toward the tents.

Mrs. Davis, when questioned, admitted that her companion was the ex-President of the Confederacy.

Meanwhile Col. Pritchard had taken the greater part of the force and gone to the assistance of Lieutenant Purinton, in whose front heavy firing was heard.

It proved to come from a most unfortunate rencontre with a detachment of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, which was also in pursuit of Davis, and the advance-guard of which began firing on Purinton’s men before ascertaining who they were.

After this error was discovered (which was not until several men had been killed and wounded), Col. Pritchard returned to camp and discovered that, besides Davis, his wife, and four children, his command had also captured two of his aides de-camp, his private secretary, several other Confederate officers, thirteen private servants, waiting-maids, etc., making a total of about thirty persons.

As he rode up, Col. Pritchard was accosted by Davis, who asked if he was the officer in command.

The colonel said he was, and asked how he should address his interlocutor. “Call me what or whoever you please,” said the rebel chieftain.

“Then I shall call you Davis,” replied Pritchard.

After a moment’s hesitation the former admitted that that was his name.

He then suddenly drew himself up with great dignity and exclaimed, “I suppose you consider it bravery to charge a train of defenseless women and children; but it is theft; it is vandalism.”

Without stopping to inquire whether the distinguished prisoner considered himself a woman or a child, the colonel set out with his command for Macon, joining the rest of the regiment on the way.

The lucky man of the expedition was one Michael Lynch, (A worthless, quarrelsome, unprincipled fellow.) and deserter from the Confederate army, who had enlisted in the Fourth Michigan.

He secured a pair of saddle-bags containing five thousand dollars in Confederate gold.

Although vigilant search was made for it by the officers, he managed to conceal it, got out of camp with it, and buried it.

He was strongly suspected from various circumstances of being the person who had it, and the acting adjutant-general of the brigade endeavored to persuade him to give it up, saying it would certainly be found, and then he would lose it, but if he would give it up he (the officer) would use his influence to have it, or a part of it, given back to him.

“Well now, captain,” said Lynch, with great apparent frankness, “I haven’t got that money, but if had it I shouldn’t be green enough to give it up.”

“Why, what could you do with it?” queried the officer.

“What could I do with it?” replied Lynch; “why, I would bury it, and after I was discharged I would come back and dig it up.

But then I haven’t got it.”

And this was precisely what he had done, and what after his discharge he did do.

From Macon, Col. Pritchard, with twenty-five officers and men, was ordered to Washington, as a special escort for Davis and his party.

While this party went to Washington (giving Mr. Davis into the custody of the commandant at Fortress Monroe), the rest of the regiment returned, by way of Atlanta and Chattanooga, to Nashville, where it was mustered out and paid off on the 1st of July, 1865.

It reached Detroit on the 10th of the same month.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Those marked with an asterisk were present at the capture of Davis.

Field and Staff.

Lieutenant-Col. Benj. D. Pritchard,* Allegan; com. Nov. 26, 1864; bvt. brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. May 10, 1865, “for faithful and meritorious services in the capture of Jeff. Davis;” mustered out. with regiment, July 1, 1865.

Major Frank W. Mix, Allegan; com. Feb. 18, 1863; Captain Aug. 13, 1862; 1st Lieutenant 3d Cavalry., May 25, 1862; res. Nov. 24, 1864.

1st Lieutenant and Q.-M. Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. March 18, 1863; promoted Captain Co. A, Aug. 25, 1864.

1st Lieutenant and Q.M. Perry J. Davis,* Allegan; com. Aug. 23, 1864; bvt. Captain U. S. Vols. May 10, 1865, “for meritorious services in the capture of Jeff. Davis;” mustered out July 1, 1865.

Noncommissioned Staff.

Com.-Sergeant Harlan P. Dunning, Allegan; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Principal Musician John B. Champion, Allegan; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company A.

Captain Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. Aug. 25, 1864; 1st Lieutenant and q.m. March 18, 1863; mustered out July 1, 1865.

1st Lieutenant Thos. J. Parker, Allegan; com. Feb. 18, 1863; 2d Lieutenant Co. L, Aug. 1, 1862; res. Dec. 21, 1864.

Madison Bipler, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

Gilbert Haight, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Marion Hicks, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 12, 1864.

Daniel Hendrick, died of disease at Nashville, Feb. 4, 1864.

John Nero, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company C.

Peter Semyn, died of disease at Nashville, July 21, 1865.

Andrew I. Shepherd, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company D.

2d Lieutenant Chas. W. Fisk, Allegan; com. Dec. 6, 1863; Sergeant Co. L; promoted 1st Lieutenant Co. H, Aug. 1, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company E.

Geo. W. Banks, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

Sherman Egan, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company F.

Captain John H. Simpson, Allegan; com. Dec. 10, 1864; 1st. lieutenant Aug. 23, 1863; 2d Lieutenant March 31, 1863; Sergeant Co. L; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company G.

Timothy C. Green, mustered out. Hiram Comstock, died of disease at Chattanooga, June 13, 1864.

Company L.

Captain Benj. D. Pritchard, Allegan; com. July 25, 1862; promoted Lieutenant-col. Nov. 26, 1864.

1st Lieutenant Isaac Lamoreaux, Allegan; com. Aug. 4, 1862.

1st Lieutenant Geo. R. Stone, Allegan; com. March 1, 1863; apt. Q.M., March 18, 1863.

2d Lieutenant Thos. J. Parker, Allegan; com. Aug. 1, 1862; promoted 1st Lieutenant, Co. A. 2d Lieutenant

Samuel F. Murphy, Allegan; com. Jan. 18, 1865; mustered out July 1, 1865.

1st Sergeant John F. Beebe, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Q.M. Sergeant John H. Simpson, Allegan; enlisted July 26, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company F.

Com.-Sergeant Orson D. Dunham, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, March 18, 1863.

Sergeant Chas. W. Fisk, Allegan; enlisted July 31, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Company B.

Sergeant Hiram B. Hudson, Allegan; enlisted July 21, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sergeant Francis L. Hickock, Allegan; enlisted July 28, 1862; discharged by order, June 7, 1865.

Sergeant Silas F. Stauber, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; discharged for promotion, May 22, 1864.

Sergeant Samuel F. Murphy, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862q promoted 2d Lieutenant

Sergeant Chas. Carter, Allegan; enlisted July 30, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 1864.

Corp. Samuel S. Baldwin, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; discharged Feb. 16, 1863.

Corp. Horatio N. Price, Allegan; enlisted July 21, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, March 5, 1863.

Corp. Alex. Hurd, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 1, 1862; Wagoner; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Corp. Elijah Wilcox, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, Feb. 20, 1863. 17

Corp. Chas. L. Knight, Allegan; enlisted July 26, 1862; sergeant; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Corp. Alvah C. Fisk, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 2, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Farrier Wm. Pulcipher, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; died at Bowling Green, Ky.

Farrier Jesse S. Penfield, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Saddler Wilts H. Williams, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 7, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Teamster Jonathan Brewer, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 4, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863.

Wagoner Jos. Hofmaster, Allegan; enlisted July 25, 1862; quartermaster-sergeant; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Allen Ash, mustered out July 1, 1865′

Jacob I. Bailey, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Bentley, discharged by order, June 19, 1865.

Wm. H. Baker, discharged for disability, Oct. 19, 1863.

Bradley M. Bates, discharged for disability, June 5, 1863.

Henry C. Braman, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

David Beck, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Miles Bidwell, died of disease at Allegan, Feb. 2, 1865.

Alonzo C. Burnham, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Andrew Bee, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Elijah Cummins, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Benj. K. Colt,* Sergeant, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edward R. Crawford, died of disease in Michigan, Jan. 28, 1863.

David V. Davidson, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Dec. 1, 1862.

Herbert H. Davidson, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., March 5, 1863.

John C. Everts, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863.

Henry C. Edgerton, discharged by order, May, 1865.

Andrew T. Foote, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 10, 1863.

Alexander Fry, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

Leander J. Fields, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1862.

Jas. M. Flowers, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Chas. H. Gurney, discharged Dec. 10, 1862.

Lewis C. Goodrich, discharged for disability, March 11, 1863.

Martin J. Guyot, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1862.

Abner B. Hughes, died of disease at New Albany, Ind., June 13, 1863.

Edwin C. Hughes, died in action at Sumumerville, Ala., April 2, 1862.

David H. Hall, discharged for disability, Feb. 28, 1863.

Jas. Holdsworth, discharged by order, July 25, 1865.

John Harrington, mustered out July 1, 1865.

David H. Haines, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Hiram B. Hudson, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Otis L. HIalton, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Keyser, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Jacob Keyser, died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., Feb. 14, 1863.

Walton Kibbey, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 7, 1863.

Gordon N. Kenyon, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edgar Lindsley, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John W. Lindsley, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Edward Lane,* mustered out July 18, 1865.

John McLoughrey, died in action at Stone River, Dec. 29, 1862.

Chas. C. Marsh,* corp., mustered out July 1, 1865.

Alonzo Miller, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Win. Mann,* mustered out July 1, 1865.

E. L. G. Myers, discharged by order, July 27, 1865.

Albert Miller, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863.

Geo. W. Moore, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Francis Merchant, died of disease.

Geo. F. Nichols, died of disease at Nashville, July 10, 1863.

Jos. Naregang, died of disease at Murfreesboro, April 27, 1863.

Geo. Noggle, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Win. M. Oliver, corp., mustered out July 1, 1865.

Peter Passenger, mustered out July 1, 1865.

David D. Parkhurst, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Charles Pettit, died of disease in Kentucky, Nov. 3, 1862.

Horatio N. Price, died of disease at Murfreesboro, March 5, 1863.

Edward W. Pardee, died of disease at Nashville.

Edward Reed, mustered out July 1, 1865.

William G. Rowe, mustered out July 1, 1865. J

oseph Richie, discharged for disability, Aug. 9, 1863.

Jonathan D. Squires, discharged for disability, Oct. 19, 1863.

Charles F. Smith, died of disease in Ohio, Feb. 1, 1863.

Edward F. Safford, died of disease at Nashville, June 15, 1863.

Leland H. Shaw, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Ferdinand Sebright, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Gilbert Stone, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Henry Smith, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Joseph Stewart, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Isaac C. Seely, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Charles F. Tubah, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Ira Tuttle, discharged by order, July 21, 1865.

Salem True, discharged for disability.

E. S. Finley, discharged for disability, July 18, 1863.

Frederick Woodham, mustered out July 1, 1865.

John Wilson, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Daniel Willis, mustered out July 1, 1865.

William West, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Sylvester Wedge, mustered out July 1, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS OF THE FOURTH CAVALRY.

Company A.

Levitt D. Faulkerson, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company C.

Simon Cooper, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

John D. Rockwood, died of disease.

Company D.

Watson S. Williams, mustered out. Aug. 15, 1865.

Company H.

Lucius Bates, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Milo D. Cooper, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Horace Freeman, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 4, 1863.

John W. Holmes, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Madison A. Hoose, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Ira Leach, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1862.

Newell Nichols, discharged for disability, Feb. 22, 1863.

Owen A. Nichols, discharged for disability, July 14, 1863.

J. P. Reynolds, transferred to Yet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Chester Savacool, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864; mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company I.

Hiram Lamb, discharged Feb. 8, 1865.

Company K.

Byron R. Purdy, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Herman C. Purdy, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Company L.

Ira D. Brooks, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Benjamin F. Carpenter,* mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Albert D. Carpenter, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Rooney G. Flowers, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865.

Company M.

Samuel H. Hubbard, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Company I, of the Fifth, from Allegan County-The Regiment assigned to the Michigan Brigade in the Spring of 1863-Battles in the Summer of 1863-Casualties-Winter-Quarters in 1863-64-Kilpatrick’s Raid to Richmond-Col. Dahlgren’s Expedition-Back to North Virginia-Reorganization of Sheridan’s Command-Battle of the Wilderness-Sheridan’s Raid to Richmond-The Dash into Beaver Dam-Battle with Stuart at Yellow Tavern-Stuart routed and slain-Before Richmond-Battle on the Chickahominy-Especial Gallantry of the Michigan Brigade-Return to the Army of the Potomac-Fight at Hawes’ Shop-Old Church Tavern and Cold Harbor-Battle of Trevillian Station-Brilliant Victory-Fight at Louisa Court-House-In the Shenandoah Valley, Middletown, Front Royal, etc.-Victories at Opequan and Winchester-Casualties during the Year-Winter-Quarters-Sheridan’s Great Raid to the Army of the Potomac-Dealing the Death-Blow to Rebellion-Ordered West-Men with Two Years to serve transferred-Regiment mustered out-Allegan County Members-Barry County Members -The Allegan and Barry Representation in the Sixth Cavalry-Its Battles and Casualties in 1863-Kilpatrick’s Richmond Raid-The Wilderness-Beaver Dam, Meadow Bridge, and Ilawes’ Shop-Trevillian Station-The Shenandoah Campaign-The Great Ride to Richmond-Closing Scenes-Ordered to the Rocky MountainsPowder River Expedition-A Guard “corralled”-The Regiment mustered out-Barry County Soldiers-Allegan County SoldiersFormation and Departure of the Sixth Cavalry-Assigned to the Michigan Brigade-Its Battles in 1863 —Its Battles in 1864-The Brilliant Close in 1865 —Its Frontier Service-The Muster out-The Barry County Members-The Allegan County Members.

FIFTH CAVALRY. COMPANY I, of this regiment, was wholly an Allegan County organization.

It was recruited by ex-Congressman, This celebrated body was composed of the First, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Cavalry.

It was organized in the fore-part of 1863^ and I William B. Williams, of Allegan, in the summer of 1862, and under his command proceeded to Detroit, Michigan, the regimental rendezvous, in August of the same year.

The regiment was first commanded by Col. J. T. Copeland, and was mustered into the United States service Aug. 30, 1862.

It was subjected to a long delay in procuring arms and equipments; a spirit of discontent prevailed in consequence, and numerous desertions occurred.

The regiment finally left the State for Washington on the 4th of December, 1862, only partly armed, but otherwise fully equipped and well mounted.

Down to that date it had carried on its rolls the names of one thousand three hundred and five officers and enlisted men.

Upon its arrival at the seat of war it was assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, otherwise known as the Michigan Cavalry brigade. (See note at beginning of chapter.)

It was engaged with the enemy at Hanover, Va., June 30, 1863; at Hunterstown, Pa., July 2d; Gettysburg, Pa., July 3d, where it was hotly engaged, charging the enemy repeatedly and losing heavily.

It was also in conflicts of more or less importance at Monterey, Md., July 4th; Cavalryetown, Md., July 5th; Smithtown, Boonsboro’, Hagerstown, and Williamsport, Md., July 6th; Hagerstown and Williamsport, Md., July 10th; Falling Waters, Md., July 14th; Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19th; Kelly’s Ford, Va., September 13th; Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14th; Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th; White’s Ford, September 21st; Jack’s Shop, Va., September 26th; James City, Va., October 12th; Brandy Station, Va., October 13th; Buckland’s Mills, Va., October 19th; Stevensburg, Va., November 19th; and Morton’s Ford, Va., Nov. 26, 1863.

Sixty-four men were killed and wounded during the year 1863, besides one hundred and twenty-one reported missing in action, many of whom were killed.

Other reports of alterations and casualties show that from the time the regiment was organized until the close of 1863 forty men died of disease, sixty-eight were discharged for disability, twenty-one by sentence of general court-martial, fifteen by order, two for promotion, one hundred and seventy-seven deserted, twenty officers resigned, one officer was dismissed, and the total number of recruits received was thirteen.

During the winter of 1863-6-1 the Fifth had its quarters at Stevensburg, Va., and was employed mostly on picket duty along the Rapidan.

In the latter part of February, 1864, it took part in the raid made by the Cavalry under Kilpatrick to the outer defenses of Richmond.

The main body of the regiment T. continued in service as a brigade until the close of the war; being commanded successively by Gens. Kilpatrick and Custer, and gaining, whether rightly or wrongly, the highest reputation of any Cavalry brigade in the service.

As three of the regiments of which the brigade was composed follow each other consecutively, and as all of them contained a considerable representation from Allegan and Barry Counties, we have grouped them together under the general title given above.

As there are numerous matters, however, which concern the regiments separately, we have furnished separate sketches of these bodies; giving the fullest description of the operations of the brigade in the history of the Fifth Regiment, which had the largest representation from these counties.

The fifth crossed the Rapidan, marched thence, via Spottsylvania and Beaver Dan Station to Hungary Station, and moved down the Brook turnpike to within five miles of the city of Richmond.

Being attacked on the 2d of March by a superior force of the enemy, the Union Cavalry was compelled to fall back on Gen. Butler’s forces, stationed at New Kent Court-House.

A detachment of the regiment had also accompanied the forces commanded by the gallant Col. Ulric Dahlgren.

They moved down the James River to within five miles of the rebel capital.

The detachment of the Fifth, being in front, charged the enemy’s works and captured his first line of fortifications.

Following up its advantage, Dahlgren’s command pushed back the enemy from one line to another, until a point was reached within two miles of the city, when it was found impossible to advance farther with so small a force.

Meanwhile the rebels were gathering from all points, and in the endeavor to extricate itself from its perilous position the detachment of the Fifth became separated in the night, which was rainy and very dark, from the main portion of Dahlgren’s command.

On the following day this detachment cut its way through a strong rebel force posted at Old Church, and succeeded in rejoining the regiment near White House Landing.

At Yorktown, Va., on the 11th of March, the regiment embarked on board transports for Alexandria, whence it marched to Stevensburg, arriving there on the 18th of April, 1864.

Here a reorganization of the Cavalry forces, under Gen. Sheridan’s command, took place, and the Michigan Cavalry Brigade was thenceforth known as the First Brigade of the First Division, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.

On the 5th of May the brigade, commanded by the fiery Custer, again crossed the Rapidan, and soon became engaged in the great battle of the Wilderness; fighting mounted, the first three days, against the forces led by the renowned rebel Cavalry leader, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.

On the 9th of May the Cavalry corps set out, under Gen. Sheridan, on his great raid toward Richmond.

Three divisions, numbering full twelve thousand men, turned their horses’ heads to the southward; the blue-coated column, as it marched by fours, extending eleven miles along the road, from front to rear.

On the route they overtook a large body of Union soldiers, who had been taken prisoners at Spottsylvania, released them, and captured the rebel guard.

Toward evening, the same day, the Michigan brigade, followed closely by the rest of the column, dashed into the rebel depot at Beaver Dam Station, scattering, almost in an instant, the force stationed for its defense.

All night long the men were busy destroying the immense amount of rebel supplies accumulated at Beaver Dam, worth millions of dollars, consisting of three long railroad trains, with locomotives, stores of goods of various kinds, and one hundred loaded army-wagons, the flames of which rose in lurid columns through the darkness amid the cheers of the exultant soldiers.

At daybreak the next morning the command moved forward, and after tearing up the railroad-track at Negro Foot Station it reached “Yellow Tavern,” ten miles from Richmond, on the 11th of May.

There Gen. Stuart had assembled a large force of rebel Cavalry and a severe battle ensued.

The Fifth Cavalry fought dismounted, and charged’ the enemy’s position under a heavy fire; routing him after a most stubborn resistance.

The rebels lost heavily in this engagement, including their commanding officer, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, who was mortally wounded by a private of this regiment.

Having brushed aside all the forces opposed to it, the Union column pursued its way “on to Richmond” unmolested.

The next day the command arrived within a mile and a half of Richmond, but found fortifications in front on which Cavalry could make no impression.

Gen. Sheridan then turned his course toward the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge.

The rebels had destroyed the bridge, and a large force of them disputed his further progress.

The approaches to the stream led through a swamp, along which not more than four men could ride abreast, and a well posted battery on the opposite side cut down the head of the Union column, completely checking its advance.

The leading brigade vainly endeavored to force a passage.

The next one likewise failed. Gen. Sheridan then sent for Custer and his Michigan brigade, which at once hastened to the front.

There the youthful general dismounted the Fifth and Sixth Michigan, and sent them forward into the swamp as flanking-parties, while with drawn sabres the First and Seventh Michigan breathlessly awaited the order to charge.

The dismounted men drove the enemy from their first position, advanced through water waist-deep to the railroad-bridge, crossed it on the ties, and then plied their Spencer rifles on the rebel cannoniers with such effect that the latter were obliged to turn their guns on these assailants to prevent being entirely enfiladed.

The moment they did so Custer gave the order to “Charge,” and the two mounted regiments, with brandished sabres and ringing cheers, dashed forward at the top of their horses’ speed.

The rebels had barely time to limber their guns and retreat; leaving the road again open for the advance of the whole corps.

The command then proceeded, via Malvern Hill, Hanover Court-House, White House, Ayelitt’s and Concord Church, to Chesterfield Station, where it joined the main Army of the Potomac.

On the 28th of May the regiment was hotly engaged near Hawes’ Shop, where it aided in driving the enemy from their position after a desperate hand-to-hand fight.

The loss of the regiment in this action was very severe.

Moving to Old Church Tavern on the 30th, it was engaged with its brigade in the routing of Young’s rebel Cavalry.

On the 31st of May and 1st of June it was engaged, together with other Cavalry regiments, at Cold Harbor, where it fought dismounted in advance of the infantry, and, although losing heavily, succeeded in capturing many prisoners.

The Michigan brigade soon after set out under Gen. Sheridan to join Gen. Hunter, who was moving from the Shenandoah Valley to Lynchburg.

On the 11th of June the command met at Trevillian Station a large force of the enemy, both infantry and Cavalry.

During that day and the next there ensued one of the severest Cavalry fights of the war, the Union Cavalry mostly fighting dismounted.

The Michigan brigade did most of the fighting the first day, and lost heavily.

The brigade battery was three times captured by the enemy, and as many times recaptured by the determined efforts of the Michigan men.

The rebels were finally driven from the field and pursued several miles; six hundred prisoners, fifteen hundred horses, one stand of colors, six caissons, forty ambulances, and fifty wagons being captured by the victorious Unionists.

Moving subsequently in the direction of Louisa Courthouse, the regiment encountered a column of the enemy, but cut its way through with considerable loss in prisoners. Gen. Hunter failed to make the passage of the mountains.

Gen. Sheridan, in consequence, then marched his troops to White House Landing, and soon after joined the Army of the Potomac, south of Petersburg.

After serving on picket and scout duty in front of Richmond and Petersburg during the month of July, 1864, the Michigan brigade was taken on transports to Washington, D. C., early in August, and thence marched to the Shenandoah Valley.

Here it followed Custer in many a desperate charge, fully sustaining its old renown.

At Middletown the Fifth Cavalry was attacked by a strong force of the enemy, but repulsed them, capturing sixty-five prisoners.

Again, on the 19th of August, while a squadron of the regiment were scouting to the front, they were attacked by a greatly superior force of the enemy under the guerrilla leader Moseby, and being overpowered were driven into camp with a loss of sixteen men killed.

It was also engaged at:

 

  • Front Royal. August 16th;
  • Leetown, August 25th;
  • at Shepardstown, August 25th;
  • Smithfield, August 28th;
  • Berryville, September 3d;
  • Opequan Creek, September 19th, where the Michigan brigade utterly routed the enemy’s Cavalry and broke their infantry lines, capturing two battle-flags and four hundred prisoners; Winchester, September 19th; Luray, September 24th;

 

Woodstock, October 9th; and Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864, where Custer’s command charged the enemy’s main line; driving it back in confusion and capturing a large number of prisoners.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had seventy-six men killed, one hundred and seventeen wounded in action, fourteen missing in action, one hundred and ninety-four taken prisoners, two hundred and nine recruits joined the regiment, while but thirty-three men died of disease and but two desertions were reported.

The Michigan brigade went into winter-quarters near Winchester, Va., in December, 1864, and remained until the latter part of February, 1865.

On the 27th it broke camp, and with the Cavalry corps commanded by Gen. Sheridan started on a long and rapid march up the Shenandoah Valley, past Staunton, over the mountains, and down the James River to the Army of the Potomac.

The command met with but little opposition, dispersed all forces opposed to it, destroyed much property on the line of the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, locks, mills, and aqueducts on the James River Canal, and on the 19th of March joined the forces assembled to give the last blow to Lee’s rebel army.

On the 30th and 31st days of March and 1st of April, 1865, the Michigan brigade was warmly engaged at Five Forks.

During these three days of battle it was in the advance, and on the extreme left of the Union armies, fighting dismounted,-and finally succeeded, with the rest of Sheridan’s corps, in capturing the enemy’s line of defense, and several thousand prisoners.

From this time until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, April 9, 1865, it was constantly engaged with the enemy, and, being in the advance, the flag of truce to negotiate the surrender was sent through its lines.

After the surrender of Lee this regiment moved with the Cavalry corps to Petersburg, Va.

Soon afterward it made an incursion, with other forces, into North Carolina; thence it marched to Washington, D. C., participated in the review of the Army of the Potomac, May 23, 1865, and immediately thereafter, with the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, was ordered to the Western frontier.

The Fifth was sent by rail and steamboat to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., where the men having two years or more to serve were transferred to the First and Seventh Michigan Cavalry Regiments.

On the 22d of June the regiment, as an organization, was mustered out of service.

It arrived in Detroit, Michigan, July 1, 1865, and was there paid off and disbanded.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company I.

Captain Win. B. Williams, Allegan; com. Sept. 3, 1862; resigned June 11, 1863.

Captain Geo. N. Dutcher, Saugatuck; com. June 13, 1863; 1st Lieutenant, Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, Nov. 2, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Geo. W. Lonsbury, Allegan; com. July 15, 1864: 2d Lieutenant, Sept. 1, 1863 (previously sergeant); promoted to Captain Co. M, Nov. 10, 1864; bvt. Major, March 13, 1865, “for gallant and meritorious services during the war;” mustered out June 22, 1865.

2d Lieutenant Geo. N. Gardner, Saugatuck; enlisted April 14, 1865; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Q.-M. Sergeant L. L. Crosby, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 12, 1862; transferred to Signal Corps, April, 1864.

Com. Sergeant Hannibal Hart, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 18, 1862; discharged for wounds, June 14, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. C. Weeks, Allegan; enlisted July 22, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Hiram R. Ellis, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 19, 1862; discharged for promotion, Aug. 29, 1864.

Sergeant Geo. W. Earl, Gun Plains; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Martin Baldwin, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Sergeant Wm. A. Piper, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; discharged for disability, Dec. 12, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. White, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. L, May 2, 1865.

Sergeant Geo. H. Smith, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Sergeant Irving Batchelor, Gun Plains; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Corp. David P. Taylor, Ganges; enlisted Aug. 14, 1862; died of accidental wounds, March 27, 1863.

Corp. Austin A. Andrews, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; mustered out June 23, 1865.

Corp. Herman Garvelink, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; killed in action at Hawes’ Shop, May 28, 1864.

Corp. Louis Hirner, Saugatuck; enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; killed in action at Yellow Tavern, May 11, 1864.

Farrier Mortimer Andrews, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; discharged by order, June 13, 1865.

Farrier Geo. Masson, Gun Plain; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863.

Saddler Jacob E. Miner, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; absent sick at City Point, Va.

Teamster John Cook, Allegan; enlisted Aug. 21, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 16, 1863.

Wagoner Dewitt C. Sanford, Gun Plain; enlisted Aug. 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Feb. 13, 1863.

Samuel Atkins, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Oriss Buchanan, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Caleb Bennett, discharged by order, July 12, 1865.

E. J. Burlingame, missing in action at Richmond, March 1, 1864.

Hendrick Cook, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

George Canouse, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

Elliott Chase, died of disease at Detroit, Oct. 19, 1862.

Lawrence L. Crosby, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April, 1861.

James Collins, died in Andersonville prison-pen, July 9, 1864.

David Cummings, died a prisoner of war, of disease, Aug. 15, 1864.

Daniel C. Collier, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Samuel Clark, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Gabriel Cole, (Medal of Honor) mustered out June 23, 1865.

Robert Dyer, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Russell Dyer, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

Seth Dyer, discharged by order, July 17, 1865.

James Dyer, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

George Drury, missing in action at Trevillian Station, June 11, 1864.

William Drury, missing in action, Oct. 1(, 1864.

Benjamin S. Dalrymple, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Abner Emmons, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Orliter P. Eaton, discharged by order, May 19, 1865.

Lafayette Fox, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Cornelius Gavin, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Vernon Groucher, mustered out June 23, 1865.

William Goodman, died of disease, a prisoner of war, July 24, 1864.

George H. Hicks, died in action at Smithfield, Va., Aug. 29, 1864.

Hannibal Hart, discharged by order, Jan. 14, 1864.

George Hodgetts, transferred to 7th Michigan Cavalry.

John Will, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Morgan B. Hawks, mustered out June 23, 1865.

James Kitchen, discharged at end of service, Aug. 20, 1865.

Morgan D. Lane, transferred to Signal Corps, April 23, 1864,

William McWilliams, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864.

H. W. Mann, (lied in action at Shepardstown, Va., Aug. 25, 1864.

Gottlieb Miller, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 1, 1864.

Charles E. Moses, died of disease, a prisoner of war, Sept. 29, 1865.

John E. Murphy, mustered out June 23, 1865.

George E. Munn, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Orlando C. Masson, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

Franklin Miller, mustered out June 23, 1865.

William Neuhof, discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

M. A. Powell, discharged by order, Feb. 2, 1865.

George Pullman, died of disease, a prisoner of war, April 12, 1864.

Giles A. Piper, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Albert Rynick, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Raphael Ross, trans to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1861.

Caspar Robb, discharged by order, July 11, 1865.

Jacob Rinehart, discharged by order, July 12, 1865.

Joseph Slagel, discharged by order, Dec. 24, 1863.

Samuel Shaver, mustered out June 23, 1865.

David H. Seaman, mustered out June 2:3, 1865.

George Shuport, mustered out June 23, 1865.

George Shepard, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 1, 1864.

Marcus C. Thompson, Died of disease, a prisoner of war, Sept. 4, 1864.

George W. Thompson, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Henry Warner, discharged for wounds.

Homer Watson, mustered out June 23, 1865.

Henry Zoneman, mustered out June 23, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY.

William H. Cook, Co. L, of this regiment, was from Barry County. He was last reported as missing in action at Trevillian Station, Va., June 11, 1864.

SIXTH CAVALRY.

Allegan County had but few members in the Sixth Cavalry, but Barry was represented in all its companies except I; Company K being almost exclusively from that county.

The regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids.

Its ranks were rapidly filled, and it was mustered into the United States service, under the command of Col. George Gray, on the 13th of October, 1862.

Mounted and equipped, but not armed, carrying on its rolls the names of one thousand two hundred and twenty-nine officers and men, it left the regimental rendezvous on the 10th of December following, and proceeded to the seat of war in Virginia.

It was soon assigned to the Second Brigade of the Third Division of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac (the Michigan Cavalry Brigade), of which a somewhat extended notice has been given in the sketch of the preceding regiment, to which the reader is referred for details.

Before the beginning of its first campaign Company K, by reason of discharges and resignations, had lost all its original commissioned officers except Lieutenant Pendill.

The regiment fought at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 1863; at Hunterstown and Gettysburg, Pa., and Monterey, Cavalryetown, Smithtown, Boonsboro’, Hagerstown, Williamsport, 7 and Falling Waters, Md., in July of the same year; at Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19, 1863; at Kelly’s Ford, Culpeper Court-House, Raccoon Ford, White’s Ford, and Jack’s Shop, Va., in September, 1863; at James City, Brandy Station, and Buckland’s Mills, Va., in October, 1863; and at Stevensburg and Morton’s Ford, Va., in November of the same year.

At Gettysburg and Falling Waters it particularly distinguished itself.

Its principal casualties from the time it entered the service until Nov. 1, 1863, were reported as thirty-six killed in action, seventy-five missing in action, and forty-five who died of disease.

During the winter of 1863-64 it was quartered at Stevensburg, Va.

In the latter part of February it started for Richmond, forming part of Gen. Kilpatrick’s raiding force.

It participated in all the hard riding, skirmishing, etc., attendant upon that unsuccessful expedition, and, with others of the command, succeeded in joining the Union forces at New Kent Court-House.

Thence it moved down the Peninsula, proceeded on transports to Alexandria, and then marched to its former camp at Stevensburg.

On the 18th of April the Michigan brigade was transferred to the First Cavalry Division, and thereafter until the close of the war was known as the First Brigade of the First Division Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.

Companies I and M, which had been operating in the Shenandoah Valley during the year 1863, rejoined the regiment on the 3d of May, 1864, and on the 6th of that month the Michigan brigade was in the midst of the terrible battles going on in the Wilderness.

As victors, it emerged into the open country on the 8th of May, and on the morning of the 9th started with Sheridan’s corps on a raid to the rear of the rebel armies, the brigade leading this splendid body of twelve thousand veteran Cavalrymen.

The Sixth assisted in destroying the immense rebel depot of supplies at Beaver Dam Station, fought in the thickest of the battle at Yellow Tavern, and gained imperishable honor at the crossing of the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge.*

Again, at Hawes’ Shop, on the 28th of May, 1864, the regiment took part in a decisive charge on the enemy’s lines.

After a severe conflict the rebels were forced to retire, leaving their dead and wounded on the field.

The Sixth lost heavily in this engagement.

Of its members present, one-fourth were either killed or wounded in less than ten minutes.

Engaging in the raid of Sheridan’s forces towards Gordonsville, the regiment, on the 11th of June, participated in the battle of Trevillian Station, charging the enemy repeatedly, and capturing many prisoners, most of whom, however, were recaptured.

From the time it crossed the Rapidan, on the 5th of May, until it passed the James, on the 28th of June, the regiment lost twenty-nine men killed, sixty wounded, and sixty-four missing.

Early in August the Michigan brigade, with others of Sheridan’s command, was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley, where it took an active part in all the skirmishes, battles, marches, and counter-marches that occurred during this part of the Shenandoah campaign.

The actions in which the Sixth participated in the valley may be summarily catalogued as those of Front Royal, Leetown, Smithfield, Opequan Creek, Winchester, Luray, Port Republic, Mount Crawford, Fisher’s Hill, Woodstock, and Cedar -Creek.

In December, 1864, it went into winter quarters near Winchester.

Its total list of killed to November 1st amounted to fifty-five, while forty-four of its members had died of disease.

During the last days of February, 1865, the regiment began its final Virginia campaign.

After a long and eventful march under Sheridan, during which it helped to defeat the rebel Gen. Rosser at Louisa Court-House, to break up the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and to destroy the locks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, it reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, and immediately took part in the succession of brilliant triumphs which ended at Appomattox Court-House on the 9th of April, 1865.

After the surrender, the rebel Gen. Pickett, who was taken prisoner in one of these engagements, spoke of a charge made by this regiment which he witnessed as being the “bravest he had ever seen.”

After participating in the grand review held at Washington, D. C., May 23, 1865, the Michigan brigade was ordered, vid the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers, to Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

At that point the Sixth received orders to cross the Plains.

These orders produced much dissatisfaction among its members, as they, with all other volunteers, had supposed that with the collapse of the Rebellion their services would no longer be required.

Remembering, however, their noble record as a regiment, adhering firmly to the high degree of discipline and faithful observance of orders which had ever distinguished them, its members marched forward by way of Fort Kearney and Julesburg to Fort Laramie.

At the latter point the regiment was divided into detachments by order of Gen. Connor.

One was to form a part of the “left column, Powder River expedition,” one was to remain at Fort Laramie, while another was to escort a train to the Black Hills.

The Powder River detachment, on reaching that stream, found that the Indians, of whom it had been sent in pursuit, had managed to escape.

The troops then built the fort since known as Fort Reno.

On this expedition Captain O. F. Cole, of Company G, lost his life; having needlessly ridden a long distance from the column, he was surprised by Indians and shot to death with arrows.

From Fort Reno a small detachment was sent out as a train-guard to Virginia City, Montana.

Meeting a large war party of Arapahoe Indians, the guard was “corralled” that is, surrounded and stopped-by them for twelve days.

‘Gen. Connor was finally apprised of their condition, when reinforcements were sent to their relief.

Sergeant Hall, of Company L, and Private Evans, of Company F, were the brave men who succeeded in conveying the intelligence to Gen. Connor.

They traversed a distance of fifty miles through a wild and to them unknown country, swarming with hostile savages, and thereby saved the detachment.

On the 17th of September, in pursuance of orders issued by Major-Gen. Dodge, the men of the Sixth whose term of service did not expire before Feb. 1, 1866, were consolidated with the First Michigan Cavalry, and the rest of the regiment was ordered to Fort Leavenworth, Kan.

It was there mustered out of service Nov. 24, 1865, and on the 30th of the same month it arrived at Jackson, Michigan, where its members received final pay and discharge-papers.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Field and Staff.

Q.-M. W. H. Jewell, Assyria; com. Dec. 11, 1864; mustered out Nov. 7, 1865. (See Co. K.)

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp. Steward Benj. R. Rose, Carlton; enlisted Nov. 1, 1863; discharged by order from Co. K, May 3, 1865.

Company A.

Andrew L. Barnum, died in action at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.

Company B.

Peter Dunham, discharged by order, Dec. 4, 1865.

Myndert Yemans, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company C.

Thomas Cowell, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1864.

Andrew J. Fisher, discharged at end of service, Feb. 17, 1866.

Simson D. Inman, mustered out Feb. 17, 1866.

George M. Jenkins, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1864.

Company D.

John P. Mallin, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Andrew Rogers, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Company E.

Wilson Perkins, died in action at Beaver Pond Mills, Va., April 4, 1865.

Joseph Snith, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Company F.

Robert McNee, transferred to Yet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863.

Asa Smith, mustered out.

Company G.

Daniel Bowerman, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

Orrin Clark, mustered out Feb. 10, 1866.

George W. Cline, mustered out Feb. 15, 1866.

James V. Judd, discharged Oct. 1, 1863.

Company H.

Hiram F. Lawrence, mustered out Feb. 17, 1866.

Thomas Mayo, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Oct. 9, 1864.

Oliver S. Reed, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company K.

1st Lieutenant Peter Cramer, Woodland; com. Aug. 26, 1862; res. Feb. 18, 1863. 2d Lieutenant

Lewis H. Jordon, Irving; com. Sept. 25, 1862; discharged March 6, 1863. 2d Lieutenant

Cortez P. Pendill, Prairieville; com. March 16, 1863; enlisted as 1st Sergeant, Aug. 26, 1862; res. for disability, Sept. 16, 1S64.

Q.-M. Sergeant Chas. W. Taylor, Maple Grove; enlisted Aug. 26, 1862; discharged.

Com. Sergeant H. C. Hendershott, Irving; enlisted Oct. 11, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Sergeant Wm. H. Jewell, Assyria; enlisted Sept. 2, 1862; promoted to regimental quartermaster.

Sergeant Lorenzo D. Cobb, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company  L.

Sergeant Parley H. Rice, Hope; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Sergeant John C. Dillon, Maple Grove; enlisted Aug. 29, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 28, 1865.

Sergeant Selden E. Norton, Castleton; enlisted Aug. 26, 1862; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Corp. Jas. K. Francisco, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 2, 1862; died of wounds, Sept. 26, 1864.

Corp. Mathew Baird, Hope; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Corp. John L. Williams, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out July 7, 1865.

Corp. Clifton G. Barnum, Carlton; enlisted Aug. 27, 1862; died of disease at Fairfax, Va., April 18, 1863.

Corp. Henry C. Rice, Hope; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Corp. Presley W. Haskinson, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 20, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Corp. Milo 0. West, Hope; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; died of disease, Aug. 24, 1864.

Musician John J. Cobb, Yankee Springs; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Musician Myron Paul, Thornapple; enlisted Sept. 8, 1862; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Farrier Aaron J. Walker, Irving; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; transferred to Inv. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

Farrier Jeremiah Baribaugh, Castleton; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Teamster Anson Cary, Thornapple; enlisted Aug. 18, 1862; discharged for disability, Sept. 26, 186:3.

Teamster Samuel Barton, Irving; enlisted Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Wagoner David R. Trego, Irving; enlisted Oct. 10, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 3, 1864.

Jacob Alverson, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Clifren Bowerman, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

W. H. Brown, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

David Brown, died of disease, Jan. 8, 1864.

Munson Buck, missing in action at Hanover, Pa., June 30, 1863.

John Beach, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Amos Beach, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Stephen P. Barnum, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

William E. Bolton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

George H. Brownell, died of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa.

Frederick Bergman, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

Josiah L. Campbell, discharged for disability, Jan. 2, 1863.

Myron Chamberlain, discharged for disability, Sept. 6, 1863.

Norman E. Clark, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Emerson Cartwright, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Austin W. Clark, mustered out Nov. 19, 1865.

Marquis A. Dowd, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John A. Dennis, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

George W. Dart, discharged for disability, Feb. 11, 1863.

Edward Dacons, died of disease, Jan. 13, 1865.

Amos J. Eggleston, discharged for disability, Sept. 30, 1863.

Joseph Fishburn, died of disease at his home, Nov. 11, 1864.

William Gordon, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864.

Adam Hart, died of disease at Washington, D. C.

Benjamin lHeath, discharged for disability.

Frederick Hart, discharged for disability, May 15, 1865.

James H. Hunt, mustered out June 12, 1865.

John Irwin, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Van Rensselaer Jones, discharged for disability, July 21, 1863.

Lyman C. Jayquays,* mustered out June 30, 1866.

Ira Kelsey, died at Newby’s Cross-Roads, Va., July 24, 1863.

Dewitt C. Kenyon, mustered out June 29, 1865.

Jeremiah Killmer, mustered out Nov 24, 1865.

Jefferson Kelley, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Jacob Kabler, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Franklin R. Lewis, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Samuel Murdock, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Hiram McCartney, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., March 29, 1864.

Justin W. Miles, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Edwin Meads, discharged for wounds, April 6, 1864.

John A. Miller, discharged for wounds, Oct. 5, 1864.

Archibald Murdock, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct.12, 1865.

Mark Norris, mustered out March 31, 1866.

Mason Norton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Levi Presley, mustered out March 26, 1866.

George M. Payne, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Samuel Presley, discharged for disability.

Jonathan Smith, died at Newby’s Cross-Roads, Va., July 24, 1863.

Albert H. Sidman, discharged for disability.

Justice Smith, reported missing in action, but returned.

Stephen A. Stanley, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Robert W. Slhriner, mustered out June 20, 1865.

Russell K. Stanton, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Justin A. Smith, mustered out July 10, 1865.

Eber A. Stanley, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Elisha Skillman, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

James A. Vandechoten, mustered out June 13, 1865.

L. F. Vester, died of disease at Baltimore, Md., Sept. 22, 1864.

David Way, Jr., died of disease.

Orville Wheeler, died of disease in Michigan, Nov. 28, 1864.

Joel 0. Wheeler, discharged for disability, Jan. 2, 1863.

Lycurgus J. Wheeler, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 3, 1864.

William R. Wheeler, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Oscar White, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Henry A. Ward, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company L.

2d Lieutenant Lorenzo D. Cobb, Yankee Springs; com. Dec. 10, 1864; mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

Martin Babcock, mustered out Aug. 12, 1865.

Jeremiah Crandall, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Alfred Fraine, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.; mustered out March 25, 1866.

Charles Furness, mustered out July 6, 1865.

Calvin C. Norton, transferred to 1st Michigan Cay., Nov. 17, 1865.

Charles Terry, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company M.

Sergeant Silas M. Smith, Irving; enlisted Sept. 7, 1862; must out Nov. 24, 1865.

J. Q. A. Briggs, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry… ‘ Or Jaques.

I. Johnson N. Bowen, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Deloss D. Bassett, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Alfred Flanders, mustered out June 30, 1866.

Daniel Hewitt, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John Klock, died of disease at tarper’s Ferry, Va., Aug. 1, 1864.

William C. Kelly, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 15, 1864.

Robert McNee, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

1st. Lieutenant and Adj. Elliott M. Norton, Wayland; com. Jan. 4, 1865; 2d Lieutenant Co. H, Jan. 1, 1864; transferred to Vet. Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865; mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company A.

Merritt C. Mosher, missing in action at Todd’s Tavern, Va., May 6, 1864.

Company B.

Sergeant E. M. Norton. (See Field and Staff.)

Edwin E. Whitney, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company I.

Peter J. Alden, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

John Madison, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Company K.

Versal P. Fales, must out June 2, 1865.

Justus German, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

Henry F. Haney, mustered out Oct. 24, 1865.

Origen Hamilton, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Elisha Inman, supposed killed by guerrillas.

Wells T. Latourette, mustered out Nov. 24, 1865.

SEVENTH CAVALRY.

This regiment numbered among its members sixty officers and men from Barry County, and less than a dozen from the county of Allegan, these being scattered among all its companies, except G and L.

The rendezvous was at Grand Rapids, where the regiment was organized during the fall of 1862 and the ensuing winter.

Two battalions left Grand Rapids for the seat of war in Virginia, Feb. 20, 1863, and were joined by the third battalion in May following, Col. William D. Mann being in command of the regiment.

The Seventh was assigned to the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, so often mentioned already, and until the close of the war participated in all its glory and renown.

It took part in minor actions at Thoroughfare Gap, Va., May 21, 1863; at Greenwich, Va., May 30th, and at Hanover, Pa., on the 30th of June.

On the 3d of July at Gettysburg it was very hotly engaged, charging the enemy repeatedly, and having fifty-seven of its men killed and wounded, besides twelve missing and twelve taken prisoners.

It was also engaged at Smithtown, Md. July 6th; at Boonsboro’, Md., July 6th and 8th; at Hagerstown, Md., July 6th and 10th; at Falling Waters, Md., July 14th; at Snicker’s Gap, Va., July 19th; at Kelly’s Ford, Va., September 13th; at Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14th; at Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16th; Brandy Station, Va., October 13th, and others.

Ninety-two men were killed and wounded in action, forty-six were reported missing in action, many of whom were killed, and down to Nov. 1, 1863, the date of making that report, fifty of its numbers had died of disease.

During the winter of 1863-64 the Seventh was mostly employed on picket duty in front of the Army of the Potomac, but resumed more active service on the 28th of February, 1864, when it marched with its brigade on the “Kilpatrick raid.”

Arriving before Richmond on the 31st of February, it was placed on picket the following night.

Here it was attacked by a superior force of the enemy, and, being unsupported, was driven back.

Forty-four men were reported missing, among whom was the commander of the regiment, Lieutenant-Col. A. C. Litchfield, The command soon marched to Yorktown, whence it proceeded by transports to Alexandria, Va.

Having crossed the Rapidan with the Army of the Potomac on the 5th of May, the regiment set out on the 9th in Gen. Sheridan’s movement against the enemy’s communications.

On the 11th it was in the battle of Yellow Tavern; charging the enemy’s Cavalry and driving it from the field, and having eighteen of its own men killed and wounded.

The operations of the Michigan Cavalry Brigade on that raid have been mentioned in the sketch of the Fifth Cavalry, previously given, and the Seventh took its full share in them all.

After rejoining the army it attacked the rebel Cavalry on the 27th of May, charging and driving one of their brigades several miles, and capturing forty-one men.

The next day it was in a fight at Hawes’ Shop, where fourteen of its men were killed and wounded.

It also took part in the attack on the enemy’s works at Cold Harbor on the 30th of May, fighting dismounted in advance of the infantry.

With the rest of the Michigan brigade and other regiments, it then moved, under Gen. Sheridan, towards Gordonsville, and on the 11th and 12th of June had a hard Cavalry fight at Trevillian Station, losing twenty-nine killed and wounded during the conflict.

On the first day of the fight a small squad of the Seventh recaptured from a large force of the rebels a piece of artillery which had been taken from a Union battery.

The command then returned to the main army, and on the 31st of July the Michigan brigade set out for Washington and the Shenandoah Valley.

On the 16th of August the Seventh Cavalry was in the battle of Crooked Run, where it had twelve men killed and wounded, and where, according to the official report, “one battalion charged a brigade of rebel Cavalry, routing them and capturing nearly a hundred prisoners.”

On the 25th of August it was engaged near Shepherdstown, with slight loss.

On the 29th, its division being attacked by infantry in force, it covered the retreat to Smithfield, having fourteen killed and wounded.

On the 19th of September the regiment was warmly engaged in the battle of Opequan Creek.

It charged across that stream, drove the enemy from the bank, advanced and aided in driving him at headlong speed through the town of Winchester.

Twenty-three officers and men were killed and wounded in the Seventh; among the mortally wounded being its commander, Lieutenant-Col. Melvin Brewer.

Five days later the regiment was in another combat at Luray, driving the enemy back in great confusion, and capturing sixty prisoners.

On the 9th of October the Seventh took part with its corps in routing the rebel Cavalry under Gen. Rosser.

Ten days later, at Cedar Creek, while the regiment was on picket, the enemy, by a sudden attack, broke through the line of the Union infantry and struck it in the rear.

It made good its retreat, however, without serious loss.

When Sheridan galloped up from Winchester and retrieved the fortunes of the day, the Seventh Michigan Cavalry took an active part in the conflict, and in the final charge which drove the foe in confusion from the field it captured about one hundred prisoners.

During the year ending Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had had no less than one hundred and fifty-nine officers and men killed and wounded, a very heavy loss for a Cavalry regiment.

The Seventh remained in camp near Winchester most of the time until the 27th of February, 1865, when it moved up the Shenandoah Valley, with its corps, to take part in Gen. Sheridan’s celebrated march to the James River.

On the 8th of March the regiment aided in routing a portion of Rosser’s Cavalry near Louisa Court-House, and capturing the town.

After destroying a large part of the Lynchburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and the locks, aqueducts, and mills on the James River Canal, the command reached White House Landing on the 19th of March, and was soon, with, the Cavalry corps, established on the left of the Army of the Potomac.

The Seventh took an active part in the battle of Five Forks, and was engaged with the enemy almost till the moment of Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.

After a short stay in North Carolina the Michigan brigade returned to Washington, and thence proceeded to Fort Leavenworth, whence it was ordered to cross the Plains and operate against the hostile Indians.

There was much bitterness felt by the men at this extension of their service to another field from what was originally intended.

Nevertheless, they crossed the Plains to the Rocky Mountains, and were employed until November in guarding the overland stage-route from the Indians.

About the 1st of November the regiment transferred two hundred and fifty men, whose term extended beyond March 1, 1866, to the First Michigan; the remainder of the regiment returning to Fort Leavenworth, and being there mustered out of the service.

It was paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan, on the 25th of December, 1866.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Field and Staff.

Surg. Wm. Upjohn, Hastings; com. Nov. 1, 1863; mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

1st Lieutenant and Com’y James W. Bentley, Hastings; com. Oct. 15, 1862; mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Hosp. Steward George A. Smith, Hastings; appointed Nov. 14; 1862; discharged by order, May 3, 1865.

Company A.

Henry Allen, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Marshall Billinger, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

James Barber, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Charles Cook, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Edgar A. Clark, died of disease at Little Blue, Neb., July 5, 1865.

Edward H. Harvey, discharged by order, Dec. 22, 1864.

Alexander McNeal, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Edgar Nye, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Company B.

Alfred Dyvis, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Company C.

James Thomas, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Company D.

James F. Saddler, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Company E.

James Dawson, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Charles E. Hyde, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 7, 1863.

Jacob D. Hendrick, discharged from Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 2, 1866.

Company F.

Sergeant Harmon Smith, Prairieville; promoted 2d Lieutenant Dec. 12, 1865; mustered out as Sergeant Dec. 15, 1865.

James Blanchard, died of disease in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 15, 1864.

Charles 11. Bergnman, mustered out March 10, 1866.

John L. Chandler, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Eugene Cooper, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

R. Cone, died of disease at Jackson, Michigan, May 18, 1864.

Daniel Eldridge, mustered out March 10, 1866.

James Henry, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Isaac 0. Howe, died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Nov. 17, 1864.

Charles J. Jenner, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Robert A. Kelly, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Thomas H. McLeod, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps.

Alexander F. McIntosh, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864.

John M. Peck, died of disease.

Peleg T. Phelps, died of disease at York, Pa., Aug. 27, 1864.

O. F. Ralph, died in action at Falling Waters, Md., July 14, 1863.

Norman Ruggles, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1863.

Joseph F. Trenchard, discharged for disability, June 24, 1865.

Joy S. Terry, discharged for disability, Oct. 13, 1863.

Peter Wilbert, discharged for disability, Sept. 14, 1863.

George L. Wilcox, mustered out July 11, 1865.

Job J. Williams died of disease at Alexandria, Va., July 25, 1863.

Company H.

W. C. Bush, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Edwin Bissell, mustered out June 2, 1865.

Perry G. Fisher, mustered out March 10, 1866.

Byron Fisher, mustered out June 24, 1865.

Robinson Norwood, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Milton F. Nottingham, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. Nov. 17, 1865.

Loski 0. Peck, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry. March 10, 1866.

William Shean, died of disease at Brandy Station, Va., March 10, 1864.

Irvin Teneyck, missing in action at Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 19, 1864.

Company I.

Robert Strong, discharged April 24, 1863.

Company K.

Q.M.-Sergeant Fitch M. Searles, Orangeville; enlisted Dec. 27, 1862; mustered out Jan. 26, 1865.

Corp. William W. Bitgood, Orangeville; discharged for disability, Aug. 3, 1863.

Blacksmith Jesse G. Sprague, Hastings; transferred to Inv. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863.

Jsmes Campbell, missing in action at Boonsboro’, Md., July 8, 1863.

Oliver Chalker, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Frederick Hahn, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Edward Leslie, mustered out July 12, 1865.

Colburn Osgood, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Hugh Smith, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry., Nov. 17, 1865.

John L. Young, mustered out March 6, 1866.

Company M.

Erastus Havens, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864.

MEN FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY, Michigan in the Seventh Cavalry.

D. Eldridge, discharged for disability, Nov. 6, 1863.

Company F.

Irving Jambs, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company H.

Samuel B. Delaney, mustered out March 20, 1866.

George R. McHenry, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Sidney R. Prentiss, died of disease at Baltimore, Sept. 24, 1864.

Company I.

William H. Kirshner, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

Nelson J. Kendall, mustered out Dec. 15, 1865.

 

Company K.

Joseph Staley, transferred to 1st Michigan Cavalry.

Company M.

John Will, transferred to lbt Michigan Cavalry.

EIGHTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY, Etc.

Organization of the Eighth

Company F from Allegan County-Officers from the Two Counties-Service in Kentucky —Routing Morgan at Buffington’s Island —Hard Marching-Services in East Tennessee-Back to Kentucky on Foot-Remounted-Joins Sherman at Kennesaw-Services in the Atlanta Campaign-Surrounded, but breaks out-Afterwards surprised and routed-Those who escaped sent to Nashville-Fighting Hood-The End-Officers and Soldiers from Allegan County —From Barry County-The Tenth Cavalry-On Duty in Kentucky and Tennessee-Engagement at Carter’s Station-At Butt’s Gap —The Summer of 1864 –Routing and Killing Morgan-Expedition to Saltville, Va.-Expedition into North Carolina-Hard Marching and Fighting at Henry Court-House-Victory at Salisbury, N. C. —Barry County Soldiers-

Allegan County Soldiers in the Eight Cavalry.

This regiment, the rendezvous of which was at Mount Clemens, was recruited during the fall of 1862 and the winter following, but did not take the field until May, 1863, when, with one thousand one hundred and seventeen officers and men, it proceeded to Kentucky.

Allegan and Barry Counties were well represented in the Eighth; the former county furnishing almost all of Company F, which was recruited by Captain (afterwards Col.) Elisha Mix, of Manlius.

Asst.-Surg. Samuel D. Toby, of Ganges; Adjt. Homer Manvel, of Saugatuck;

Second Lieutenant Miles Horn, of Otsego;

Captain John E. Babbitt, of Allegan County; and First Lieutenant Adrian L. Cook, of Hastings, were also conspicuous officers of this regiment.

Martin Cook, of Allegan, was a hospital steward. From Covington, Ky., the regiment entered upon active service on the 1st of June, 1863, and between that time and August 10th, in that year, marched twelve hundred and forty-two miles, exclusive of over sixteen hundred miles marched by detachments of the regiment while scouting, etc.

It was first engaged with the enemy on the Triplet, Kentucky, and Salt Rivers, and at Lebanon, Ky.

When the rebel Gen. John H. Morgan made his celebrated raid through the States of Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, the Eighth was one of the foremost in the chase, and, hanging closely on his flanks and rear, at length brought him to bay at Buffington Island, Ohio.

Here, on the 19th of July, 1863, it immediately attacked and routed his forces; capturing two hundred and seventeen prisoners, besides killing and wounding many others.

Twice during this pursuit of Morgan the regiment marched forty-eight hours, halting but twice on each occasion, and then only for a few minutes.

At another time the chase was kept up for twenty-four hours, without stopping to feed and rest but once.

From Buffington Island the regiment returned to Kentucky, where it fought and defeated Scott’s rebel Cavalry.

In August it advanced with the Union forces into East Tennessee.

At Calhoun and Athens, Tenn., on the 26th and 27th of September, the brigade to which it was attached was attacked and defeated by a rebel force of some ten thousand men, commanded by Forrest and Wheeler.

The Unionists retreated to Loudon; the Eighth having suffered a loss of forty-three men, killed and wounded, besides several missing.

Until the early part of February, 1864, the regiment was very actively engaged marching and skirmishing up and down the valleys of the Tennessee and Holston Rivers.

It had also engaged in all the operations termed the “siege of Knoxville,” pursued Longstreet’s retreating army, and fought him at Bean’s Station, Dandridge, and Strawberry Plains.

On the 3d of February the regiment moved to Knoxville, transferred its horses to the quartermaster’s department, and thence marched on foot to Mount Sterling, Ky., a tedious tramp of more than two hundred miles over the Cumberland Mountains.

It was there remounted, and on the 28th of June joined Gen. Sherman’s army in front of Kenesaw Mountain, Ga. On the march from Mount Sterling the regiment had scoured the country bordering the railroad; capturing one hundred and forty prisoners.

Forming part of Gen. Stoneman’s Cavalry force, it covered the right of Gen. Sherman’s infantry during the crossing of the Chattahoochee and the advance on Atlanta.

It participated in the Campbelltown and Macon raids in July, 1864, and a detachment of the Eighth succeeded in capturing and destroying three railroad-trains loaded with rebel stores.

In the latter raid, at Clinton, Ga., July 31st, the forces commanded by Gen. Stoneman were surrounded by a superior force of the enemy, and he ultimately surrendered, but prior to that time the Eighth, having obtained permission, charged through the enemy’s ranks and endeavored to reach the Union lines near Atlanta.

On the 3d of August, however, being heavily worn out with service, having been in the saddle with little or no rest or sleep for seven days and eight nights, it was surprised and routed by the enemy with heavy loss; losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, mostly taken prisoners.

The remainder of the regiment was employed on picket duty until the middle of September, 1864, when it was ordered to Nicholasville, Ky., and then back to Nashville, where it arrived on the 26th of October.

The Eighth was engaged through the month of November, skirmishing with the Cavalry advance of Hood’s army, being several times surrounded by the enemy, but always managing to cut its way out.

After Hood was defeated at Franklin and Nashville and driven out of Tennessee, this regiment had no service more severe than that of suppressing the guerrilla bands who still infested the country.

In July the Eleventh Cavalry was consolidated with the Eighth, the combined regiment retaining the latter name.

It was mustered out of the United States service at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 22, 1865, and was soon after paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Michigan

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Field and Staff.

Col. Elisha Mix, Manlius; com. Dec. 3, 1864; Lieutenant-colonel., April 16, 1864; Major, March 2, 1863; mustered out with regiment, Sept. 22, 1865. (See Co. F.)

Asst.-Surg. Samuel D. Toby, Ganges; com. July 20, 1864; mustered out July 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant and Adj. Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Non-Commissioned Staff.

Hosp.-Steward Martin Cook, Allegan; enlisted March 15, 1865; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company A.

Z. W. Hopkins, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Gordon B. Rust, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company B.

David M. Austin, mustered out June 10, 1865.

James Fuller, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Delos W. Hare, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles O. Hicks, missing in action in Tennessee, Nov. 23, 1864.

William Jones, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William Pratt, mustered out June 10, 1865.

James B. Rhodes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William 11. Rhodes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

William II. Randall, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Truman Smith, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles C. Wallen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Edwin C. Wallen, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Fernando Yemens, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company C.

Sylvester Farnsworth, mustered out June 6, 1865.

Company E.

2d Lieutenant Miles Horn, Otsego; com. Jan. 1, 1863; died of disease at Kalamazoo, Sept. 8, 1865.

W. D. Austin, mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Frederick E. Grant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles H. Harper, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Joseph L. Payne, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Elisha E. Pratt, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Whitney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Hiram Winters, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company F.

Captain Elisha Mix, Manlius; com. Nov. 1, 1862. (See Field and Staff.)

1st Lieutenant John E. Babbitt, com. Nov. 1, 1862; promoted to Captain Co. I, Aug. 31, 1863.

Q.M.-Sergeant Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; enlisted Nov. 28, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company H.

Sergeant John McDowell, Casco; enlisted Dec. 4, 1862; died in Andersonville prison, June 28, 1864.

Sergeant Miles Horn, Otsego; enlisted Jan. 1, 1863; promoted to 2d Lieutenant

Company E.

Sergeant Byron Teal, Cheshire; enlisted Nov. 22, 1862; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Richard A. Follett, Ganges; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862.

Corp. Timothy S. Cook, Casco; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862; transferred to navy, May 12, 1864.

Corp. James Buyce, Casco; enlisted Dec. 20, 1862; died of disease at Paris, Ky., April 12, 1864.

Corp. Stephen Fairbanks, Fillmore; enlisted Dec. 29, 1862; died of disease at Allegan, Jan. 21, 1865.

Teamster Elisha J. H. Walker, Ganges; mustered out June 19, 1865.

Teamster John Wilson, Otsego; discharged.

Farrier Charles E. Tompkins, Otsego; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Sol. J. Andrews, died of disease at Chattanooga, Aug. 8, 1864.

John Avery, discharged July 28, 1863.

Samuel Brown, discharged for disability, July 16, 1861.

W. Bidwell, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1864.

Charles D. Bristol, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

J. E. Brinkhart, died of disease in Iowa.

Walter Billings, discharged for disability, June 15, 1865.

Randall Billings, mustered out June 30, 1865.

John Blossom, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Bailey, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Buchanan, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jacob R. Boas, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Jay F. Barker, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Cushman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Jacob Corwin, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Charles Emmons, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George H. Engles, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Seneca L. Everts, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Isaac Foster, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Michael Gilligan, discharged for disability, June 15, 1865.

Charles Hawkins, discharged.

William H. Howe, died of disease at Annapolis, March 23, 1865.

Juhn C. Haines, died of disease at Nashville, March 28, 1865.

Norman P. IIaines, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Lewis Huntley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Seth Hinds, mustered out May 25, 1865.

George E. Kinney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Kinney, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John A. Kinney, killed on Mississippi River steamer (Sultana), April 27, 1865.

Edward Lindsley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865. J

oseph B. Morris, discharged by order, May 18, 1865.

Thomas J, Mills, discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Matthew Orr, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Parrish, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles Powers, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Stephen Powers, discharged for disability, Dec. 20, 1863.

William Pryor, died of disease in Tennessee, Aug. 9, 1864.

Harold Sherman, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Thompson, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug 23, 1864.

Reuben Thomas, discharged by order, July 3, 1865.

EIGHTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY,

John M. Weaver, discharged by order, July 30, 1864.

Nathaniel Wellman, discharged for disability, May 27, 1865.

John J. Willerton, missing in action on raid to Macon, Ga., Aug. 4, 1864.

James Wasson, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Homer Manvel, Saugatuck; com. Nov. 20, 1864; promoted to 1st Lieutenant and adjt.

Charles W. Holmes, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Samuel W. Kendall, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Charles J. Seigner, died of disease in Indiana, Jan. 28, 1865.

James Stanton, died of disease in Tennessee, March 25, 1865.

Richard Williams, discharged by order, May 29, 1865.

Company L

Captain John E. Babbitt, honorably discharged, Dec. 27, 1864.

James T. Bentley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James Bassett, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Collins, mustered out June 13, 1865.

Philo L. Edson, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Enoch Howe, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Timothy V. Haight, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

eorge W. Knapp, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Martin Munzer, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Marshall Meriker, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George W. Lawrence, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Theodore Larkins, died in Andersonville prison-pen, Jan. 22, 1865.

George E. Patten, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Reuben A. Putnam, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Orville J. Whitlock, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Sergeant Charles D. Gray, 2d Lieutenant; promoted April 25, 1865; not mustered; died of wounds at Pulaski, Tenn., April 30, 1865.

Warren Collins, died of disease at Annapolis, March 8, 1865.

Joseph Simmers, died in Andersonville prison-pen.

William Tudehope, discharged by order, May 31, 1865.

Samuel S. Thomas, discharged for promotion, Sept. 26, 1864.

Company L.

Isaac A. McCarthy, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James H. Smith, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company M.

Hiram Annis, mustered out May 17, 1865.

Benjamin Ross, died of disease at Chattanooga, June 28, 1864.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company A.

Russell E. Benedict, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 23, 1865.

Reuben W. Norton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company B.

Frank 0. Clark, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company D.

William H. Eaton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company E.

Isaac Albrougli, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William Berringer, discharged by order, Sept. 21, 1865.

Company G.

Levi Breese, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company I.

Eli Booth, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company K.

W. W. Crowfoot, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company L.

1st Lieutenant Adrian L. Cook, Hastings; com. Jan. 8, 1865; mustered out Sept. 22, ’65.

Marquis D. L. Crapo, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Dewitt 0. Dodge, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Henry C. Downs, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Nathan Eaton, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Silas Hewett, mustered out May 18, 1865.

Andrew Hathaway, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Dec. 26, 1861.

John Johnson, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Simon Mathews, mustered out June 10, 1865.

George H. Robinson, discharged for disability, Feb. 24, 1865.

John Vredenburgh, mustered out June 10, 1865.

John W. Willard, mustered out June 10, 1865.

Company M.

Sergeant Adrian L. Cook, Hastings; promoted 2d Lieutenant

Jacob K. Ennis, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

TENTH CAVALRY.

The Tenth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry was recruited during the fall of 1863, its rendezvous being at the city of Grand Rapids.

Among the many counties represented in the organization were those of Allegan and Barry, but neither had a full company in its ranks.

With a force of nine hundred and twelve officers and men, commanded by Col. Thaddeus Foote, the regiment left its rendezvous on the 1st of December, 1863, and proceeded to Lexington, Ky., whence it marched, on the 13th of that month, to Camp Nelson.

During most of the winter of 1863-64 it was on duty at Burnside Point, Knoxville, and Strawberry Plains, Tenn.

On the 24th of April it was ordered to Carter’s Station for the purpose of destroying the bridge over the Wautaga River, but failed in consequence of the enemy being in force and occupying an entrenched position.

In the engagement which ensued the Tenth lost eleven men killed and wounded and three missing.

On the 28th of May a detachment of one hundred and sixty men of the regiment, while engaged in a reconnaissance to Bull Gap and Greenville, encountered a superior force of the enemy, whom they put to rout; killing and wounding a large number, besides capturing thirty prisoners and a number of horses and mules.

During the summer of 1864 the regiment was actively engaged in various parts of East Tennessee, and with varying success fought the enemy at White Horn, Morristown, Bean’s Station, Rogersville, Kingsport, Cany Branch, New Market, Moseburg, Williams’ Ford, Dutch Bottom, Sevierville, Newport, Greenville, Mossy Creek, Bull Gap, Blue Spring, Strawberry Plains, Flat Creek Bridge, Sweet Water, Thornhill, Jonesboro’, and Carter’s Station.

On the 4th of September the regiment participated in the surprise and rout of Gen. John H. Morgan’s forces at Greenville, Tenn.

In this engagement Gen. Morgan was killed and his staff and a large number of his men captured.

To Nov. 1, 1864, the regiment had lost in killed and wounded fifty-seven; missing in action, forty-four; by desertions, ninety-six; while the large number of one hundred and forty had died of disease.

In December the Tenth joined in the expedition to Saltville, Va., and assisted in destroying the salt-works at that point.

It also fought the enemy at Kingsport, Bristol, and Chucky Bend, Tenn.

Returning to Knoxville, its brigade soon after marched with Gen. Stoneman in his raid into North Carolina.

The regiment was engaged with the enemy at Brabson’s Mills, Tenn., and at Boonville, N. C. Moving rapidly, vid Wilkesboro’, and thence towards Salisbury, the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad was reached at Christiansburg, and one hundred miles of its line, together with the bridges, was destroyed.

This accomplished, the regiment made a rapid march to Henry Court-House, Va., traversing ninety-five miles in twenty-two hours.

At that point, on the 8th of April, 1865, it became engaged with a superior force of the enemy’s Cavalry and infantry, and was compelled to retire with a loss of eight killed and wounded, Lieutenant Kenyon being among the former.

On the 9th and 10th, while the regiment was employed destroying the railroad and bridge north of Salisbury, at Abbott’s Creek, the enemy was again encountered and defeated, after a three hours’ contest.

The regiment then proceeded along the upper waters of the Catawba; picking up bands of rebel Cavalry endeavoring to make their escape southward.

It was engaged in skirmishes with the enemy at Statesville, N. C., on the 14th, and at Newton, N. C., on the 17th of April, 1865.

Upon the surrender of Johnston the Tenth joined in the movements looking to the capture of Jeff. Davis.

It was soon after ordered to West Tennessee, where it served until Nov. 11, 1865, when it was mustered out at Memphis, Tenn.;

The Tenth Regiment of Michigan Cavalry reached Jackson, Michigan, for final pay and disbandment, November 15th of the same year.

BARRY COUNTY SOLDIERS.

Company B.

Ashfield Graham, died of disease at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 22, 1865.

Samuel Hall, mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

Minor Mead, mustered out Oct. 28, 1865.

Melvin Mead, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., April 5, 1865.

Moses H. Taylor, mustered out Nov. 21, 1865.

J. B. Upperson, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company C.

William Vaughan, mustered out May 31, 1865.

Company D.

George W. Jay, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Albert A. Jay, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company F.

John C. Coleman, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Fisher, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Clinton A. Gregory, mustered out Oct. 4, 1865.

Myron H. Stephens, mustered out June 21, 1865.

Company G.

William Bundy, discharged by order, Aug. 30, 1865.

Lewis Landon, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Amos Leek, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Harvey G. Patrick, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

George T. Smith, mustered out Sept. 29, 1865.

Company H.

Hiram 0. Paine, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company I.

Samuel W. Sturdevant, mustered out Nov. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Joseph H. Adams, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward S. Bronson, mustered out June 30, 1865. G

eorge W. Bump, mustered out Sept. 6, 1865.

Myron Bruce, mustered out Nov. 23, 1865.

Wallace M. Bracket, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Cook, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Nelson W. Cook, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Edward Chaffee, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Byron Johnson, mustered out Nov. 15, 1865.

Daniel Lewis, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Frederick F. McNair, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Melvin Mead, died of disease at Lenoir, Tenn., June 22, 1865.

Edgar D. Reid, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Albert Sponible, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Washington Sponible,n’ust. out Nov. 22, 1865.

Company L.

Thomas J. Curties, discharged for disability, Jan. 12, 1865.

Wm. Estess, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Walter M. Keagle, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Allen T. Rowley, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Company M.

Frank Demond, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., July 20, 1865.

Richard Demond, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Company E.

Captain Wm. H. Dunn, Ganges; com. Jan. 6, 1865; 1st Lieutenant, April 25, 1864;

2d Lieutenant Co. D, July 25, 1863; brevet Major, U. S. Vols., April 11, 1865, for gallantry in action at Abbot’s Creek, N. C.; mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

William A. Alien, discharged by order, Aug. 18, 1865.

George E. Dunn, discharged for disability, Aug. 24, 1865.

George Jones, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Charles H. Taylor, mustered out Oct. 9, 1865.

Company F.

Edwin Conrad, discharged by order, June 25, 1865.

Company I.

Edward Margason, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

William A. Palmer, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

John Stephens, discharged for disability, June 13, 1863.

Company L.

S. P. Howard, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Lester Multhop, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

Peter Stacey, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

George Whittle, mustered out Nov. 11, 1865.

ELEVENTH CAVALRY.

This regiment was recruited at Kalamazoo during the summer and fall of 1863.

It was mustered into the service December 10th, and under the command of Col. Simeon B. Brown left its rendezvous for the field on the 17th of the same month; its rolls showing the names of nine hundred and twenty-one officers and enlisted men.

Company C was almost wholly from Barry County, while the same county was also represented in all the other companies except those of A, B, E, and I.

Six men from Allegan County were distributed among five different companies. (See roster.)

The Eleventh proceeded to Lexington, Ky., and, after receiving arms and equipments, was employed during the months of January and February, 1864, in scouting; having its headquarters at Lexington.

In April it moved to Louisa, Ky., and, with the Thirty-Ninth Kentucky Infantry, with which it was brigaded, was employed in protecting the eastern part of the State from rebel raids and incursions, which came in from Virginia, until the last of May, when it was sent on an expedition into West Virginia, under Gens. Burbridge and Hobson; but, hearing that the rebels, under Morgan, had invaded Kentucky, the division returned, and by forced marching overtook the enemy at Mount Sterling, Ky.

Here, on the 8th of June, the enemy was routed with severe loss.

On the 12th of the same month the rebels were again encountered at Cynthiana, and a second time defeated and dispersed.

From August 23d to September 17th it was stationed at Camp Burnside, on the Cumberland River, and was employed, with other troops, in protecting the southern part of Kentucky from threatened invasion by Gen. Wheeler’s Cavalry.

In the latter part of September it was engaged in a raid to Saltville, Va.

At Bowen’s Farm the regiment was warmly engaged, and also at Richland Gap and Rich Mountain, and was part of the assaulting force upon the enemy’s position at Saltville, which, defended by a superior force, was found too strong to be captured.

During the return march into Kentucky the Eleventh formed the rear-guard.

At Sandy Mountain it was nearly surrounded by the enemy, but succeeded, after a severe struggle, in rejoining the command.

During November it was constantly engaged in clearing the country of guerrillas, and had severe skirmishing at Hazel Green, McCormack’s Farm, Morristown, Mount Sterling, and other points.

It was at Crab Orchard and Cumberland Gap; marching from the latter place to Clinch River, where it had a sharp fight December 28th.

From the 1st to the 11th of December it was engaged in scouting and foraging about Bean’s Station, Morristown, Russellville, Whitesboro’, and Cobb’s Ford.

On the 11th of December it moved with Gen. Stoneman’s command into North Carolina, and on the 13th was at Bristol, where a number of prisoners and a large amount of stores were captured.

At Max Meadow Station the regiment destroyed a large arsenal.

It skirmished with the enemy’s Cavalry about Marion on the 17th, and the whole command had a severe fight with Breckenridge’s infantry, the enemy finally falling back.

The command then proceeded to Saltville, where the enemy’s extensive salt-works were destroyed.

After an arduous campaign the regiment finally returned to Lexington, Ky., where it arrived on the 2d of January, 1865, many of the men having lost their horses and coming in on foot.

During the campaign from November 17th to January 2d the regiment had marched an average of twenty-eight miles a day, not including scouting and foraging.

It was engaged in scouting the eastern portion of Kentucky until February 23d, when it was ordered to join Gen. Stoneman’s command at Knoxville, which it did on the 15th of March, moving by way of Louisville and Nashville.

It formed a part of the expedition under Stoneman into East Tennessee, North and South Carolina, and Georgia.

At Salisbury, N. C., where it arrived on the 12th of April, the command was engaged with a superior force of the enemy, and captured eighteen hundred prisoners and twenty-two guns, besides destroying a large amount of property, including the railway and telegraph lines.

From Salisbury it marched to Asheville, where, on the 26th of April, it captured two hundred prisoners and a large amount of property and munitions of war.

On the 1st of May it was at Anderson Court-House, S. C.*

On the 11th it captured the Cavalry escort of Jefferson Davis, near Washington, and on the 13th was on the Tugaloo and Savannah Rivers.

Returning from this great raid, the regiment reached Knoxville, Tenn., on the 3d of June, and encamped at Lenoir Station until the 24th, when it moved by rail to Pulaski, where, on the 20th of July, it was consolidated with the Eighth Michigan Cavalry.

It was mustered out of service at Nashville, Tenn., on the 22d of September.

Returned to Michigan on the 28th, and was paid and disbanded.

OFFICERS AND MEN FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company C.

1st Lieutenant Charles A. Bailey, Hastings; com. Oct. 23, 1863; discharged for disability, August (?).

2d Lieutenant Theron Mason, Hastings; com. Jan. 3, 1865; Sergeant, Sept. 2, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Com.-Sergeant Henry A. Lathrop, Castleton; enlisted Sept. 22, 1863; promoted in U. S. C. T.

Com.-Sergeant Harmon H. Munger, Hastings; transferred to 8th Cavalry. 7-7 1 ‘I

Sergeant David Todd, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 18, 1863; died of disease at Nashville, March 25, 1865.

Sergeant Augustus Taylor, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 14, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Sergeant Nelson Parker, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 28, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Isaac B. Monk, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 10, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Michael McFarlin, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 3, 1863; discharged by order, Sept. 1, 1865.

Corp. John W. Stillson, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 20, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Corp. Frederick Myers, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out March 1, 1865.

Farrier George Munger, Hastings; enlisted Oct. 18, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Farrier William D. Vaughn, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 16, 1863; must, out May 31, 1865.

Wagoner P. B. Homan, Hastings; enlisted Sept. 15, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

John W. Bronson, discharged by order, Aug. 4, 1865. J

oshua Boorom. mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William P. Boorom, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William F. Brown, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

E. W. Benjamin, mustered out May 19, 1865.

Moses E. Baylor, mustered out June 16, 1865.

N. J. Bronson, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Adrian Cook, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Levi Chase, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Marcus L. Cooley, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Elbridge Carr, mustered out May 13, 1865.

George L. Crosby, mustered out May 16, 1865.

George W. Cassady, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Aug. 28, 1864.

Alfred Drake, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky.

Oscar F. Dunham, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Anson Fowle, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Charles Horton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Hayward, died of disease at Mt. Sterling, Ky., Feb. 16, 1865.

Seymour Harris, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Patrick McFarlin, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Edward H. McCormick, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Riley Munger, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Miller, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

William H. Maloy, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry Marble, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 30, 1864.

Horace A. Orwig, mustered out May 16, 1865.

George W. Peck, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Amasa L. Quant, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Israel Roush, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Benjamin F. Roush, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Peter L. Rorke, mustered out June 16, 1865.

James L. Reed, transferred to U. S. C. T.

James Swin, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Isaac Stanton, died of disease at Ashland, Ky., Jan. 20, 1865.

Frederick A. Spencer, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Peter D. Sage, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Henry D. Thompson, mustered out Aug. 31, 1865.

Company D.

W. H. Knickerbocker, mustered out June 16, 1865.

Company F.

Sergeant Lewis A. Raymond, Castleton; enlisted Sept. 16, 1863; discharged by order, May 26, 1865.

Sergeant Norman H. Latham, Baltimore; enlisted Sept. 9, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Corp. Michael Fisher, Prairieville; enlisted Sept. 9, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Wagoner John Case, Johnstown; enlisted Oct. 5, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Alonzo R. Coe, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Russell B. Norton, transferred to 8th Michigan Inf.

John R. Snow, died of disease at Marion, Va., Dec. 15, 1864.

Philo Shaff, mustered out July 13, 1865.

Robert Strong, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James Strong, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Benjamin Tungate, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

John Tungate, died of disease at Richmond, Va., May 10, 1865.

Company G.

Sergeant Albert S. Eno, Maple Grove; enlisted Oct. 5, 1863; transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Co. B.

Cassius M. Gould, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

Andrew J. Henrich, mustered out July 19, 1865.

Henry H. Mayo, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Reuben Norton, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

James P. Stokes, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company H.

G. 0. Clark, transferred to 8th Michigan Cavalry.

Philo R. Dunning, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company K.

Daniel Crump, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company L.

David R. Dutton, mustered out Sept. 18, 1865.

George Norwood, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

George Penock, discharged by order, Aug. 10, 1865.

 

At Anderson it was estimated that the command destroyed three million dollars’ worth of public property.

At this point also were found and brought away a great amount of Confederate paper money, and three of the plates (engraved in England) upon which bills were printed.

These last, together with a specimen gold coin (five dollars), struck by private enterprise, are the property of Gen. C. E. Smith, of Kalamazoo.

HISTORY OF ALLEGAN AND BARRY COUNTIES, MICHIGAN.

Company M.

E. H. Corwin, discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Henry Howe, mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company C.

Corp. Wm. Herbert, Gun Plains; enlisted Oct. 15, 1863; mustered out Sept. 22, 1865.

Company F.

Edgar F. Brundage, dlsch. for disability, May 1, 1865.

Company H.

Monroe Durkee, transferred to 8th Cavalry.

Alonzo Kenney, discharged by order, June 21, 1865.

Company I.

Sergeant Win. Bartlett, Ganges; enlisted Sept. 25, 1863; mustered out Aug. 10, 1865.

Company L.

Chas. E. Day, mustered out May 29, 1865.

MERRILL HORSE.

This was the name of a body of Cavalry recognized as a Missouri regiment, three companies of which, viz., H, I, and L, were raised in the State of Michigan, and to the close of the war retained their distinctive character as Michigan troops so far that their officers were commissioned by and their members credited to the latter State.

Companies H and I were recruited early in the autumn of 1861, and the latter company especially had a large representation from Barry County.

Company L was not organized until December, 1862.

The regiment to which these companies belonged served during the whole term of its service with the Western armies.

It engaged the enemy at Memphis, Moore’s Hill, and Kirksville, Mo., in 1862.

At Brownsville, Bayou Mecoe, Ashley’s Bayou, Little Rock, Benton, Princeton, Little Missouri River, Prairie Dehan, Camden, and Jenkins’ Ferry, Ark., in 1863-64.

At Franklin, Otterville, Independence, and Big Blue, Mo., in October, 1864.

In the latter part of 1864 the regiment was transferred to Nashville, Tenn.; thence by steamers it proceeded to Eastport, Miss., and on the 11th of February, 1865, it began a march, via Florence, Huntsville, Stevenson, and Bridgeport, Alabama, to Chattanooga, Tenn.

During the remainder of its term of service it was employed in Northern Georgia on scout duty.

In Georgia it encountered the enemy at Trenton Gap, Alpine, and Summerville.

Its service closed on the 21st of September, 1865, when it was mustered out at Nashville, Tenn.

MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company H.

1st Lieutenant Nathan J. Aiken; com. Aug. 26, 1861; resigned March 18, 1862.

Samuel Baird, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Sidney S. Fish, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Luther Holman, died of disease at Augusta, Michigan, July 15, 1864.

James Paul, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Isaac Snyder, died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 21, 1865.

Company I.

2d Lieutenant Lucien B. Potter, Maple Grove; com. July 2, 1862; promoted to 1st Lieutenant

Co. B.

Sergeant John M1 Gitchell, enlisted Aug. 26, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Sergeant Hubbard L. Baldwin, enlisted Aug. 27, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out July 25. 1865.

Sergeant John M. Brown, enlisted Aug. 23, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Corp. James E. Jones, enl Aug. 27, 1861; discharged for disability, May 30, 1862.

Corp. John M. White, enlisted Aug. 17, 1861; discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863.

Corp. John D. Christley, enlisted Aug. 30, 1861.

Corp. Albert -H. Eaton, enlisted Aug. 28, 1861; veteran, Jan. 5, 1864; mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Farrier Sylvester D. White, enlisted Aug. 24, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 4, 1861.

Orsemis Britton, discharged at end of service, Sept. 15, 1864.

Henry Houghtalin, discharged for disability, Nov. 21, 1862.

Wesley Houghtalin, discharged for disability, May 9, 1862.

Theron Haynes, died of wounds received at Memphis, July 18, 1865.

Benjamin J. Hall, died of disease at Fayette, Mo., April 26, 1862.

Rufus B. Harrington, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

Nathaniel Jeffries, discharged for disability, April 6, 1862.

Reuben Johnson, discharged for disability, Feb. 26, 1862.

John H. Johnson, discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Edwin Mills, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Henry S. Scoville, died of disease at Fayette, Mo., March 13, 1862.

George Scoville, died in action at Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862.

John H. Taylor, died in action at Moore’s Hill, July 28, 1862.

Moses B. Taylor, discharged for disability, Sept. 13, 1861.

James Willson, died in action at Memphis, Mo., July 18, 1862.

Charles Wilkinson, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 9, 1861.

Company L.

Sergt. James Telford, Johnstown; enlisted Nov. 29, 1862; died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 12, 1864.

ALLEGAN COUNTY MEMBERS.

Company H.

William J. Hensell, discharged by order, June 15, 1865.

Company I.

Charles Ingraham, mustered out Sept. 19, 1865.

FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Batteries unconnected with each other-Battery C largely from Allegan County-Its Services in Northern Mississippi-It joins Sherman-The Atlanta Campaign-Its Battles-Marching through Georgia-The Carolina Campaign-Muster out-

Soldiers of the First Light Artillery from Allegan County-From Barry County.

This regiment contained a comparatively large number of men from the counties of Allegan and Barry, but they were scattered through several of the batteries of which the regiment was composed, and the histories of these batteries are as unconnected with each other as are those of the same number of Cavalry or infantry regiments.

Therefore the First Light Artillery cannot be described as a whole; nor is it practicable, except in the case of Battery C, to give separate sketches of the several batteries, in each of which a few men only were found from these counties.

Battery C, however, drew about forty men from the two counties (all but one, we believe, from Allegan), and of that we will therefore give a slight sketch.

Its first official designation was the Third Michigan Battery, but it was most commonly known as ” Dees’ Battery.”

It had its rendezvous at Grand Rapids, and was recruited into service in connection with the Third Cavalry.

Commanded by Captain Alexander W. Dees, it left its rendezvous on the 17th of December, 1861, and joined the forces then assembling for operations against the enemy on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

It was engaged in the battle of Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862;

Siege of Corinth, Miss., May 10 to 31, 1862; battle Iuka, Miss., Sept. 19, 1862;

Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3 to 4, 1862; and at Lumpkin’s Mills, Miss., Nov. 29, 1862, where it disabled two of the rebel guns, and with a Cavalry brigade forced the enemy into their earthworks at the Tallahatchie River.

It continued in service in Northern Mississippi and West Tennessee until the spring of 1864, when it joined Gen. Sherman’s army, then operating in Northern Georgia.

During the hotly-contested Atlanta campaign, Battery C successfully engaged the enemy at Resaca, May 14th; Dallas, May 27th;

Big Shanty, June 15th; Kenesaw Mountain, June 25th;

Nickajack Creek, July 1st; Decatur, July 20th; and the siege of Atlanta, July 22 to Aug. 25, 1864.

From Nov. 1-12, 1864, it was engaged in the pursuit of Hood’s rebel army into Northern Alabama.

On the 16th of the same month, with Gen. Sherman’s army, it began the march “through Georgia.”

Hardee’s rebel forces were encountered in front of Savannah on the 9th of December, and Battery C assisted in driving him inside his works.

On the 10th it engaged him all day, and on the 11th dismounted one of his guns and silenced others.

On the 4th of January, 1865, it embarked on a transport for Beaufort, N. C., and on the 16th was in camp at Pocotaligo.

Its Carolina campaign was commenced on the 29th of January, and on the 9th of February it was warmly engaged with the enemy at the crossing of the South Edisto River.

Columbia was reached on the 17th, and on the 4th of March, near Cheraw, the rebels were again encountered and defeated, and twenty-eight guns were taken from them.

The Cape Fear River was crossed at Fayetteville, N. C.

On the 13th of March the enemy was attacked and driven from his position.

The series of actions which culminated at Bentonville, N. C., March 19th and 20th, the advance to Goldsboro’, N. C., the pursuit of Johnston to and through Raleigh, his surrender, the march to Washington, D. C., via Richmond, Va., and the grand review at the nation’s capital, were events in which Battery C took an active part.

It arrived in Washington, D. C., May 23d, marched to Detroit, Michigan, June 13th, and was there mustered out of the service, June 22, 1865.

ALLEGAN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Battery A.

Albert Bragg, mustered out July 28, 1865.

John H. Hicks, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Battery B.

William C. Thayer, veteran, enlisted Dec. 24, 1863; mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery C.

2d Lieutenant Asa Estabrook, Allegan; com. Dec. 18, 1864; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Sergeant Martin V. Heath, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 11, 1861; discharged for disability, April 24, 1862.

Corp. James Sullivan, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 25, 1861; discharged for disability, Sept. 12, 1862.

Corp. Frank Fort, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 14, 1861; veteran, Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Saddler James Clark, Allegan; enlisted Oct. 14, 1861; veteran, Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Musician Benoni Collins, Allegan; enlisted Nov. 8, 1861; discharged for disability, July 11, 1862.

Fitch R. Barker, died of disease at St. Louis, March 11, 1862.

John S. Crary, discharged for disability, March 24, 1862.

Warren Collins, discharged for disability, March 4, 1862.

Volney Clark, discharged for disability, Aug. 8, 1862.

Luman Cooley, discharged for disability, Feb. 26, 1863.

Iarmon H. Cooley, discharged for disability, Sept. 1, 1862.

Benjamin B Carter, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Enos Clark, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

John S. Curtis, mustered out June 22, 1865.

Abel Dunton, discharged for disability, Dec. 4, 1862.

Elijah Evans, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Horace Eldred, mustered out June 22, 1865.

John Frank, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1862.

Angus Frazer, mustered out.

Herbert Howe, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

John H Iemmett, died of disease at Rome, Ga., Aug. 22, 1864.

Frank J. Higgins, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

Burroughs Ingham, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Chandler B. Jones, discharged for disability, Oct. 8, 1862.

Abram Morris, died of disease in Missouri, May 14, 1862.

Edward Nichols, died of disease in Indiana, May 19, 1862.

Solomon Ostrander, discharged at end of service, Dec. 18, 1864.

Henry D. Synes, died of disease at St. Louis, Jan. 18, 1862.

Elihu Smith, veteran, enlisted Dec. 28, 1863; mustered out June 22, 1865.

Earl B. Tyler, discharged for disability, Jan. 11, 1862.

Absalom Walker, discharged for disability, Aug. 25, 1862.

Philip Valmy, discharged for disability, Aug. 11, 1862.

Battery F.

Daniel Burleson, discharged by order, June 17, 1865.

Battery G.

Alpheus Mansfield, died of disease at Fort Gaines, Ala., Dec. 6, 1864.

Solomon Shoemaker, died of disease at Greenville, La., Aug. 22, 1861.

Jos. St. Clair, discharged at end of service, Feb. 12, 1865.

Battery H.

Wilson Rossman, mustered out July 22, 1865.

Battery K.

Geo. K. Lewis, discharged by order, May 17, 1865.

Battery L.

James French, died of disease at Coldwater, Michigan, April 26, 1863.

Wm. C. Thornton, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864.

FOURTEENTH BATTERY.

Sergeant Wm. E. Forbes, Gun Plain; enlisted Sept. 7, 1863; on detached service,

Corp. John Flynn, Gun Plain; enlisted Sept. 4, 1863; mustered out July 1, 1865.

OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS FROM BARRY COUNTY IN THE FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.

Battery A.

James McCalley, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 8, 1864.

Andrew J. Mattison, mustered out July 25, 1865.

Battery B.

Jesse C. Benjamin, discharged for wounds, June 3, 1865.

Franklin Campbell, mustered out June 3, 1865.

John Castle, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Augustus Ford, mustered out June 14, 1865.

David M. Hueston, discharged by order, June 29, 1865.

William Palmatier, died of disease at Rome, Ga., Aug. 20, 1864.

Henry L. Raymond, died of disease at Rome, Ga., July 27, 1864.

Chester S. Stoddard, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Ralph T. Stocking, mustered out June 14, 1865.

John Slamm, mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery C.

Charles HI. Williams. mustered out June 14, 1865.

Battery E.

1st Lieutenant Leonard Wightman, Hastings; com. March 16, 1864; 2d Lieutenant Oct. 1, 1862; (previously a corporal) bvt. Captain, June 20, 1865, “for meritorious services;” mustered out July 20, 1865.

John Burd, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

John Carpenter, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

George W. Cain, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Amos Greentiam, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Nathan Lucas, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Lucius L. Landon, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

James McNee, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

John McNee, discharged by order, June 26, 1865.

Jacob Odell, mustered out Aug. 20, 1865.

Elijah A. Shaw, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

George C. Smith, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Cornelius Senter, discharged by order, June 30, 1865.

George D. Scoviile, transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct. 18, 1864.

Rufus W. Vester, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Peter Wilbert, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Miles S. Young, mustered out Aug. 30, 1865.

Battery G.

William Cranston, discharged for disability, May 13, 1865.

Dayton S. Peck, mustered out Aug. 6, 1865.

Battery I.

John I. Miller, mustered out July 14, 1865.

Battery K.

William Quick, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn.

Batteries L.

Sergeant Austin D. Johnson, Prairieville; enlisted March 16, 1863; mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Corp. George H. Brooks, Orangeville; enlisted March 16, 1863; discharged for promotion in 30th Inf.

Thomas McLane, mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Jesse Quick, discharged for disability, May 13, 1865.

Richard Shaw, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., July 14, 1865.

William Swartout, mustered out Aug. 22, 1865.

Thirteenth Battery.

Edwin P. Clark, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Zebulon Caswell, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Jeremiah Harper, mustered out July 1, 1865.

Peter Schrontz, died of disease at Fort Sumner, Md., Dec. 25, 1864.

Heman Train, died of disease at Fort Sumner, Md., Nov. 29, 1864.

SOLDIERS OF OTHER REGIMENTS.

Remarks on the scattering Soldiers of Allegan and Barry Counties Men in the First Infantry-In the Fifth Infantry-In the Tenth Infantry-In the Eleventh Infantry-In the Fifteenth Infantry-In the Sixteenth Infantry-In the Eighteenth Infantry-In the Twentieth Infantry-In the Twenty-Fourth Infantry-In the Twenty-Fifth Infantry-In the Twenty-Sixth Infantry-In the Twenty-Seventh Infantry-In the First Colored Infantry-In the First Sharpshooters-In the Forty-Fourth Illinois Infantry-In the Sixty-Sixth Illinois Infantry-In the Nineteenth Wisconsin Infantry-In the First United States Sharpshooters-

Miscellaneous.

BESIDES the commands whose histories have been thus briefly outlined, there were many others containing soldiers from Allegan and Barry Counties, soldiers whose records are equally as bright and honorable as those of any in the army, but of whom we cannot speak here, owing to the smallness of the number in each organization.

We gladly give, however, the following list of their names:

FIRST INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Dennis Cosier, Co. K; veteran, enlisted Feb. 17, 1864; discharged by order, July 6, 1865.

John Dorrance, Co. K; discharged June 1, 1863.

FROM BARRY.

Frederick Cook, Co. H; mustered out July 9, 1865.

FIFTH INFANTRY.

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Charles J. Jenner, Co. D; discharged at end of service, Dec. 17, 1863.

1st Lieutenant Daniel E. Bitdsell, Co. E, Hastings; com. Sept. 1, 1864; 2d Lieutenant, June 10, 1864; Sergeant; wounded Oct. 27, 1864; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1865.

John Gaff, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Edward Stevens, mustered out July 5, 1865.

George Shultz, mustered out July 5, 1865.

Milo Fisher, Co. F; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Joseph Foster, Co. I; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Mortimer Lowing, Co. I, mustered out May 31, 1865.

TENTH INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Eli Baker, Co. B; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Johnson Parsons, Co. C; mustered out. July 19, 1865.

Chas. F. Smith, Co. E; mustered out Aug. 3, 1865.

Thos. Hayner, Co. G; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Ethan Whitney, Co. I; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Francis H. Norton, Co. K; mustered out July 19, 1865.

FROM BARRY.

John W. Snyder, Co. A; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Charles A. Allen, Co. B; mustered out July 18, 1865.

Niel t. Alden, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 21, 1865.

William H. Muffley, Co. C; mustered out July 19, 1865.

Thomas McGuire, Co. G; died of disease at New Albany, Ind., Feb. 4, 1865.

ELEVENTH INFANTRY.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Corp. James Sprague, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

Joseph Annis, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

James Rose, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864.

Wm. II. Smith, Co. G; died of disease, Feb. 4, 1862.

Darius Sprague, Co. G; discharged at end of service, Sept. 30, 1865.

ELEVENTH INFANTRY (NEW).

FROM ALLEGAN.

Talbot Ballinger, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

Lewis C. Cady, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

James Lutz, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

David Stevenson, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 16, 1865.

FIFTEENTH INFANTRY

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

George W. Colborne, Co. A; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., June 10, 1865.

Albert N. Russell, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Ezra H. Heath, Co. B; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Thomas Burt, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Ralph Parrish, Co. C; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Cortland Brownell, Co. D; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

John Haywood, Co. D; discharged by order, July 20, 1865.

Charles W. Tyler, Co. D; discharged by order, June 16, 1865.

George Kitson, Co. E; mustered out July 18, 1865.

John H. Butler, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Sidney M. Bennett, Co. F; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

James Reeves, Co. F; discharged by order, July 26, 1865.

Peter Schneider, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Sylvanus Snell, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Gaylord Helmer, Co. H; discharged by order, May 31, 1865.

George W. Roe, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Austin G. Pike, Co. I; discharged by order, July 1, 1865.

Charles Butler, Co: K; discharged by order, July 15, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Asa S. Durham, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Mills W. Corning, Co. C; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

James Curley, Co. D; discharged by order, Aug. 28, 1865.

George W. Shepard, Co. D; discharged by order, June 22, 1865.

James Racey, Co. E; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Henry Blodgett, Co. F; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Amphious Bliss, Co. F; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Edwin C. Davis, Co. G; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

Austin D. Bates, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Orison Lovewell, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Alfred S. Millard, Co. H; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Elnathan Gilbert, Co. I; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

William F. M. Mitchell, Co. K; mustered out Aug. 13, 1865.

Robert Rouse, Co. K; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

SIXTEENTH INFANTRY MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Jacob Lugensland, Co. A; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John W. Brown, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Austin Corbett, Co. B; discharged by order, Aug. 26, 1865.

John Hoof, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Elias Leonard, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John McCreery, Co. B; mustered out July 8, 1865.

James R. Griswold, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Alexander Hayden, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

James O’Brien, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Richard Purdy, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

John Thomas, Co. C; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Harmon Campbell, Co. F; discharged by order, June 14, 1865.

Robert H. Gould, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Jerry Munro, Co. I; discharged by order, May 30, 1865.

BARRY COUNTY MEMBERS.

Daniel Myers, Co. D; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Francis O. N. Leonard, Co. I; veteran, March 1, 1864.

Louis B. Barber, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

George Roth, Co. K; mustered out July 8, 1865.

 

EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY FROM ALLEGAN.

Benjamin M. Curtis, Co. C; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 21, 1862.

John A. Carpenter, Co. C; mustered out June 26, 1865.

SOLDIERS OF OTHER REGIMENTS.

TWENTIETH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Thomas H. Barker, Co. C; died of disease near Falmouth, Va., Jan. 10, 1863.

Willard S. Cook, Co. C; died of disease, Dec. 12, 1862.

Ira Messinger, Co. C; died of disease at Falmouth, Va., Dec. 28, 1862.

Samuel W. Onwig, Co. C; died of disease in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 8, 1864.

Oliver J. Stevenson, Co. C; mustered out May 30, 1865.

Captain George W. Bullis, Johnstown; Co. F, Nov. 28, 1863; 1st Lieutenant Co. I, July 29, 1862; discharged for disability, Aug. 10, 1864.

TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Mortimer W. Hunter, Co. F; died of disease at Richmond, Va., June 8, 1865.

Florence A. Hunter, Co. F; died of disease at Richmond, Va., June 8, 1865.

TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY

MEMBERS FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

William F. Henry, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., March 28, 1865.

Selden Sperry, Co. A; mustered out June 30, 1865.

William White, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., April 8, 1865.

Rollin Wood, Co. A; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Clark Bailey, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Newton Belden, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward Crew, Co. E; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., May 14, 1865.

Hollis Ward, Co. E; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Gideon Chilson, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John G. Collins, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Orson J. Davis, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

George Doxey, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Henry De Roslyn, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Charles M. Failing, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Benjamin F. Lamoyne, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Samuel Piper, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Luther S. Pelham, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Edward Rogers, Co. F; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Thomas Iddles, Co. H; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James W. Parker, Co. H; died of disease at Camp Butler, Ill., March 21, 1865.

James Blytheman, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James Daama, Co. I; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Cornelius Lockker, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Garrett N. Nieland, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Mathew Notier, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Jerome Mockma, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Frank S. Popplewell, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Everett Russell, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

James Roe, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Joseph Sharpe, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John Scriven, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

John F. Tidd, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Gardner A. Terry, Co. I; mustered out June 30, 1865.

Lewis Mapes, Co. K; died of disease at Camp Butler, April 25, 1865.

FROM BARRY.

Detzel Bradford, mustered out June 21, 1865.

TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Moses Steeber, Co. H; mustered out June 24, 1865.

TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY MEMBERS FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Company H.

2d Lieutenant Jesse Jordan, Woodland; com. Dec. 23, 1863; discharged for wounds, Dec. 5, 1864.

Company I

Sergeant Jesse Jordan, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to 2d Lieutenant Co. H.

Corp. Adam J. Hagar, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865.

Corp. James G. Jordan, Woodland; enlisted Aug. 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865.

Judge B. Barnum, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Aaron J. Cupp, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Marcus G. Corsett, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Charles Dewey, died of disease, Jan. 11, 1864.

L. D. Edson, died of disease, Aug. 9, 1864.

Samuel E. Grant, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Hugh Kilpatrick, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Henry Miller, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Feb. 6, 1864.

Levi L. Paddock, died of disease at Elmira, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1864.

Jeremiah Riggs, died of disease at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 1, 1864. 19

Oscar E. Sheldon, died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 23, 1863.

Joel St. Johns, discharged for disability, Aug. 14, 1863.

Milo Sheldon, mustered out June 4, 1865.

Samuel S. Straight, mustered out June 4, 1865.

George W. Tyler, discharged for disability, May 6, 1864.

William H. Wheeler, died at Farmville, Va., April 7, 1865.

Ransom Wolcott, mustered out June 4, 1865.

John Wilcox, Co. K; mustered out May 30, 1865.

TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY

FROM BARRY.

Henry B. Moon, Co. D; mustered out July 26, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN.

Oscar E. Dunton, 2d Ind. Co. Sharpshooters; died in Andersonville prison-pen.

TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

J. A. Kenyon, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 6, 1865.

FIRST MICHIGAN (102D U. S.) COLORED INFANTRY FROM BARRY.

Cairo Bolin, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Amos Cisco, Co. B; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Amos Swanagan, Co. C; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN.

James Chambers, Co. F; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Albert Tolbert, Co. F; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Musician William Gilmore, Co. G, Gun Plain; enlisted Dec. 20, 1863; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

Aquilla Corey, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

William J. Harris, Co. H; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

David Silence, Co. I; mustered out Sept. 30, 1865.

FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS

BARRY SOLDIERS.

Musician Charles M. Stephens, Co. A; enlisted April 18, 1863; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Amos W. Bowen, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Edward F. Cox, Co. A; died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Edgar F. Davidson, Co. A; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., June 23, 1864.

Curtis A. Davidson, Co. A; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Elias Farwell, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 1, 1865, from Vet. Res. Corps.

Joseph Fisher, Co. A; discharged for disability.

John Fisher, Co. A; died of disease at Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jan. 28, 1863.

Benjamin F. Hinckley, Co. A; died of wounds at Washington, D. C., July 12, 1864.

Nathaniel Jeffreys, Co. A; discharged Nov. 22, 1864.

Darius A. Kent, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John Livingston, Co. A; died of disease near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Henry Stevens, Co. A; mustered out June 28, 1865.

Gilbert Wilber, Co. A; died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864.

Robert Finch, Co. B; discharged for disability, Sept. 17, 1864.

Darius Fonts, Co. C; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John McGraw, Co. F; died of disease at Andersonville prison, Ga., Oct. 26, 1861.

David E. Grant, Co. G; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., December, 1863.

Charles D. Beckford, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Herman McIntyre, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

John R. Pitts, Co. I; mustered out July 28, 1865.

Francis Marquette, Co. K; mustered out June 27, 1865.

ALLEGAN SOLDIERS.

Levi Porter, Co. C; died in Andersonville prison-pen, Aug. 2, 1864.

Obadiah Gleason, Co. D; discharged for disability.

William Hawley, Co. C; died of disease at Camp Douglas, Ill., Feb. 26, 1864.

FORTY-FOURTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Francis P. Backus, Prairieville, Co. H; died in Missouri, Dec. 16, 1861.

Edward Doyle, Yankee Springs, Co. H; died of wounds, April 6, 1862.

Sergeant Arthur Hamilton, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

Corp. Benj. F. Norris, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.

John Shelp, Prairieville, Co. H; discharged for disability, Jan. 12, 1863.

Thos. W. Travis, Prairieville, Co. H; mustered out May 26, 1865.

Philip Terry, Yankee Springs, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 4, 1865.

FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Chas. W. Bates, Allegan, Co. H; discharged for disability, Feb. 1, 1862.

James M. Conrad, Gun Plain, Co. H; veteran, enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; promoted to Sergeant

Lafayette Willis, Allegan, Co. H; discharged for disability, Jan. 10, 1862.

SIXTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS INFANTRY (WESTERN SHARPSHOOTERS)

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Andrew J. Herrick, Co. D; discharged for disability, April 25, 1862.

Samuel Russell, Co. D; discharged for disability, Oct. 23, 1863.

Michael Whalen, Co. D; mustered out July 7, 1865.

NINETEENTH WISCONSIN INFANTRY

FROM ALLEGAN COUNTY.

Edward P. Adams, Wayland, Co. H; died of wounds at Fort Monroe, Va., Dec. 11, 1864.

FIRST REGIMENT UNITED STATES SHARPSHOOTERS.

FROM BARRY COUNTY.

Leander P. Johnson, Co. K; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 15, 1863.

Edwin B. Parks, Co. K; discharged by order, Oct. 8, 1864.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Major David Cornwell, enlisted as a private in Co. K, Eighth Illinois Infantry, at Bloomington, Ill., April 25, 1861;

He served three months, and re-enlisted in the same company and regiment for three years.

Major David Cornwell was in the battles of Fort Donnellson and Pittsburg Landing.

He transferred to Bat. D, Second Illinois Light Artillery, serving as private and bugler.

In February, 1863, he commissioned 1st Lieutenant Fifth U. S. Artillery (colored).

Major Cornwell was wounded at Milliken’s Bend, La. and then promoted to Captain June 6, 1863, and com. Major in February, 1864.

He was then on staff till close of war and mustered out May 20, 1866.

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The Great Lakes History from the 16th through the 19th Centuries..


The Storm.

IN preceding chapters the chief events of lake history, from the period of French discovery to the beginning of modern commerce, succeeding the war of 1812, have been narrated.

The chronology of the lakes becomes a matter of greater detail as this inland traffic gradually expands, and the following pages will chronicle the more important events which have occurred since the lakes became the highway for great commercial purposes.

Preliminary to this chronology, a brief review of the earlier history is presented.

In the sixteenth century the St. Lawrence River was discovered and navigated by French adventurers.

In the seventeenth century the system of the Great Lakes was discovered and occupied by the same nation.

During the eighteenth century there was a constant struggle for the control of these vast inland seas, and, when the war of 1812 ended, their shores were rapidly populated.

Commerce properly began with that permanent settlement.

 

Briefly, then, the preparatory events were as follows:

 

Sixteenth Century.

 

1520—

 

  • Brest established by the French as a fishing station on the straits of Belle Isle.
  • About this year Portuguese also explored the region of the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.

 

 

1524—

 

  • Verrazano, a French explorer, visited the region of the St. Lawrence River and concluded that an immense continent lay to the west.

 

 

1534—

 

  • May 10, Cartier, sent by King Frances I of France, arrived off Newfoundland.
  • May 27, Cartier reached the straits of Belle Isle.
  • July 2, Cartier reached and named the Bay of Chaleur.

 

 

1535—

 

  • Cartier, on his second voyage, reached and named Assumption island, August 15, and discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence river.
  • September 1, reached the mouth of the Saguenay River.
  • October 2, reached Hochelaga, near Mont Royale, now Montreal.

 

 

1541—

 

  • Cartier made his third voyage to the St. Lawrence River.

 

 

1600—

 

  • Pontgrave attempted colonization and failed.

 

 

Seventeenth Century.

 

1603—

 

  • June 7, Champlain started on an exploration of the Saguenay river.
  • About this time he first heard of the “Immense Sea of Salt Water” to the west.

 

 

1615—

 

  • Lake Huron discovered by Le Caron, the Recollect friar, and by Champlain, the great navigator.
  • Lake Ontario discovered later in the same year by Champlain.

 

 

1629—

 

  • Lake Superior discovered by Champlain’s interpreter, Etienne Brule, during this year or earlier.

 

 

1634—

 

  • Lake Michigan discovered by Jean Nicolet, an employe of a French fur trading company.
  • He visited Green Bay.

 

 

1641-

 

  • Raymbault and Jogues, two missionaries, traversed Lake Superior in search of a passage to China.

 

 

1648—

 

  • Iroquois destroyed Huron missions near Lake Huron.

 

 

1660—

 

  • Menard, the missionary, searched for the Hurons on the Lake Superior region.

 

 

1665—

 

  • Allouez established an Indian mission at La Pointe.

 

 

1668—

 

  • Marquette established an Indian mission at Sault Ste. Marie.

 

 

1669—

 

  • Lake Erie probably discovered by Joliet.
  • Allouez established an Indian mission at Green Bay.

 

 

1670—

 

  • First recorded passage through Detroit river, made by Sulpitian priests.

 

 

1671—

 

  • Marquette founded the mission of St. Ignace at the Straits of Mackinac.
  • Rude fort erected at Mackinac.
  • St. Lusson, in behalf of Louis XIV, of France, takes formal possession of the Great Lakes at St. Mary’s Falls.

 

 

1673—

 

  • Joliet and Marquette discovered the Mississippi.
  • Fort Frontenac erected by LaSalle on the present site of Kingston, Ontario.

 

 

1678—

 

  • La Salle built the little bark Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, the first vessel on the Great Lakes.

 

 

1679—

 

  • Schooner Griffin, the first vessel on Lake Erie, launched on the Upper Niagara river in June, entered Lake Erie August 7, encountered a severe storm on Lake Huron, reached Green Bay early in September.
  • Loss of the Griffin on her return trip.

 

 

1684—

 

  • Governor De la Barre, of New France, attempted to crush the Iroquois.

 

 

1686—

 

  • Duluth built a French fort at St. Joseph, on the St. Clair River, the site of Fort Gratiot.
  • English traders visited Mackinaw.

 

 

1687—

 

  • French capture two English trading parties on Lake Huron.
  • French expedition against the Iroquois met with defeat.
  • Fort Niagara built by the French.

 

 

1688—

 

  • Fort St. Joseph burned and abandoned by the French.
  • Fort Niagara abandoned by the French.
  • Fort Frontenac destroyed.
  • French temporarily lost command of the Great Lakes.

 

 

1694—

 

  • Fort Frontenac rebuilt by the French.

 

 

Eighteenth Century.

 

1701—

 

  • French fort erected at Detroit by Cadillac.

 

 

1703—

 

  • French fort at Detroit partially destroyed by Indians.

 

 

1718—

 

  • French fort at Detroit rebuilt by Tonti.

 

 

1720—

 

  • Governor Burnett, of New York, began the erection of a trading post at Oswego.
  • New York Legislature prohibited New York merchants from trading with Canada for furs.

 

 

1725—

 

  • French rebuilt Fort Niagara.

 

 

1726—

 

  • English launched two vessels at Oswego.

 

 

1747—

 

  • French fortify scattered posts from Lake Ontario to Lake Superior.

 

 

1750—

 

  • Little Fort Niagara, one and one-half miles above Niagara Falls, completed by the French.

 

 

1755—

 

  • English built two sloops, the Oswego and the Ontario, at Oswego, besides several other boats.
  • French fortify and strengthen their lake forts.

 

 

1756—

 

  • French captured Oswego, six sloops of war, 100 boats and large munitions of war.

 

 

1758—

 

  • Colonel Bradstreet captured Fort Frontenac, and with it seven vessels.

 

 

1759—

 

  • Fort Niagara surrendered to the English, who thereby secured control of Lakes Erie and Ontario.

 

 

1760—

 

  • Major Rogers took possession of Detroit.

 

 

1761—

 

  • English took the French posts at Mackinac, St. Mary’s, Green Bay and St. Joseph’s and gained control of the entire lake region.

 

 

1762—

 

  • English built at Detroit the schooners Beaver and Gladwyn.

 

 

1763—

 

  • Pontiac’s conspiracy against the English.
  • Fall of Fort Sandusky, May 16,
  • Indians captured St. Joseph’s Fort, May 25.
  • Massacre at Mackinaw, June 4.
  • English post at St. Mary’s and at Green Bay abandoned.
  • Presqu’Isle surrendered, June 17.
  • Detroit invested by Pontiac’s Indians.
  • Gallant service aboard the small armed schooners Beaver and Gladwyn.
  • Beaver wrecked at Cat Fish creek, 14 miles from Buffalo, August 28.
  • Massacre at Devil’s Hole, Niagara river, September 14.
  • The New York Mercury of 1763 says: “There are five brigs from 30 to 80 tons, and 18 armed flush-decked cutters on Lake Ontario. The navigation of that lake will soon equal for trade that of the Caspian Sea.”

 

 

1764—

 

  • Sir William Johnson attempted to pacify the savages.
  • Bradstreet relieved Detroit.
  • Captain Howard regained Mackinaw, and English detachments reoccupy Green Bay and St. Mary’s.
  • Great Britain again in complete control of the lakes.
  • Three new vessels built, the Victory, the Boston and the Royal Charlotte.

 

 

1766—

 

  • English fur trade at Mackinaw began, and extended rapidly.

 

 

1767—

 

  • The Brunswick launched.

 

 

1769—

 

  • The Enterprise built at Detroit.
  • Sloop Betsey launched.

 

 

1770—

 

  • The Charity, of 70 tons, launched at Niagara.

 

 

1771—

 

  • The Chippewa, Lady Charlotte and Beaver 2nd launched.
  • Beaver 2nd lost near Sandusky in May with her entire crew of 17 men.
  • Schooner Hope, 81 tons, built at Detroit.
  • Sloop Angelica, 66 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1772—

 

  • Sloop launched on Lake Superior by the English trader Henry and others in an attempt to develop copper mining.
  • British brig-of-war General Gage, 154 tons, built at Detroit.
  • Schooner Dunmore, 106 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1774—

 

  • The Lake Superior sloop sold by Henry to fur traders.
  • Sloop Felicity, 55 tons, and Schooner Faith, 61 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1776—

 

  • Sloop Adventure, 34 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1779—

 

  • Sloop Wyandotte, 47 tons, built at Detroit.

 

 

1780—

 

  • British schooner Ontario, probably built several years earlier, lost during a fearful gale between Niagara and Oswego, with 172 English soldiers.
  • The Ontario carried 22 guns, and was commanded by Captain Andrews.
  • The soldiers lost were a detachment of the King’s Own Regiment, commanded by Colonel Burton.

 

 

1781—

 

  • Spanish detachment from St. Louis captured St. Joseph (the British garrison retreating to Detroit), and fly the flag of Spain over Lake Michigan.
  • The Spaniards, fearing an attack from Detroit, retired to the Mississippi a few days later.

 

 

1783—

 

  • By treaty the boundary between Canada and the United States established along the middle of the chain of Great Lakes.
  • Northwest Fur Company organized at Quebec, and established posts at various points on the upper lakes.

 

 

1784—

 

  • Northwest Fur Company built at Detroit the schooner Beaver, 34-feet keel, 13-feet beam and 4-feet hold.

 

 

1785—

 

  • Unsuccessful attempt to take the Beaver up St. Mary’s Falls.

 

 

1789—

 

  • Hudson Bay Company owned a vessel called the Speedwell on Lake Superior, and others on Lake Ontario.
  • John Fellows, of Massachusetts, crossed Lake Ontario in the first American boat on the Great Lakes, with tea and tobacco.

 

 

1792—

 

  • English merchantman, the York, constructed at York.
  • A vessel named the Missisaga, sailed on Lake Ontario that year.

 

 

1793—

 

  • English vessels on Lake Ontario included the armed schooner Onondaga, the Lady Dorchester, 87 tons, Mohawk, Caldwell and Buffalo.

 

 

1795—

 

  • The Sophia was a quick-sailing vessel on Lake Ontario.
  • Captain Lee, of Chippewa, owned the only boat on the south side of Lake Erie, a small vessel, name unknown.

 

 

1796—

 

  • Great Britain surrendered to the United States the posts at Oswego, Lewiston, Schlosser, Miami, Detroit and Mackinaw.
  • At Detroit this year there were owned 12 merchant vessels, and several sloops, brigs and schooners of from 50 to 100 tons each.
  • British built a fort on the island of St. Joseph, 20 miles above Detroit.
  • Schooner Swan first vessel to float the stars and stripes on Lake Erie.
  • Erie Packet sailed on Lake Erie.

 

 

1797—

 

  • Canadian vessel, Governor Simcoe, 87 tons, owned by the Northwest Company, sailed on Lake Ontario.
  • Sloop Detroit wrecked near Erie.
  • American schooner Wilkinson, 80 tons, built at Detroit.

 

1798—

 

  • The Jemima built at Hanford’s Landing, below Rochester.
  • Sloop Weazel sailed on Lake Erie.
  • Sloop Washington, 36 tons, launched near Erie.

 

 

 

1799—

 

  • The York wrecked in November, on a rock off the Devil’s Nose.
  • Genesee and Peggy sailed between Oswego and Niagara.
  • Good Intent, 30 tons, built at Mill Creek.griffon-drawing-1
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The Pioneers of Osceola County, Michigan


Charles H. Holden

CHARLES H. HOLDEN, of Reed City, Mich., the subject of this sketch, was born April 18, 1832, at Groton, Grafton Co., N. H.

His father, Josiah Rhodes Holden, was born in Groton, Feb. 22, 1797, and was married to Joanna Reed Danforth, Jan. 24, 1824.

She was born in Londonderry, N. H., March 10, 1800.

Of their six children but three survive: Hon. E. G. D. Holden, of Grand Rapids, Mich.; Mrs. Fannie L. Fowler, wife of a prominent lawyer and capitalist at Manistee, Mich.; and C. H, of this sketch.

When the latter was an infant of two months his parents matured a long considered plan of removing West, and set out for Illinois.

Reaching Buffalo, they took passage for Cleveland, having learned of the disturbed condition of the country in that then undeveloped and remote section, where fabled resources awoke the smoldering fires of dormant ambitions, and lured the footsteps of the young and ardent towards its goals of promise.

The difficulties with the Sacs and Foxes culminated in the conflict known in history as the “Black Hawk War.”

The rumors which found their way easterly, at first vague and filled with an undefined terror, gradually assumed the tangibility of fact, and the tide of immigration stayed its waves in the nearer and more peaceful commonwealth of the Buckeye State.

The summer sped on and various complications detained those who had paused to await the end of the Indian trouble, and when the region of the Northwest was again free from the turmoil of strife it was too late to press on to the original destination.

The approach of autumn portended winter which with its associations bore little of encouragement to navigators to untried regions, and many families clung to the ties which, though so recently formed, borrowed from circumstances an added strength, and settled to await the advent of another spring.

Josiah R. Holden was among the heads of families who “had gained a foothold, but born of a sorrow which to him seemed irreparable.

In one short week the grim messenger, death, invaded that happy family and took to its icy embrace two boys, one-half of his family group,—the first and third,—leaving the second and the subject of this sketch, then an infant.

In 1834 they started from Cleveland for Chicago, which then comprised Fort Dearborn and two trading posts.

They made the trip on the first steamer that made the passage of the Straits at Mackinaw.

Ten days after reaching Chicago they went to Will County, ILL., and located on 160 acres of prairie and timber land situated on the Du Page River in the vicinity of Joliet.

The senior Holden entered into the work of the pioneer settler with all the vigor, hopefulness and energy of purpose he inherited from his ancestral stock and which associations of the place of his birth had fostered and preserved in their native strength.

He erected a hotel and had succeeded in establishing a line of business connections which promised future realizations in proportion to the spirit and deserts of their originator, when the financial crisis of 1837 supervened, and by its reduction of values, aided by the complications attendant upon the miscellaneous currency, appropriately styled “wild-cat money,” overwhelmed the relations of business, and Mr. Holden was forced to dispose of his estate at a sacrifice, which was synonymous with financial ruin.

Leaving his family settled at Plainfield, in Will County, he went to Arkansas to retrieve his losses, and after an absence of three years returned and removed his family to Moorsville, near New Albany, Indiana.

In 1845 they came to Michigan and settled on a farm of 160 acres situated twelve miles from the city of Grand Rapids.

The territory of Kent County, which is now one of the finest samples of the probabilities of Michigan, as well as a manifest of the character of her pioneers and their efforts, was then undeveloped, and Mr. Holden of this sketch, then a boy of 13, was the father’s assistant in the work of clearing the home farm.

The parents yet survive and reside in Grand Rapids, aged respectively 87 and 84 years.

Their two sons are in the fullness of their manhood and have crowned the ambitious hopes of the father and the unfaltering trust of the mother with the honors of their distinguished and successful careers.

 

Hon. E. G. D. Holden, of Grand Rapids, is one of the “eminent men of Michigan,” and wrought every step of his upward career by hard, systematic work, until he has a record which reflects luster on his entire generation.

His election to the position of Secretary of State of Michigan is among the most signal triumphs in the register of the Peninsular State.

Charles H. Holden has descended from illustrious ancestry, and belongs to a race that has been made conspicuous by distinctive traits.

The student of history may always turn from his futile and bewildering guest in search of a reliable basis whereon to found a just opinion of a large majority of the characters of history to the records of the Puritans.

Though they have been the objects of derision, contumely and vituperation, no assault has availed to hurl the class from its position. It has stood statuesque in the history of the world since the days of Elizabeth, and its appellation is the synonym for, sound morality and unswerving purpose.

The records of business since the period of the earliest dissenters, in all avenues, exhibit traces of their inflexible methods.

They have been the founders of some of the most substantial and popular financial projects; they have shone peerlessly in literature; they have walked unflinchingly to the block and bared their throats to the headsman’s ax with firm fingers, and invited the fatal blade with the same calmness in which they were wont to stretch themselves for repose on luxuriant couches in palatial homes.

It is a grand type of humanity, and its fineness of grain is still inbred in our own composite nationality.

It is like the essence of the cassava, preservative and antiseptic, and from its reproduction in succeeding generations it receives a fresh impetus, and takes in renewed vitality.

The name of Holden first appears in the records of the New World in 1609, when Richard Holden, a refugee Puritan, from the town of Leyden, came to America, followed in r61r and in 1612 respectively by Justinian and Randall Holden, of the same persecuted fraternity.

The earliest traceable ancestors of the family of C. H. Holden was John Holden, born in 1692, from whom the line is intact.

In the maternal line he is of Scottish origin; his mother being descended from the Greggs of Ayrshire, and traced to 1690.

The earliest independent individual purpose of Mr. Holden, of this sketch, was to obtain an education, and he availed himself of every advantage of the public schools in the sections of Illinois where his parents resided, and after their removal to Kent County, Michigan, alternated his seasons of labor with study at the terms of winter school.

He served the family interests faithfully and well, and at 18 his father gave him all the aid he could toward the accomplishment of his plans,—the control of his time, —that he might pursue his educational project untrammeled.

He had sufficient means to enter the academy at Plainfield, Illinois, where he spent a year preparatory to becoming a student at Oberlin, Ohio.

At the latter place he took a classical course of study, in which he was occupied three years, earning money to defray his expenses by teaching winters; the fourth, or final, year of his collegiate course was passed at Knox College, Illinois.

On leaving college he was free from debt; his industry had earned all he needed, and his frugality had expended his earnings to the best possible advantage, and best of all he had the eminent satisfaction of knowing that what he had accomplished was his own work, and at the cost of no sacrifice at home.

He entered the office of Patterson & Champlin at Grand Rapids, Mich., as a student of law, and read under their supervision two years, gaining much advantage from their office relations ; after which one year was spent in Columbia Law College, Washington, D. C, where he was graduated.

After a year’s practice in Grand Rapids he finally located at Grand Traverse, and in the fall of 1858 was elected Prosecuting Attorney and Circuit Court Commissioner for that county.

The territory then embraced within its limits now comprises the counties of Leelanaw, Antrim, Kalkaska and Benzie.

The district politically was Democratic, yet he was elected over his competitor, Frank Stevens, by 23 majority, being the only one on the Republican ticket that was elected in the county that year.

He was re-elected in 1860 and officiated until the President’s second call for troops, when he felt the need of arduous service in behalf of the national integrity, and he abandoned a prosperous business and raised a company of volunteers, afterwards known as the “Lake Shore Tigers,” Co. A, 26th Mich. Vol., and was mustered as its First Lieutenant on the 11th day of September, 1862.

During the spring of 1863 his regiment participated in the Blackwater campaign near Suffolk, Va., against Longstreet.

During the draft riots at New York City in July, 1863, his regiment was ordered to New York, and Mr. Holden was placed on the staff of Gen. Canby, as Commissary of Subsistence.

The arduous work of providing for 30,000 troops hastily concentrated at the city of New York during this emergency required rare executive skill and prompt action in meeting and providing for the wants of the soldiers.

How well he discharged the duty of this trust may be inferred from the fact that he, a volunteer officer, was retained in preference to old line regular officers, who never looked with favor upon the volunteer service.

During this period Mr. Holden handled millions of dollars for the Government in purchasing supplies for the army and in disbursements to the various hospitals in and about the city, and, be it said to his credit, every dollar was accounted for to the last farthing, as the records of the Department will show.

On the 15th of October his regiment was ordered to join the Army of the Potomac and became a part of the First Brigade, First Division, Second Corps, under Gen. Hancock, in which capacity the regiment remained until the close of the war.

The cessation of the hostilities afforded opportunities to retrieve errors and for the recognition and acknowledgment of meritorious services.

Mr. Holden received two brevets first as Major, and lastly Lieutenant Colonel. On being relieved of his obligations as a soldier, he was appointed to a position by the Secretary of the Treasury in the Loan Branch, Treasury Department, where he was attached to the bureau for printing and disbursing the 7-30 bonds.

Later he was attached to the Second Auditor’s office, where he remained until 1870.

In June, 1869, he was chosen to represent the 5th Ward, afterwards 20th District, Washington, D. C., in the City Council: he was re-elected in 1870, and chosen President of the Board of Common Council, being the 69th and last Council of said city.

During his administration and management of the trust reposed in him by his constituency, he advocated and perfected many plans, such as parking the avenues and a system of drainage, which has since been adopted, placing the city upon a plane its founders intended it should occupy and become the handsomest city on the continent.

The plan here inaugurated was taken up and carried forward by the new life which had been infused by the new order of things, and Washington of to-day is the pride of the nation and the most beautiful city in the world.

During the years 1869-70-71-72, Mr. Holden contributed to “the city in beautiful brick blocks, aggregating over a hundred residences, with an outlay of capital involved of more than half a million dollars.

He was also largely engaged in the purchase and sale of real estate.

It is said of him that he rarely, if ever, made a mistake in buying real estate; his purchases always panned out with a profit, and in a few years he had risen to the foremost rank among the live business men in Washington City.

But success in any vocation is not absolutely assured.

The panic of 1873 had its depressing effect on values, and with it the consequent roll of disaster; the business men of the entire country were the chief sufferers; fortune vanished as if by magic, and lack of confidence and general distrust pervaded the business world.

Mr. Holden was not alone in adversity, and when the storm had spent its fury he found himself bereft of his entire fortune!

In 1878 he visited the West, determined to retrieve past losses, by commencing again at the bottom in new and untried fields, unaided save by the light of experience.

Reed City, Osceola Co., Mich., was the point selected, and in the month of June, the following year, he opened an office for the transaction of business as an attorney and dealer in real estate, and continued the management of his relations alone until Oct. 31, 1881, the date of the admission of Charles A. Withey, the firm style becoming Holden & Withey.

This firm is now the most prominent in Northern Michigan and is largely interested in real-estate operations in connection with a large and lucrative law practice.

Mr. Holden has done much to improve, enlarge and beautify Reed City; he has been instrumental in adding additions and a beautiful park to the city; last season he purchased the Heath-House Block, and more than doubled its dimensions and leased it for a term of years to Norman Johnson, M. D., Manager of the Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota Hospital Company.

This institution is now one of the largest and best conducted hospitals in the State.

It is also a sanitarium.

The edifice is brick, four stories in height above the basement and covers a little over an acre of land, and is the most attractive structure in the city.

The firm own a large amount of village and farm property; they also issue a monthly, the title of which is Real Estate Bulletin.

In the year 1869, while a resident of the National Capital, Mr. Holden became a member of the Masonic fraternity, and is now a member of Lafayette Chapter; also Columbia Commandery, No. 2, Knights Templar, and Knights of Pythias, all local organizations of Washington City.

In 1883 he was elected Commander of Stedman Post, No. 198, G. A. R., of Reed City, and is now serving his second term; he is also Commander of the Soldiers and Sailors’ Association of Northwestern Michigan, an organization including within its limits the northwest quarter of the State.

Mr. Holden was married Feb. 9, 1859, to Fannie E. Brooks, daughter of Horatio and Elizabeth Brooks, of Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Four children born to Mr. and Mrs. Holden died in infancy.

The portrait of Mr. Holden which is presented on a preceding page is a fitting accompaniment to the biographical annals of Osceola County.

His youth’s first endeavor was as a pioneer laborer in the development of Northern Michigan, which has supplied some of the best elements in the progressive history of this country; and to it he has brought the energies of his manhood’s prime, which are among its most valuable factors in its present condition of promise, fast approaching fulfillment and the fullness which characterizes adjacent, as well as remote, sections of the Peninsular State.

 

E. J. Terrill, merchant and Postmaster at Avondale, and farmer, section 26, Hartwick Township, was born July 23, 1837, in Middletown, Vt.

His father, Ezra Terrill, was a farmer in the Green Mountain State, where he was born in the town of Middletown in Rutland County.

In early life he was a miller.

Later he went with his family to the State of New York, where he reared his family.

In 1865, the Terrills, father and son, came to Michigan, where they remained at that time but a year, going in 1866 to Jones County, Iowa.

There the mother, Orra (Newland) Terrill, died, June 11, 1870.

She was born in Vermont. In March, 1881, Mr. Terrill, of this sketch, removed his family to Hartwick Township, whither he came a month earlier and bought 40 acres of land, on which some improvements had been made.

He afterwards erected a building for a store, put in a stock of goods worth $1,200, and has since transacted a fairly good business as a merchant.

On the establishment of the post office at this point he was appointed Postmaster.

The senior Terrill died at the home of his son, March 9, 1883.

Mr. Terrill is a Republican in political sentiment.

He was married Feb. 20, 1862, at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., to Bertha Bachelor, and they have the following named children: Orra L., born July 2, 1863; Inez M., March 14, 1867; Irma L., Aug. 23, 1869, and died Oct. 8, 1870; Albert K, Nov. 18, 1872.

The mother is the daughter of Nathaniel and Lucretia (Ward) Bachelor.

Her parents were natives respeciively of Vermont and Massachusetts, and they located in North Amherst, Mass., where the mother died.

The father went to St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., married a second time, and died there in March, 1862.

Mrs. Terrill was born in Conway, Franklin Co., Mass., and was 12 years of age when she was taken by her father to the State of New York.

Mr. and Mrs. Terrill are members of the Baptist Church.

 

Jacob Swarthout, farmer, section 32, Sherman Township, was born in Waterloo, Seneca Co., N. Y., Aug. 16, 1843.

John Swarthout, his father, was born at Seneca Falls, N. Y., and has been a farmer and blacksmith during his active life.

He is of German extraction and married Amanda Taylor, a native of Wayne Co., N. Y. She died in 1848, in Seneca County.

The father is a resident of Ionia County, and is 84 years of age.

Soon after the death of his wife he removed with his family to Hillsdale Co., Mich., removing later to his present location.

After the death of his mother when he was five years of age, Mr. Swarthout was under the care of his father until he was 11 years old, when he took the control of his course of life into his own hands.

He found home and employment among the farmers of Hillsdale County until he became a fireman on the Michigan Southern Railroad.

He “fired” about 13 months, after which he was entrusted with an engine on the same road, although he was not yet 15.

He served in that capacity three years.

He enlisted Aug. 21, 1861, under the second call of President Lincoln for men to aid in the restoration of a “solid” Union, enrolling in the First Michigan Cavalry, under Colonel Broadhead, who was killed in the second battle at Bull Run.

Mr. Swarthout was in the cavalry 15 months, and was a participant in all the fights in which his regiment was involved, among which were Winchester, Oliver Heights and the capture of Harper’s Ferry.

He was discharged for disability, but soon re-enlisted in Battery F, Light Artillery, from Flint, Mich.

His command accompanied Sherman through the Georgia campaign, and he fought in the following engagements: Resaca, May 14; Pine Hill, June 10; Lost Mountain, June 15; around the Kenesaw Mountains, June 22; Atlanta, July 21, 22 and 27. (These were contests of 1864.)

Aug. 4, 8, 9 and 1 1, the forces were in action near Atlanta, where Battery F had the honor of throwing the first shell.

Mr. Swarthout also took part in the battle near Kingston, N. C., March 10, 1865.

He received his discharge July 8, 1865, at Jackson, Mich., and returned to Hillsdale County.

He resumed his former occupation of farmer, in which he continued four years.

In October, 1869, he came to Osceola County, where he made a homestead claim of the real estate he has owned ever since, situated on section 32, Sherman Township, and consisting of 80 acres of land.

The entire acreage was in its forest condition, and he has now 55 acres under most creditable cultivation, and forming one of the most desirable and valuable farms in the township.

He has recently built a large barn.

He is a skilled farmer and a trusted, respected citizen.

Politically he is a Republican, and has served as Township Treasurer.

He was married Nov. 26, 1868, in Hillsdale Co, Mich., to Emma Convis.

They have one child— Ethel—born April 23, 1870.

Mrs. Swarthout was born Aug. 22, 1849, in Wheatland Township, Hillsdale County, and is the daughter of Philo D. and Huldah (Halleck) Convis.

The father still resides on the homestead where the mother died, in July, 1867.

 

William W. Cushman, farmer and lumber, man, resident on section 22, Middle Branch Township, was born Jan. 25, 1843, in Penobscot Co., Maine.

He was reared on a farm and remained on the family homestead until he was 20 years of age.

In 1863 he began to operate as a saw-mill assistant on the Penobscot River.

Two years later he came to Michigan and engaged in lumbering in the region of the head-waters of Cass River in Tuscola and Sanilac Counties, proceeding thence to Rouge River in Kent County, where he was similarly interested.

Later he went to the State of Wisconsin, returning afterward to Michigan.

In 1869 he made a claim of 160 acres of land in Middle Branch Township, on which he at once settled permanently, and engaged in lumbering.

To this he has added 150 acres by later purchase.

His lumbering operations have been transacted on the Middle Branch and Muskegon Rivers, and have chiefly occupied his time.

The improvements on his farm are still limited.

He is a Democrat in political preference, and has served as Road Commissioner and School Inspector.

Mr. Cushman was married Sept. 1, 1872, in Hartwick Township, to Laura E. Coil.

She was born Nov. 6, 1847, in Mercer Co., Ohio, and accompanied her parents to Osceola County when she was 12 years old.

The children born to herself and husband are six in number: Sumner, Linwood, Mark W., Lucretia J. and James W.

An infant died unnamed.

 

David Shadley, farmer, lumberman and stockman, resident on section 24, Hartwick Township, was born Dec. 26, 1841, in Hardin Co., Ohio.

He is of German and Irish descent, and his parents were natives of the State of Virginia.

They came later to Ohio, and are now buried in the family burial place in Hardin County.

Mr. Shadley was sent to school while a child, but on acquiring sufficient growth and strength he was called to make practical use of both on his father’s farm, where he continued his efforts until his marriage, Feb. 26, 1863, to Elizabeth J. Clark.

Her parents, Thomas and Mary (Judah) Clark, were born in Fairfield Co., Ohio.

She was born May 7, 1841, in Fairfield Co., Ohio, and soon after her parents removed to Seneca County in the same State.

Ten years later, in 1851, they went to Hardin County, where they now reside and manage extensive farming interests.

They are aged 67 and 70 years, and are prominent members of the community to which they belong.

Mrs. Shadley was educated in Hardin County, and resided with her parents until her marriage at 19.

Her six children were born in the following order: Clement L., Dec. 27, 1863; Llewellyn M., Aug. 9, 1865; Samantha A., Nov. 8, 1866; Lewis L., May 10, 1869; Esther R., July —, 187i; Homer O., Nov. 28, 1876.

In March following his marriage, Mr. Shadley located on a farm in Hardin County, which he conducted four years.

They set out from thence in April, 1867, and traversed the entire distance to Hartwick with a team, coming in a pioneer wagon, and consuming 23 days in the trip.

There was no thoroughfare built over the last six miles of their route; snow lay four feet deep on the ground, and they had to cut their road into the bush.

Their rate of travel was so slow that they were obliged to sleep in their wagon in the dense woods.

They had brought with them their household effects, and on arrival at their destination they had no shelter for either themselves or their belongings, and they lived in their wagon until it was possible to construct a rude house.

Mr. Shadley had made a homestead claim of 160 acres, and later bought 160 acres additional, making a splendid farm of a half section in extent, of which 200 acres is in a cultivated condition.

Since his arrival and settlement, Mr. Shadley has operated extensively in several branches of lumbering, and has arrangements completed for “putting in” about 2,000,000 feet in the winter of 1884-5.

He is a Prohibitionist in political opinion, and has been Township Supervisor several years; is now a member of the School Board.

Mrs. Shadley is a member of the sect known as Seventh-Day Adventists.

 

Arthur Blanchard, farmer, section 29, Hersey Township, was born in Onondaga, New York, October 15, 1857 and is the son of Loren and Ester (Marsh) Blanchard.

The parents are residents on section 32 in Hersey Township.

The father works to some extent as a carpenter.

The family came to Michigan in 1860, first fixing their home in Sharon Township, Washtenaw County.

The father bought 160 acres of land, where he operated as an agriculturist until 1872.

On selling the place he removed to Ann Arbor, returning thence to a second farm in Sharon Township, of which he became the owner, comprising 80 acres.

In 1877 he again sold out and purchased 80 acres in Hersey Township.

In 1882 he bought 80 acres additional.

Father and son are in partnership, and both equally interested in paying for their joint property, the second purchase of land being in the son’s name.

The latter was married Aug. 28, 1881, to Anna Richards.

Alice A., only child, was born June 8,1882.

Mrs. Blanchard is the daughter of William R. and Lydia A. (Edwards) Richards.

Her father was a soldier in the Union service and was captured by the rebels at Olusta, Florida, Feb. 12, 1864, and incarcerated in the stockade prison at Andersonville, where he died July 19, 1864, from the combined effects of exposure, hardship and hunger.

He was born Aug. 23, 1813, in Monmouthshire, England, was married in his native country and in 1844 emigrated with his family to the United States, locating primarily at Hopkinton, Mass., where he operated as a blacksmith.

The mother died in New England.

Mrs. Blanchard was born Jan. 12, 1852, at Hopkinton.

She is a lady of more than ordinary intellectual abilities and culture, and during 1881-2 was School Superintendent of Hersey Township.

Mr. Blanchard is a Republican in the truest sense of the term.

Philip Haslam, farmer on section 32, Richmond Township, is a son of John and Ann Haslam, natives of Ireland.

His father died in that country and his mother emigrated to America, and died in Noble County, Ind.

The subject of this sketch was also born on the “Emerald Isle,” the date of his birth being Jan. – 6, 1819.

He came to this country in 1849 and lived in the city of Rochester about eight years, then in Auburn, same State, for a while, then some time in Lenawee Co., Mich., then in Indiana, and finally, in the fall of 1858, he came to this county, taking possession of 80 acres of land where he now resides and has 60 acres in cultivation and good productive condition.

Mr. H. has served as Overseer of Highways; in political science he takes the views of the “National” party, and in religion he is a member of the Roman Catholic Church, of which Mrs. H. is also a member.

He was married in Auburn, N. Y., to Julia O’Neil, and they had seven children, viz.: John J., Sarah, Catherine, Mary J., Julia, Elisha and Abigail: the last two are deceased.

Mrs. H. died, in this county, in May, 1878, and Mr. Haslam was again married, in Auburn, N. Y., to Mrs. Ellen, nee Loven, widow of John Chester, who died in Auburn.

She has two children by her first husband,—Maria and John.

 

Isaac Smith, farmer, section 30, Burdell Township, was born May 8, 1834, in Huron Township, Wayne County, New York.

Daniel Smith, his father, was born in Ontario, and descended from New England parentage.

He was a mechanic in early life but entered the ministry, and although more than 80 years old, he is still actively engaged in parochial labor, in Kansas.

Isaac’s mother, Grata A. (Stage) Smith, was born in the State of New York, of New England parentage, and spent her whole life in the Empire State.

She died in August, 1847, in Huron, Wayne County.

Her six children outlived her, and are still living, with one exception.

Mr. Smith was 13 years of age when his mother died. Later, his father went to Wisconsin, where the son accompanied him and remained with him until he reached the age of 19, when he came to Manistee, Mich.

There was at that date—1858—scarcely a settlement at that point.

He continued to operate there three years, meanwhile purchasing in Berrien County 40 acres of land, located in Three Oaks Township.

In June, 1854, he settled on his farm, where he resided some years, and combined his farming operations with the manufacture of brick and tile.

He enlisted in the 25th Mich. Vol. Inf., and was wounded in the lower right leg by a rifle shot, at Tubb’s Bend, on Green River, Ky.

He was sent to the hospital at Louisville, and thence to Madison, Wisconsin, on sick leave, where he officiated as nurse, nearly a year, and was transferred from there to Indianapolis to guard rebel prisoners.

He received his discharge July 8, 1865, and returned to Three Oaks, resuming his agricultural operations.

He was married Sept. 18, 1865, to Barbara A. Sevice.

Their children are Mabel and Lucas H.

In the spring of 1871, Mr. Smith removed with his family to Osceola Co., Mich., and entered a homestead claim of 160 acres in Burdell Township.

The settlers were few in number, remotely situated, and the forest was unbroken where he settled.

He has improved his farm until it is one of the finest in the township, and includes 100 acres cleared and tillable land.

His first wife died, and he was again married April 21, 1878, in Dover Township, Lake County, Mich., to Mrs. Sarah E. (McNary) Hicks, daughter of Isaac and Lucretia (Rellyea) McNary.

She was a widow and by her former husband she had one child,— James W.,—born May 7, 1861.

She was born in Binghamton, Broome Co., N. Y., Sept. 19, 1840, and came with her parents to Chicago when she was seven years of age.

They remained there but two years, becoming alarmed by the appearance of cholera.

They went to Elgin, Ill., whence her father went two years later to Iowa.

The family settled in Fayette County, where she was educated.

She was first married at Brush Creek, in May, 1860.

Her father is a farmer in Nebraska and is 73 years of age.

Her mother died in Iowa, in 1868, at the age of 54.

Mr. Smith is a Republican in political sentiment, has been Justice of the Peace and held the various school offices.

The family attends the Christian Church, of which the parents are members.

 

Anthony Wenzel, of the manufacturing firm of Wenzel Brothers at Le Roy, was born in June 19, 1848, in Austria.

His parents , Joseph an Caroline Wenzel, removed to their family and interests from Austria, New York, the father obtaining his first employ in this country from Barber & Sons, woolen manufacturers in that city.

Seven years later he again transferred his family to Wisconsin, settling on a farm 13 miles northwest of Milwaukee.

After one year of agricultural effort they returned to Auburn and the senior Wenzel again engaged with his former employers, remaining in their service about six years.

In 1864 the family came to Dorr, Allegan Co., Mich., where the homestead is still retained.

They were among its earliest pioneer settlers.

Mr. Wenzel operated as his father’s assistant until he was 20 years of age, when he obtained a situation in a shingle-mill in the township of Dorr.

After pursuing this occupation some time, the manufacturing firm of Wenzel & Sons was established with the father at its head.

A year later the organization became Wenzel Brothers.

The partnership existed five years and its business transactions were managed chiefly in Ensley Township, Newaygo Co., Mich.

The firm dissolved in 1879, and in the spring of the following year Mr. Wenzel came to Osceola County and engaged in stocking a mill which was managed by his brother.

In the fall of 1882 the present association was instituted, which has since prosecuted the manufacture of lumber and shingles, and is doing an extensive business in hard-wood planing.

They have producing capacity for 40,000 feet of lumber daily, and 40,000 shingles, and they own 200 acres of timber land easily accessible from their works.

Mr. Wenzel is the individual owner of 11 improved lots in Le Roy village.

He was formerly a Republican, but is now an adherent of the Prohibition element.

He was married at Dorr, April 22, 1870, to Ellen Burke, and they have had four children: Harry F., who was born Feb. 8, 1873: Caroline R., Oct. 10, 1874; Irvin L., Dec. 22, 1877; and Albert, born April 18, 1880, who died July 9, 1881.

Mrs. Wenzel was born Oct. 15, 1852, in Medina Co., Ohio.

She is the daughter of Thomas and Betsey (Quinn) Burke, natives of Ireland, who emigrated to the United States after their marriage, and who located in the Buckeye State.

In 1867 they removed thence to Allegan Co., Mich., where the father died May 6, 1880.

The mother is still a resident there.

Mr. Wenzel holds the office of Trustee in the Baptist Church at Le Roy, and is Sunday-school Superintendent.

Isaac Grant

Isaac Grant, liveryman and proprietor of the Upton Avenue Mills, at Reed City, was born Jan. 25, 1846, near St. John’s, Clinton Co., Mich., and is the son of Charles and Emmeline (Gillett) Grant.

His earliest known paternal ancestor, Ebsnezer Grant, was born in Scotland, at an unknown date.

Isaac Grant, son of the latter, was born April 4, 1760, in Goshen, Conn., and became a soldier in the Continental Army before he was 17 years of age, serving under “Mad” Anthony Wayne, and participating in the bayonet charge at the ford of Stony Point.

His command of 40 men were captured at Fort Washington and placed on the prison ship “Grosvenor” in New York Harbor.

The entire number were seized with smallpox.

A surgeon visited them and left a dose for each man.

All but four took the medicine and died.

Isaac Grant was one of the survivors.

After the close of the war he went to Lenox, Mass., and studied medicine.

He married Hannah Tracy, of that place, and settled at Colerain in the same State, removing later to Whitingham, Vt.

He went thence in 1801 to Chenango Co., N. Y., where he practiced his profession and was one of the founders of the first medical society of that county.

He continued a practitioner there until compelled by advancing years to withdraw from active life, and removed to Genesee Co., N. Y., and later to Albion, Mich., where he died Nov. 9, 1841.

His wife died Oct. 30, 1841, ten days preceding his own demise.

They had nine children.

Charles, fifth son and child, was born Oct. 2, 1794, in Colerain.

He was a drafted man in the war of 1812, and served throughout the contest.

He married Peggy Hines, March 26, 1816, and they had three children.

The first wife died, and Feb. r, 1831, he married Matilda Closs.

They became the parents of two children.

The mother died Aug. 26, 1833.

Mr. Grant was a third time married June 10, 1838, to Emmeline Gillett, and they had eight children.

Mr. Grant was reared on the home farm in Clinton Co., Mich.

He was 15 years of age when the Civil War stirred the patriotism of young and old, and he experienced from the first the common enthusiasm.

The fault of his youth was one that time was gradually and surely remedying, and he enlisted Oct. 3, 1863, at St. John’s, as a private in Co. I, 10th Mich. Cav., Captain Ayres.

His command was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland and took part in the Stoneman raids, serving until Nov. 11, 1865.

Mr. Grant was a participant in 52 battles, of more or less importance.

On leaving the army he returned to Clinton County for a time, and removed thence to St. Louis, Gratiot Co., Mich., and there engaged in the flour and feed business, operating in that avenue at that point about two years.

In 1870 he went to Mount Pleasant, Isabella County, where he established himself in general trade.

A year and a half later he transferred his locality to Baldwin, Lake Co., Mich., and there pursued the same vocation for a year.

At the end of that time he entered a claim of 160 acres of land near Baldwin, where he located and commenced active operations.

In 1874 he was elected Sheriff of Lake County on the Republican ticket and served his term.

In 1880 he was reelected to the same position.

He also held other official positions, and officiated as President of the County Agricultural Association two years.

In February, 1883, he went to Chase, Lake County, and bought a livery stable, which he continued to manage until Sept. 3, 1883, the date of his sale of the property.

Sept. 9, he became the proprietor of his livery business.

His stables contain about a dozen horses on an average, and are fitted with necessary and suitable livery equipments.

He purchased his mills of T. V. Childs, in the fall of 1884 (current year).

They include saw, grist and planing mills, and are fitted with the best quality of modern appurtenances.

They derive a special value from their central location.

Mr. Grant is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Post Stedman, No. 198, and he belongs also to the Sons of Industry.

He was married Oct. 25, 1868, at Salt River, Isabella County, to Daney Clark.

She was born Aug. 11, 1850, in St. Lawrence Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of Robert and Martha Clark.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Grant were born as follows: Rena M., May 11, 1870; Alda M., Aug. 29, 1873; Clark D., April 25, 1875; Howard, June 1, 1879; and Annie, May 11, 1881.

Mr. Grant is an active, enterprising man and possesses the quality and degree of business energy which guarantees the future solidity of Osceola County.

He is a fine specimen of physical manhood, is six feet one and a half inches in height and weighs 215 pounds.

 

Rev. John Farsberg, Pastor of the Lutheran Church located at Tustin, was born Nov. 9, 1834, in Sweden.

His father, Johan H. Farsberg, died when he was in early childhood, and thereafter, until the age of eight years, he was cared for by his mother, Christiana Farsberg, in the home of his maternal grandfather.

In 1842 he went to live with an uncle to be instructed in the business of a blacksmith, and later he worked as a puddler in a foundry.

When he was about 30 years of age he was appointed Government Inspector of the machine shops throughout the kingdom of Norway.

He spent one year in the traverse of the country in the discharge of the trust.

On the expiration of his commission in 1866, he came to the United States and remained about a year in the city of Chicago, where he obtained employment as an axle-filer in various carriage factories.

He became at the end of that time a missionary among his countrymen, and after laboring among them some months he returned to his trade as a mechanic, and operated three years in the manufacture of plows.

He went thence to Moline, Ill., where he officiated in the Lutheran ministry one year.

He went thence to Henry County in that State, and preached two years in the country.

In 1874 he returned to his former field in the city of Chicago, where he acted as a missionary about three years.

He next proceeded to Rock Island, Ill., and spent a year in study at the Swedish seminary, and at the close of his course was regularly ordained a minister.

In 1877 he took a final leave of his people in Illinois, and, answering to an urgent call from Osceola County, he located at Tustin.

On his arrival he found the society without organization or place of worship, and he at once entered vigorously into the work of remedying the deficiency.

He has organized churches of his faith at Tustin, Reed City, Cadillac, Hobart, Morley and Bounds’ Mill, all of which are now included in his circuit save at Reed City.

At Tustin he has added 125 members to his society, and the membership over which he has charge, aggregates 500 in round numbers.

Since his arrival in Osceola County he has been instrumental in erecting five church edifices and a parsonage.

He has been indefatigable and unremitting in his parochial labors, and has often labored both day and night in his periods of effort.

He is an earnest and zealous promoter of the principles of the Republican Party.

Mr. Farsberg was married in 1866, in Norway, and three months after he came to Chicago, where his wife died six months later, leaving no child.

He was again married Dec. 26, 1878, in Chicago, to Betsey Kunoson, who was born Oct. 22, 1845, in Sweden.

She was well educated in her native land, and when 18 years of age came to Chicago with her parents, who went later to Minnesota, where they are farmers.

Mr. and Mrs. Farsberg have had four children, one of whom, John, is not living.

Those who survive are Antony W., Anna M. and Joseph T. Martin W. Westfall, proprietor of the hotel at Leroy which bears his name, was born April 17, 1843, in Lyons, Wayne Co., N. Y., and is the son of James and Elizabeth Westfall.

When he was 16 years of age, his parents removed from his native State to Lenawee Co, Mich., and settled at Hudson.

He took possession of a rented farm a year later, which he conducted several years, coming thence in August, 1866, to Osceola County.

He located on a farm and was one of the first settlers north of Reed City.

He lived on the place where he made a claim five years, and improved 20 acres.

Meanwhile, he operated on the road grade of the track of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, between Ashton and Leroy, and he “got out” 10,000 ties for the road.

Subsequently he bought out a man who was making preparations to erect a block-house hotel, but before his arrangements were complete he changed his plan and drew the lumber 12 miles for the building of a frame structure for the same purpose, which was the first building at Leroy.

He had a large number of boarders, chiefly railroad men, and at one time numbering nearly 100.

He has since built two structures for hotel purposes, the first having been consumed by fire.

In 1872 he took possession of the Westfall House, of which, together with three village lots, he is the proprietor.

He owns, besides, 80 acres of land under good cultivation, in Newaygo County.

Politically he adheres to the present principles of the Democratic Party.

He has been Treasurer of his township two years, and is present Village Marshal.

He was married Dec. 25, 1864, to Frances E. Fairchild.

She was born Oct. 12,1841, in Bath, Steuben Co., N. Y., and came with her parents to Hillsdale Co., Mich., when she was two years old.

 

Robert M. Westfall is an adopted child.

When 17 years old Mr. Westfall enlisted, enrolling as a soldier in the Union Army, Nov. 29, 1861, in the 27th N. Y. Inf., and was assigned to Co. B.

The regiment joined the Army of the Potomac, and was discharged in June, 1863.

Mr. Westfall participated in eleven battles and some minor skirmishes, escaping unhurt from battle casualties.

He took a severe cold which settled in his head and caused permanent loss of hearing.

Four of his brothers enlisted, and all escaped injury save two who received slight wounds.

 

Joseph Patterson, founder of the Osceola County Democrat, the pioneer Democratic journal published in Osceola County, and still its editor, was born April 26, 1855, in the township of Raisin, Lenawee County, Michigan.

He is the son of Hon. J. H. Patterson, member of the first Constitutional Convention of Michigan.

In 1866 the family removed to Jefferson, Cass County, Michigan.

Mr. Patterson received a good common-school education, supplemented by a thorough course of study at the High School at Kalamazoo where he graduated in 1879.

He subsequently studied law with Howell & Carr, attorneys at Cassopolis, Michigan, and in the spring of 1881 he was admitted to the Bar.

He removed to Evart in the fall of 1884, and founded the journal with which he is connected as owner and editor.

 

Ebenezer M. Braden, farmer on section 13, Leroy Township, is the proprietor of 80 acres of land lying adjacent to the village of Leroy and justly considered one of the most valuable places in the township in point of merit.

He was born Dec. 19, 1831, in Seneca . N. Y.

Louis Braden, his father, is a native of Seneca County, where he has spent his entire life, and is still a resident.

His mother, Electa (Moore) Braden, is a native of the same State.

Their family comprises nine children, all of whom are living.

The parents are each 76 years old, and are in fine health.

Mr. Braden is the oldest of his parents’ children, five of whom reside in the State of New York, the remaining four being residents of Michigan.

He remained at home until he was 22 years of age, and was instructed in all the details of farm labor.

He was married in the winter of 1856, in Victor, Ontario Co., N. Y., to Mary S. Pound.

She was born in August, 1831, in the State of New York, and died Sept. 21, 1869, in Allegan Co., Mich., leaving four children, three of whom still survive her, Cornelia, Charles D. and Clarence A.; Frank is deceased.

Mr. Braden was a second time married April 19, 1871, in Texas Township, Kalamazoo Co., Mich., to Sarah A. Angell.

One child has been born of this marriage; Ewell L.

Mrs. Braden was born Nov. 30, 1838, in Galen, Wayne Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of James and Lucy (Tabor) Angell.

Her parents were natives respectively of Rhode Island and New Hampshire.

They came to Michigan in 1868, settling in Kalamazoo County.

They passed the closing years of their lives in the home of their daughter in Osceola County.

The father died July 12, 1879, the mother, April 28, 1877.

They had 10 children.

Mr. Braden removed his family to Leroy Town; ship May 6, 1873.

He operated as a saw-mill assistant three years, and in 1876 bought 80 acres of land on which he has since established himself as one of the leading farmers in this portion of the county.

He is a decided Republican, and has been Supervisor one year.

He is a Baptist in religious faith and connection.

 

Gideon A. Estes, merchant, formerly of the mercantile firm of Bevins & Estes, operating at Tustin, was born May 21, 1844, in Madison Co., N. Y.

His parents, John and Jane (Allen) Estes, were natives of the same State, and were of New England origin and English ancestry.

The latter died in her native State in 1849.

The father was a farmer and died in 1865, in Madison County.

Mr. Estes was under the protection of his father after the death of his mother until the decease of the former, soon after the son attained his majority.

The latter set out for Michigan and secured a homestead claim at the land office in Ionia, located in Leroy Township, Osceola County.

On turning his face toward the wilds of Northern Michigan, he found himself the possessor of a cash capital of 56 cents, wherewith to begin the world.

His surplus assets were his manhood’s energy and determination to get on in the world, and his young wife.

On reaching section 28, Leroy Township, they found themselves in the depths of the wilderness, with no communication with the world at large save by the trails which temporary sojourners had made all over the county.

They made a clearing, erected a shelter and entered courageously upon the pains and pleasures of pioneer life, meeting success and comfort from the untried and almost trackless forest acres.

Mr. Estes labored assiduously, and at the date of his change of locality, his farm manifested the character of the labor and energy he had expended in its improvements and in a frame farm house, which was the work of his own hands.

In 1876 he sold the place to William Hooper, came to Tustin and formed a business relation with George W. Bevins, which continued to exist five years, and was altogether prosperous and satisfactory.

In 1881, Mr. Estes entered into the enterprise in which he has since operated, with gratifying results.

He is the owner of some valuable property at Grand Rapids, and also of several improved lots in Tustin.

Mr. Estes was the incumbent of nearly the entire list of local official positions while a resident in Leroy Township.

In political connection and opinion, he belongs to the National Greenback element.

He was married Jan. 15, 1867, in Madison Co., N. Y., to Lotta Lyon, who was born Aug. 24, 1844, in the same county where her parents lived and died.

She accompanied her husband to Osceola County, and aided him in the accomplishment of his pioneer plans in the township of Leroy.

She died May 28, 1878, at Tustin.

One of her two sons survives her, namely, Clayton, who was born June 18, 1875.

Clifford was born July 25, 1870, and died Jan. 31, 1875.

Mr. Estes was again married July 6, 1879, at Elkhart, Ind., to Mrs. Barbara N. (Dunn) Wellner.

She was born June 30, 1841, in Paisley, Scotland, where her father was a weaver.

She was about three years of age when the family emigrated to the United States, settling in Auburn, N. Y., where she was first married.

George W., elder son, is a resident of Buffalo. N. Y.; and John T. the younger, lives at Tustin.

With her husband, she is a member of the Baptist Church.

 

George W. Minchin, of the firm of Minchin Brothers, proprietors of the Evart Review, is a native of Michigan man born at Pontiac.

Born of humble parents who gained their living for themselves and family by hard labor, young Minchin soon had to begin to look around for himself; and in the fall of 1889.

After receiving a common-school education at Pontiac, he entered the printing-office of the Pontiac Bill-Poster, then owned by Wm. P. Nisbett, now of the Big Rapids Herald.

From office “devil” he rose to be foreman before the expiration of his apprenticeship.

In the spring of 1873 he left Pontiac to take the position of foreman in the Ludington (Mich.) Appeal office, founded at that time, and held that position over two years, when he resigned and went to Reed City, and accepted the position of local editor upon the Reed City Clarion, in the spring of 1875.

From here he went to Toledo, where he worked at his trade in the Commercial job-printing room for nearly two years.

Then, with his brother Jesse T., he purchased the Reed City Clarion from Mr. T. D. Talbot.

This they found in very bad condition, financially and otherwise, but succeeded in putting it upon a first-class footing,—upon equal standing with the best of country papers.

In September, 1879, Mr. Minchin received the commission of Railway Postal Clerk from the Government of the United States, which position he still holds, to the credit of both himself and the service.

Minchin Bros, sold the Clarion to Charles E. Barnes in 1880, and bought the Evart Review, George W. still retaining a half interest, while his brother continues as editor.

The latter is also President of the village of Evart.

Mr. George W. Minchin, the subject of the above outline, was married at Ludington, Sept. 14, 1880, to Miss Alice Bennett, of that city, and now has a pleasant home of his own at Evart.

 

Joseph H. Powell, farmer, section 6, Orient Township, was born April 13, 1840, in Pittsburg, Pa., and is the son of Ephraim and Catherine (Connor) Powell.

His father was born Oct. 31, 1806, and died Dec. 24, 1867.

His mother was born in May, 1810, and died in 1881.

Their deaths took place in the city of Pittsburg.

Mr. Powell lived in the place of his maturity until he was 20 years of age, when he went to Greenwood Township, Crawford Co., Pa., settling there in 1860.

He enlisted in the Union service Feb. 26, 1864, enrolling in Co. G, 14th Pa. Cav.

The command was assigned to Averill’s Division in the Valley of the Shenandoah.

The first battle in which Mr. Powell was an active participant, took place May 15, 1864, at Newmarket.

He was again under fire June 5, at Piedmont.

June 16, he was engaged in a skirmish at Buchanan on the James River, and fought at Lynchburg on the two days following.

He was in action at Liberty on the 20th, and at Salem on the day thereafter.

The command came down the valley to Parkersburg, went thence to Martinsburg and advanced to Winchester, where it was engaged June 22, 23 and 24, after which it fell back across the Potomac at Williamsport and pursued General Imboden after he had burned Chambersburg, following him until he was driven from Virginia’.

General Sheridan succeeded to the command, and on the 17th of September, the battle of Acquia Creek was fought.

Two days later an engagement at Winchester took place.

On the 21st occurred the fight at Fisher Hill, and on the 23d Mr. Powell was wounded in the shoulder of the left arm, by a pistol shot at Mount Jackson.

He went thence to Port Republic, and from there was sent to the hospital at York, Pa. His recovery was speedy and he rejoined his regiment at Winchester.

He received his final discharge Aug. 17, 1865, and returned home to Crawford Co., Pa.

He resumed the occupation of farmer, operating as a laborer by the month and also as a renter.

In 1868, he determined to seek a later settled portion of the country, and accordingly made his way to Michigan, driving a horse-team through to Snow’s Corners, Ionia County, reaching there April 20.

After a residence of one summer at that place, he came, Oct. 20, 1868, with his family, to Orient Township.

He had made a homestead claim on the Fourth of July previous, and in September made a clearing and built a log house, to which he removed his family on the day stated, arriving at their home after dark.

About 60 acres of the farm is now improved and cultivated, and a good frame house replaces the log cabin of the pioneer days.

Mr. Powell is independent in political views and favors the Prohibition element.

He was appointed Township Treasurer in 1873, and was elected to the office in the spring of 1874.

In the spring of 1876, he was elected Supervisor and was subsequently re-elected in 1877, and in 1880.

He acted six years as School Moderator.

His marriage to Catherine Carroll took place Feb. 26, 1860, in Pittsburg, Pa., and they have had three children: Margaret Ann was born Nov. 19, 1860, and was married July 4, 1881, to James McDonald; an unnamed infant died at the age of six months; Ephraim J. was born May 17, 1863.

Mrs. Powell was born Feb. 2, 1840, in Greenwood Township, Crawford Co., Pa., and is the daughter of William and Margaret (Brooks) Carroll.

Her parents died in Crawford County.

Mr. and Mrs. Powell are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

 

Charles M. Rich, civil engineer and lumberman, resident at Tustin, Burdell Township, was born Feb. 8, 1848, in Piscataquis Co., Maine.

He is the son of Charles W. and Albina S. (Kittredge) Rich, both natives of Massachusetts.

In 1864 they removed to Ohio, and are now living near the village of Elyria in the Buckeye State.

Mr. Rich went to that State five years previously, and during that time was in charge of his uncle, I. S. Metcalf, residing at Elyria, Lorain County.

He attended the Union School at that place until the removal of his parents to Lorain County, and after he was again an inmate of the parental household he continued his studies until he completed a full course and was graduated at the High School.

At the age of 21 he determined to acquire a practical knowledge of the profession of civil engineering, and to that end he devoted his time, working for a while for his board; but soon, by close application and diligence, secured positions of trust and profit.

Continuing in the service, he obtained employment on different engineering works in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Baltimore, Md., until the year 1876, the date of his removal to Tustin.

He came here primarily in the real-estate interest of his uncle, E. W. Metcalf, of Elyria, Ohio.

In the spring of 1877 he purchased 240 acres on section 24, Burdell Township, and in the same year he platted one-half of the village where he resides, locating 48 lots.

He has since made sale of nearly the entire number.

He is the proprietor of a fine residence in Tustin village, and owns 160 acres of land on section 26, in Burdell Township.

He has recently purchased 560 acres located on sections 2, 12 and 24 of the same township, and is operating as a lumberman and dealer in real estate in his own behalf.

Since his first removal to Michigan he has spent three years in Ohio in his professional capacity.

The marriage of Mr. Rich to Callie Meloy occurred Dec. 25, 1873, at New Lexington, Perry Co., Ohio.

They have one child—Wilder M.—born Aug. 9, 1884.

Mrs. Rich was born Sept. 23, 1848, in New Lexington, and is the daughter of William and Sophia (Thomson) Meloy.

Her father was born in Pennsylvania and was by vocation a cabinet-maker.

He was a man of prominent standing in Perry Co., Ohio, and during his life-time held several positions of responsibility and trust, among which were those of County Auditor and Treasurer.

He died in Perry County, in the fall of 1882, aged 73 years.

Her mother was born in Ohio and descended from German ancestors. She is still living, in Perry County, and is 64 years of age.

Mrs. Rich was carefully educated, and at the age of 18 years commenced teaching, which profession she pursued with success five years.

Politically, Mr. Rich is a Republican.

In religious preference he is a Presbyterian, while his wife adopts the tenets of the Baptist faith.

 

William H. Allen, lumberman at Evart, was born Dec. 3, 1837, in Ontario Co., N. Y.

His father, Albert A. Allen, was a native of the Empire State and was for some years 1 a minister of the Methodist Church.

He died in Holly, Oakland Co., Mich., Feb. 9, 1882, at 77 years of age.

William’s mother, Laura (OySterbank) Allen, was born in May, 1806, in Green Co., N. Y., and is a member of the household of her son at Evart.

Three of six children of whom she became the mother are living,—Laura M., wife of Andrew Seeley, at Palmyra, N. Y.; Alpheus D., bookkeeper in Detroit; and William H.

Mr. Allen began to prepare for the vocation of machinist when he was 16 years of age.

In 1855 he came to Michigan, where he worked at his trade, and later conducted abstract business in the counties of Kent, Genesee and Muskegon.

He was one of the earliest to enlist in the service of the United States, entering the army of the Union in April, 1861, enrolling for three months under the first call for troops.

He became a member of Co. F, Second Mich. Vol. Inf., and soon after re-enlisted for three years, as a private.

He fought at the First Bull Run, at Fair Oaks, Williamsburg, Yorktown, Malvern Hill, in skirmishes without number and also served on detailed duty.

At the end of two years he was discharged, on account of ill health, at Philadelphia, and returned to Flint.

After working a short time at his trade, he went to Muskegon and operated in real-estate and abstract business.

Going thence to Big Rapids, he was employed two years as clerk in a drug store.

In 1870 he came to Evart and resumed his occupation of drug clerk, which he pursued about two years, meanwhile becoming interested in lumbering in the behalf of capitalists at Muskegon, buying timber and logs.

He has since been continuously engaged in the same line of business.

He is the owner of a residence and two lots at Evart, and of several tracts of farming land variously located in different parts of the county.

Mr. Allen was married Nov. 26, 1867, in Muskegon, to Sarah J. Dale.

They have two children, namely: William J., born Jan. 1, 1870, at Big Rapids, and Bessie C., born May 5, 1881, at Evart.

Mrs. Allen was born Oct. 9, 1840, in Monroe Co., Mich.

 

William Bellows, senior member of the law firm of Bellows & Stone, of Reed City, was born January 14, 1858, at Mishawaka, Indiana.

Charles Fitz Roy Bellows, his father, who lives at Ypsilanti, Michigan, was born November 29, 1832, near Bellows Falls, Vermont, a place founded and named by Col. John Bellows, a paternal ancestor of Mr. Bellows of this sketch.

The family is an old New England one, the first member of which, John Bellows, came from England in the year 1635, and his descendants were distinguished in Colonial matters and in the Revolutionary War.

In 1837, when five years of age, Mr. Bellows’ father removed with his parents from Vermont to Michigan, making almost the entire journey in a pioneer wagon with ox team, and settled on Climax Prairie in Kalamazoo County, where his father made a large claim of land.

The grandfather of the Mr. Bellows of this sketch is still living, at the age of 85, on the land he located when he came to this State, still farming, having nearly 400 acres under a high order of cultivation.

His wife died on the farm, about the year 1866, leaving a large family, of which Charles F. R. Bellows was the oldest child and only son.

From the date of the removal of the family to Michigan, the boyhood of Charles F. R. Bellows was spent on the farm, employed in clearing and improving it in a then almost unsettled country, having but few advantages of society or schools, and leading the well-known life of the pioneer boy.

He afterward attended the college just established at Olivet, and the State Normal School, and, leaving the farm, entered upon the life of a teacher, successively at Constantine, Mishawaka and at Decatur.

At these places he was Principal of academies and graded schools, and devoted his entire time, not otherwise employed, in the study of mathematics, for which he had an unusual adaptation and faculty, enabling him to enter the advanced course in civil engineering at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.

After graduating with honor at the University he continued teaching, and by his industry and ability has placed himself at the head of the profession which he has pursued since.

He is at present Professor of Mathematics in the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, a position he has filled for 18 years.

As an author of a number of text books on mathematics, and a lifelong teacher of wide acquaintance, he is well known as a leading educator of the State.

He has been prominent as well in political and journalistic circles, and founded the first Republican paper in Van Buren County.

He is a Mason of eminence, and in 1883 was the Grand Master of the State of Michigan.

The mother of Mr. Bellows was Julia E. Walker, whose family were early settlers in Oakland Co., Mich., and were also identified with the early growth of the State.

Being the son of a teacher, William E. Bellows enjoyed every advantage of education and training) being a pupil in the graded schools under his father’s supervision and at the age of 12 years entering the State Normal School.

He was a member of the Classical Course until his graduation, in the class of 1877, being particularly proficient in mathematics and ancient languages, his especial delights, and the study of which he keeps up to the present time in his active professional life.

While in school he spent his summer vacations on the farm, encouraging a strong physical as well as mental growth.

In 1878, after teaching district schools several winters while finishing his course, he became Principal of the Union School at Saugatuck, Allegan Co., Mich., where he remained three years, and afterward assumed control of the graded schools at Allegan in the same capacity for two years.

As a teacher, he was practical, enthusiastic and devoted to thorough instruction and systematic management, and was held in high esteem by pupils and patrons.

At the age of 23 he began the study of law, at first during the leisure he could get from school work, and afterward in the law office of P. A. Latta at Allegan and Capt. E. P. Allen at Ypsilanti.

He was admitted to the Bar at Ann Arbor, in the Washtenaw Circuit, July 25, 1882, but continued teaching and the further prosecution of his legal studies until the spring of 1883, the date of his selection of Reed City as his field for the practice of his profession.

The formation of his present partnership relation was entered into a short time afterward, and the firm are already engaged in an extensive and prosperous practice.

Besides legal business proper, they deal extensively in real estate, solicit fire and life insurance and lend money.

As a young lawyer his industry and native ability are making an impression in the community, which is the source of much important and profitable business.

Mr. Bellows is a Republican in politics, born and bred, takes a deep interest in public affairs and is a rising man in local politics.

He did effective work in the campaign of 1884 in his county for the Republican ticket, and his services as a campaign and his services as a campaign speaker are appreciated.

He was married September 3, 1879, at Detroit, to Adelade E. Weir.

They are the parents of three children: Bertha C., born July 23, 1880, at Saugatuck; Lewis Fitz Roy, Feb. 11, 1882, in Allegan; and Florence A., born September 29, 1883, at Reed City.

Mrs. Bellows was born December 25, 1860, at Manchester, Washtenaw County, Michigan and is the daughter of Lewis H. and Susan Weir.

 

Peter Bittner, M. D., resident physician at Reed City, was born Jan. 17, 1850, at East Oxford Co., Ont.

He is the son of Henry and Mary (Alles) Bittner, and his father k is a prominent land-holder of Osceola County, having 200 acres in a fine agricultural condition in Richmond Township, and also is the proprietor of other tracts in the county, and of lots in the corporation of Reed City.

Dr. Bittner was reared on a farm and studied winters, attending school at Big Rapids and also at Grand Rapids.

At the age of 18 years he entered the office of Fred Wood, M. D., at Big Rapids and studied medicine under his instructions two years and three months.

Meanwhile he attended two full courses of lectures at Bellvue Medical College, N. Y., where he was graduated in the spring of 1871.

Immediately after, in April, he came to Reed City.

His father owned 280 acres of land, of which a plat of 120 acres is now in the city limits and known as ” Bittner’s Additions.” (To the first, the second and third additions have since been made.)

These interests required the personal supervision of interested parties, and Dr. Bittner came here to attend to the accumulating business.

In 1872 he opened an office for the practice of his profession, which he prosecuted three years.

In 1874 he took charge of a Church of the Evangelical Association at Owosso, and officiated as its Pastor one year, going successively to Marshall, where he was occupied in a similar capacity one year, to St. Joseph two years, and to Lansing one year.

In 1879 he resumed his medical practice at Reed City, which he continued two years, and, at the expiration of that time, he assumed charge of a church at Ionia, Michigan, officiating there two years.

His health becoming impaired, he again returned to Reed City, where he is engaged in office practice and prescriptions.

In 1883, associated with his brother, Josiah Bittner, he built a mill-dam, situated on section 14, Richmond Township, and located on the Hersey River.

They built a flouring mill, with a capacity of 80 barrels of flour daily besides custom work.

The mill is fitted with 10 pairs of rollers and all modern improvements.

The brothers have a joint ownership in 40 acres of land, constituting the mill-site.

Mr. Bittner is the proprietor of the property where he resides, and 16 acres of land in village lots at Reed City.

He was married in Fredonia, Calhoun Co., Mich., Nov. 9, 1871, to Barbara Gutekunst.

Their seven children were born in the following order: Lidas H., Oct. 1, 1872; Lottie M., Jan. 19, 1874; Austin H., Dec. 6, 1875; Adolph, Sept. 28, 1877; Simon P., Sept. 15, 1879; Omar N., Aug. 24, 1881; Almira B., Nov. 9, 1883.

Mrs. Bittner was born Oct. 14, 1847, in Fredonia, Washtenaw Co., Mich.

 

J. F. Proctor, farmer, section 24, Hersey Township, was born Aug. 6, 1834, in Barton Township, Orleans Co., Vt.

He is the son of Dan and Augusta (Mason) Proctor.

His father was born Feb. 14, 1807, in Manchester, Eng., and emigrated to the United States in 1820.

He first located in Boston, Mass., and removed thence to Craftsbury, Orleans Co., Vt., setting up his business there as a blacksmith.

He owned a small farm in Michigan; whither he removed in 1849, and died Feb. 28, 1855, in Keene, Ionia County.

The mother was born in Craftsbury, Vt., Feb. 15, 1804, and died at the home of her son, Sept. 30, 1883.

Cynthia M., Alfred A., J. F., Helen E. and Benjamin Franklin, their five children, are all living.

Mr. Proctor was married soon after becoming of age, and settled in an unorganized portion of Montcalm Co., Mich., whence he removed, Jan. 1, 1856, to section 16, Crystal Township, together with his eldest brother.

They each made a claim of 40 acres of land, on which Mr. Proctor remained six years, and removed to North Shade, Gratiot Co., Mich.

Three years later he made another transfer of his home and family, to Hubbardston, Ionia County.

Not long afterward he embarked in the grocery trade at Matherlon, combining that business with hotel-keeping and conducting both about one year.

His venture proved disastrous, and as he suffered almost total loss of his resources except his ability to labor, he engaged as head-sawyer in the mill of Cogswell & Aldrich, with whom he operated in that capacity three years.

He next managed a saw-mill at Langston, Montcalm County, three years, and in the spring of 1872 he came to Hersey and operated as head-sawyer, scaler and foreman in the lumber camps of D. A. Blodgett.

In the spring of 1875 he took possession of the farm on which he has since pursued his agricultural interests, and he i also for some years continued the work of scaling, prosecuting that business eight winters.

He owns 120 acres of land, on which there was a small improvement when he took possession.

He has passed three winters near Harrison, Clare County, acting as foreman in the shingle-mill of D. F. Diggins, and removed his family there.

In the fall of 1863 Mr. Proctor was drafted into the Union service from Gratiot County, but on reporting at Corunna, Shiawassee County, was released being the only dependence of his widowed mother.

The law was afterward changed, and he determined to enlist, as he considered the prospects of his being again drafted were more than likely to be realized.

He decided to enroll in the Third Michigan Infantry.

On meeting the recruiting officer at Pewamo, he stated his circumstances, his large family, and the necessity of his presence to secure their well-being.

The officer informed him that he could enlist him and administer the oath in such cases made and provided, give him custody of his papers, and should he be drafted he could report for duty to the regiment as an enlisted man.

He escaped the draft, and the necessity never arose.

Mary W. (Smith) Proctor

Mr. Proctor was married Sept. 16, 1855, to Mary W. Smith, and they have eight living children, and four deceased.

Fred was born Jan. 21, 1857, Frank, March 7, 1858; Charlie, January 5, 1860; Dan, August 25, 1861; Viola, April14, 1863; (died March 19, 1864; Clyde, born Jan. 12, 1865, died May 13, May 13, 1882; Louisa was born April 11, 1867; Willie, March 17, 1870; Ralph, Feb. 28, 1872 (died March 3rd following); Verne, born May 13, 1873, died Sept. 24 of the same year; Arthur C. was born Sept. 25, 1875; Albert E., April 11, 1877.

Mrs. Proctor was born May 23, 1833, in Novi, Oakland Co., Mich., and is the oldest of four children born to her parents.

She has one brother and two sisters —Edgar, Abigail R. and Emily.

Her father and mother, A. C. and Lorinda (Simmons) Smith, reside at Easton, Ionia County, where the former is a citizen of prominence.

He has served several terms as Sheriff, and has been County Surveyor some years.

Mr. Proctor is present Supervisor (1884) of his township. In political opinion he is a Democrat.

His paternal grandfather was in somewhat straitened circumstances in England, and, leaving his family there, all save his oldest son, he set out with him in a sailing vessel for the United States.

Adverse winds drove them into the Northern Ocean among the icebergs, where their food gave out and they were in danger of starvation as well as shipwreck.

But other vessels in the same vicinity, with more abundant stores, shared with them, and after six months of storm and stress they landed in Nova Scotia.

The senior Proctor was a blacksmith and moreover was bent on proceeding to the United States, but was deterred by an English law enacted after the war of 1812, prohibiting mechanics belonging by nativity to Great Britain from going to the States.

He fixed his location as near the boundary line as he could, and undercover of becoming a permanent settler he took up 200 acres of land, on which he settled and commenced active life as a blacksmith.

After a year he succeeded in getting on board an American sloop with his tools, but he was discovered by the British authorities and all the most valuable portion of his equipment was confiscated, leaving him only the commonest sort of an outfit to commence his work of carving out ways and means to secure the comfort and presence of his family.

A month later he succeeded in his purpose and reached Boston.

He went thence to Lowell, in the Old Bay State, where he produced the first lace-making machinery in this country.

His maternal grandmother, Mrs. Mason, was a descendant of the Howards, whose names are associated with the earliest colonial history of Massachusetts.

His grandfather, Elder Mason, was the first Baptist clergyman in Craftsbury, Vt.

At the date of his settlement there, the most primitive methods of travel prevailed, and he once drew his wife on a hand-sled nearly 58 miles, she carrying in her arms their oldest child.

That of Mr. Proctor is especially valuable to this volume, as he represents the elements on which this country was founded and which has perpetuated its institutions.

He is a pioneer by inheritance and in his own experience.

 

Isaac W. Howe, M. D., practicing physician at Ashton, Lincoln Township, and a prominent resident in that vicinity, was born in Potter Co., Pa., May 8, 1835, and attended the common school until about 19 years of age.

He then began the study of medicine in his native county, under Dr. Willard Whitney, and applied himself to his chosen studies with great assiduity.

In due time he became qualified to pursue his calling successfully.

In the fall of 1868, he came to Michigan, resided in Wayland, Allegan County, about a year, and then came to Osceola County, locating in Lincoln Township about half a mile west of Ashton.

It was his intention to engage in mercantile business, and he sold the first goods in the township.

About a year afterward he went to Lake County, this State, and took possession of 80 acres of land, under the provisions of the homestead laws, in Ellsworth Township.

After residing there until the spring of 1879, he returned to Ashton, where he has since resided and followed the practice of his profession.

He has erected a fine residence, which he now occupies.

Besides the 80 acres of land which he owns in Lake County, he also owns some village property at Ashton.

In regard to religion, the Doctor, as well as his wife, is a member of the Baptist Church, and has been a devoted worker for the cause of Christianity for 26 years.

He is a Republican in his political views; has held the office of Township Treasurer in Lake County for a year and a half, resigning that office on account of being elected Sheriff of that county.

This office he had two years; was also Under-Sheriff four years, and Superintendent of the Poor of the same county for a term.

Dr. Howe was married in Potter County, in his native State, Jan. 18, 1855, to Miss Emeline Harvey, who was born in Tioga Co., N. Y., Feb. 16, 1834.

Her parents, Joel and Polly (Gee) Harvey, were also natives of the same county.

The children in the family of Dr. Howe have been Florence D., Iva G. and Elmer W.

The first mentioned died when a year and eight months old.

The Doctor’s father, William Howe, was a native of the Empire State, and his mother, Abigail, nee Kibbie, of the State of Massachusetts.

 

L. B. Winsor, attorney, member of the law, real-estate and insurance firm of Cooper & Winsor, at Reed City, was born Jan 24, 1858, in Providence, R. I.

His father, James A, W. Winsor, was born Aug. 31, 1813, in Rhode Island, and married Ann C. Chillson, who was born Nov. 12, 1817, near Elmira, N. Y.

Three of their seven children are still living.

When Mr. Winsor was about five years of age his parents became residents of Hillsdale, Mich.

On reaching suitable age he became a student at the college there, studying in the scientific course, and was graduated in the spring of 1877.

He entered the Law Department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, immediately after terminating his course at Hillsdale, and was graduated in 1879.

He had previously acquired a fundamental knowledge of law in the office of Dickerman & St. John, of Hillsdale, Mich.

In the fall of 1880 he came to Reed City, where he became an associate with Ransom Cooper, and their business relations are still in existence.

They have established a satisfactory practice in the legal profession, and represent the Liverpool & London & Globe Fire Insurance Company, the Phoenix, Orient, British American and American.

In the spring of 1880 Mr. Winsor was elected City Attorney, and has been successively re-elected to the same position.

He is connected by membership with the Masonic fraternity, and belongs to Blue Lodge, No. 363, at Reed City, to Royal Arch Chapter, No. 112, at Reed City, and to Pilgrim Commandery, No. 23, at Big Rapids.

 

Walter M. Davis, dealer in boots, shoes, harness, furniture, etc., at Evart, was born in Washington Township, Macomb Co., Mich.

His father, Stephen H. Davis, was born in the State of New York and is an early settler of Macomb County.

He is engaged in the sale of agricultural implements at Romeo in that county.

His mother, Sarah Maria (Scott) Davis, is a native of the State of New York.

They are the parents of nine children.

At the age of 18 years, which period of his life he had passed on his father’s farm, Mr. Davis went to Ray, in his native county, to prepare for the business of a harness-maker.

He served a period of three years, and in 1868 he opened a shop for the transaction of business in that avenue at Ray, which he conducted two years.

In October, 1871, he came to Evart, accompanied by his brother—Henry A. Davis —and they erected buildings beside each other for the prosecution of their respective enterprises—-harness-making and the sale of furniture.

The death of H. A. Davis occurred in December, 1878, and, in company with M. C. Williams, the surviving brother purchased the stock of furniture, becoming sole owner three years later by purchase.

His business has continued to expand, and he has increased its connections by the addition of boots and shoes, and also keeps a full line of undertaker’s goods.

He also owns a hearse. Mr. Davis owns the building in which he established his business primarily, which is 20 x 62 feet in dimensions, rents the structure built by his brother, which exceeds his own in size, and also occupies a large store house opposite, 20 x 80 feet in size.

He erected the building in which the post office at Evart is located and where he formerly operated. His stock in the various departments of his business averages a value of $10,000.

He owns his village property, consisting of a house and three lots, and also a 50-acre farm situated adjoining the village of Sears.

Mr. Davis is a member of the School Board and is the present Village Treasurer, in which position he is serving his seventh term.

He was married in Grand Rapids to Elizabeth Wolf, a native of the city of Buffalo, N. Y.

Their children were born in Evart as follows: Earl S , June 12, 18811 , and Glenn S., Sept. 23, 1883.

Politically he is an out and out Republican.

 

Charles K. Edwards, farmer, section 20, Orient Township, was born Jan. 29, 1846, on the Isle of Wight.

His father, John Edwards, was born Nov. 9, 1803, in Wales, and is of mixed English and Welsh origin.

He married Elizabeth Kinver, a lady of English birth, born in 1793, and in 1855 emigrated with his family to Oakwood, Victoria Co., Ont., where he is now living, in advanced age.

The mother died there June 3, 1877.

Mr. Edwards was educated in the public schools of Victoria County chiefly, and was sent for a few months to a school of higher grade.

He was reared to manhood on a farm, and, on obtaining his majority, rented a farm in the vicinity of his boyhood’s home, which he conducted two years.

Soon after he determined to test the rumored advantages of the Peninsular State, and in December, 1870, he came to the township of Orient, where he made a homestead claim of 40 acres of land, to which his family removed in March, 1871.

He has made a later purchase of 60 acres additional, and of the whole has improved 50 acres; has also erected a frame barn of good quality, and suited to the increasing demands of his farm.

On coming to Orient Township, Mr. Edwards drove an ox team from Lake Station on the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad, which then terminated there, and worked between seven and eight days to cut a road to his present place of residence.

He was married Jan. 29, 1867, to Mary E. Toole.

She was born Feb. 24, 1845, in Oakwood, Ont., and is the daughter of William and Finette (Pillen) Toole.

The former is a native of Pennsylvania and is of American birth and Irish and German descent.

He was born in December, 1814, and is living in Oakwood, Ont.

Her mother was of German extraction, born in Portland, Ont., and died in Oakwood, Jan. 24, 1869, aged 47 years and four weeks.

The children bom to Mr. and Mrs. Edwards are recorded as follows: Finette S., born Oct. 5, 1869; William W., May 28, 1872; Cecil W., June 27, 1874 (died by accidental drowning May 19, 1877); Sidney J., June 28, 1876; Clarence B., Dec. 3, 1878; and Percy B., Sept. 2, 1882.

Mr. Edwards is an adherent and sustainer of the principles of the Republican Party.

He served a vacant term as Justice of the Peace, and was elected to the position twice successively, discharging its incumbent duties 11 years.

He has been Highway Commissioner three years.

School Inspector five years and Moderator three years.

Mrs. Edwards belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church.

 

Andrew C. Adams, merchant at Ashton, was born in Erie Co., Pa., Nov. 22, 1844.

His father, Elijah Adams, was a native of the State of New York; and his mother, Eunice, nee Van Tassel, was born in Pennsylvania.

Andrew received a good common-school education until he was 16 years of age, when, Aug. 31, 18611, his patriotic ardor led him to enlist in the service of the Government for the suppression of the great insurrection and for the common weal of his country.

He joined the Eighth Mich. Vol. Inf. and served four years, during this period being a participant in at least 20 general engagements, and came out of them all without having received a “scratch”, of injury!

He was honorably discharged from the service, after the close of the direful contest, and until 1875 he was employed in different saw and shingle mills in various parts of this State.

He then came to Ashton and engaged in mercantile business, where he has since continued.

His store is a fine one and would do credit to a much larger place.

He has a complete stock of general merchandise and is enjoying a good patronage and fair success every way.

On the 13th of February, 1884, his store took fire, and the building, with the contents, was entirely consumed; not even his books were saved.

The loss was estimated at $2,000 over all insurance.

But he is not the man to be discouraged in life’s noblest ambitions by disaster.

As sure as he continues to have average health and strength, he will be industrious and economical, and begin again to accumulate.

Mr. Adams has held the office of Township Treasurer six years, also the positions of School Director and School Assessor, and in the winter of 1883 he was appointed Notary Public.

In his principles concerning national government he is identified with the Republican Party.

He was married at Wayland, Allegan Co., Mich., Jan. 1, 187 1, to Augusta E. Dillabough, a native of Canada.

There are two children in the family of Mr. and Mrs. Adams, namely, Frederick C. and Robert E.

 

John Witt, farmer, section 22, Lincoln Township, is a son of Lui and Catherine Witt, natives of Germany, where also John was born, Nov. 14, 1840.

When 24 years of age he emigrated to England and thence to Canada, living one year in Quebec and spending one summer in Detroit.

He came to this county in 1864 and took possession of 80 acres of land under the provisions of the homestead law, since which time he has added 80 acres more.

One-half of his whole landed estate he has in a condition of good cultivation, and upon the premises he has erected a fine dwelling, also good barns, etc. Indeed, they are among the best in the county: Politically, Mr. Witt is a Republican, and in a public capacity he has served his fellow citizens as School Assessor.

He was married at Big Rapids, Mecosta Co., Mich., June 4, 1871, to Miss Matilda Morty, a native also of Germany.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Witt are Ida, born March 13, 1873; Agnes, June 2r, 1874, and died Dec. 9, 1875; Ella, July 13,1877; Matilda, Jan. 30, 1880; Otto, Dec. 3t, 1881; and Paul, March 1 1, 1884.

 

Henry W. Carson, better known to his generation as “Kit Carson,” proprietor of the hotel and boarding-house at Sears, Orient Township, was born Nov. 3, 1837, in Yates Township, Montgomery Co., N. Y.

His father, Stephen Carson, is deceased. He died Dec. 7, 1883, aged 85 years.

The mother, Elizabeth (Williams) Carson, is living in Crawford Co., Pa., where her husband died, and is 75 years old.

The family went to that section of Pennsylvania in 1852, where the father engaged in farming.

In earlier life he was a carpenter.

Mr. Carson was 15 years of age when he went to the Keystone State with his parents.

Sept. 23, 1865, he came to Genesee Co., Mich., and located at Clio, where he spent seven years engaged as a lumber manufacturer. He built four saw-mills at Clio, Genesee County.

Later on he removed to Osceola County, arriving Sept. 2, 1871, and locating at Big Lake, two miles south of Sears.

He built two miles of railway with iron track, running from Sears to Big Lake, for facilitating lumber manufacture and transportation.

It was the first piece of locomotive railroad constructed by a single individual in the United States, and was designated the “Orient, Big Lake & Chippewa Road.”

Mr. Carson operated it five and a half years.

At the end of that time he sold out and located on his farm for a time, while he was building a saw-mill between Loomis and Coleman.

Six months after its completion he sold it, and in 1879 built a mill at Chippewa, which he managed a year.

On disposing of that he again resided for a time on his farm which had been occupied by his family since their removal to the county.

In 1880 he established a lumber yard at Harrison, which he conducted 20 months, and lost the property by fire, which entailed a loss of $1,000.

He then built a mill at Big Lake, which he managed three months and sold.

His next venture was the renting of the hotel which he is now conducting.

When he first came to Sears in 1871 it contained six buildings, five of them engaged in the sale of liquor.

Mr. Carson is a Republican in political principles and connections.

He has officiated as School Director and Highway Overseer.

He is everywhere known as “Kit Carson,” all his social and business correspondence being addressed to him under that style.

He was married April 27, 1863, in Crawford Co., Pa., to Melvina Collins, and they have had five children: Minnie E., who was born April 14, 1865, in Crawford Co., Pa., married Frank Jeffs, Dec. 7, 1881; Alice M. was born Sept. 15, 1867; Laura M., Dec. 21, 1870; Henry H., May 27, 1878, in Orient, and died June 15, following; Mattie E., Sept. 3, 1879.

Mrs. Carson is the daughter of John P. and Abigail (Robinson) Collins.

The former was born Jan. 21, 1820, in Pennsylvania, and resides in Crawford County in that State.

Her mother was born in 1823, in the State of New York, and died July 29, 1869, in Crawford County.

Mrs. Carson was born Sept. 23, 1847, in the county where she was reared, and is one of nine children born to her parents, four sons and five daughters.

 

Frank H. Nix, photographer at Reed City was born March 29, 1854, in Fulton Co., New York.

His parents, Frederick and Hattie (Heidner) Nix, are natives of Prussia, where the former was born Feb. 26, 1818, the latter in 1826.

The father resided in West Bend, Wis., where the mother died, in 1865.

Four of their eight children are living, namely: Emuel, who is a farmer near Mitchell, Dakota; Theodore, who is a photographer at Evart; and Lizzie, who is the wife of Henry Lenn, Principal of Schools at Oshkosh, Wis.

Mr. Nix was a farmer until the age of 16, when he came to Michigan and engaged as a salesman at Manistee for George Nungesser, general dealer in merchandise, continuing in that employment five years.

He then came to Cadillac and became interested in the book and stationery business; a year later he came to Reed City, and opened the business of a photographer on a small scale.

He has now a fine gallery and an extensive business.

Mr. Nix is a member of the Order of Odd Fellows and of the Patriarchal Circle.

He was married at Cadillac, Mich., Nov. 7, 1873, to Sarah F. Baker.

She was born Feb. 4, 1852, in Decatur, Mich.

Their children were born as follows: Edwin, Nov. 28, 1874; Harry E., Oct. 2, 1876; and Mabel A., June 16, 1880.

Mr. Nix owns his residence, which he built, and other village property.

He and his wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church.

 

William A. Higbe, of the real-estate firm of J. M. Reed & Co., resident at Reed City,was born Jan. 20, 1854, in Newark Valley, N. Y.

Charles Higbe, his father, is a prominent farmer of Newark Valley; he was born in the State of New York, in August, 1816.

William’s mother, Caroline (Lincoln) Higbe, was born in November, 1820.

At the age of 18 years Mr. Higbe entered the Wyoming Seminary at Kingston, Pa., and after two years of study was graduated in the business department.

He engaged as a clerk in Newark, and operated in that capacity until 1876.

In 1856 his father made a hunting tour through Northern Michigan, and, judging favorably of the outlook, he formed the association since known to business circles as “J. M. Reed & Co.,” with J. M. Reed (after whom the city is named), Ozias J. Slosson, F. H. Todd and himself as members.

They made claims including about 4,000 acres of land, most of which seemed and proved favorable for agriculture.

Mr. Todd is deceased, and his interest lapsed to his associates.

Mr. Slosson is also deceased, and his sons—Willis M. and Arthur—inherit his claim.

Mr. Higbe represents his father, and is a heavy owner in his own behalf.

The firm platted a considerable amount of the territory they held, including the main portion of the town and J. M. Reed & Co’s First Addition.

They still hold a large amount of farming land and village property on sale.

In 1882 Mr. Higbe built Higbe’s Opera House Block at Reed City, a brick structure 55 x 80 feet in extent, with two business apartments on the ground and Opera House above.

Mr. Higbe is associated with T. W. Adams, of Big Rapids, in the management of the “Northern Michigan Theatrical Circuit,” including the towns of Big Rapids, Stanton, Reed City, Cadillac and Manistee, and they control the places of amusement in those towns.

Mr. Higbe owns his residence and considerable other village, property.

In company with L. B. Avery, he built the skating rink at Reed City, a building 52 x 120 feet in dimensions, with a solid maple floor in excellent condition.

He was married July n, 1876, in Newark Valley, to Emma, daughter of John Butler.

She was born in Tioga Co., N. Y., Nov. 22, 1857.

One child; Eugenia, was born April 1, 1877, to Mr. and Mrs. Higbe.

 

Joseph A. Braden, farmer and teacher, residing at Leroy, was born July 11, 1840, in Seneca Co., N. Y., and is the son of Lewis and Electa (Moore) Braden (see sketch of E. M. Braden).

He obtained his elementary education in his native county, and in the spring of 1866 came to Texas Township, Kalamazoo Co., Mich., and became interested in farming.

He remained there until his removal in 1875 to Osceola County.

He engaged in the employ of Kellogg, Sawyer & Co., for a time, and in 1878 he purchased 80 acres of land lying within the corporation of the village of Leroy, nearly all of which is under improvement.

Mr. Braden obtained a thorough education and preparation for the teacher’s profession at Kalamazoo.

He began to teach in 1860, and has for some years made it his business in the winter seasons.

He became a soldier in the Union service during the war of the rebellion, enlisting April 30, 1861, in Co. D, 27th Reg. N. Y. Inf., under Col. Slocum.

His command was assigned to the Army of the Potomac, and he was a participant in the first battle of Bull Run and in all the engagements of the McClellan campaign.

He passed through his period of service uninjured and received an honorable discharge at Elmira, New York in June, 1863, having won the earnest esteem and appreciation of his comrades and officers.

He is a republican in political principle and record.

His marriage to Lucy Angel too place March 23, 1864, in Galen County, New York.

They have had two children, James L. and Adriance.

The latter is not living.

Mrs. Braded was born March 20, 1845, in Wayne County, New York.

 

Elias Smith Richardson, M. D., practicing physician and surgeon at Reed City, was born April 11, 1842, in Kent Co., Ont.

His grandfather, Edward Richardson, was a pioneer of Michigan, and died in Detroit in 1810, where he was in the hotel business.

After his death, his family removed to the homestead in Kent Co., Ont.

Isaac M. Richardson, the father of Dr. Richardson, was born July 2, 1805, in Detroit, and died in May, 1882, near St. Charles, Saginaw Co., Mich.

The mother, Mary A. (Smith) Richardson, was born in 1813, in Niagara Co., Ont., and died in 1865, in Oakland Co., Mich.

Their family comprised 14 children, eight of whom survive.

Dr. Richardson is the eighth of his parents’ children in order of birth.

He was reared on a farm and obtained a fair education, which he utilized in the profession of teaching, engaging in that vocation five years and attending the union school at Pontiac between the terms of labor.

In October, 1868, he entered the Medical Department of the University at Ann Arbor, where he was graduated with the class of 1870.

On obtaining his credentials he opened an office at Pontiac as preliminary to a medical career.

After a trial of six months he decided on a change of locality and went to the Saginaw Valley, operating in that region four years.

Becoming convinced of the deleterious effects of the malarial climate, another change of location was inevitable, and Dr. Richardson, in 1874, fixed upon Osceola County as a desirable field for his business, and also to re-establish the vigor he had lost in the miasmatic climate of the Saginaw region.

He began his practice at Evart, removing thence in 1876 to Reed City and established himself permanently as a practitioner.

He is the oldest resident physician at that point, and has secured a substantial recognition of the genuineness of his merits in his professional capacity; and by his conscientious discharge of duty, his abilities and skill, and his character as a cultivated, self-respecting gentleman he has won the confidence which is the crown of his manhood.

He possesses traits of decision and independent judgment which place him beyond the pale of modern empirics, and he repudiates the pretensions and criminal tendencies of the schools of quackery in medical practice with all the disgust and contempt which are their inherent and fundamental deserts.

In 1873 Dr. Richardson was made a member of the State Medical Society of Michigan, and in 1883, by special invitation, attended the American Medical Association at Cleveland.

He was at one time a regular correspondent of the Medical Summary, and is still an occasional contributor to its columns.

He is a member of the Union Medical Society of Northern Michigan; and belongs to the Reed City Lodge, No. 316, I. O. O. F.

He has officiated five years as Meteorological Observer in behalf of the State Board of Health, and two years as Observer for the United States Signal Service.

Dr. Richardson has been County Physician one year, and has officiated two years as Coroner.

He was married Sept. 1, 1869, in Romeo, Macomb Co., Mich., to Clarinda M. Waugh, and they have four children: Merari A., who was born June 15, 1870, in Pontiac; Judson E., July 29, 1872, in Saginaw; Clare VV., Dec. 22, 1877, at Reed City, where also Don Dio was born, Feb. 24, 1881.

Mrs. Richardson was born July to, 1841, in Bloomfield, Oakland Co., Mich., and is the daughter of Sheldon and Charlotte Waugh.

Her parents came from New York to Bloomfield in 1825, where they joined the pioneer agricultural element.

Her father died Aug. 18, 1874, at Pontiac; her mother is yet living, in Oakland County.

The period through which the country was passing during the later youth of Dr. Richardson and which awoke in him a conscientious interest, shaped his convictions on general topics after radical methods.

He was a staunch Republican from the outset of his active political career, and also of decided temperance principles.

He believed politics to be the medium to secure redress from all immoral grievances, and felt compelled to change his convictions regarding the integrity of the pretentions of the Republican Party concerning prohibition of the liquor traffic.

Accordingly, in December, 1860, associated with others of similar opinions, he organized a Prohibition Club for the purpose of awakening a local interest in the matter.

After the organization of the Union party at Jackson, Jan. 9, 1884, he moved that the club adopt its principles and operate in harmony with its object.

At the first local election thereafter a temperance ticket was put in the field, which was defeated by the joint action of the Democrats and Republicans.

The indignation, disgust and contempt of Dr. Richardson over this result led him to the renunciation of the old party and to become its bitter opponent in all its temperance pretensions.

 

Nelson A. Ferguson, farmer, section 6, Orient Township, was born Sept. 9, 1828, in Chautauqua Co., N. Y.

His father, Michael Ferguson, was born in Schoharie Co., N. Y., and was chiefly engaged in agricultural pursuits during his life. His wife, Eunice (Packard) Ferguson, was a native of the State of New York, and of Scotch and Welsh lineage.

In 1830 they removed with their three children to Marion Co., Ohio; there they bought a farm, which was their abiding place for a time.

Later they went to Lucas County in that State, coming thence about 1848 to Ionia Co., Mich., where father and son settled on a farm in Ronald Township.

The mother died in that township in March, 1861, aged 76 years.

The death of the father occurred in Fairfield, Montcalm Co., Mich., in 1870.

He was 88 years of age.

Mr. Ferguson, the subject of this sketch, was reared to the vocation of his father.

He was married May 25, 1847, in Ohio, to Anna E. Jones. She was born near Lebanon, Ohio, in 1831, and is the third child of Samuel B. and Eliza (Peterson) Jones.

The latter was born in Pennsylvania, ‘and died in 1848, in Henry Co., Ohio.

The former is a resident of Bushnell, Montcalm Co., Mich.

He was born in 1797, in New Jersey. His family included four sons and three daughters.

The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson were named Waterman, Walter, Perry A., Franklin P., Emma J., Flora J., Eva E., Georgianna, Henry A., Nelson E. and Fred E. Nine children yet survive.

Mr. Ferguson became a soldier during the Civil War, enlisting in Co. A, 21st Mich. Vol. Inf.

He was in action only at the battle of Perryville, in which he encountered a degree of hardship which completely exhausted his endurance.

On the second night after the engagement he was seated in a chair near a fire, and becoming unconscious from over-fatigue he fell, and was so badly burned as to cause his discharge from the service.

He is a Democrat in political connections.

He officiated three years as Superintendent of the Poor, nearly five years as Supervisor, several terms as Justice of the Peace, two terms as School Inspector and one term as Township Treasurer.

He removed to his present location in Orient Township Dec. 12, 1868, and made a homestead claim of 40 acres of land, on which he has since resided.

Winfield Scott Gerrish

Winfield Scott Gerrish, deceased, son of the Hon. N. L. Gerrish, of Cadillac, and brother of Mrs. Rose Quigley, of Evart, was born Feb. 15, 1849, in Lee, Penobscot 1 Co., Maine.

He was early trained in the details of the lumber business in all its branches, his father being engaged in that business in Maine during his early boyhood.

In 1857 he accompanied his parents to Wisconsin, whence, in 1861, they removed to Croton Township, Newaygo Co., Mich.

Hon. Nathaniel L. Gerrish, now of Cadillac, was born in Dover, Maine, Feb. 16, 1819.

He grew to manhood amid the influences of the leading industry of the Pine Tree State, and was a born and bred lumberman, passing his entire life thus far in the various avenues of that branch of business.

He was married Feb. 12, 1843, in Lee, Penobscot Co., Maine, to Caroline Gatchell, and they became the parents of four sons and three daughters, namely: Ebenezer W., Rose A. (Mrs. Quigley), Winfield Scott, Leslie F., Mary A., Abner H. and Esther C.

 

The son, W. S., when 12 years of age, was in strong and active boyhood, eager to begin his share in the work of the world, and, with his inherited tastes and inclinations, was trained by association and circumstances in the business to which his father devoted his life and ambitions.

Young Gerrish was primarily educated in the public schools, and in 1864, when 15 years old, was sent to Grand Rapids, to the academy, where he remained one season, receiving meanwhile an appointment as cadet in the naval school at Annapolis.

He matriculated there in 1865, but, finding the career of a midshipman distasteful and irksome, with his father’s approval he abandoned the position at the end of his first year, and returned to Michigan to enter upon an active business career as a lumberman.

He was 18 years old in the winter of 1867, and during that season he began operations as a lumberman on his own responsibility, and took a contract to “put in logs” on the Muskegon, along which line he operated during the remainder of his life.

In 1869 he settled at Hersey, where he was a resident eight years.

In the autumn of 1873, he made an extensive logging contract with Messrs. Avery & Murphy, to put in a large amount of logs on the Tom and Dock Creeks, in which he experienced difficulties of an unusual character, chief of which was the shrinking of the streams to the proportions of a rivulet, an obstacle which required the building of dams and draining of lakes to raise the creeks to a height necessary for the accomplishment of the business.

The terms of the contract were finally fulfilled, and the reputation Mr. Gerrish won for perseverance under embarrassments that would have daunted and baffled men of larger experience, was of infinite value to his future career.

John L. Woods, the veteran developer of the lumber interests of the north of Michigan, becoming interested in the pluck and perseverance of the young lumberman, and recognizing the value of his predominating traits of character, made him a proposition to take an interest in a tract of 12,000 acres owned by him on the upper waters of the Muskegon, which he accepted, believing it to be the opportunity of his life, and which he afforded a broad field for the exercise of his abilities.

IR In 1874, associated with E. H. Hazel ton and others, he purchased a large tract of timber land in town 18 north, 5 west, Clare Co., Mich., a location considered practically worthless for lumbering, as it lay remote from the river.

While attending the Centennial at Philadelphia, in 1876, he observed in Mechanics’ Hall a small Baldwin locomotive, whose operations suggested to his practical mind its feasibility as an accessory to the achievement of a lumber project in Clare County.

A vivid picture of a horse that could draw logs without snow painted itself on his imagination, and he returned home with perfected plans for the accomplishment of the enterprise.

In January, 1877, the first logging railroad in the United States was built, and connected Lake George in town 18, 5, with the Muskegon River, a distance of six miles.

Within the following year the road was extended.

During the first year it was operated, the “put” was 20,000,000 feet; with the new facilities in 1879 the “put“ reached a maximum of 114,000,000.

In the spring of that year Gerrish & Woods bought an interest in the Hamilton mill at Muske_ gon, where the former fixed his residence in 1880.

Mr. Gerrish, within that year, purchased a share of the Wilson mill at Muskegon and continued to hold a proprietary interest in several shingle-mills.

In 1880, also, he made a purchase of the Saginaw Bay & Northwestern Logging Railroad, buying the route in company with W. J. Miller. During the next two years the firm transported 90,000,000 feet of logs annually on its track.

In 1879 Mr. Gerrish passed the most active year v of his business career.

He banked and put into the Muskegon River 130,000,000 feet, and in the year following put in 100,000,000 feet.

During these two years he was recognized as the champion individual logger of the world.

The maximum number of men employed by him in his varied interests in 1880 was 4,000 in round numbers.’

Mr. Gerrish was married July 1, 1869, to Lina W. Probasco, of Croton, Mich.

He died in Evart, May 19, 1882, at the residence of his sister, Mrs. Rose A. Quigley.

He was a man of the keenest moral sensibilities, and an earnest advocate and promoter of temperance principles.

He was himself an abstainer from the use of liquor in the strongest sense, never tasting it in any form.

At the time of his death he was engaged in the construction of an elegant residence at Muskegon, at a projected cost of $30,000.

The publishers of this work take a peculiar satisfaction in presenting the portrait of Winfield Scott Gerrish.

It is a perpetual memorial to the life and influences of its prototype, and adds a special value as does the record of his busy career.

See the page preceding the commencement of this sketch.

 

David Weigel is the oldest of the permanent pioneer settlers of Orient Township, and is a resident on section 4, where he entered a homestead claim, and of which he took possession April 19, 1867.

He has placed 52 acres under good improvements.

Mr. Weigel was born Nov. 8, 1838, near Carlisle, Cumberland Co., Pa.

His parents, Jacob and Catherine (Ressler) Weigel, were of German descent, and were educated in both English and German.

The former was born in 1806, and died in Wilmot, Ind., aged 42 years.

The latter was born Aug. 17, 1810, and still resides where her first husband died.

Both were natives of the Keystone State.

Mr. Weigel was but ten years of age when his father died, and his mother was again married a few years afterward.

He was educated with some care in early youth, and completed his education by attending school from the age of 18 years to the attainment of his majority, at Goshen, Ind.

He has been occupied at various times in teaching, engaging in that business during two terms in Iowa and four terms in the State of Indiana.

On the 27th of July, 1862, he enlisted in Co. E, 124th Ill. Vol. Inf., his command being assigned to the First Brigade, Third Division and Seventeenth Army Corps, under General Logan, Corps Commander.

After the action at Vicksburg the regiment was transferred to the Sixteenth Corps, under General McPherson.

His regiment was engaged in the fight at Fort Gibson, Baker’s Creek, Jackson, Champion Hills and Vicksburg.

After the transfer to the Department of the Gulf, Mr. Weigel was in action at Mobile, and went thence to Montgomery, where he was discharged, Aug. 15, 1865, and went to Wilmot, Ind.

He was wounded in Mississippi while on scouting duty.

The detail was lying on the ground and a six-pound Parrott ball, on a voyage of discovery, dropping in among the men, cut off one man’s arm and also one knee-pan belonging to the same individual, passed over to Mr. Weigel who lay next behind, and inflicted a severe injury to his right arm.

He was yet incapacitated when discharged from the army, and engaged during the following winter in teaching school.

Mr. Weigel is independent in political views and action.

 

Lorenzo A. Barker, editor and proprietor of the Clarion at Reed City, was born Aug. 16, 1839, in Naples, Ontario Co., N. Y.

George W. Barker, his father, was born March 1, 1815, in Deerfield, Mass., and was married Sept. 7, 1835, to Weltha Tyler.

She was born June 21, 1816, and they became the parents of five children.

Their first born died on the day of birth, April 6, 1837; Lorenzo, born Aug. 16, 1839, is the oldest living child; Bruce, born Jan. 13, 1842, died March n, 1845; Alida, born Aug. 4, 1844, died Jan. 14, 1846; Eugenia, born Jan. 31, 1850, is the wife of Monroe Dickinson, a merchant at Boyne Falls, Charlevoix Co., Mich., and they have one child, Vera Ione.

The father was during a number of years a merchant in the State of New York, and later transferred his family and mercantile interests to Italy Hollow, Yates Co., N. Y. In 1853 another transfer was made, to Battle Creek, Mich., where the senior Barker engaged in the daguerreotype business, and is now a photographer at South Arm, Charlevoix County.

The mother of the subject of this sketch died at Italy Hollow, in 1852.

Mr. Barker passed a year in farm employment after the removal of the family to Michigan.

In 1854, he entered the office of the Battle Creek Journal to learn the art of printing, and was an attaché of the Journal until the year in which rebellion started abroad in the land in its blind and misguided fury.

All through the course of the earlier months after the attack upon the Federal fort at Sumter, while his fingers recorded the disasters of the opening campaign and also the varied literature which arose from the exigencies of the time, he was awakening to the fact that men with the true fire of patriotism blazing in their breasts were surely needed at the front, and he was led by the growing impulse to throw himself early in the contest into the heat of the fray.

He enlisted at Battle Creek, Sept. 28, 1861, in Co. E, Berger’s Sharpshooters.

The style of the organization was changed to Company D, of the same regiment, which was known as the 66th Illinois Western Sharpshooters.

Mr. Barker was in action at Mt. Zion, Mo., Dec. 23, 1861; Fort Donelson, Tenn., Feb. 13, 14, 15, 16, 1862; Shiloh, April 6-7; siege of Corinth, April 20 to May 30; Iuka, Sept. 19; Corinth, Oct. 3-4, after which he was occupied in camp duty and guerrilla warfare until his discharge Dec. 23, 1863.

He immediately re-enlisted on the same date at Pulaski, Tenn., in the same command, returning home on a veteran’s furlough of 30 days.

On the expiration of his leave of absence he rejoined his command at the front, and the regiment marched to Chattanooga to join General Sherman in the Georgia campaign.

Mr. Barker was under fire at Ball’s Knob, May 9, 1864, and Resaca, May 14; and at Rome Cross Roads, May 16, was wounded in the left foot, but recognized no disabling injury and went into battle at Dallas May 27; Kenesaw Mountain, July 3; Nickajack Creek, July 4; before Atlanta, July 22; Jonesboro, Aug. 31; Atlanta, Sept. 2; Lovejoy Station, Sept. 3; Nashville, Dec. 16, 17, 18; Big Salt Creek, Dec. 21; Columbia, S. C., Feb. 17, 1865; Bentonville, N. C., March 2; Kingston, March 10; Goldsboro, March 24; Rolla, April 12; Richmond, Va., May 13, and thence he went to Washington, D. C., for the final scene, the Grand Review.

He was mustered out of the service of the United States at Louisville, Ky., and received his discharge at Springfield, Ill, July 7, 1865.

He retained ownership of his rifle, which he had carried from 1862—a Henry Repeater, 16-shooter—and having the names and dates of the battles engraved beside the lock.

He was discharged as Sergeant.

He came to St. John’s, Clinton County, whither his parents had removed.

In 1867 he went to Sioux City, Iowa, and became an employee of the Journal published at that place.

Later he engaged on the Sioux City Times, where he continued until he founded the Sibley (Osceola Co., Iowa) Gazette, issuing its first number July 5, 1872.

He continued its publication until May 30, 1873, when he sold the journalistic enterprise to Messrs. Riley & Brown.

May 26, 1875, he assumed the management of the Chelsea (Iowa) Bugle, and his connection with that paper ceased in October of the same year.

In 1876 he came to Michigan and took charge of the Hastings (Barry Co.) Banner, which he conducted as foreman and manager until April 27, 1877, when he established the Lake City (Missaukee Co.)

Journal, whose publication he continued until May, 1884.

He then sold the paper to H. N. McIntyre, and bought the Reed City Clarion.

He issued the first number May 30, 1884, and has already a fine circulation and a steady growing popularity.

He has a large and increasing job patronage.

The office facilities include two presses, comprising an improved C. B. Cottrell & Sons cylinder press, fitted for hand and steam power, and is the only power press in the county.

The other is adapted to the requirements of job work.

The Clarion is a nine-column folio.

Mr. Barker is a Republican, and is deservedly popular in the local ranks of the party, was elected Presidential Elector in the Blaine & Logan campaign of 1884, and is a member of the West Michigan Press Association, of the I. O. O. F., the Knights of Pythias and the G. A. R., Stedman Post, No. 198, Reed City.

Mr. Barker was married April 16, 1876, in Shenandoah, Iowa, to Mrs. Eliza Jane (Reagan) Grant.

She was born May 20, 1843, in Jackson Co., Mich.

 

Joseph Giles, Liveryman and drayman, resident at Hersey, was born October 17, 1844, near London, Ontario.

His parents, Stephen and Ann (Evans) Giles, removed when he was four years old to St Clair, Michigan.

When he was 12 years of age, Mr. Giles left home to make his own way in the world.

He found ready employment as a saw-mill hand and was a sailor on the lakes several seasons.

In 1871 he came to Hersey and engaged in driving logs on the river through one season, and subsequently engaged in his present occupation on a limited scale.

He has five horses, and is the only representative of his line of business at Hersey.

He owns his barn and fixtures and three lots therewith; also his residence and two lots connected with it.

He was married in Lexington, Sanilac Co., Mich., July 3, 1870, to Hannah Scollay.

She was born in Lexington, Oct. 22, 1855, and is the daughter of Abel and Abbie Scollay.

Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Giles—Harry A., Jan. 7, 1872; Charles, Sept. 27, 1876; and Lewis, June 16, 1878.

 

Asa Buck is one of the pioneer business men of Reed City, where he established himself as a marketman in the fall of 1873.

He was born July 19,1846, in Wayne Co., N. Y.

He has been a resident of Michigan since infancy, when his parents removed from the State of New York, and settled on an 80 acre farm in Ingham County, situated five miles from Lansing.

His father, Loren W. Buck, was a native of the Empire State and married Louisa Smith, who was born in the same State.

He was a builder by vocation, and aided in laying out the grounds of the old capitol structure and in erecting the edifice.

Later the family removed to Lenawee County, and afterward to a farm in the township of Noble, Branch County.

Meanwhile, in 1858, the father went to California, and while there occurred the upheaval of interests and issues of the country by the advent of the civil war, and he enlisted from the Golden State in Co. I, First California Vol. Inf., and spent three years in the military service of the United States, serving chiefly in frontier warfare in New Mexico.

Asa and Adolphus entered the army from Michigan, the enlistment of the former occurring at Coldwater in March, 1863, in Co. I, Ninth Mich. Cav., Capt. J. H. McGowan.

The Ninth Michigan Cavalry is distinguished in more than one particular.

Its record of march is one of the most remarkable in the history of the war, as it traversed more than 3,000 miles of territory by battalion the first year of its services, exclusive of skirmish and deploy service.

The regiment fired the last volley at the rebels prior to the surrender of General Johnson.

The preservation of this fact is due to a published notice by a Southern lady in a book of which she was the authoress, and her knowledge of it was due to her appreciation of the gallantry of the officers of the Ninth, who had paid willing tribute to her beauty and enjoyed the hospitality their sincere admiration of her character and position won from her, though she belonged to the losing side.

The fact is authentic, as she was in a situation to observe the progress of events, and her interest in her friends of the Ninth preserved one of the most valuable facts in the record of the regiment.

The Ninth was also the only cavalry regiment of Michigan that marched through to the sea with Sherman, and took part in the closing actions of the campaign under General Kilpatrick.

Mr. Buck was a participant in the varied experiences of the historic progress across the States of Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas.

His brother Adolphus enlisted in the same company and regiment, and they served together until the close of the war.

The father and two sons joined their savings from the war and purchased 211 acres of land in Branch County.

Of this, Mr. Buck of this sketch held a claim of 60 acres.

In 1870 he went to Angola, Ind., and passed two years in the meat business, and also operated as a carpenter.

In the fall of 1883 he came to Reed City, accompanied by his parents.

Associated with his father, he engaged in the meat business, their partnership existing until the father’s death in December, 1883.

Mr. Buck continued the prosecution of his business alone until March, 1884, when he rented his stand and retired.

On coming to Reed City he bought the site of his business building and built a market.

He also owns a store building, situated on the west side of his first property.

He and his father erected the fine and substantial brick block on the corner of Upton Avenue and Chestnut Street, of which he is still one-half owner.

Their business was successful from the outset, with the exception of one disaster by fire in January, 1875, when they met a loss of $700, partially covered by an insurance of $500.

Besides the property enumerated, Mr. Buck owns two residences, nearly eight acres of land adjoining Reed City on the northwest and 37 acres a little more than a mile north.

He belongs to the subordinate lodge of Odd Fellows and to the Encampment, is a member of the Patriarchal Circle and of the Princes of the Orient and of Post Stedman, No. 98, G. A. R.

He has served two terms as member of the Council.

The marriage of Mr. Buck to Lydia M. Wood occurred July 11, 1869, in Ovid Township, Branch Co., Mich.

Mrs. Buck was born in November, 1850, in Bethel Township, Branch County, and is the daughter of Dyer and Mary Wood.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Buck were born as follows: Bertha, Aug. 3, 1871; Charles, Feb. 27, 1878; and Lee, Nov. 18, 1882.

 

Robert A. Allured, of the Evart Hardware Company, was born March 7, 1849, in the city of London, England.

His father, John Allured, was a native of England and a bookmaker by trade.

He married Elizabeth Daggs and died in the land of his birth.

In 1855 his widow, with one son and two daughters, and her parents, emigrated to the State of New York, and settled in Monroe County near the city of Rochester, where the subject of this sketch was reared on a farm, and later was in the employment of a butcher in the beautiful city of the Genesee Valley, where he passed three years.

Emma, youngest sister of Mr. Allured, is the wife of William Wallace, of Rochester.

Her sister Elizabeth is an inmate of her home.

In 1868 he came to Flint, Mich., and entered the hardware house of Newton & Hubbard as salesman.

He remained an employee in the business until July, 1873, the firm changing four times within that period.

In that year he came to Evart and, associated with O. M. Brownson, founded a trade in hardware.

The relation was in existence five years, when the business and its connections became the sole property of Mr. Allured.

The establishment where the business was instituted was built by Mr. Brownson, and consisted of a single structure 24 x 60 feet in extent.

He made two additions, 20 x 60 feet, at a later date.

The dimensions were increased by Mr. Allured in 1881, the building now being 44 x 132 feet, with a cellar, and two stories in height.

The incorporated company originally comprised R. A. Allured, M. E. Parkinson and Elmer F. Birdsall.

Mr. Parkinson withdrew from the firm Aug. 20, 1884.

The stock in trade is valued at an estimate of $15,000, and includes all articles common to that branch of business, besides agricultural implements, among which the Champion Mower and Reaper is made a specialty.

Mr. Allured was married March 23, 1876, in Evart, to Alice L. Brownson.

Two children have been born to them, one of whom died in infancy. Karl B. was born March 10, 1883.

Mrs. Allured was born May 25, 1852, in Pontiac, Oakland Co., Mich,, and is the daughter of Oscar M. and Lucy M. Brownson.

She and her husband are members of the Presbyterian Church.

 

Garrah D. De Goit, assistant salesman with G. W. Bevins, merchant at Tustin, was born Nov. 4, 1859, in Van Buren Co., Mich.

His father, William De Goit, was born on the Atlantic Ocean while his parents were en route to the United States from France, 1 their native country.

He grew to manhood in the State of New York, married Lavinia Dennis, and removed to Michigan, where he is living in retirement, settling later in life at Tustin.

The mother is of French parentage and was born in the province of Ontario.

Mr. De Goit accompanied his parents in extreme childhood to Grand Rapids, where he obtained his earliest education.

Later, in 1874, he went to Ionia, and there he added materially to his acquisitions of information by attending the High School for two years, returning at the end of that time to Grand Rapids, again entering the excellent schools of that city as a student.

After completing his education, he was variously occupied until 1878, the date of his making a location in Osceola County.

On coming to Tustin he spent two years as printer in the Tustin Advance.

He obtained employment as a laborer for j& a few years, and in 1882 he secured his present situation.

He is a Republican of decided principles.

He was married Dec. 30, 1883, in Tustin, to Addie was born Dec. 6, 1861, in Cato, New York, and was educated at Weedsport.

Her parents reside in Burdell Township, whither they removed in 1879.

After coming to Michigan she engaged in teaching until her marriage.

 

James C. Corbin, Lumberman, resident at Leroy, was born June 10, 1845, in Van Buren County, Michigan.

He was left an orphan in early childhood by the deaths of his parents, the demise of his mother occurring when he was but two weeks old, and that of his father a few years after his birth.

He was in the care of one family from the death of his mother until 1853, being then eight years old.

He lived in various families until he was 17, and in the fall of 1862 he enlisted in Merrill’s Cavalry, as it was known, being an independent organization, doing guard duty and being on scouting service.

Mr. Corbin was in battle only in the action at Little Rock, Ark., and was honorably discharged at Nashville Tenn., after the war was closed in 1865.

After being mustered out, he returned to Michigan and went to Holland, Ottawa County, and obtained employment during three succeeding years.

He was married Sept. t3, 1868, in Wayland, Allegan Co., Mich , to Julia A. Hill.

She was born in 1850, in Grand Rapids, and died Dec. 1, 1878, in Leroy.

One daughter—Hattie May—died before her mother.

Burt E. is the only surviving child.

Mr. Corbin was married June 26, 1881, in Ithaca, Gratiot Co., Mich., to Miss L. Meade.

Mrs. Corbin was born and educated in Gratiot County.

The family came to Leroy Township in the fall of 1874.

Mr. Corbin purchased 160 acres of land on section 17, and a little more than a year after he exchanged it for 80 acres located in another part of the township, of which he was the owner two years, lumbering meanwhile in the interest of Hood, Gale & Co., of Big Rapids.

In the fall of 1879 he sold his farm and embarked in a drug enterprise, which he prosecuted between two and three years, selling in 1882 to his associate in the business.

He then entered quite extensively into the manufacture of lumber, running a saw and planing-mill.

The former establishment was burned in August, 1883, and he has since reconstructed the planing-mill, in which he is doing an extensive business.

He is independent in politics.

 

Joshua W. Matthews, Treasurer of Osceola , County, was born Feb. 3, 1826, in the township of Troy, Oakland Co., Mich.

His father, Solomon J. Matthews, was born in Livonia, Livingston Co., N. Y., June 6, 1799.

He was a farmer and removed to Oakland Co., Mich., in 1822. He died in Troy Township, Aug. 14, 1850.

Susan (Whitney) Matthews, the mother of the subject of this sketch, was born in Livonia, in 1800, and died in Troy Township, in 1864.

They had nine children, eight of whom lived to maturity and seven of whom still survive: Almeron S. is Deputy U. S. Marshal at Pontiac, Oakland County; Jane (1st) is deceased; Jane Ann, Mrs. Nathaniel Voorhies, resides in Troy Township; Susan C. is the wife of F. C. Voorhies, of the same place; Enos R. is a produce merchant at Rochester, Oakland County; Solomon S. is U. S. Marshal at Pontiac; Cordelia.

Mrs. Lewis Hickox, is deceased; Mary married James C. Voorhies, a carriage-maker at Rochester, Oakland County.

Not long after the death of his father, Mr. Matthews purchased the family homestead, comprising 120 acres of well improved and cultivated land, of which he continued resident until 1866, when he removed to Pontiac to discharge the duties of Assistant Revenue Assessor, to which position he had been appointed, and in which he officiated more than five years.

Associated with Henry Nichols and E. C. Martin, in 1879, he bought a half interest in a sash, door and blind factory at Pontiac, the firm style becoming Martin, Matthews & Nichols.

The relation existed actively about two years, when he interested himself in the manufacture of hoisting machines for building purposes, selling the products in Chicago.

In the fall of 1872, he came to Evart, Osceola County, and bought a half interest in a steam saw-mill, forming the manufacturing firm of Lamb & Matthews, which existed until January, 1877.

In the fall of 1876, Mr. Matthews was elected Sheriff of Osceola County, on the Republican ticket, and in the fall of 1878 received a re-election.

He was elected County Treasurer in the fall of 1880, and in 1882 was re-elected.

In 1861 he was elected Supervisor of Troy, Oakland Co., Mich., and he has served three years in succession in the same office in Osceola Township.

In 1883 he was elected President of Hersey village.

He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and belongs to Evart Lodge, No. 320, located at Evart.

Mr. Matthews was married Oct. 22, 1848, in Bloomfield Township, this county, to Hannah E. Beach.

Their children were three in number.

The first born and youngest died in early infancy.

Chloe Ann, born Aug. 17, 1850, is the wife of Justus H. Prall, a builder in Pontiac.

Mrs. Matthews was born in Cayuga Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of Thomas C. and Lodema (Ford) Beach.

 

Ransom Cooper, prosecuting Attorney of Osceola and member of the firm of Cooper & Windsor, Attorneys, real estate and loan agents at Reed City, was born May 12, 1854, near Corunna, Shiawassee Co. Mich.

His father, Andrew H. Cooper, was a native of New York, and a farmer by vocation.

The son was but six months old at the date of his father’s death.

After that event his mother, Sarah (McGilvrey) Cooper, returned to Sterling, Cayuga Co., N. Y., where she lived with her children seven years, returning when Mr. Cooper, of this sketch, was seven years old, to Caro, Tuscola Co., Mich. She died in 1879.

Ransom was a pupil in the common schools of Tuscola County until he was 17 years old.

He became a teacher, which pursuit he followed until he I was 20, when he entered the Literary Department of the University at Ann Arbor, where he studied two years.

He went thence to Port Austin, Huron Co., Mich., where he followed the business of teaching three years, meanwhile studying law under the instructions of the Hon. Richard Winsor and his partner, Horace G. Snover, a leading law firm of the Huron Peninsula.

He was admitted to the practice of law at the Bar of Michigan at Bad Axe, Huron County, in August, 1879, and in the following month established his legal business at Reed City.

He formed a partnership under the style of Colgrove & Cooper, which relation continued one year, when the present firm was established by the substitution of L. B. Winsor, and its connections are still operative.

The house has founded a substantial law business, deals to a satisfactory extent in real estate, and represents the following fire-insurance companies: Liverpool & London & Globe, American, British, Phoenix of Brooklyn, and the Orient.

Mr. Cooper was nominated on the Republican ticket in the fall of 1880 for Prosecuting Attorney, and made a successful campaign against the candidate of the opposition element, scoring a triumph of 700 majority.

He was re-elected in 1882, without opposition.

Mr. Cooper is a member of the Masonic fraternity.

He is prominently interested in local school matters.

His marriage to Lillian B. Colgrove occurred Dec. 31, 1878, at Charlotte, Eaton Co., Mich.

Edith Belle, only child, was born at Reed City, Nov. 20, 1882.

Mrs. Cooper was born March 20, 1857, and is the daughter of Charles H. and Catherine Colgrove.

 

John A. Lindstrom, salesman for G. W. Bevins, general merchant, is a native of Sweden, where he was born Sept. 30, 1853, in Wermland.

He is the son of Nels and Kate Lindstrom.

His mother dying when he was a child of eight years, he was cared for by others until he was 17, when he returned to the home of his father.

A year later they came to the States, and located on a farm in Sherman Township, in Osceola County.

The senior Lindstrom is a successful farmer of the same township.

Mr. Lindstrom succeeded in obtaining an excellent and thorough knowledge of the use of the English understanding of the customs of American people, was occupied as a common laborer.

In 1880 he entered upon the duties of his present position, which he has discharged with ability and fidelity.

He is a supporter of the tenets of the Lutheran religion and is a Republican in political adherence.

He was married in Tustin Aug. 5, 1881, to Huldah M. Olson, who was born Jan. 16, 1858, in Westevrik, Sweden, where her father is a merchant.

She grew to womanhood in her native land, coming to the United States in 1880.

She is the mother of two children, – Alfdis S. and Florence I.

 

Alanson J. MoCarn, farmer and lumberman, located on section 8, Sylvan Township, was born March 17, 1842, in Plymouth, Wayne Co., N. Y.

Jonas McCarn, his father, was a native of New York and removed his family in 1856 to Perry, Shiawassee Co., Mich., where he died, Sept. 11, 1884, aged 75 years.

His mother, Abbie McCarn, was born in the Mohawk Valley, in New York, and is living in Shiawassee County, aged 72 years.

Mr. McCarn was a pupil in the common schools of his native place until the removal of the family to Perry, when he was 14 years old.

A year later he took the direction of his career into his own hands and when 17 years of age began teaching.

He pursued that calling as a vocation until the second year of the war, when he entered the army.

He enlisted Oct. 31, 1862, in the Seventh Mich. Cav., Co. G, in which he was appointed Sergeant.

His company was under Lieut. Geo. W. Hill, and the command was assigned to the Army of the Potomac.

He was in some of the hottest and hardest fought battles of the war, among which was the action at Gettysburg, where he received severe wounds.

A shot passed through the right lung, emerging from his body under his right arm and crashing through the muscles of that member.

He was transferred from the field hospital at Gettysburg to Finley Hospital, Washington, D. C., whence he was discharged June 2, 1865.

Soon after his return he was married and rented a farm in Perry Township, which he occupied about six years.

In 1876 he sold his farming interests and bought village property at Perry Center, and established a mercantile enterprise which he continued to conduct until his removal to Evart in the autumn of 1874.

He embarked in the same business at that place and managed its relations one year.

At the end of that time he purchased 200 acres of unbroken forest land in Sylvan Township, becoming one of the earliest settlers north of the Muskegon River.

He has since sold a small portion of his place and added 80 acres in Hartwick Township to his possessions.

He has made many improvements on his property.

In 1883 he became the proprietor of a saw-null and has since managed an extensive lumbering manufacture.

In political preference he is a Republican of decided opinions.

He has held several important local official positions, as Supervisor, Treasurer, etc., and is present School Inspector.

He is a member of the Order of Odd Fellows at Perry Center.

Mr. McCarn was married June 26, 1865, to Evelyn M. Durant.

Their children were born as follows: Charles, May 14, 1866; Ernest, Jan. 8, 1872; Lynn, April 26, 1881.

Their mother is the daughter of Nathaniel and Harriet (Bridger) Durant, and was born Nov. 3, 1842.

Her father died in Huron Co., Ohio, when she was four years of age.

Her mother was born in England and died in 1881 in Perry.

Mrs. McCarn was carefully educated and began teaching when 18 years of age.

Willis M. Slosson

Willis M. Slosson, member of the business firm of J. M. Reed & Co. at Reed City, was born May 25,1849, in Newark Valley, Tioga Co., N. Y. Ozias J. Slosson, his father, was born in 1805,at Great Barrington, Mass.

Associated with James M. Reed and Charles Higbe, he came to Northern Michigan in 1856 and aided in the location of Reed City, the firm consisting of Messrs. Reed, Higbe and,Slosson, becoming by purchase the proprietors of more than 4,000 acres of land lying in Osceola and Newaygo Counties.

They platted the city, and two of its thoroughfares—Slosson Avenue and Higbe Street—now perpetuate the memory of their names.

The senior Slosson retained his citizenship in Tioga Co., N. Y., but aided in the development of this portion of Osceola County, and at the date of his death was still one of the leading property-holders in the county.

He died in Newark Valley, Feb. 11, 1862.

The demise of his wife, Mrs. Ann F. (Fisher) Slosson, took place Feb. 7, 1872.

She was a native of Francistown, N. H.

Their family consisted of five children—three sons and two daughters.

Mr. Slosson of this sketch is the youngest son. Arthur B., the oldest, is present Deputy Sheriff of Osceola County, and resides at Reed City.

Edwin Slosson, second son, is a grain merchant at Sabetha, Kan. Willis M. Slosson was reared to manhood and trained in the business habits of his father, remaining on the homestead at Newark Valley until the age of 22 years.

He then went to Kansas, and in partnership with William B. and Samuel Slosson, his cousins, established the business to which his brother Edwin succeeded by an exchange of interests, the younger brother taking his place in the real-estate firm at Reed City, Michigan.

This is where he is engaged in furthering the interests of the business house of which his father was one of the primary members, and which is engaged in the sale of its landed tracts.

(The brothers Slosson purchased the claims of their sisters.)

Mr. Slosson owns also individual property at Reed City, including a business building on Upton Avenue, occupied as a drug store and photograph gallery, a half interest in the lot and building leased as a law office by Messrs. Bellows & Stone, attorneys, and other village property.

He is officiating for the second time as President of the village, of which he has been Trustee two years.

He is prominent in the Order of Masonry, belonging to the several bodies, – Blue Lodge, Royal Arch Chapter and Commandery.

He is also connected with the American Order of United Workmen.

His marriage to M. Ella Butler occurred May 20, 1874, in Newark Valley.

She was born Nov. 20, 1854, and is the daughter of John and Jane Butler.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Slosson were born as follows: Leonard B., April 13, 1875; Lawrence M., Oct. 25, 1878; and Edna E., April 2t, 1880, at Reed City.

The two elder children were born at Sabetha, Kan.

 

George Halladay, merchant and farmer, residing on sec. 10, Lincoln Tp., was born in Leeds Co., Ont., March 8, 1820.

When he was six years of age his father died, and at the early age of eight years he went to live with his brother-in-law, remaining with him until about 17 years of age.

He then started out in the world to take the management of his affairs into his own hands.

He learned the trade of carding and dressing cloth, worked at that business for five years, next engaged in farming for a period of seven years, and then returned to his trade, which he followed for 1 o years.

In 1870 he came to Michigan, settling at Ashton, Osceola County, where he took possession of 80 acres of land under the regulations of the homestead law, and where he now resides.

He has also bought 40 acres on section 9.

During the spring following his settlement here he built a store in Ashton and began business, in company with his son, Frayer, with $1,000 worth of dry goods and groceries.

Their business so increased that they had to enlarge the store building and add largely to their stock.

During the spring of 1884, Mr. George Halladay sold his interest in the mercantile business to his son and retired to the farm in Lincoln Township, where he now owns 160 acres of land, and has about 70 acres in a state of good cultivation.

Mr. Halladay has held the office of Township Treasurer one year, and Overseer of Highways eight years.

In his political views he is identified with the Republican Party, and in religion he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as is also his wife.

He was first married in Canada, Dec. 3, 1844, to Miss Mary White, a native of Ontario.

They have had four children, namely, Frayer, Nancy, Samantha and Adelia.

Mrs. H. died July 22, 1852, and Mr. H. was again married, in Ontario, March 9, 1853, to Phebe Wing, who also was a native of Canada.

By this marriage four children were born, viz.: Annetta, Ida, Wright and Burton.

The second wife died Sept. 30, 1881, and Mr. Halladay chose for his third wife, in Cedar Springs, Kent Co , Mich., Oct. 11, 1883, Mrs. Elizabeth (nee Robinson), widow of David H. Wightman, who died Feb. 15, 1880.

By her former marriage she has had eight children, as follows: William J., Henry H., Clarinda C., Lewis D., Mary E., George S., Louisa, Isabella and Louisa Arabella (twins).

Mrs. H. was born in Otsego Co., N. Y., Sept. 23, 1827.

 

Conrad V. Priest, merchant at Sears, was born at Bath, Ontario, Jan. 5, 1847, and is the son of Ezra D. and Alatheria (Shorey) Priest.

The senior Priest was born in 1809, in Vermont.

His earlier business life was passed in the manufacture of carriages in Bath, whither he removed from his native State, and where he was a pioneer.

He engaged in a mercantile enterprise there, which he conducted 23 years.

A few years before his death he went to Ernesttown, Addington Co., Ont., where he died.

The mother was born in Addington County, in April, 1811, and resides in Napanee, Ont.

Mr. Priest passed his childhood, youth and early manhood in Bath, coming thence to Osceola County in 1873, reaching Evart July 3, and proceeding in September of the same year to Sears.

He established his mercantile business at first in company with George Hume, who sold two years afterward to William Belfour, the firm style becoming Priest & Belfour.

In the winter of 1879 Mr. Belfour was crossing the bay of Quinte on the ice, when the horse they were driving broke through and disappeared, dragging the sleigh and its occupants into the water.

The horse was drowned, but the men saved their lives.

Mr. Belfour took cold, which resulted in quick consumption, and he lived but a few months.

Since his death Mr. Priest has conducted his business affairs alone.

His average stock represents a cash value of $10,000, and his annual transactions aggregate $40,000. He buys every variety of farm produce, and sells everything required by farmers and other patrons.

He buys and presses about 500 tons of hay annually, which he sells to lumbermen.

His business location is one of the best in this section of country.

Mr. Priest is thoroughly educated, and possesses fine scholarly tastes.

He obtained a comprehensive knowledge of common branches at the district schools, and of classics and higher mathematics in an academy.

He has a special liking for geography and history, and is a discriminating reader, keeping himself informed in business channels and current events.

He was married April 15, 1872, to Elizabeth J. Belfour, and they have been the parents of five children, the two oldest of whom died in infancy unnamed.

Lillian Irma was born July 13, 1879; Hattie H., Dec. 18,1881; Nettie M., April 12, 1884.

Mrs. Priest is the daughter of Gabriel and Ann (Armstrong) Belfour, both of whom were natives of the north of Ireland.

Her mother was killed in October, 1868, near Bath, Ont., by a train of cars while crossing a railroad on her return from a provincial fair.

Her father resides in Bath, and is 72 years of age.

They had six children, of whom Mrs. Priest is fifth in order of birth.

She was born in Bath July 16, 1847.

She has one sister and three brothers.

One brother lost his life, as stated in the account of William Belfour.

Mr. Priest is a Republican in political principle and action.

He is an honored and trusted citizen, and has been Postmaster four years, Justice of the Peace six years, and Township Treasurer five years.

 

James W. Turner, Liveryman and proprietor of sale and feed stables at Evart, was born April 3, 1843, in Medina, Orleans County, New York.

His father, Edward Turner, was born on Norfolkshire, England.

His mother, Hannah (Starn) Turner, was a native of England, and their family included five children.

In 1844 they moved to Batavia Township, Genesee County, New York, where he worked as a blacksmith for a time.

There the father became an invalid and never resumed active business life.

Mr. Turner was the oldest child of his parents, and when he was twelve years of age went to live with Hiram Hunn, in the township of Alexandria, with whom he remained four years.

His father’s falling into ill health when he was 12 years of age, threw upon him the support of the family.

He was occupied in farm labor by the month six years, when he rented a farm and operated in that method of agricultural pursuit five years.

In March, 1866, he came to Bushnell Township, Montcalm Co., Mich., where he was engaged in farming two years. While residing there his father died.

He went thence to Palo, Ionia County, where he was a farmer and butcher, coming to Evart in the fall of 1872, and there engaged in butchering, in partnership with Rowland S. Comstock, a few months.

In the spring of 1873 the latter sold his interest to Frank E. Turner, and the brothers managed the business jointly until 1878, operating also in real estate, buying tracts of land and putting them in good condition for farming; after which they were sold.

In 1878, Mr. Turner purchased his brother’s claim and continued farming, and also embarked in’ the purchase and shipment of horses.

In 1880 he founded the business in which he is at present engaged.

On his arrival at Evart, he bought the property he now owns, and established his meat market, which he removed in 1880, and erected the buildings where is now operating.

They are constructed of brick, main portion being 40 x r 13 feet in dimensions and with an addition 20×92 feet for a carriage room.

A wash-room 20×30 feet is connected therewith, also a large frame barn.

He keeps about twenty horses with necessary livery fixtures of a good grade, and combines a considerable traffic in buggies and wagons with his other operations, dealing especially in the Big Rapids wagons and the Columbus baggies.

He has an extensive livery business and deals largely in horses. His farms are on an extensive scale, and he has 235 acres under cultivation.

He has bought and sold cattle, sheep and horses since he was 18 years of age.

There is a brick-yard on his farm near the village of Evart, where, in company with E. C. Cannon, he has been engaged in the manufacture of brick.

Mr. Turner belongs to the Masonic fraternity and to the A. 0. U. W.

His marriage to Julia A. Case, took place March 1, 1864, in Alden Township, Erie Co., N. Y.

They have two children,—Susie E, born Aug. 30, 1871, in Palo, Ionia Co., Mich., and Nina A., born Sept. 21, 1874, in Evart. Mrs. Turner was born June 7, 1843, in Millgrove Township, Erie Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of James E. and Susan (Dixon) Case.

The mother of Mr. Turner resides at Evart. Carrie M. is a widow and resides in the village of Gaines, Genesee Co., Mich.; Henry D. is a butcher at Evart; Frank E. is a liveryman at Chase, Lake Co., Mich.; Rose resides at Evart.

 

John Q. Patterson, Attorney, insurance agent and Notary Public at Reed City was born Aug. 26, 1827, in Wayne Township, Steuben Co., N. Y., and is the son of John and Ellinor Patterson, both of whom were natives of the Empire State.

The father was a ship carpenter by vocation, and in 1835 settled with his family in Putnam Township, Livingston Co., Mich., where he bought a farm of 80 acres.

The mother died there. The senior Patterson died in Stockbridge, Ingham Co., Mich.

Ten children were born to them: William, Mary A., Zera, Jane, Delilah, Ellinor, John Q., Martha, David and Henry.

The oldest and youngest are deceased.

Mr. Patterson was brought up on a farm, and at 21 years of age entered Michigan Central College at Spring Arbor, where he remained four years; teaching in the winter seasons.

In 1855 he engaged in traffic in stock and produce at Ovid, Clinton County, and operated in that line until the date of his enrollment in the military service of the United States.

Dec. 20, 1863, he enlisted at Ovid, and was assigned to a company as Second Lieutenant, the chief officer being Capt. A. B. Wood, and the company being attached to the 27th Mich. Vol. .Inf. in March, 1864.

The command was assigned to the Ninth Army Corps, First Brigade and Third Division, and on the 29th of April became a part of the Army of the Potomac.

The regiment participated in the 14 days’ fight in the Wilderness, and in the engagements of the campaign through to Petersburg, including North Anna, Cold Harbor and Bethesda Church; and at the siege of Petersburg, June 18, 1864, Lieutenant Patterson was wounded by grape shot in both lower limbs, an injury which consigned him to the hospital for several weeks.

On recovery he was detailed for recruiting service and served in that capacity, recruiting for the 30th Mich. Reg. Inf.

He returned to Washington in charge of a detachment of men, and proceeded thence to the front.

He was in the siege of Petersburg; and at Hatcher’s Run, Oct. 27 and 28, 1864, while in charge of a front line of pickets, he was wounded in the left shoulder by a sharpshooter’s bullet, which ranged down through his chest, cutting off three ribs and emerging from his body at the angle of the ninth rib.

He was sent to the field hospital, where he remained five weeks, and was transferred to the City Point Hospital, whence he was sent, two weeks later, to Washington. He remained there some time and afterwards went to Georgetown Seminary Hospital, where he lay ill twenty days with lung fever.

He returned to his home in February, 1865, and received an honorable discharge for disability April 28, following.

He was made First Lieutenant of his company May 5, 1864, and maintained that rank until he was discharged from the service.

After reaching his home he continued some time in precarious health, and as soon as sufficiently recovered, studied law.

He began the practice of his profession at Ovid, and was admitted to the Bar of Michigan in 1868.

In 1873 he removed to Reed City, where he continued his law practice. Later he became associated with W. H. Palmer, with whom he remained about two years, and operated singly, in a satisfactory practice, until 1882, when he purchased the National Hotel, put it in thorough repair, and conducted its affairs as a hostelry until the spring of 1884, when he leased the property and resumed the business of an attorney.

In September, 1884, he sold his interest in the hotel.

In his insurance connections, he represents the Home, of New York, the North British and Mercantile.

He is the proprietor of considerable village property.

Mr. Patterson belongs to the Order of Odd Fellows, to the Grand Army of the Republic, and has served two terms as member of the Village Board of Trustees.

He was married July 4, 1855, at Dexter, Washtenaw Co., Mich., to Ellinor S. Torry, and they are the parents of five children, namely: Emma, who is the wife of Peter A. Auer, clerk in the Treasury Department at Washington.

Mr. and Mrs. Auer have two children, Harry and Nellie.

De Ette married Charles K. Esler, foreman on the Grand Haven (Mich.) Herald; Lee and Dana are the names of their children.

Wilber is a clerk at Reed City.

Ezra D. is an assistant teacher in the Spencerian Business College at Washington, D. C., where he was graduated as valedictorian of his class in 1883.

Bertha is the youngest daughter. Mrs. Patterson is the daughter of Seth B. and Eliza Torry.

 

George Reed, merchant and farmer at Milton, Lincoln Township, is a son of Joseph and Mary (Crawford) Reed, the former a native of England, and the latter of Ireland.

In their family were three children, namely: Mary, now the wife of G. Wilson, and resides in Lincoln Township; George, the subject of this sketch, and James.

Mr. Reed was born in Canada, Jan. 22, 1838, and lived in the Dominion until 1865, when he made a tour of the Western States in search of a place to locate.

In 1867 he came to this county and took possession of 80 acres of land in Lincoln Township, under the regulations of the Homestead Law, settled upon the place and resided there nearly seven years.

He then sold that place and purchased another 80 acre tract, in the same township, which he still owns.

He made this place his residence until the spring of 1884, when he commenced business in the mercantile line at Milton June.

He has a satisfactory trade.

In connection with his store, he has a restaurant and a hotel, suited to the demands of the transient public.

Thirty acres of his farm are cleared and in good cultivation.

Mr. Reed is a Republican in his views of national government, enjoys the esteem of his fellow citizens, and as to local official positions he has been Highway Commissioner two years.

He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

The marriage of Mr. Reed took place in Berrien Co., Mich., Dec. 18, 1878, taking for his wife Mrs. Miranda, nee Smith, widow of Adolphus Griffin.

By her first marriage her children were Stella, Nettie and Dolphie.

By her present marriage there was one son, Joseph by name, who died when three days old.

Mark Ardis, merchant at Evart, and a prominent landholder and business man of Osceola County, was born Oct. 20, 1843, in Newtown-Hamilton, County Armagh, Ireland.

His parents, William and Mary (Boyd) Ardis, are still residents of their native land.

Mr. Ardis was bred to the occupation of a farmer until he was 14 years of age, when he became a clerk, and was employed in that capacity until he came to the United States.

He reached Ionia, Mich., in January, 1867, and entered the insurance and brokerage office of Fred Hall & Co., where he operated as book-keeper until the fall of the same year, when he came to Hersey, and engaged as a salesman in the mercantile establishment of James Kennedy, continuing in the position until he entered the employ of D. A. Blodgett, in 1871.

In the fall of the same year he established his business at Evart, first instituting a general mercantile enterprise, in which he is still operating, his business requiring a stock valued at an average of $15,000, and comprising all articles of merchandise suited to his patronage.

He also conducts a private banking business, buys and sells exchange, makes collections, etc.

He first established his business in a building which he still owns, located opposite the postoffice at Evart, and later removed to his present stand, also his property.

He owns a fine residence, the grounds comprising four lots and 30 acres of land in the northwest part of the corporation.

40 acres of land on section 3, Evart Township, 160 acres on section 18, Middle Branch Township, and 80 acres on section 32, Osceola Township.

Mr. Ardis has served two terms as Village Treasurer.

He was married May 21, 1872, in Brooklyn, N. Y., to Annie, daughter of Philip and Mary Redmond, a native of Ireland.

Their children were born as follows: Minnie E. B., Aug. 14, 1873; Emma M., May 17, 1875; Jennie H.„ July 13, 1876; William F. S., July 31, 1879; Walter R., Oct. 20, 1883.

 

Charles G. Loase, Banker at Reed City was born February 4, 1842, in Detroit, and is the son of John G. and Margaret (Keiser) Loase.

In early life his father was a car builder, and later a merchant in Detroit, where he died.

Mr. Loase obtained his early education in the “City of the Straits,” and operated there to some extent as a clerk.

In 1859, when he was. 17 years of age, he went to California and became interested in mining, in which he was engaged five years.

Returning to Michigan, he passed a year in Jackson County, next a period of time at Greenville, Montcalm County, and engaged in building.

In 1873 he embarked in a mercantile enterprise at Altona, Mecosta Co., Mich., which he prosecuted until his removal to Reed City in 1879.

On Jan. 1, 1880, he established his banking business, and has since been engaged in the transactions common to such institutions.

He owns a residence at Greenville, and a valuable farm of 80 acres in Deerfield Township, Mecosta County, all under cultivation.

Mr. Loase was married Sept. 3, 1867, at Greenville, to Frances Norton.

She was born Feb. 27, 1846, and is the daughter of Myron H. and Sarah (Skinner) Norton.

Her father was born in Oakland Co., Mich., was extensively engaged in farming, in Ionia Co., and for a number of years engaged in banking in Greenville, and is 70 years of age.

The mother was born April 12, 1816, in Vermont. Mr. and Mrs. Loase have four children: Mertie was born March 26, 1872, in Greenville; Ernest was born July 26, 1876, in Altona, where the third child, Blanche, was born, July 22, 1878; Clara was born April 1, 1881, at Reed City.

enry A. Clark, Register of Deeds of Osceola County, resident at Hersey, was born July 10, 1850, in Seneca Co., Ohio, at a point two miles south of Tiffin.

His father, Thomas Clark, was born in April, 1819.

He married Mary Judea and settled on a farm in Seneca County, whence he removed with his family, about 1853, to Hardin Co., Ohio, buying a tract of land containing 280 acres.

He is the proprietor of 160 acres, in fine and valuable agricultural condition.

The mother was born in 1814. Seven of their nine children are living: Catherine, now deceased, married Josephus Mustard, a farmer and hotel-keeper in Mason Co., Mich.; Ann M. married R. G. Hubbell, of Ada, Hardin Co., Ohio; Ebert died in Hardin Co., Ohio; Elizabeth J. is the wife of David S. Shadley, a farmer in Osceola County; Lloyd H. resides in Preston, Hardin Co., Ohio; Oliver is a farmer in Middle Branch Township; Henry A. is next in order of birth; Littleton G. is a farmer in Hartwick Township; Mary S. married George Dempster, traveling salesman, and resides in Hardin Co., Ohio.

In 1867, when he was 16 years of age, Mr. Clark came to Hartwick Township in company with his brother-in-law, D. S. Shadley, who was the first settler in the township, and is still a resident there, on section 24.

Young Clark aided him two years in clearing and improving his farm.

On March 9, 1870, Mr. Clark located 143 acres of land in Middle Branch Township, section 30, and cleared 80 acres, remaining there until the fall of 1880, when he was elected Register of Deeds, on the Republican ticket, defeating the candidate of the opposition by a majority of 72t votes.

He was re-elected in the fall of 1882, scoring a triumph by 576 votes.

He removed to Hersey in December, 1880, where he is the owner of a residence and three lots, also of 119 acres of farm land on section 21, Osceola Township.

He also owns an interest in several hundred acres of wild lands, variously located.

He was Supervisor of Middle Branch Township six years, and has served as Justice of the Peace, and in other official positions.

He is a member of the Masonic Order and belongs to Lodge No. 311, at Hersey.

Mr. Clark was married Nov. 11, 1869, in Grand Haven, Mich., to Mary A. Muschawaeck, and they became the parents of three children: Mary Estella was born Oct. 4, 1871, and died Feb. 5, 1872; Rosella J. was born Feb. 8, 1874; and Walter C. was born April 12, 1876, and died Aug. 4, 1878.

Their mother died in Middle Branch Township March 15, 1879.

She was born Jan. 23, 1851, in Germany, and is the daughter of Wolfgang and Walberga Muschawaeck.

Mr. Clark was a second time married in Dearborn Township, Wayne Co., Mich., March 3, 1880, to Mrs. Mary E. Builer, widow of John R. Butler, by whom she had one child, Herbert R.

 

John N. Allen, grocer and provision merchant at Evart, was born April 19, 1833, in Monroe Co., N. Y.

He is the son of Jeremiah and Charlotte Allen, and was reared to the age of 16 years on a farm.

His first independent movement in business was as a traveling salesman, in which capacity he operated 13 years.

In 1864 he bought a farm situated near Pontiac, Oakland Co., Mich., whence he went to Port Huron and from there engaged in exploring for oil in the Dominion of Canada, and speculating in oil stocks at Port Huron and Detroit.

He went next to Southfield, Oakland County, where he bought a 40-acre farm, on which he operated three years, going thence to Northville, Wayne Co., Mich., where he became interested in a large peach orchard.

In the fall of 1872 he came to Evart and bought the site of the building where he is now transacting his business, and erected the structure in which he continued to prosecute the grocery trade without intermission.

He is the owner of 160 acres of land on section 10, Evart Township, with 35 acres under culture.

He is serving his eighth term as Township Clerk of Evart.

Mr. Allen was married July 14, 1864, at New Market, Canada, to Jennie C. Hoag, and their children were born as follows: Cora, Sept. 20, 1865, near Pontiac; Annie, June 2, 1867,at Port Huron; Edith, March 17,1873; John, Sept. 21, 1877, and died June 2, 1884.

The two last children were born at Evart. Mrs. Allen was born Dec. 6, 1843, in Somerset, Niagara Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of Aaron and Marinda (Bennett) Hoag.

Her parents were natives of the State of New York.

 

Amos G. Tennant, farmer, sections 17 and 20, Orient Township, was born April 4, 1831, in Venango Co., Pa.

His parents, tj-W John R. and Lydia A. (West) Tennant had four sons—Elisha A., William M., Amos and John G.

Their father was born of English parentage Feb. 2, 1798, and in 1833 went to Ashtabula Co., Ohio. In 1844, the family removed to St Clair Co., Mich., and thence to the county of Macomb, where the mother died, in May, 1870.

She was born April 10, 1800.

The father was a farmer all his active life, and after the death of his wife he still continued to live with his son Amos until his death, which occurred March 28, 1877.

In 1855, Mr. Tennant went to South Saginaw, where he engaged as a saw-mill hand, and later became superintendent of a saw-mill, in which capacity he operated two years.

He was occupied in a similar capacity in East Saginaw two years, going thence to Galesburg, Kalamazoo Co., Mich., where he was engaged in the manufacture of lumber from 1858 to 1864.

On the first of September, in that year, he enlisted in the Union Army, enrolling in Co. I, 28th Mich. Vol. Inf., and going with his regiment to the front as First Sergeant.

May 8, 1865, he was promoted to the rank of Second Lieutenant, and Sept. 12 of the same year he was made First Lieutenant, serving in that capacity until he was mustered out of the service June 5, 1866.

His first battle was at Nashville, the regiment being under the command of General Thomas, and afterwards assigned to the 23d Army Corps.

Mr. Tennant was never in the hospital on sick leave, and was in all the active duty where his regiment was engaged.

On being mustered out he returned to Richmond, Macomb Co., Mich.

He became interested in his former employment, and remained in Macomb County until the last days of March, 1872, when he started with a team for Osceola County, where he arrived April 3, and found the snow two feet deep on the ground.

The contrast was rather disheartening, as the farmers of Macomb County were plowing when he left that section a few days earlier.

The family reached their new home by the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad from Saginaw.

He settled on section 17, where he purchased 40 acres of land.

He has improved 50 acres, has an excellent frame barn, and a good log house.

He was married Jan. 1, 1858, to Albina U. Warner.

She was born Sept. 9, 1839, in St. Clair Co., Mich., and is the daughter of John and Hannah (Wilkins) Warner.

The latter was born in St. Alban’s, Vermont, in 1818, and died at Galesburg, Mich., in February, 1860.

Her father was also born in St. Alban’s in 1811, and died in Wayne Co., Mich., about 1875.

They had two children; Celia, now Mrs. Andrews, only sister of Mrs. Tennant, lives in Orient Township.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Tennant were born as follows: Florence M., Dec. 17, 1858 (died May 17, 1881); Ida H., June 14, 1860; John R., Oct. 7, 1861; Gerald E., April 9, 1863.

Mr. Tennant is a Republican in political affiliation, and has served a term as Justice of the Peace.

Mrs. Tennant is a member of the Disciples’ Church.

 

Nathaniel Clark, Register in the United States Land Office, is a pioneer resident of Reed City.

He was born Oct. 2, 1821, in New Jersey, and is the son of John and Amelia (Decker) Clark, both of whom were born in the same State and were of English and German lineage.

His father was born July 11, 1799 and died Sept. 6, 1867; the birth of his mother occurred Nov. 30, 1798, and her demise took place Jan. 19, 1878.

They were married Sept. 2, 1820.

His father moved to Livingston Co., N. Y., in the fall of 1825, where he purchased a farm.

Mr. Clark was reared to manhood on the farm.

He was married Sept. 10, 1844, in Brushville, Livingston Co., N. Y., to Maria Hanford.

She was born March 2. 1824, in Parma, Monroe Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of John and Polly Hanford.

Mr. and Mrs. Clark have been the parents of 11 children, nine of whom are living: Nelson B. was born July 4, 1845, in Sparta, Livingston Co., N. Y., and deals in hemlock bark at Fremont Center, Newaygo Co., Mich.; Annis A. was born Feb. 8, 1847, and lives in Santa Barbara, Cal.; George S., Jan. 1, 1849; Mary E., Feb. 14, 1851; Emma F., Jan. 12, 1853; Ellen T., March 21, 1855; Irvilla, March 11, 1857, and died Nov 26, 1859, John H., Nov. 9, 1858, and died Nov. 26, 1859; Percy H., Sept. 20, 1860; Lillian M., Aug. 16, 1863; Myrtle M., May 10, 1867.

The mother of Mrs. Clark was born March 11, 1794, and she died July 21, 1832.

Her father was born Jan. 28, 1789, and died in the spring of 1862.

In 1847 Mr. Clark went to Jefferson Co., Pa., and engaged in farming, lumbering and merchandise, conducting his combined interests 13 years.

In 1860, he came to Michigan and became interested in lumbering at Vassar, Tuscola County, operating in that line of business for some time.

In the year preceding the close of the war he entered the military service of the United States, enlisting in August, 1864, as a private in the 29th Reg. Mich. Vol. Inf.

He served primarily as a wagon-master of the regiment and afterwards, as brigade wagon-master, and remained in the army until the close of the war. His oldest son was Orderly.

On obtaining his discharge he returned to Tuscola County, to the present site of Cass City, where he engaged in mercantile business and erected the first building for trading purposes in the place.

He established his business in the same avenues in which he had operated at the outset of his independent career, and trafficked extensively as a merchant and lumberman, and also carried on his farming interests.

During a portion of the time he was a member of the mercantile firm of Craw & Clark, located at Caro.

He sold his interests there and came to Reed City in 1871.

At that place he founded a mercantile and lumber trade, which was in active existence two years, and in 1873 he went to Chase, Lake Co., Mich., and operated in general merchandise.

In the fall of 1876 he secured a soldier’s claim of 160 acres of land in Custer Township, Mason County, which he proceeded to place in good agricultural condition, with good buildings, orchards and other farm appurtenances, and with 65 acres wholly cleared.

He sold the property in the spring of 1881 and settled at his home at Reed City, where he had continued to maintain his residence.

In 1881 he was elected Supervisor of Richmond Township, which he resigned in April, 1884, to accept the position under the United States Government of which he is still the incumbent.

The duties of Receiver are discharged by W. H. C. Mitchell.

At Reed City, Mr. Clark owns a residence and two lots, and is also the proprietor of 10 acres of land in the southwest part of the village.

He is a Republican in politics and belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic.

At the time Mr. Clark made his location where he resides at Reed City, he had to clear the lot, cut brush and build a road through one square to Upton Avenue.

 

William F. Tule, farmer section 21, Orient Township, was born Feb. 3, 1851, in North Toronto, Can., and is the son of George D. and Anita (Darlington) Tule.

The father was born in Pennsylvania, of German parentage.

He was a farmer by occupation.

The mother was born in Ireland and died in 1855, in North Toronto.

Their family included four children, all of whom are living, and in 1872 they left the Dominion and settled in Osceola County, on an unimproved tract of land in Orient Township, which the father bought of the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad Corporation.

The death of the father occurred Dec. 21, 1872, within the year of the arrival of the household in Orient Township.

Both parties were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Mr. Tule’s sisters, three in number, are married.

Caroline C. is the wife of Albert Van Ness, residing on section 16, Orient Township, and was married May 5, 1873; Charlotte N. was married March 4, 1878, to W. D. Strait, and resides in Sylvan Township; Harriet E. was married Oct. 8, 1884, to William D. Clapp.

Mr. Tule is a Republican.

Since his father’s death he has remained on the homestead.

William R. Mapes

William R. Mapes, capitalist and speculator at Evart, was born March 9, 1827, ten miles north of Tunkhannock, Pa., and is the son of Samuel and Elizabeth (Miller) Mapes.

His father was a lumberman and farmer in the Keystone State and in 1844 changed his residence to Ridgebury Township, Bradford Co., Pa., where he conducted a hotel one year, going thence to Southport, N. Y.

Mr. Mapes accompanied the family in their changes of locality, and was 18 years of age when they went to reside at the place last named.

There he engaged in farming and teaming, and also learned the business of a millwright, which he followed several years.

In 1855 ne came to Berrien Co., Mich., where he pursued his trade a year, and in 1856 interested himself in lumbering.

In 1862 he became a member of the construction corps in the service of the Government, and continued in that employment until the termination of the war.

On returning he came to Lawrence, Van Buren County, where he owned a saw-mill and passed two years in lumbering.

In 1867 he removed the mill to Bangor, in the same county, and after another two-years pursuit of the same business at that point, made another removal of his property, to Deerfield Township, also in Van Buren County.

He continued his operations there until the fall of 1871, when his mill burned.

He then sold his property in March, 1872, and transferred his residence to Evart.

He bought a business stand, and, associated with William A. Wightman, established a hardware store.

At the end of two years he sold his stock but retains ownership of the building.

He at once interested himself in lumbering, which he has handled to greater or less extent ever since, and has gradually combined the other lines of traffic in which he is engaged.

He is connected with the Order of Masonry, and is a member of Lodge No. 320, at Evart. He is serving a second term as Treasurer of Osceola Township.

He is a staunch and active Republican, and is one of the Trustees of Evart, to which position he has been elected three times.

He was married in Watervliet, Berrien Co., Mich., to Lydia Warren, daughter of John Warren and a native of Niagara Co., N. Y. The portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Mapes appear on other pages.

 

George W. Morris, of the firm of Morris & Martin, proprietors of the Reed City Flouring Mills, was born March 22, 1835, in the township of Ray, Macomb Co., Mich.

Benjamin Morris, his father, was born Oct. 24, 1809, in Morrisville, Madison Co., N. Y., and in 1833 came with his father (the mother having previously died) to the township of Ray, in Michigan, where the family settled on 80 acres of Government land, which was purchased at the rate of $1.25 per acre, and is still known as the “Morris farm.”

Jacob Morris was born March 20, 1785, in Massachusetts, and died Aug. 4, 1860.

His parents went to Madison Co., N. Y., where their place of settlement grew to large proportions, and was named for the family, Morrisville, which is the county seat of Madison County.

The grandmother was born July 26, 1785, and died Oct. 10, 1816.

Benjamin Morris died April 25, 1881, at Reed City.

His wife died Jan. 15, 1869, at Orion, Oakland Co., Mich.

In 1856 the family removed to a farm near Birmingham, Oakland County, where they resided about seven years.

In 1863 the farm in Bloomfield Township was sold, and a grist-mill in the same county purchased, in company with W. W. Martin.

This connection continued three years, when R. W. Nye became interested in the same enterprise.

Eventually, Mr. Morris became sole proprietor by purchase, and conducted the affairs of the mill singly until 1877, when it was sold, and he came to Reed City, where, associated with E. B. Martin, he built the mill now managed by Messrs. Morris & Martin.

It is 48×56 feet in dimensions and three stories in height above the basement. It is fitted with four sets of double rollers and three pairs of buhrs, with other modern fixtures.

Its capacity per day is 100 barrels of flour, and incidental custom work.

The site of the mill includes about 10 acres of land.

Mr. Morris is the owner of 40 acres of land in Richmond Township, in an excellent agricultural condition, and also owns his residence and three village lots therewith.

His marriage to Lovinia Martin occurred in the township of Bloomfield, Sept. 27, 1860.

She was born July 25, 1841, in Troy Township, Oakland County, and is the daughter of William W. and Samantha (Stockwell) Martin.

The former was born in January, 1806, in Cayuga Co., N. Y., and in 1825 became a pioneer of Oakland County, where the family was among the earliest of the permanent settlers.

He is now living in Reed City.

The mother was born in the State of New York and died in Birmingham, July 27, 1879.

Mr. and Mrs. Morris have two children: Samantha A., who was born Sept. 25, 1861, and is the wife of Maurice W. Stevenson, real-estate broker of Grand Rapids; and Hettie E. was born April 25, 1864, and married George S. Preston, liveryman at Big Rapids.

 

Oliver L. Millard, Clerk of Osceola Count, resident at Hersey was born June 26, 1845, in Lockport, Niagara Co., N. Y.

His father, Junius A. Millard, was born in November, 1817, in Niagara County, and is now a fanner in Pittsford Township, Hillsdale Co., Mich. His mother, Narcissa (Haroun) Millard, was born in October, 1827, in the city of Syracuse.

Two of their three children are now living: Bertram J. is a traveling salesman and grocer at Vicksburg, Kalamazoo Co., Mich. Emma L. died at the age of 11 years.

In 1829 the family located in Pittsford Township, the father buying 80 acres of land which has since been the homestead.

Mr. Millard was reared to manhood on the home place, and was a member of the parental household until his marriage Jan. 1, 1867, to Maria J. Miner.

She was born in the same township, March 1, 1844, and is the daughter of James H. and Phebe Miner.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Millard were both born in Pittsford Township. Herbert A. was born April 8, 1868, and Emma L., Nov. 7, 1871.

Mr. Millard continued a resident there until his removal to Osceola County in February, 1873, when he secured 80 acres of land on section 6, in Rose Lake Township, of which he took possession and commenced the labors of a pioneer, clearing and otherwise improving his land, erecting necessary farm buildings, and placed 60 acres in good agricultural condition, with excellent orcharding.

While a citizen of Rose Lake Township, he was alternately elected to the offices of Clerk and Supervisor, holding one position or the other every year he was a resident there, with one exception.

While in Hillsdale County, he served two terms as Township Treasurer.

In the fall of 1882 he was elected County Clerk, on the Republican ticket, by a majority of 424 votes over the opposition candidate.

In December following he removed to Hersey, to facilitate the discharge of the duties pertaining to his position.

He owns his house and lot, and, in company with Henry A. Clark, is the proprietor of 320 acres of land in Richmond and Marion Townships.

He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as is also his wife.

 

Ellery C. Cannon, merchant at Evart, was born Dec. 28, 1842, in the township of Shelby, Macomb Co., Mich.

The family to which he belongs is one of the most prominent in the history of the development of Northern Michigan, with which it has been inseparably connected from the Territorial days of the Peninsular State.

His father, Rev. John Cannon, was born Sept. 22, 1808, in Saratoga Co., N. Y., whence he removed with his family in 1834 to Macomb County.

He is the proprietor of 60 acres of land in Shelby Township, and occasionally officiates in his capacity of minister of the Christian Church.

Geo. H. Cannon, his uncle, has made the family patronymic prominent in his position of surveyor, in which he has been engaged for a long period of years, and has operated, over a wide-spread territory in Michigan, in the employ of the United States Government.

The mother of Mr. Cannon, Sallie (Cook) Cannon, was born in Saratoga Co., N. Y.

She is the mother of seven children.

Mr. Cannon was reared on a farm in his native township, and was occupied in the quiet pursuits pertaining to agriculture, when the nation was suddenly convulsed by the advent of civil war.

He enlisted Aug. 9, 1862, at Washington Corners, Macomb County, in Co. B, 22d Regt. Mich. Vol. Inf., Captain Keeler.

He was discharged at Detroit July 20, 1865, after the close of the war.

He was an active participant in the various battles in which his regiment was engaged, and encountered the arduous service which characterized the field record of the “Twenty-second,” passing safely through the hard-fought battle of Chickamauga, where his regiment went into action with 600 equipped men, only 50 of whom afterward responded to their names at roll call.

On being discharged from military service, Mr. Cannon returned to his father’s farm. In 1868, associated with his brother, John W., he founded a mercantile enterprise at Washington Corners, and there managed a successful business.

In September, 1871, he came to Evart and opened a branch store under the same firm relations which existed until January, 1876, when it became S. B. & G. H. Cannon, the former being sole and resident manager.

In partnership with Geo. F. Andrus, he owns a farm of 190 acres, situated on the Muskegon River, three miles north of Evart, 50 acres being cleared and cultivated.

Mr. Cannon is a Republican in political connection.

He has been Treasurer of Osceola Township two years, Supervisor four years (is present incumbent), member of the Village Board four years, has served three terms as Chairman of the Board of Supervisors and in various other positions.

He was the first Treasurer of Evart village, and occupied the position three years.

He is the Treasurer of the Osceola County Agricultural Society and has held the position eight years.

Mr. Cannon has served as Treasurer of the Masonic Lodge at Evart, of which he is a member, since its organization.

In the fall of 1884 he was elected a member of the lower House of the Legislature of Michigan.

Mr. Cannon is one of the leading business men in Osceola County.

He is justly accorded first rank in ability, integrity and reliability of judgment and character.

His marriage to Harriet N. Sybrandt occurred Dec. 28, 1868, at Washington Corners.

Their only child – Emma E. – was born at the same place, March 8, 1870.

Mrs. Cannon was born Jan. 12, 1841, in Niagara Co., New York.

 

Frayer Halladay, merchant at Ashton, is a son of George and Mary (White) Halladay, who were natives of the Dominion of Canada, married and settled in Leeds Co., Ont.

Mr. George Halladay remained in Canada until the fall of 1870, when he came to Osceola County and settled in Lincoln Township, where he still is a resident.

He had a family of eight children, named in the following order: Frayer, Nancy, Samantha, Adelia, Annetta, Ida, Wright and Burton.

The subject of this biographical outline was born in Leeds Co., Ont., Oct. 15, 1846, and received as he grew up a common-school education, remaining at home until 18 years of age, after which he attended the commercial college at Hamilton, Ont., for three months.

On leaving home he went to New York State and “worked out” one summer, and then returned to his father’s in Canada.

Soon afterward he went to Wentworth County, in the Dominion, where he was employed two years as engineer in a saw-mill.

In the spring of 1869 he came to Michigan and remained at Grand Rapids until the following fall, when he came to Osceola County and took possession of 80 acres of Government land in Wexford County, but did not finally “prove it up.”

The following spring he opened a general store at Ashton, where he now keeps a stock of merchandise in all the branches suited to the demands of the country.

His is the largest store in the place, and he enjoys an extensive patronage, doing a business of about $25,000 yearly.

Besides, he owns 760 acres of land, most of which is located in Lincoln Township.

He has about 80 acres under cultivation.

Until May, 1884, his father, George Halladay, had an interest in the store, and the firm was known as “Halladay & Son.”

During the month named Mr. H. bought out his father’s interest, and thenceforward has carried on the business alone.

Mr. Halladay has held the office of Supervisor of Lincoln Township for five years, being re-elected to the position in the spring of 1884.

He has also held the position of Township Treasurer three years, and all the minor official trusts in the town.

In his views of political affairs he is a Republican, and since April, 1877, he has been Postmaster of the village of Ashton.

He was married at Mound City, Ill., Nov. 30, 1875, to Miss Elizabeth McIllmurry, who was born in Canada.

To Mr. and Mrs. H. have been born three children, namely: Grace M., LeRoy W. and Eva.

 

Jesse T. Minchin, editor of the Evart Review, was born July 25, 1856, at Pontiac, Oakland Co., Mich.

His father, Thomas Minchin, was born Sept. 1, 1826, in Winchcome, Gloucestershire, Eng., and became a citizen of the United States and of Michigan in 1850.

The mother, Elizabeth Minchin, was born Oct. 14, 1816, at Baisingstoke, Hampshire, Eng., and came thence in 1857 to Michigan.

Mr. Minchin acquired a common-school education at Pontiac, where in 1874 he entered the office of a local newspaper and obtained a thorough and practical knowledge of printing in all its details, and of the “ins and outs” of journalism.

He speedily took foremost rank in the guild and operated as foreman of the Pontiac Bill Poster, his Alma Mater, during 1876-7-8.

In July, 1878, he went to Reed City, and, associated with his brother, George W. Minchin, purchased the Clarion, which they conducted jointly until December, 1880.

At that date the proprietors sold the paper and purchased the Evart Review, which they have since managed and are still conducting in co-partnership.

In 1879 Mr. Minchin served as Clerk of Reed City.

He was elected Secretary of the Osceola County Agricultural Society, in 18811, and discharged the duties of the position three years.

Since removing to Evart he has served as a member of the Board of Education, on the Board of Water Commissioners, and is the present (1884) President of the village.

He was married Nov. 14, 1877, to Minnie M. Murray, of Pontiac, Oakland Co., Mich.

She was born Nov. 11, 1863, and is the daughter of Seth T. and Jennie M. (Collier) Murray.

Mr. and Mrs. Minchin are the parents of three sons, torn as follows: Jesse M., March 24, 1880; Eber W., July 2, 1883; and George B., June 24, 1884.

 

Timothy V. Childs, retired miller and farmer, resident at Reed City, was born Jan. 29, 1820, in Genesee Co., N. Y., and is the son of Elias and Tamar (Vincent) Childs, both of whom were natives of Vermont, where they were married.

A few years after that event, they removed to the State of New York, going thence to Medina Co., Ohio.

Later they came to Kalamazoo, Mich., and there the father died, Nov. 3, 1847.

He was born April 23, 1780.

The mother died in Livingston Co., Mich., Aug. 13. 1865.

She was born Aug. 12, 1781.

Their family comprised 13 children, only two of whom are living.

Asa Childs is 82 years of age, and resides in Tiffin, Ohio.

Mr. Childs is the youngest of the family, and was reared under the personal care and supervision of his parents, working as a carpenter with his father and also on the farm.

He accompanied his parents in their removals, and was the custodian of their comfort in their declining years.

He was married Oct. 8, 1840, to Sarah E. Jones.

She was born Aug. 16, 1816, in Geneva, Ontario Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of Frederick and Polly Maria Jones.

After marriage Mr. and Mrs. Childs resided in Medina Co., Ohio, a number of years and Mr. Childs was there engaged as a farmer.

In 1844 he came to Yorkville, Kalamazoo Co., Mich., removing thence to Otsego, Allegan Co., Mich., where he became the proprietor of the Exchange Hotel.

The house was burned about two years after and Mr. Childs entered the grocery and provision store of S. D. Foster as a salesman.

Two years later he engaged in the same business independently, and two years after exchanged his business for a stage route and necessary equipments, the line running between Kalamazoo and Allegan.

He managed its affairs eight years and bought a farm of 120 acres in Allegan County, in the township of the same name.

In April, 1873, Mr. Childs came to Osceola County and founded a grocery, provision and general supply business suited to the necessities of the then embryo village, which is now Reed City.

About five years later he erected a saw, grist and planing mill, located on Upton Avenue in a central situation.

He continued their proprietor until December, 1884, when he exchanged his claim in them for a farm of 200 acres of land near Baldwin, Lake Co., Mich.

The place is valuable both in fact and promise, 70 acres being in first-class agricultural condition.

Mr. Childs is a Republican; he was a Whig in the days of Harrison, for whom he cast his first vote, and he has since acted consistently with his political convictions, and voted straight with the element to which he has belonged throughout.

Mrs. Childs is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

 

Allen Campbell, cashier of the bank at Evart, was born March 4, 1844, in Columbia Co., N. Y.

His father, John Campbell, was born in Argyle, Scotland, and learned his trade of machinist at Aberdeen, in the “land of heather ‘and mist.”

His mother, Barbara (Russel) Campbell, was also born in Scotland. Both are deceased.

On emigrating to this country they settled in the State of New York, where they became farmers and reared their family.

Mr. Campbell was occupied during the years of his minority preceding the age of 18 years in obtaining his education and on the family homestead.

He came to Michigan in 1855, and enlisted at Fenton, Genesee County, Sept. 15, 1861, as a private in Co. F, First Regiment Michigan Engineers and Mechanics.

He soon received promotion to the position of Quartermaster’s Sergeant, and later was made Second Lieutenant of Co. D, in the same regiment.

He was in the service until the close of the war, participating in the engagements at Mill Springs, Perryville, Stone River (where 600 of his regiment withstood a charge made by 2,000 rebels), and was under fire in all the fights in which his regiment was involved in the famous march through Georgia to the sea, and fought at Chattanooga, Atlanta, Savannah, Averysboro and at Bentonville.

The command went to Washington for the Grand Review, whence Mr. Campbell came to the township of Groveland, Oakland Co., Mich.

He bought 140 acres of land, of which he made a model farm, with superior orcharding and stocked with numerous varieties of fruit.

At the same time he began to operate in loans to some extent. He was prominent in politics and a zealous, declared Republican.

In 1882 he was placed in nomination by his party to represent his district in the Legislature of Michigan, but “achieved defeat” from the well-known strength of the Democratic element in that section of the Peninsular State.

In the fall of 1883 he removed to Evart and established a private banking house.

His range of business includes the transactions common to similar institutions.

Mr. Campbell is a member of Post Sedgwick, at Holly, Mich., Grand Army of the Republic.

He was married May 17, 1866, in Groveland Township, to Mary L., daughter of John S. and Mary L. Warrin.

Mrs. Campbell was born in the State of New York.

Gilbert M. Clark, farmer, section 4, Lincoln Township, is a son of James M and Hannah B (Collister) Clark.

His parents, who were natives respectively of Massachusetts and New York State, had a family of six children, the second of whom is the subject of this sketch.

He was born in Lorain County, Ohio, July 14, 1845, attended common school until he was 20 years of age, and also for a time the preparatory department of Oberlin College.

After quitting school Mr. Clark engaged in farming, which has been the chief occupation of his life.

He came to Osceola County in the spring of 1881 and purchased 380 acres of land in Lincoln Township, where he now is a resident and has a fine farm of 100 acres in cultivation.

In his political views Mr. C. is a Republican, and was once elected Justice of the Peace, but did not qualify.

He was married in Ashland Co., Ohio, Feb. 22, 1871, to Miss Lydia A. Biddinger, who was born in that county, May 2, 1849.

Her parents, David and Fanny (Peck) Biddinger, were natives respectively of Ohio and Pennsylvania.

 

William Tennant, farmer, section 20, Orient Township, has been a resident of Osceola County since 1868, and of Michigan since September, 1844.

He removed hither from Ionia with an ox team, camping out one night, two and a half miles west of Evart, the snow being two feet in depth.

He crossed the Muskegon River on an old scow one mile west of Evart, or where that village now stands, its location being then covered with pine.

From thence Mr. Tennant cut his way through to the farm of his son-in-law, John Smith, with whom his family remained from March to July.

Meanwhile he located the farm he has since occupied, went to the land office at Ionia and placed his first papers.

He built a log house on the place, to which he removed his family and where they took up their abode, living the first three weeks without a floor in their cabin.

The nearest trading point was Hersey, 20 miles away, and there was the only post office in the county.

Those who desired to cross the river were obliged to wade the stream or impel themselves across it on a species of raft made of two logs fastened together with a plank or slab.

Mr. Tennant came near drowning on one occasion when crossing in this primitive manner.

Flour was $16 to $18 per barrel, and pork 25 cents per pound.

The woods abounded in deer, bear and wolves.

The first were so plenty that they were as a rule encountered whenever a trip was made into the woods.

Wolves frequently came and lapped water near the cabin door.

Mr. Tennant was born Aug. 19, 1822, in Colchester, near New London, Conn., and is the son of John R. and Lydia A. (West) Tennant.

His father was born Feb. 2, 1798.

His family wen^ from Connecticut to New York, and thence, after a residence of a few years, to Allegheny, Venango Co., Pa.

Half a dozen years later they came to Lake Co., Ohio, and after three years to Ashtabula County in the same State, where they resided 15 years.

In 1844 another removal was made, to China, St. Clair Co., Mich.

This was their home seven years, after which they settled on a farm in Richmond, Macomb County.

After residing on this 14 years they took possession of a farm in Ionia County.

In 1868 the place was sold, and the family of William Tennant came to Orient.

The father died in Orient, this county, aged about 77 years.

The mother was born April 10, 1800, and died at the age of 70 years, in Richmond, Macomb Co., Mich.

Mr. Tennant was married Oct. 9, 1844, in St. Clair County, to Betsey Burdick, and they have had six children: Mary A. was born in 1845; Helen, Feb. 2, 1848; Emma J., Sept. 29, 1850; George, Jan. 1 1, 1855; Esadine, July 16, 1859; William J., April 12, 1863.

Mrs. Tennant was born March 24, 1824, and is the daughter of Jewett and Huldah (Wright) Burdick.

The mother died in 1878, aged 76 years.

The father’s death occurred in 1881, when he was 84 years of age.

They died in Madison, Lake Co., Ohio.

Mr. Tennant adopts the principles and issues of the Republican Party.

 

Andrew Dahlstrom, Pastor of the Swedish Free Church and farmer on section 15, Lincoln Township, is a son of Andrew and Mary Dahlstrom, natives of Sweden, who passed their lives in that country.

The subject of this sketch was also born in Sweden, June 19, 1845, and lived in his native country until the fall of 1866; then lived in Norway a year and a half; next, he emigrated to America and spent a year and a half in Wisconsin; then worked at cabinet-making (which trade he had learned mostly of his father) in Chicago until the spring of 1873, when he came to Osceola County and purchased 40 acres of land, where he now resides.

He has since added by purchase 80 acres more, so that now he has a total of 120 acres of good agricultural land, 65 acres of which are in a state of good cultivation.

On his arrival in this county, Mr. Dahlstrom started a Sunday-school, and soon afterward he was called by his countrymen to preach the gospel.

Accordingly, his time is now thus chiefly occupied, and he is consequently under the necessity of hiring laborers for his farm.

Both as Pastor and farmer, Mr. D. exhibits the traits of industry and careful judgment characteristic of his native country, and a brilliant success is therefore in prospect for him in this pioneer land.

On political matters, he votes with the Republicans.

 

Alexander Fraser, farmer, section 27, Cedar Township, was born June 2, 1845, in Haldimand Township, Northumberland Co., Ont.

He is the son of John and Margaret (Aird) Fraser.

The latter is living with a son in Brighton, Ont.

The father disappeared 25 years ago and has not since been traced.

The family included seven children, as follows: Isabella, Alexander, William, Catherine, Anna, Maggie, Jessie, Mary (deceased) and James.

Mr. Fraser was reared a farmer, in which occupation he has passed his life.

In the spring of 1865 he moved from the Dominion to the vicinity of the city of Rochester, where he passed three years in farming, working by the month and, during the seasons for packing trees for shipment, worked in the nurseries.

In 1868, in the fall, he removed to Grand Rapids and passed the winters of three years as a lumberman.

He passed the summers in varied employments until 1871, when he came to Hersey Township and bought 40 acres, of land of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company.

Later, he sold the place and engaged as foreman of a lumber camp, his wife acting as cook. He continued in this employment five years, and in 1882 he purchased 160 acres of land.

Of this 100 acres are chopped and 80 acres are logged, and the place is supplied with a good frame barn and house.

Mr. Fraser’s prospects for becoming one of the solid men of Osceola County are unusually good.

He was married July 4, 1870, to Jane Ann, daughter of Elihu and Almira (Garrett) Rawson.

Her father lives in Brighton, Ont., where her mother died, in March, 1881.

Mrs. Fraser was born in Watertown, Jefferson Co., N. Y. She is the oldest living of six children.

Timothy is deceased. Charles, Clark W., Sarah, Margaret and Isaac are living. Henry is deceased.

Mr. Fraser will take out his naturalization papers in this current year (1884), and identify himself with the Republican Party.

 

James Gavin, farmer and lumberman, resident on section 26, Hersey Township, is the proprietor of 80 acres of land, which constitute the family homestead, and also owns 40 acres on section 25, in the same township.

He was born March 27, 1845, in Hastings Co., Ont.

His father, Andrew Gavin, was born in Ireland, and after his marriage he emigrated, in 1840, to the Dominion of Canada.

The parents were resident there until their removal to Evart, Osceola County, in 1881.

They are living in quiet retirement, and are nearly three score and ten years of age respectively.

Mr. Gavin became the master of his own fortunes at the age of 18 years.

He judged that Northern Michigan held an opportunity for a man with rugged, unbroken health and determined energy, and he came to Osceola County.

He has operated during each succeeding winter as a lumberman, and since his purchase of his farm has vigorously pushed his agricultural interests through the farming seasons.

He was married April 23, 1873, to Annie Collins, and they have a family of six children, born as follows: James A., Feb. 20, 1874; Ellen A., Oct. 17, 1875; Abbie C., Sept. 22, 1877; William H., March 5, 1879; Anna, Sept. 23, 1880; Ezetta, Dec. 12, 1883.

Mrs. Gavin is the daughter of Morris and Abbie (McCarty) Collins.

Her parents reside in Hartwick Township, Osceola County, and of 12 children born to them, but one is deceased.

The brothers and sisters of Mrs. Gavin are Maggie, Patrick, Florence, Jay, Abbie, Albert, Ellen, Mary, Morris, James and Daniel.

Mr. Gavin is a Democrat.

 

Charles W. Ball, book-keeper in the general mercantile house of Mark Ardis at Evart, was born July 3, 1849, in Goshen Township, Hampshire Co., Mass.

His parents, Warren J. and Almira C. (Tower) Ball, were both natives of Hampshire Co., Mass., and reside on their farm in the Bay State.

Mr. Ball left his paternal home when he was 18 years of age and came to Ionia, Mich., where he became an employee of the Hon. John C. Dexter in his flouring mill located in that place.

In December, 187 1, Mr. Dexter opened a supply store at Evart, for the benefit of the lumbering population, and in 1873 admitted Mr. Ball to a partnership, which existed until the demise of Mr. Dexter.

Preceding the copartnership, the former had pursued a course of study at the Agricultural College at Lansing, where he was graduated in August, 1873.

The business is still in existence, the interest of Mr. Dexter having been sold and Mr. Ball retaining his claim.

He established a trade in groceries and provisions after the death of his partner, which he managed 18 months, acting at the same time as Express Agent.

In the spring of 1880 Messrs. Dexter & Ball erected the Novelty Flouring Mills, having two run of stones and a producing capacity of 50 barrels of flour daily, besides feed and custom work.

The mill is now owned by Mr. Ball and Osman Tower, and is operated by parties who have leased it.

In March, 1884, Mr. Ball entered upon the duties of

George W. Bevins

George W. Bevins, Postmaster and merchant at Tustin, was born Aug. 30, 1851, in Livingston Co., N. Y.

His father, John Bevins, was also a native of the Empire State, and in 1859 removed with his wife and children to Kent Co., Mich., settled on a farm and was continuously a resident there until his death in 1866.

The mother, Mary (Sabin) Bevins, was born in the State of New York, and died in Kent Co., Mich., in the same year in which the demise of the husband and father occurred.

Their family comprised five children, three daughters and two sons.

Mr. Bevins is the fourth child of his parents in order of birth, and is the elder son.

He was eight years of age when he accompanied the family to Michigan, and he was educated principally in Kent County.

When he was 15 years of age his parents were both removed by death, and he went to Smyrna, Ionia Co., Mich., and became a member of the family of his uncle, where he worked on the farm summers and went to school winters.

He came to Leroy, in Osceola County, where he attained his majority and became a salesman in the store of his uncle, J. E. B;vins (see sketch), where he operated in the same capacity four years.

In 1876 he came to Tustin and established a mercantile business, associating G. A. Estes with himself in its prosecution.

In 1878, the prosperity and extension of the relations of the firm requiring more commodious quarters, they erected a building 36 x 60 feet in dimensions.

Five years after the organization of the firm Mr. Bevins succeeded to the sole proprietorship, and since that date he has made an addition to the structure, 22 x 40 feet in extent, for the accommodation of the post office.

His stock of merchandise is varied and extensive, and represents a cash value of about $7,000—annual sales amounting to $25,000 on an average.

Mr. Bevins is the owner of several improved village lots.

He is also the proprietor of 126 acres of land, situated in Burdell Township.

Of this, 30 acres are under improvements.

He is a born and bred Republican, a thoroughgoing, active, energetic business man, and has invariably aided and sustained all measures for the permanent well-being of the community of which he is a member.

He has served ten years as Notary Public, and six years as Postmaster, to which post he was appointed in 1878.

He was married June 4, 1876, to Laura L. Moon, and they are the parents of two children—Eva M. and Elton, born respectively May 14 1877, and May 22, 1882.

Mrs. Bevins was born July 5, 1852, in Erie Co., Penn., and is a farmer’s daughter.

Her parents are quite advanced in years, but are enjoying a hale and hearty old age.

She acquired a good education and officiated some years as a teacher.

The portrait of Mr. Bevins on the opposite page is a valuable addition to the Album of Osceola County, in view of his efficiency as a public man and as a representative of a family to whom the county owes much.

 

Lyman W. June, farmer, section 5, Cedar Township, was born Dec. 29, 1845, in Huntington, Lorain Co., Ohio.

He dates his origin back to the period of the colonial settlement of America, and is of unmixed descent.

His parents, William C. and Mary S. (Whiton) June, are living in Lorain Co., Ohio.

The former was born in Vermont, the latter in Massachusetts.

They are aged respectively 76 and 60 years.

They had nine children, all of whom attained adult age save one, who died in infancy.

They are named Edwin, Olivia, Louisa, John, William, Lyman (deceased), Lyman (2d), Henry and Milo.

The Civil War was upon the people of this country before Mr. June was 15 years old.

He enlisted as a soldier for the Union Dec. 10, 1863, in Co. E, 128th Ohio Vol. Infantry.

His regiment belonged to the 20th Army Corps, but he was detailed for provost guard duty and had his headquarters as custodian of the prison of commissioned officers at Johnson’s Island, where he operated during his entire period of service.

He was stationed there at the time of the attempted liberation of the prisoners by the rebels.

On being mustered out of the military service he became a carpenter and soon acquired an excellent reputation as a craftsman.

He continued to operate as a builder five years, and at the age of 22 years he attended Baldwin University, remaining there one year, when he went to the Western Reserve Seminary and continued as student and teacher one year.

Afterward he went to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, where he was a student one year at the Wesleyan University.

After operating four succeeding years as a teacher in the same institution, he returned to Ohio and became interested in the lumber business, which he pursued five years.

Next, he came to Greendale Township, Midland Co., Mich., and passed two years as a lumberman and millwright.

At the end of that time he was burned out and lost all his personal property.

He owned 160 acres of land, which is yet in his possession.

After his disastrous loss by fire he operated some time as a millwright and headsawyer, and then came to Osceola County and bought “80 acres of land in Cedar Township, of which he cleared several acres.

He was married June 8, 1871, to L. Melvina Mills, and they have had five children: Mary E. was born April 19, 1874, in Mount Pleasant, Iowa; Bartholomew was born Dec. 15, 1876; Martha J., Sept. 3, 1879; Eva Pearl, Jan. 19, 1882, in Midland.

The second and third children were born in Huntington, Ohio.

One child is deceased. Mrs. June is the daughter of Galen A. and Elizabeth \$ (Stratton) Mills, both of whom are living in Berea, Ohio.

Her father has been a merchant, but has retired from active business.

The family contained nine children, born in the following order: Priscilla A., James, Margaret, Mrs. June, Artemus, Daniel, Samantha, Ida and Inez.

The great-great-grandfather of Mrs. June, James Parks, lived to the age of 111 years.

He was a renowned Indian hunter, and was much dreaded by the red-skins who infested the frontiers during the early history of the Colonies.

Six of the savage family made their appearance to him at one time, when he was in the forest splitting rails to fence his garden.

They placed themselves between him and his gun and informed him that he was about to die.

He acquiesced in the decision making one proviso, that they should assist him in splitting the remainder of the rails, so his wife could have the fence as intended.

They assented, and he instructed them how to take hold of the log with their fingers to expedite the rail-splitting!

He took the maul and, speedily knocking out the wedge in the log, they were all prisoners in a moment.

He obtained his gun and slaughtered the entire party!

Mr. June is a Republican in political sentiment, and is actively interested in school matters.

He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

 

John Isaacson is a farmer on section 5, Richmond Township.

He was born in the kingdom of Sweden, April 16, 1854; his parents, Allen and Eureka (Daniel) Isaacson, were also natives of that country.

He emigrated to the “land of opportunity ” in 1871, coming directly to this county and purchasing 80 acres of railroad land, where he now resides, and has about half his landed estate in a condition of good and productive cultivation

He was married in Big Rapids, Mich., to Christiana Anderson, who also was a native of Sweden.

Mr. and Mrs. Isaacson have become the parents of two children, namely, Alice S., one who died in infancy, and Ida C.

In his principles concerning the welfare of this nation, Mr. Isaacson, as well as nearly all Swedes, sympathize with the Republican party.

 

Stephen R. Jones, Postmaster at Hersey, was born Oct. 15, 1826, in Yates Co., N. Y.

His father, William B. Jones, resides in Bath, Steuben Co., N. Y., and is in his 83d year.

His mother, Abiah (Raplee) Jones, was a native of New York, and died in 1833. The family removed from Yates to Steuben County when Mr. Jones was a small boy.

When he was 19 years, of age he returned to his native county to acquire a knowledge of the builder’s business, which he pursued some years.

He was married in Milo, Yates County, April 20, 1852, to Alvira Miller, and they are the parents of a daughter, Adell M.,—born Feb. 18, 1855.

She is well educated and has been engaged in teaching in Hersey and vicinity.

Mrs. Jones is the daughter of Daniel and Susan Miller, and was born Dec. 23, 1827, in Yates Co., N. Y.

In the spring of 1865 Mr. Jones became a resident of Matherton, Ionia Co., Mich., where, in company with George Lance, he rented a building and put in a sash, door and blind factory, which they managed jointly three years.

At the end of that time Mr. Jones sold his interest to-his partner, on account of impaired health.

He established his residence at Hersey in the spring of 1871 and brought his family hither in the fall of the same year.

His first business venture was in the management of a planing-mill for D. A. Blodgett, which he conducted four and a half years.

His further operations as a mechanic were interrupted by an accident received from one of the saws in the mill, which deprived him of his left hand.

He was appointed Postmaster of Hersey in January, 1884.

All the members of the family belong to the Baptist Church.

 

Frank A. True, jeweler at Evart, was born Sept. 27, 1855, at Flint, Mich.

His father, William W. True, is a native of Montrose, Pa., and has been in the business of a silversmith about 35 years, and is still engaged in it at Flint.

His mother, Rowena (Blair) True, was born in Vermont, and is still living.

Mr. True entered his father’s store when he was 13 years of age, to learn the business, and was engaged in the acquisition of its details until he was 20.

He had meanwhile obtained an excellent education, which he completed at the schools of higher grade.

In 1875 he went to Cleveland to enter upon the duties of foreman in the jewelry establishment of Jerry W. Coon, where he operated one year.

In 1876 he came to Evart and bought the business of William Livingston, and has since prosecuted the trade in his line with success.

He deals in watches, jewelry, plated ware and all articles suited to his trade.

His stock averages an estimated value of $4,000, and he transacts a considerable business in repairs.

In February, 1884, he founded a branch store at Meredith, which is conducted by his brother, Charles E. True.

The stock at that point is valued at $2,000.

Mr. True was married Oct. 15, 1879, at Evart, to Harriet A., daughter of Hon. John C. Dexter.

She was born Feb. 23, 1852, in Ionia, Mich., died June 29, 1880, at Evart, and is buried at Ionia.

 

John B. McFarlane, lumberman and farmer, section 2, Sylvan Township, was born July 9, 1835, in Beauharnais Co., Quebec.

Andrew McFarlane, his father, was a native of ‘W Scotland, and came to America soon after his marriage to Jane Bryden, settling in the Dominion of Canada.

Later he came to Lapeer Co., Mich., where he died, about the year 1869.

The mother was born in Ireland, and is still living, in Lapeer County, aged 82 years.

They had 10 children.

Mr. McFarlane has been a resident of the Peninsular State since the age of 12 years.

His first labor was in the lumber woods at Mill Creek, Lapeer County, in the employ of Wm. Ellison.

Subsequently he went to Wisconsin and later to Minnesota, where he was occupied in lumbering. In 1854 he made a trip down the Mississippi River on a raft of logs, stopping at Vicksburg.

He commenced operations there as a wagon-maker, which business he prosecuted until the secession of the State.

He was one of the first to enter the Confederate service as a measure of policy and safety, and enlisted in Co. I, 20th Miss. Vol. Inf., known as the “Jasper Rifles,” under Colonel Russel, General Floyd, Brigade Commander.

He was in active service until the fall of Fort Donelson, when he was taken prisoner and sent to Camp Douglas, Chicago.

He made his escape from that place by scaling its walls, and returned to Lapeer County, glad to find himself once more under the protection of the Stars and Stripes, and with no love for the Confederacy.

Soon after his return he came up the Muskegon River and resumed his wonted occupation as a lumberman in the interests of Green & Mason, of Mecosta County.

He was married in 1864, and, with his wife, went to Wisconsin.

From there he returned a few months later to Osceola and Mecosta Counties, where he has since operated extensively in timber lands and in lumbering as a jobber and contractor.

He was engaged some years in the manufacture of lumber at Evart, but the crisis of 1873 caused such a shrinkage of values that it crippled his business at that point of operation.

He is the owner of 4,000 acres of land situated in various portions of Osceola County, which includes 220 acres of improved land, nearly all of which is comprised in the homestead estate.

Mr. McFarlane is a Republican in political preferences.

He was one of the first Supervisors in Osceola County, and has officiated in that position two years in Middle Branch Township.

He was married March 20, 1864, in Barton Township, Newaygo County, to Hattie S. Marsh.

They have had six children,—Archibald L., St. John, Edmond P., Aloney C., an infant (deceased) and Winnie M.

Mrs. McFarlane was born Jan. 7, 1846, in Dundee, Monroe Co., Mich.

She is the daughter of Carlos Marsh, a native of Vermont, and the first permanent settler in Barton Township, Newaygo County.

He died in Middle Branch, June 25, 1879.

The mother, Phoebe Ann (Palmer) Marsh, is still living.

 

Theron F. Nix, photographer at Evart, was born May 1, 1848, in Bleeker Township, Fulton Co., N. Y., and is the son of Frederick and Etta (Heidner) Nix.

He was reared on a farm and obtained his education chiefly by attending school during the winter seasons.

He left the shelter of the parental roof at the age of 20, and was variously occupied at Milwaukee and Manistee five years.

In July, 1879, he came to Evart and purchased the business of Eli Wightman, photographer.

His business has been prosperous from the outset. He owns his residence and the lot connected on Oak Street.

His marriage to Cynthia M. Bauslaugh occurred at Paris, Ontario, May 22, 1883.

They have a daughter – Matie – born March 8, 1884.

Mrs. Nix is the daughter of Henry and Maria Bauslaugh, and was born in Paris, Brant County, Ontario.

Mr. Nix belongs to the order of Odd Fellows.

 

Rufus F. Morris, farmer, section 32, Richmond Township, was born Feb. 8, 1827, in Medina Co., Ohio.

His father and mother, John and Sally (Jennings) Morris, were born respectively in Virginia and Ohio.

On the event of their marriage they settled in Medina County, subsequently resided in various counties and both died in Geauga Co., Ohio.

They had eight sons and four daughters.

Mr. Morris is the oldest son, and during the years of his life until he was 22 he attended the schools of the Buckeye State and labored on his father’s farm.

The subsequent year he worked in a grist-mill, spending the year following in working the homestead farm on shares.

He conducted a rented farm one year, and in 1854 came to Allegan Co., Mich., and bought 80 acres of land, on which he was occupied in agricultural pursuits until the fall of 1862.

On selling out he came to Osceola County and entered a claim of Government land in Richmond Township.

On this he has since resided with the exception of nearly four years while discharging the duties of the Office of County Treasurer, when he was a resident of Hersey village.

He owns about 50 acres of his original purchase and has cleared and placed under excellent tillage about 30 acres.

Mr. Morris adheres to the principles upon which was grounded the National Greenback political organization.

He was elected County Treasurer in 1869 and served one term and part of a second.

He has been Supervisor of Richmond Township two years, and has held in succession nearly all the positions of trust pertaining to the control of local township affairs.

Mr. Morris is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

His marriage to Esther Hazen took place Nov. 11, 1852, in Geauga Co., Ohio.

Four children were born to them: Francis, John, Elnora and George F.

The first named died when but three weeks old.

Mrs. Morris was born Feb. 27, 1834, in Geauga Co., Ohio, and is the daughter of Francis W. and Polly (Giles) Hazen.

She is the third child of six born to her parents.

In 1862 the shadow of a dread calamity fell upon the happy and united household.

The mind of the wife and mother became unsettled and for three months her reason left its high citadel.

She was taken to the asylum at Kalamazoo, whence she returned to her home perfectly restored, as was hoped and believed.

In the fall of 1870 the cloud again lowered over her intellect.

She was again removed July 22, 1871, to Kalamazoo, and the same experience has been repeated over and again.

She returns at intervals to her home and hope is again lighted, but in a brief time the darkness and unrest of unbalanced reason again hold her in their grasp, and she is conveyed to the asylum, where she receives every tender consideration that can be brought to bear for her welfare.

In 1873, Elnora, in the promise of her late girlhood, became similarly afflicted, and finds with her mother a retreat at Kalamazoo, where all that skill and patient treatment can devise for her recovery is being done.

It is a merciful decree of Almighty God that the clouded intellect experiences little of realization of its own misfortune.

 

Leonard Reed, farmer, section 22. Lincoln Township, is a son of Truman and Lucy (Hicks) Reed, who were natives of the State of Vermont, married and settled in New York State, and came to Michigan about the year 1846, first settling in Washtenaw County.

They afterward made their, residence in various counties in this state.

Mr. Truman Reed died at the residence of his son Leonard in Osceola County, Dec. 23, 1876; his widow is still living.

Of their family of eight children the subject named at the head of this sketch was the eldest.

He was born in Erie Co., N. Y., Oct. 18, 1832, and has resided in Michigan since he came hither with his parents.

He came to this county in the fall of 1867, taking possession of 80 acres of land where he now resides.

Here he settled and began improvement, with a view to making a desirable home.

He now has 30 acres in good tillable condition.

Sometime after his purchase of the land he disposed of 40 acres.

Mr. Reed has held the office of Highway Commissioner, School Director for nine consecutive years, and School Inspector.

In his views of national affairs he is a Republican, and both he and wife are members of the Disciples’ Church.

The marriage of Mr. Reed took place April 6, 1851, in Berrien Co, Mich.

His wife, Mary A., was born June 2, 1832, in. Brown Co., Ohio, and is a daughter of John and Elizabeth Hanover.

(See sketch of John Hanover.)

Mr. and Mrs. Reed have nine children, namely: Mary E , Rose, Frank, Wesley F., Ida, Walter, Lena, Clyde and Charles.

 

Newton Crocker, Postmaster at Reed City, was born March 23, 1836, in Lockport, N. Y. Joseph Crocker, his father, was a native of Cape Cod, Mass., and was born in 1801.

He married Sarah Pomeroy, who was born in 1806 in Hamilton, N. Y.

Their family comprised six children, of whom Mr. Crocker of this sketch was third in order of birth.

They were named Charles, Daniel P., J. Newton, Hannah, Orpha and Robert L.

Their father died in Lockport.

Mr. Crocker was reared on the paternal homestead, and on reaching his majority acceded to the possession of 60 acres of the farm where he had passed the previous years of his life.

He came to Michigan in March, 1867, and began business as a stave and heading manufacturer in the village of Allegan, in the county of the same name.

He operated at that point four years. In December, 1-872, he transferred his interests to Reed City, and, associated with Henry Lonsbury, founded a grocery and provision trade, their relation existing one year.

On its termination, he became a salesman with R. B. Simpson, and was occupied in that capacity about three years.

He received the appointment of Postmaster in September, 1877, and has conducted the business of the position with satisfaction to the general public.

He was elected Justice of the Peace in the spring of 1873, and in his position as magistrate is engaged in the transaction of a large amount of business.

He owns the post office building and the lot where it is located, also two tenant houses.

Mr. Crocker is a member of the Odd Fellows Order.

He was a member of the Village Board for four years upon the first organization, and upon the resignation of Charles Clark as President of the village, he was appointed by the Board to fill the vacancy.

He served two terms as Township Clerk and one as Village Assessor, and for four years was agent for the American Express Company, while acting as Postmaster and Justice of the Peace; and was also a member of the School Board upon the organization of the district.

He was married Jan. 8, 1862, at Lockport, to Thankful Stedman.

They have had three children: Joseph, who was born Aug. 6, 1863, and is a mail agent on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad; Lena, who was born July 21, 1866; and Valie, who was born Sept 9, 1876, and died Feb. 4, 1881.

Mrs. Crocker is the daughter of Ferrand and Thankful Stedman, and was born in Newfane, Niagara Co., N. Y.

 

John Finkbeiner, dealer in general merchandise at Hersey, and sewing-machine agent, was born Dec. 5, 1842, in Wurtemberg, Germany, and is the son of Daniel and Agnes Finkbeiner.

He was reared to agricultural pursuits in his native country, and in 1868 emigrated to the United States.

On landing he proceeded directly to Hersey, and on arriving obtained employment as a farm assistant two months, after which he engaged as a clerk in various establishments.

In the spring of 1874 he instituted the business enterprise in which he has since been interested.

His stock includes dry goods, groceries, sewing-machines and other merchandise suited to the demands of his patrons.

He is agent of the Howe, American and Victor Companies, and has a fine trade.

Mr. Finkbeiner was married June 16, 1874, at Hersey, to Elizabeth Balzer.

They have had six children, namely; William, Julia and Albert are deceased; the surviving children are John, Ezra and Emma.

Their mother is a native of Canada.

Mr. Finkbeiner owns his store and lives over his sales-rooms.

He is the owner of four village lots.

He is a member of the Village Council, and with his wife, belongs to the Evangelical Church.

 

Frank S. Postal, of the firm of F. S. Postal Bro., proprietors and managers of the Evart House, located at Evart, Mich., was born Oct. 8, 1843, in Avon Township, Oakland Co., Mich., and is the son of William F. and Eliza (Gray) Postal.

His father was born near Bath, Genesee Co., N. Y., April 6, 18i7, and resides with his son at Evart.

The mother was born Sept. 23, 1817, in the same place, and died Jan. 17, 1880, in Sterling, Macomb Co., Mich.

Four of their children are living: Charles was drowned when two years old; Wellington resides at Evart, and is employed by his brother; Frank S. is third in order of birth; George is deceased; Augusta is the wife of Philo Hamlin, a miller in Paris, Mich.; Thomas is deceased, and Fred is associated with his brother in the management of the Evart House.

When he was 25 years old, Mr. Postal owned a farm containing 80 acres in Sterling, Macomb County, on which he resided three years and which he partially improved, putting it in fine condition.

In November, 1871, he sold the place and came to Evart.

The hotel of which he is now the owner was then in process of erection by James H. and Willard G. Trowbridge and Bela Davis.

He bought the interest of the latter, and the house continued under the management of Trowbridge Brothers & Postal eight years.

In 1878 Mr. Postal purchased the entire property, which he conducted singly until August, 1882, when he formed his present business relation with his brother.

They have greatly increased the facilities and accommodations, which are now adequate for the comfort and welfare of nearly 100 guests.

The fixtures of the house are in every way calculated to meet the requirements of the traveling public and patrons.

The hotel is the leading establishment of its class at Evart, and controls the traveling patronage.

There are stables in connection with every appurtenance for caring properly for 50 horses, and there are first-class barber and bath rooms attached.

Mr. Postal is a member of the Evart Land Company, which is doing an extensive local business in real estate, and also in the Upper Peninsula, in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Canada.

The office of the company is in the Evart Bank Block, adjoining the hotel and the firm transacts a large amount of business both in their own property and on commission.

Mr. Postal is also connected with the Northwestern Casket Company, located at Minneapolis, where the firm have a large factory for the production of undertakers’ merchandise, and employ two traveling salesmen.

He is the owner of a considerable amount of real estate at Evart, comprising two dwellings and lots in the western part of Evart, the site of the skating rink and two stores on the southwest corner of Main and Seventh Streets, in Osceola Township, also 640 acres of land on section 5, 80 acres on section 35, Hartwick Township, 80 acres, section 36, Osceola Township, 40 acres on section 13, Evart Township, and 80 acres in Antrim County, near Mancelona.

Mr. Postal is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Royal Arch Chapter, and Pilgrim Commandery at Big Rapids.

He was married March 22, 1883, to Ellen Wright, a native of Durham Township, Grey Co., Canada.

A son—James R.—was born to them in Evart, March 5, 1884.

 

Frederick Kaphaem, farmer, section 33, Richmond Township, was born December 2, 1830, in Germany, his parents, John and Henrietta Kaphaem, being also natives of the same country, where they passed the entire course of their lives.

When 23 years of age, in 1853, he emigrated from his native land to the Dominion of Canada, where he was a resident 20 years, engaged in farming.

In the fall of 1873 he came to Osceola County and became a land-holder in Richmond Township, by the purchase of 80 acres of land on section 33, on which he has expended his energies to the best purpose, and has placed 50 acres already under a good order of cultivation.

He was married June 24, 1855, in Erie Co., N. Y., to Ida Oberlin, and they have had eight children —Minnie, Charles, William, John, Wesley and David.

Two children died in infancy.

Mrs. Kaphaem was born in Germany.

She and her husband are members of the Evangelical Association.

 

Joseph W. Ash, farmer, section 6, Lincoln Township, is a son of George and Mahala (Bradley) Ash, natives of Canada, who married and settled in Niagara Co., N. Y., where Mr. Ash, senior, was born May 25, 1800, and died Nov. 9, 1S39.

His widow, after his death, was married to Joseph Cardinal, moved to Osceola County, and died in Lincoln Township, April 18, 1880.

By her first marriage she was the mother of three children, and by the last, of two, namely: Joseph W., Elizabeth A., Hiram L., Huldah C. and George D., -in the order here named.

Mr. Ash, the first of the above mentioned children, was born July 22, 1830, in Niagara Co., N. Y., and received his education mostly in the common schools of his native State.

When he came of age he learned the trade of carpenter and joiner, which he followed until the year 1868.

In 1853 he came to Michigan and settled in DeWitt, Clinton County, and a year afterward he removed to St. John’s, that county; and three years still later he went to Kansas with an emigration company, where, in company with several others, he laid out the village of Geneva, Kan.

After remaining with them about a year, he returned to Niagara Co., N. Y., and a year later to St. John’s, Mich., where he resided until 1868.

Then he came to this county and took possession of 80 acres of land in Ashton, under the provisions of the homestead laws.

It was the east half of the southeast quarter of section 4, which is now the principal portion of the site of the village of Ashton.

He platted the town in company with Simeon Vanakin and Spencer Preston.

In 1875 he purchased 80 acres of land on section 6, where he has since lived and at present has about 40 acres in a good state of cultivation.

As a man of executive talent and well adapted to serve his fellow citizens in a public capacity, Mr. Ash has been entrusted with the office of Supervisor eight years, and that of Sheriff of the county in 1871-2.

He has also taken an active and prominent part in all the educational interests of his community.

In all matters pertaining to the welfare of the neighborhood, township and county, he is consulted by those who know him, with great confidence in his foresight and judgment.

He has also held the office of Notary Public for a period of eight years, and from 1875 to 1880 he was President of the Osceola County Agricultural Society.

He was Postmaster at Ashton from 1872 to 1876.

Politically he is identified with the Republican Party, and religiously with the Methodist Episcopal Church, as is also his wife.

He was married in Lewiston, Niagara Co., N. Y., July 3, 1853, to Eliza A. Leggett, daughter of Elijah Leggett, who was a soldier in the Revolutionary War.

She was born in Porter, Niagara Co., N. Y., April 6, 1835.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Ash are seven in number, namely: Zoa E., George F., Mabel (who died in infancy), Glen E., Delia A., Eddie E. and Alta M.

 

Sylvester Ross, farmer, section 21, Hersey Township, was born May 14, 1852, in Norwich, Oxford Co., Ont.

His father, Hopkins Ross, was born April 6, 1808, and married Mary Mustard for his first wife.

She has been dead more than 20 years, and the senior Ross is now living with his second wife in the township of Hersey.

He is a farmer and carpenter, and has passed many years in the prosecution of these callings.

Mr. Ross of this sketch came to Osceola County with his father in 1864.

In April, 1876. he settled on the place he now occupies.

He has been engaged in lumbering, and has operated several years as foreman of a lumber camp. He is a Republican in political convictions and action.

He was married May 14, 1878, to Eva M. Cutter, and they have three children, born as follows: Florence J., March 16, 1879; Sylvester R., Jan. 9,1881; Adelbert Clyde, Aug. 10, 1883.

Mrs. Ross was born Feb. 25, 1855, in Richburg Township, Allegany Co., N. Y., and is the daughter of William O. and Matilda B. (Satterlee) Cutter.

Her father was born April n, 18n1, and died July 1, 1880, in the village of Stanwood, Mecosta Co., Mich.

Her mother was born in Allegany Co., N. Y., April 17, 1826, and is living with her daughter, Mrs. Ross.

Their family consisted of four children.

One daughter died when she was four years of age. William B. Cutter and Adelbert S. Cutter are living.

Mr. Ross is one of seven children born to his parents,—William Hopkins, Nelson A., Mary J. and Sarah J. (twins), Sylvester, Daniel (deceased) and Martha M.

 

Jacob J. Reik, liveryman and dealer in lumber, horses, buggies and real estate, at Evart, was born July 11, 1849, in Seneca Co., Ohio.

His father, Welch Reik, was born in Germany, also the native place of Jacob’s mother, Regina, nee Librandt.

They became the parents of eight children.

In 1852 the family removed to Coldwater, Mich., where the father bought 80 acres of land, on which they were resident five years.

In 1857 they removed to the village of Coldwater, and the father opened a grocery trade, in which he operated about ten years.

The mother died in Coldwater in 1866.

Mr. Reik’s father is a member of his family, and is aged 78.

On attaining size and understanding sufficient, Mr. Reik entered his father’s store as an assistant, in which capacity he aided until the business terminated.

At the age of 13 he established a grocery business on his own responsibility at Branson, Branch County, which he conducted four years.

He then entered Hillsdale College to secure a satisfactory education, and was a student there three years.

In the fall of 187 1 he came to Evart and opened a bakery and grocery together, which he continued to prosecute eight years.

In 1879 he established the livery business, and gradually, as opportunity has served, has added the other lines of traffic in which he is engaged.

He owns several farms, including 180 acres of land, with about 80 acres under cultivation.

He raises horses, making specialties of the breeds known as Magna Charta and Hambletonian.

In his real-estate transactions he buys and sells pine and farming lands.

Mr. Reik is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and belongs to Lodge No. 320, at Evart.

He was married Nov. 23, 1877, at Evart, to Isadora Pepper.

They have one son—Charles M., born at Evart, Oct. 13, 1881.

Mrs. Reik is the daaghter of Charles and Nancy Pepper, and was born near Detroit, in Wayne Co., Mich.

 

Luther M. Tozer, farmer, section 6, Richmond Township, is a son of Benj. N. and Jedediah (Woodworth) Tozer, who were natives of the Green Mountain State.

His father was a Captain of the war of 18i2, and took part in the battle of Lake Champlain.

After the close of that war he removed to Canada, where he spent the remainder of his life.

He had six children.

The gentleman whose name heads this sketch was born in the Dominion of Canada, Nov. 18, 1819.

He emigrated to the State of New York, lived there awhile and also in other States of the Union until the fall of 1867, when he came to Osceola Co., Mich., and, under the provisions of the Homestead Laws, took possession of 80 acres of land on section 6, where he has since lived and now has about 50 acres in a fine state of cultivation.

Mr. T. has served his fellow citizens in the capacity of Commissioner of Highways; in political matters he is a Republican, and both he and wife are members of the Baptist Church.

He was married in Canada, Feb. 12, 1850, to Fanny E. Clayton, who was born in New Brunswick, Oct. 11, 1826.

Her parents, Archibald and Zilpah Clayton, were also natives of the same province.

Mr. and Mrs. Tozer have been the parents of seven children, namely, Eusebia L., Morland \V., Emily B., Eunice M., Benjamin N., Luther E. and William H.

The last named died when he was five and a half years of age.

 

Wilfred V. Harrington, farmer, section 28, Lincoln Township, is a son of William and Miranda (Adams) Harrington, both of whom were natives of Rutland Co., Vt.

Soon after their marriage in that State they removed to Niagara Co., N. Y., and in 1840 to Jackson Co., Mich., where she died, Nov. 7, 1856, and Mr. H. Nov. 13, 1865.

They had a family of n children, namely: Alberto, Caroline, Harriet, Diton, Lerona, Pulaski, Susan, Esther, Irwin, DeKalb and Wilfred V.

The last named, who is the subject of this sketch, was born in Jackson Co., Mich., Nov. 3, 1844; was 12 years old when his mother died, and was then “bound out” by his father for three years to learn the mason’s trade.

Soon after he completed his term of apprenticeship, the great civil war was inaugurated by the impetuous “fire-eaters ” of the South, and he patriotically concluded that “laying” the insurgents was more important than laying stone, until the insurrection was wholly suppressed.

Accordingly, in July, 1861, he joined the First Mich. Inf.

This first term of service, however, was comparatively short, and the next year he re-enlisted, in the 11th Mich. Vol. Cav., and served one year, when he was discharged for disability.

After recruiting his physical abilities at home for about five months, he enlisted for the third time, in the cavalry regiment denominated “Merrill’s Horse,” and served until the last insurgent “laid “down his arms.

He was wounded three different times: first, at the battle of Corinth, by a spent ball, in the left arm: secondly, at Independence, Mo., by a bayonet thrust in the right knee and thirdly, at Eastport, Miss., by a throw from his horse.

The last injury was a serious one.

After receiving his discharge, he returned to Jackson Co., Mich., but his health was so poor that he was unable to prosecute any kind of business for more than a year.

On convalescence he resumed his trade and followed it until 1875, when he came to Lincoln Township, this county, and, in company with John H. Freeland (see sketch of the latter), he bought 80 acres of land where he has since resided.

In company with Mr. F., he owns 70 acres, most of which is under cultivation and in good agricultural condition.

Mr. Harrington has held various public offices in his township, being at present Chairman of the School Board, and has been Constable two terms.

In his views of national policy he acts with the Republicans.

 

Charles L. Gray, senior member of the firm of Charles L. Gray & Co., manufacturers and dealers in lumber and shingles of all grades and lengths, and merchants, at Evart, was born Oct. 22, 1849, in Lancaster, Ohio.

He was reared on a farm near Marion, Linn Co., Iowa, from the age of six to eighteen years.

In the spring of 1871 he came to Evart and entered the employment of Dermont & Co. as a clerk, the firm operating in the same building in which his own business is now transacted.

Later he became a bookkeeper for J. B. & P. C. McFarlane, lumber dealers.

He began to traffic in lumber products, and eventually was admitted to a partnership in the lumber firm of Davis, Berry & Co.

A year later this association was succeeded by a partnership bearing the present style, which was followed by the firm of McFarlane & Gray, a relation which existed about two years, when the present business connection was established, its members being Charles L. Gray, B. G. Colton and William Latta.

Their mills are located at Evart, Hartwick and Sunrise Lake.

The capacity of the two last named is 125,000 shingles daily, and about 5, 000 clapboards.

They employ about 7 5 men.

Previous to forming his present business relations, Mr. Gray was interested in the firm of Gray & Spires in the manufacture of lumber, shingles, etc.

He is a member of the firm of Gray & Curtis, lumber and shingle manufacturers at Evart, their works being capable of producing 25,000 feet of lumber daily, 35,000 shingles and 2,000 broom-handles.

They employ 20 men and run a planing-machine in connection with the mill.

Mr. Gray is a member of the Evart Land Company, which is engaged in the transaction of general real-estate business in the interests of its members and on commission, and control large tracts of land in Michigan and in Canada, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

The firm includes F. S. Postal, J. C. Creith, Allen Campbell and C. L. Gray.

This is one of the stanchest real-estate business houses in Northern Michigan, and has an enviable and wide repute for reliability.

The warehouses of the business concerns with which Mr. Gray is connected are located at Evart, near the depot.

His individual property includes his residence and about 3,000 acres of fine farm lands.

He also owns an exceptionally good farm of 80 acres on section 14, Evart Township.

Mr. Gray is a member of the Masonic fraternity.

He has served three terms as a member of the Village Board of Evart, one term as Township Clerk, and three terms as Township Treasurer.

In 1880 he acted as Census Enumerator of Evart Township.

Mr. Gray was married Oct. 19, 1872, at Evart, to Charlotte M. Bennett, and they now have three children: William L., born Oct. 11, 1874; Blanche L., April 20, 1877; and Elizabeth T., Dec. 6, 1880.

Mrs. Gray was born June 16, 1849, near Montreal, Can.

 

Joseph H. Jenkins, farmer, section 20, Hersey Township, was born Dec. 10, 1831, in Parma Monroe County, New York.

His father, John Jenkins, was born March 17, 1795, in Pennsylvania, and was of Yankee extraction.

He was a farmer and mechanic, and followed those callings jointly all his active life.

He married Catherine Whitaker, and in 1835 moved to Northfield, Washtenaw Co., Mich., where he bought 120 acres of land and resided eight years.

In 1843 he sold the place and bought 220 acres of land in Portland, Ionia Co., Mich., where he died, March 17, 1856.

The mother of Joseph H. was born Feb. 28, 1798, in the State of New York, descendant of German ancestors.

She died in Clinton Co., Mich., at the home of her son.

They had seven children, – Palmer, Philetus, Sylvester L., Joseph H., Margaret, Catherine and Sally A.

Mr. Jenkins was the custodian of his parents during the latter years of their lives, and when he came to Osceola County for the benefit of his health in 1877 he transferred the care of his mother to another brother.

He reached Hersey village in January of the same year named, and rented a house for three months.

At the end of that time, early in April, 1877, he bought the farm which he has since occupied.

It comprised 120 acres, with a small clearing of four acres, a log barn and a shanty for shelter.

He has cleared in eight years 65 acres, built an excellent frame house and has fitted the place with modern fixtures, including a wind-mill.

He is a Democrat in political connection and opinions, and has been Highway Commissioner three terms.

He was married Sept. 16, 1857, to Mary A. Kinney.

They became the parents of two children. A son was born Sept. 9, 1858, and died when three days old.

Emma A. was born Dec. 10, 1859, in Portland, Ionia County, Michigan, and was married Dec. 25, 1879, to Albert Sturdevant, and resides at home.

The mother was born Aug. “28, 1839, in DeWitt Township, Clinton Co., Mich., and is the daughter of Fernando C. and Huldah (Clark) Kinney.

The mother died April 4, 1875, Portland.

She was born in 1818, in Rutland Co., Vt.

The father was born May 1, 1812, in Cleveland, Ohio, and resides in the township of Hersey.

Mrs. Jenkins is the oldest of her parents’ children. Sarah, Sylvester, Delilah, Jerome and Hattie are the names of her brothers and sisters.

 

Charles H. Coles, jeweler at Reed City is the son of William F. Coles.

The latter was born July 31, 1821, near the city of Rochester, New York, and married Celestia L. Harries, a native of Heath, Massachusetts, where they were married January 17, 1858.

Oliver Coles, father of William F., was a native of Belchertown, Mass., and married a native of the same place, who died in Pembroke, New York, aged 68 years.

Her husband was a farmer and died in Bedford, Mich., when he was 68 years old.

Mr. Coles is one of four children, three of whom are living. Jennie C. married Luman Foote, a farmer in Charlotte, Mich; Charles is next in order of birth; William H. is deceased; Katie C. is the youngest and only daughter.

The family came, when Mr. Coles was six years of age, to Union City, Branch Co., Mich., where they resided two years.

The father was in the jewelry business for 40 years, and taught the trade to his son in all its details.

The latter came to Reed City, Jan. 28, 1882, and opened his present establishment.

He has the leading jewelry business in town, and deals in all articles common to the traffic.

His stock is valued at an estimate of $3,500.

Mr. Coles is a member of the Sons of Industry.

His father removed with his family to Reed City in the fall of 1883.

 

Joseph Ellis, farmer, section 16, Hersey Township, was born Jan. 11, 1816, in Colchester, Chittenden Co., Vt., and is the son of Andrew and Hannah (Mack) Ellis.

The family included eight sons and two daughters.

The father and two sons—William and Lyman— were soldiers in the war of 1812, and were in the battle of Plattsburg.

The others were named Cornelius, Andrew, Apollos, Freeman, Mary and Hannah.

The parents died in Essex, Chittenden Co., Vt., aged respectively 82 and 62 years.

Two of the sons made their way to Ohio, one of them traversing the entire distance of 700 miles on foot.

At 16 years old Mr. Ellis left home and obtained employment during the summer of 1832 on the Erie Canal, and in the fall proceeded to Erie Co., Ohio, where he joined his brothers.

He worked by the month for one of them for a year, when he learned the business of a cooper, which was his occupation for 40 years, working at it from 1834 to 1854 in the Buckeye State.

In the year last named he removed to Woodbridge Township, Hillsdale Co., Mich., owning a farm there he purchased before leaving Ohio. He was a resident there 21 years, working as a cooper and improving his land.

At the time he took possession, there were three acres chopped and the clearing contained a plank house.

The remainder of the tract was in a wild condition.

In 1865 Mr. Ellis sold the place and bought another, two miles distant.

He occupied the latter farm until 1872, when he sold it and bought a residence in the city of Hillsdale.

Three years later he made an exchange of his house and lot for 148 acres of land in Hersey Township.

The place comprised 20 acres of cleared land; 30 acres chopped, and was supplied with a log house and barn.

Mr. Ellis is a Republican, and while resident of Woodbridge was Township Treasurer.

Owing to deafness he has never held office in Hersey Township.

He was married Sept. 21, 1844, to Emmeline Pearl.

Their children were born as follows: Burton J., Dec. 26, 1846; Ida, Nov. 10, 1848; Edward, March 10, 1851; Dora, Dec. 1,1858. Mrs. Ellis was born Dec. 16, 1821, in Berlin Township, Erie Co., Ohio, and is the daughter of Oliver and Mary (Sexton) Pearl.

Her mother was born in Connecticut, and died in Ohio, May 15, 1884, aged 88 years and five months.

Her father was born in Ellington, Tolland Co., Conn., Dec. 5, 1796, and died in May, 1835.

Their children were Oliver S., Ansel H., William, Albert, Addison H., Jerome, Mary A., Marilia M., Harriet and Mrs. Ellis, who was fifth in order of birth.

 

James G. Robbins, farmer, section 34, Richmond Township, was born March 12, 1818, in Tompkins Co., N. Y., and is the fourth son of David and Mary (Burleigh) Robbins.

His parents were born in Connecticut and had a family of nine children.

Mr. Robbins was a resident of the State of New York through his youth and early manhood, removing when 23 years of age to Potter Co., Pa.

In May, 1835, after a residence in the Keystone State of 14 years, he came to Big Prairie Township, Newaygo County, Mich.

In February, 1856, he bought 160 acres, of land, a part of which has since constituted his homestead.

He is the owner of 69 acres of the original tract, and has 55 acres under cultivation and improvements.

Mr. Robbins is a Republican in political bias and has been Township Clerk, Highway Commissioner and Overseer.

His marriage to Olive E. Slade took place in Whitesville, Allegany Co., N. Y., Jan. 17, 1841, and they had eight children, viz.: Nancy M., who married Anson Berger, of Richmond Township (see sketch); Franklin S. (see sketch), Charlotte E., wife of A. McFarlane (see sketch); Ellen, who married John Sims, and died in Richmond Township, in July, 1869; Ada, Mrs. L. F. Gerish, of Duluth, Minn.; Charles W.; Mary, wife of E. C. Baumgardner (see sketch); and an infant who died unnamed.

The oldest daughter is the first white child married in Osceola County, and Mary is the first white girl born in its limits.

 

George Hicks, farmer, section 23, Hersey Township, was born Dec. 2, 1842, in Allegan County, Mich., and is the son of John and Elizabeth (Eady) Hicks.

His father was born May 26, 1793, in Oxfordshire, England, and was a soldier in the British service; he was on the route to America in 1813 to take part in the second struggle between the Colonies and Great Britain, when the vessel foundered on the coast of Newfoundland, and the soldiers were ordered back to England, arriving there seasonably to take part in the battle of Waterloo.

The father came to Canada in 1815, and took up a farm near Ottawa, where he resided until March, 1837, the date of his coming to Michigan.

He first reached Detroit and came thence on foot to Allegan County, where he secured his claim of land from the Government, returning to Canada for his family, whom he brought to this State in 1838.

He died on his farm in Watson Township, Sept. 14, 1877.

The mother was born Jan. 1, 1804, near London, Eng., and died in Trowbridge, Allegan County, in February, 1884.

They had 14 children—Thomas, Mary, Joyce, John, Jane, Elizabeth, Delilah (deceased), Ann, George, Robert (deceased), Hannah, Emily, Robert (2d) and Martha.

On removal to Michigan, the senior Hicks found himself at Detroit with his wife, six children, and one dollar in money.

On leaving the place in Allegan County, where he had built a small log hduse to shelter his family, he had engaged a man to meet him at Detroit with a team, to transport them to their home, but nothing was to be seen of either team or man, and the father, mother and six little ones walked to Battle Creek, a distance of nearly 100 miles, where they met the expected assistance.

Mr. Hicks was educated in the public schools of Allegan County.

When he was 17 years of age he came to Osceola County and engaged in lumbering on the Muskegon River, arriving here in September, 1859.

He combined that vocation with that of a hunter and trapper, in which he became expert and successful.

The avails of the last season in which he was engaged in that line of business, were $1,200.

He left Hersey May 10, 1861, less than a month after the assault on the Federal flag at Fort Sumter, an event that awoke in him a deep interest, to which he gave unmistakable expression by enrolling in the military service of his country.

He enlisted July 29, 1861, in Co. A, 16th United States Infantry.

The command was assigned to the 14th Army Corps, and the regiment was under fire at the first battle” of Shiloh, General Rosecrans, commander.

The brigade included the 16th United States Inf., the Louisville Legions, the 19th United States Inf., and the 6th Indiana.

Mr. Hicks was also in action at Perryville and Stone River, and at Chickamauga sustained two wounds; a bullet passing through one arm above the elbow, and a second through the right side of his neck.

He was captured late in the day of the same action.

The regiment went into battle 700 strong, and at roll-call only one officer and 47 men responded to their names!

The rebels took 42 prisoners belonging to the regiment.

Mr. Hicks was sent to the famous Libby prison at Richmond, whence, after nearly eight months of captivity, he was paroled, May 7, 1864.

The date of his capture was Sept. 20, 1863.

One sacred remembrance of that day was a sight of General Garfield in action on the field.

On being paroled, he came to Annapolis, Md. When he was taken prisoner he weighed 240 pounds, and on reaching Annapolis his weight was only 100 pounds!

After his health and strength were restored he rejoined his regiment, once more taking up arms for the flag, July 26, 1864, his command being stationed near Atlanta, Ga.

He received his final discharge Aug. 9, 1864, the period of his enlistment having expired.

After a brief tarry at his home he went to Helena, Montana Territory, accompanied by his brother.

At St. Cloud, Minn., they bought two yoke of oxen and proceeded to Fort Abercrombie, joining a train en route for Helena.

Arriving there, he engaged in prospecting, in which avenue of occupation he operated six years.

He went north, and his brother took a southerly route.

He found gold to some extent, but not in startling quantities, and in 1872 he made his way back to Osceola County.

He was married March 16, 1873, to Alice A., daughter of Ebenezer and Rosamond (Buttrick) Jones.

Her father was born in 1787,1n New Hampshire, and died in Allegany, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y., Aug. 11, 1859.

He was of Welsh descent and was for many years a lumberman on the Alleghany River in the State of New York.

His family removed from the Granite State to Wyoming Co., N. Y., in 1817, before canals or railroads existed, even in imagination, traveling in pioneer wagons with two horse teams.

The mother of Mrs. Hicks was born Oct. 10, 1809, in Hawley, Franklin Co., Mass., and died March 4, 1884, in Hersey Township.

Mrs. Hicks was born Dec. 17, 1849, in Allegany.

Her mother was twice married.

Of the first union, James E., Charles B. and Isabel Humphrey were born.

After she married Ebenezer Jones, she became the mother of Ebenezer, Henry T. and Mary A.

Mr. Hicks is a Republican and a Prohibitionist in political connection and views.

 

Ira H. Whitney, editor and proprietor of the “Union Banter”, published at Reed City, was born in the township of Hartland, Livingston County, Michigan, March 12, 1856.

His parents, John W. and Elizabeth (Davis) Whitney, are still residents of Hartland.

The former is a native of Massachusetts; the latter was born in Rhode Island.

Their family included five sons and three daughters.

Mr. Whitney was occupied in the avenues of employment in which the sons of Michigan farmers are trained, and in the acquisition of his education, until he was 18, and at that age abandoned agriculture in order to put into practical effect a determination to prepare for the career of a printer.

He entered the office of the Milford Times, published at Milford, Oakland Co., Mich.

After becoming familiar with the details of the craft he was made foreman and officiated in that capacity until he went to Ludington in 1883, to take a similar position on the Ludington Record, where he operated about four months.

In 1883 he came to Reed City, and for a few weeks was employed as foreman on the News, when, associated with H. E. J. Clute, he established the journal known as The People.

Its first issue appeared Nov. 24, 1883, and it was managed by Messrs. Whitney and Clute about four months, when they dissolved, and the former, in company with his brother, John M. Whitney, founded the Banner, published in the interest of prohibition principles.

It is a folio of five columns, published weekly, and is steadily growing in influence and popularity.

The marriage of Mr. Whitney to Katie A. Fralick occurred Dec. 20, 1882, at Brighton, Livingston Co., Mich., and they are the parents of one child—Cecil —born April 25, 1884, in Hartland, Livingston County.

Mrs. Whitney was born May 16, 1858, and is the daughter of John and Catherine Fralick, of Brighton, Livingston County.

 

Gardam Wilson, farmer, section 32, Lincoln Township, is a son of Shepard and Elizabeth (Gardam) Wilson, natives of England, who emigrated to Canada in 1832 and lived there the remainder of their lives, Mrs. Wilson dying February 29, 1880 and Mr. Wilson January 19, 1882.

In their family were eight children, namely: Ann, Gardam, Samuel S., Elizabeth, John C., Albert C., and Marietta.

The oldest son and the subject of this sketch was born in Canada, July 7, 1832.

He received a common-school education, which was rather limited; but, being a diligent reader, he has advanced himself to a considerable extent.

He remained at the parental home until about 25 years of age, when he started out into the world for himself.

He first rented a farm, on which he resided for eight years, and then for three years he acted as agent for the Massey Manufacturing Company, of New Castle, Ont.

In February, 1867, he came to Osceola County and took possession of 80 acres of Government land under the regulations of the Homestead Law, in Lincoln Township, and the following autumn he moved his family from Canada to the place, which was then an unbroken wilderness.

Here he commenced the struggles and tedious trials and privations characteristic of frontier life.

He at once built a log house and began the arduous task of clearing his land; and, to know how well he has succeeded, one has to visit his place, as the improvements, the present condition of the farm, and the initial outlines for future advantage are too elaborate for description here.

Of his present possession of 80 acres, about 6o are improved.

His wife also owns 80 acres, on section 30, of which 14 acres are improved.

In reference to political affairs, Mr. Wilson is identified with the Prohibition Party.

He has held the office of Township Clerk one year, School Director two terms, School Inspector three terms, Township Treasurer one year, Supervisor of Lincoln Township 1883-4, and during the latter year was Census Enumerator.

In the fall of 1884 he was nominated on the Prohibition ticket for County Treasurer.

He was Secretary of the first county convention held in Osceola County.

In 1857 Mr. Wilson was licensed to preach the gospel, and during the earlier settlement of this county he was a tireless worker in the cause of Christianity.

He nearly always preached two times each Sunday during his residence in Canada.

Often, after working hard during the week, he would ride 20 miles to fill an appointment; but in the course of time age and enfeebled health forbade such arduous duties in a great measure, and he gradually confined his energies to his farm work.

Both he and his wife have been active and prominent members of the Methodist Episcopal Church for a great number of years.

Mr. Wilson was married in Ontario, Oct. 7, 1856, to Miss Mary Reed, a daughter of Joseph and Mary (Crawford) Reed.

Her mother died Sept 24, 1883, and her father, still surviving, is a resident of Lincoln Township. Mrs. W. was born in Canada, Dec. 6, 1836.

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are seven in number, born as follows: Alice A., Sept. 23i 1S57; Albert G., April 15, 1859; Florence A., Oct. 8, 1860; John J., June 10, 1862; George S., Oct. 29, 1863; Adelia M., June 27, 1867; and Elizabeth M., May it, 1878.

The first mentioned is now the wife of Robert Gamble, and resides in Lake Co., Mich.

 

Benjamin R. Cole, carpenter and joiner, at Reed City, is one of the oldest settlers of Osceola County, of which he became a resident in 1866, when he located on section 6, Richmond Township.

He was born Aug. 11, 1832, in Hornellsville, Steuben Co., N. Y.

His parents, Solomon and Laura (Rathbun) Cole, were natives of the same place, where they were engaged in agriculture.

In 1839 the family removed to Lenawee Co., Mich., and the father bought a farm of 80 acres, and made another removal to a farm in Ottawa County, where he died, Nov. 13, 1849.

The mother died there, June 4, 1864.

When he was 23 years of age Mr. Cole was well settled in life, and was the owner of a farm of 80 acres in excellent agricultural condition, but lost his hard-earned property through dishonest trickery; and, his wife dying about the same time, he decided to enter the army, and accordingly enlisted, July 30, 1861, at Grand Rapids, enrolling in Battery E.

The command was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland. Mr. Cole was in the service until March 18, 1863, when he was discharged as Second Sergeant.

Among his engagements were Mill Springs, Pittsburg Landing, Lookout Mountain and Stone River.

At the last named he was injured by a leap from a wounded horse belonging to his battery, three of his ribs being broken and other injuries resulting, which caused his discharge and disablement for a period of two years.

In 1866 Mr. Cole secured a homestead claim of 80 acres on section 6, Richmond Township, on which he settled June 19 of the same year.

He cleared 70 acres and placed the farm in excellent condition.

He was one of the movers in the separation of Osceola from Mecosta County, and also in the organization of the townships of Lincoln, Sherman and Hersey.

In 1880 he built his residence at Reed City and took possession, where he has since resided.

He belongs to the Masons and to the Grand Army of the Republic.

He is a Republican of decided standing: has officiated as Justice of the Peace four years, as Highway Commissioner six years and eight years as School Inspector.

Mr. Cole was married Dec. 5, 1857, in Grand Rapids, to Sarah A. Camp, and they had two children,—John S., now a herder in Montana Territory, and Zuleika, now deceased.

His wife died in Ottawa County, Mich., and he was again married Oct. 22, 1865, in Hornellsville, N. Y., to Elizabeth Robins.

She was a native of that place, and died Oct. 19, 1880, at Lansing.

Mr. Cole was again married, at Hornellsville, to Jennie Domielson, a native of Hornellsville, where she was born May 1, 1853.

Mr. and Mrs. Cole are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Reed City.

 

Newton S. Gwynne, farmer, section 22, Hersey Township, was-born Jan. 6, 1857, in Kent Co., Mich., and is the son of Thomas and Jane (Saunders) Gwynne.

His parents were both natives of England.

His mother died in Kent County, in 1860; his father entered the military service of the United States, and died of fever in 1864, in a hospital at Nashville, Tenn.

In 1869 the grandparents of Mrs. Gwynne, who were residents of Iowa, disposed of their property there, came to Kent County and removed with him and his only sister to Hersey Township, when they bought the farm now owned by the grandson.

The sister married William Engle and resides at Fisher Station, six miles from Grand Rapids.

The grandfather died July 20, 1881; the grandmother’s decease occurred Aug. 20 of the same year.

The former was the guardian and custodian of two farms left to his children by the father of Mr. Gwynne of this sketch.

The latter was married April 12, 1881, to Rosetta, daughter of William and Elizabeth (Saunders) Smith, both of whom reside in Hersey Township.

Mrs. Gwynne was born March 18, 1860, in South Haven, this State.

She has a brother, Franklin S. Smith.

The family is Congregationalist in religious principle.

 

William S. Davis, of the manufacturing firm of Beardsley & Davis, was born March 18, 1846, in Camden, N. J., and is the son of Bartholomew and Hettie (Hunt) Davis.

His father was born in September, 1819, in Maidstone, Kent Co., Eng., and emigrated to this country about 1840.

He went back to England in 1847 with his wife and two children, and returned alone in 185910 Pennsylvania, expecting to send for his family.

His wife died in Maidstone, and the two children, William, a boy of 13, and his sister, aged 11 years, came alone across the ocean.

A friend met them in New York and took them in charge to the city of Pottsville, Schuylkill Co., Pa., where they joined their father.

The latter now resides on a farm in New Cambria, Mo.

Mr. Davis obtained his education chiefly in the night schools of the section of Pennsylvania where he resided in his youth, and when 14 years old was apprenticed to learn the trade of shoemaker.

After working three years he determined to become a soldier in the Union service, and enlisted in 1863, in the 39th Pa. Vol. Inf., to serve 100 days.

On being discharged from that service he enlisted in Co. A, 12th Pa. Vol. Cav.

The regiment was in the Army of the Shenandoah, under Sheridan, and was in the service at the date of the precipitated flight of Gen.

Early up the Valley of the Shenandoah, and was left at Charleston, Va., when Sheridan joined General Grant on the James River.

Mr. Davis Wjs in battle at Monocacy, Cedar Creek, Winchester and Berryville.

Just before the surrender of Lee the regiment to which Mr. Davis belonged was transferred to Gen. Hancock’s Division.

He received his discharge July 17, 1865, and returned to Pottsville, whence he went a few months later to Philadelphia and fitted himself for a machinist and engineer.

He passed two years in his preparations, and followed his trade until he engaged, in 1880, in the manufacture of hoops at Edgerton, Kent County, in which he was occupied one year.

In 1882 he formed a partnership with W. L. Beardsley, in the manufacture of shingles, a relation which still exists.

The mill has a daily producing capacity of 55,000, and as a rule is run nearly to its maximum.

They employ a working force of 22 assistants, including two packers.

Three teams are required to put in logs, and the pine resources will keep the mill operating about two years, or until 1886.

Mr. Davis was married Feb. 9, 1871, to Mary E. Alexander.

Gertie A., adopted daughter, was born Feb. 11, 1870.

Mrs. Davis was born Jan. 31, 1847, and is the daughter of William G. and Amanda (Margrum) Alexander.

Her father is a mechanic. After marriage Mr. Davis was in charge four years of the machinery of the Huntsville Coal Co. in Randolph Co., Mo.

He is a Republican in political sentiment, and belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, as also does his wife.

 

John Hanover, farmer, section 28, Lincoln Township, is a son of Isaac and Susan (Marquiss) Hanover.

The parents, who were natives of Pennsylvania, removed after their marriage to Ohio, and spent the remainder of their life there.

In their family were three children, namely, Rebecca, John and William.

The eldest son, the subject of this sketch, was born in Adams Co., Ohio, Nov. 15, 1810.

When very young his father died and the three children were all “bound out” till of age; but John started out in the world to take care of himself when he was 18 years of age.

He worked in various capacities and in different places for nearly four years.

Shortly afterward he bought a farm in Highland County, Ohio, which he carried on about two years.

Some five years later he came to the Peninsular State and settled in Berrien County, where he remained almost 12 years.

He then sold his farm there, spent a short time in Iowa, returned to Berrien County, this State, and, after residing there until the fall of 1865, he came to Osceola County and took possession, under the homestead law, of 80 acres of land in Lincoln Township, where he has since lived.

He now owns 67 acres, and has almost 50 acres improved and in a state of good cultivation.

With regard to national issues, Mr. H. is a member of the Republican Party.

He was married in Brown Co., Ohio, to Elizabeth Marquiss, who is a native of that county, born Jan. 11, 1811.

Mr. and Mrs. Hanover are the parents of 11 children, viz.: Isaac P., Mary A., William H. Cyrenus, Eliza E., Francis M., Charlotte J., John A., Sarah E. and Jacob G. W., who are living, and Lucinda, who died at the age of one year.

 

Milton Moffitt, farmer, section 30, Cedar Township, was born April 2, 1841, in Wayne, Erie Co., Pa., and is the son of Jesse and Dorothy (Wheeler) Moffitt.

His paternal grandparents were Scotch and German by birth, and his father was born in Attica, N. Y.

He was a shoemaker by trade, but passed most of his life in the vocation of farmer.

He was about 50 years of age at the time of his death in 1849.

The mother is yet living, in Pennsylvania.

Mr. Moffitt was reared to the profession of farming in his native State, and on becoming of age learned the blacksmith’s trade, which he followed at Corry, Pa., until his removal in 1875 to Osceola Co., Mich.

He rented a farm in the vicinity of Ashton, Leroy Township, which he conducted three years.

In 1878 he bought 80 acres, on which he has since operated.

It was wholly unimproved, and he has placed 20 acres under cultivation.

He is the mail-carrier between Hersey and Penasa, the latter office being stationed in his house.

His wife is the Postmistress.

Mr. Moffitt was married April 8, 1863, to Martha A. Stone, and their children were born as follows: Eva E., Frank A., Dora I., Hubert M. (deceased); Walter G. (deceased), Ernest (deceased), Isaac B., Archie C., Bertie and Daisy.

Mrs. Moffitt was born books (26)

William Horner

William Horner, proprietor of the planning-mill at Reed City, was born in St. Catherines, Ontario, Aug. 23, 1851.

His father, Samuel Horner, was born in 1817 in the North of Ireland, and emigrated to the United States, landing at New York.

He afterward went to Canada, where he taught school, and in the State, of New York more than a score of years.

His mother, Elizabeth (Walker) Horner, was born in 1819, in Ireland, and is now living at Stratford, Ont., with her youngest son.

The ancestral origin of the Horner family dates to the French Huguenots who fled to the North of Ireland to escape religious persecution.

The father of Mr. Horner died at Brockville, Ont., on the St. Lawrence River, when his son was but 11 years old.

He was then under the necessity of contributing to the support of the four young children, who were deprived of the father’s care and protection.

After the death of the father the family removed to Baltimore, Md., where Mr. Horner engaged as a telegraph messenger and operator until he was 15 years of age.

They then removed to Stratford, Ont., and he became an assistant in a mercantile establishment, and was occupied in that line of business until he was 19 years of age.

He commenced operating as book-keeper with Scismgeour Bros., of Stratford, continuing in that capacity six years.

In 1877 he went to Desoronto, Ont., and was there employed by H. B. Rathbun & Son, as contractor in their lumber and ship-building interests, in the manufacturing department in which he required the aid of 20 assistants.

In 1880 he went to Warren Co., Pa., in the capacity of superintendent of a wholesale sash, door and blind factory, owned by L. D. Wetmore & Co.

In January, 1882, associated with S. E. Cormany, he bought the site of an old saw-mill at Reed City, containing one and a fourth acres of land.

They removed the ancient structure and rebuilt, constructing a building 65 X200 feet in extent, with a brick engine-house attached.

The producing capacity of the establishment is 60,000 feet daily of matched and planed lumber.

They also manufacture two car loads of boxes weekly and employ an average working force of 15 men.

The partnership existed six months, when Mr. Horner purchased the interest of his partner and later admitted W. W. Foster, the latter association continuing operative until July, 1884, when the entire interest became the property of Mr. Horner by purchase.

The works are being operated at present (1884) to their full capacity, Tuning about 15 hours daily.

The marriage of Mr. Horner to Maggie Pullar took place Dec. 30, 1874, at Stratford, Ont.

Maggie (Pullar) Horner

Their children were born as follows: Samuel, May 28, 1876; Mamie E., Sept. 24, 1878; Anna L., Jan. 12, 1882; and Frank, Feb. 19, 1884.

Mrs. Horner was born Jan. 15, 185 1, in Scotland, and is the daughter of Andrew and Mary Pullar.

 

Willard Gould, farmer, resident on section 5, Hersey Township, was born March 14, 1837, in Percy Township, Northumberland County, Ontario.

His father, Jewett Gould, married Mary A. Park. He connected himself with the Mormons, with whom he was living in Utah when last heard from.

The mother is a resident of Belleville, Ont.

Mr. Gould was reared on the farm of his maternal grandparents.

Before he attained his majority he was apprenticed to a shoemaker for five years, but he found the confinement irksome and the plan was abandoned.

On reaching the age of 21 years he learned the builder’s trade, but finding it distasteful he bought a farm in Canada, which he managed eight years.

He sold out in 1869 and came to Lake County in Michigan, where he bought 160 acres of land, and was its occupant seven years.

In 1876 he removed to a tract of land in Hersey Township, which he had purchased while living in Lake County, and two years previous to removal thereto.

He owns 120 acres with 45 acres under excellent improvements.

He is a Republican, and has always been active in the educational matters of his township.

He was married Oct. 31, 1857, in Percy, Canada, to Louis Ireland.

Three of their children are deceased, -Martha E., Alfred S. and Purcilla.

Esther A., William A., John, Charles H. and Mabel C. are living.

Mrs. Gould is the daughter of Isaac and Hester (Tallman) Ireland, both of whom died in Canada.

She was born April 20, 1845, ‘n Percy, Ont.

 

Noah Terpenning, farmer, section 18, Richmond Township, is a son of Merenes and Peggy Terpenning.

The latter were natives of Orange Co., N. Y., where they resided for a time after marriage, and then removed to Cortland County, same State; here they lived until their death.

They had a family of nine children, of whom the subject of this sketch was the fourth in order of birth.

He was born in Cortland Co., N. Y., Jan. 27, 1820, and remained at home until 25 years of age, when he started out in life for himself.

He occupied and managed a rented farm for nearly 20 years, and then purchased a farm, in the same county, on which he remained till April, 1883, when he came to this county and bought 73 acres of land where he is now making his home. He has all his land cleared and well improved.

He was married in Tompkins Co., N. Y., May 4, 1843, to Miss Christean Butts, who was born Nov. 29, 1821, and whose parents were Michael and Adaline (Searles) Butts, natives of New Jersey.

Mr. and Mrs. T. are the parents of three children, Cyrus, Arthur and John.

The first named is a carpenter and joiner, and resides in Cortland, N. Y.; Arthur is a carpenter and owns a farm and resides in Virgil, same county.

Two of them served in the war of the Rebellion, Cyrus enlisting in Co. I, 122d Reg. N. Y. Infantry serving three years.

He was wounded twice on the same day at the Battle of the Wilderness.

Arthur enlisted in Company F, 182nd Regiment New York Infantry, serving seven months.

Both receive an honorable discharge at the close of the war.

John is a farmer, and is living with his father, having an interest in the farm.

As to political affairs, Mr. T. is a Prohibitionist.

 

Emmet R. White, dealer in drugs, medicines, books, stationery, etc. at Reed City, was born at Elk Creek, Pennsylvania, September 27, 1852, and removed to New York, in 1862, with his parents, Welcome W. and Abbie (Hoard) White.

He went west in 1877, and in 1879 came to Reed City and engaged as a clerk for his brother in the drug store.

He entered the business as a partner in December, 1882.

 

Oscar M. Brownson, dealer in real estate and loans, at Evart, was born August 6, 1826 in Somerset, Niagara Co., N. Y.

His parents, Luman and Lucy (Barbour) Brownson, were natives of Vermont.

The former was born Dec. 26, 1800, the latter, Feb. 5, 1801.

They had five children, of whom Mr. Brownson, of this sketch, is the oldest. Amanda E. married C. C. Farrar, a capitalist of Flint, Mich.

Their children are Lucy D., Frank L. and Edward B. Sopronia L. married Geo. H. Holman, of Flint, a dealer in grain, lime, coal, etc.

They have two children, Arthur B. and Harriet, wife of George Bishop.

Mr. and Mrs. Bishop are both graduates of the High School at Ann Arbor, and are farming in Dakota.

Samuel N. Brownson, second son, is a farmer and stockman in Greenwood Co., Kan.

He married Mattie Adams, of Pontiac, Mich., and they have five children— Edith M., Frank L., Freddie O., Clara and Mabel.

The fifth child in the family of the senior Brownson died unnamed.

Mr. Brownson remained under the paternal roof until he was 25 years of age.

He acquired the education of the common schools in early youth, afterwards passing a year at the famous school at Oberlin, Ohio, and a like period of time in the High School at Romeo, Mich.

After completing his education he began teaching, in which he was occupied eleven terms.

In 1853 he bought a small tract of land containing 40 acres in Oakland County, four miles west of Pontiac, where he devoted his energies to the nursery business, and also engaged in raising fruit, being occupied there 13 years.

At the end of that time he removed to a farm situated eight miles north of Pontiac, on which he was resident four years. In 1869 he went to Flint, where he became interested in the hardware business as a member of the firm of Holman, Farrar & Co.

After four years of business connection with his brothersin-law, Mr. Brownson came to Evart, where he arrived July 1, 1873, and, in company with Robert A. Allured, opened a hardware store.

He erected a brick building for the transaction of their business, and a few months later doubled its capacity by building an addition of the same dimensions, to which he made another addition between three and four years later.

The business relations of Messrs. Brownson & Allured were in existence’ about six years, when they were terminated by the sale of the senior partner’s interest to his associate, and Mr. Brownson, began to operate in real estate and loans sufficiently to retain his interest in active business life.

He is a Notary Public, and transacts the business common to the position.

He owns 250 acres of farming land in Osceola County, and in 1882 built his fine residence at Evart, and has two village lots connected therewith.

He is also the owner of a tenement house and several village lots, variously located.

Mr. Brownson was married June 19, 1851, in Almont, Lapeer Co., Mich., to Lucy M. Johnson.

They have had two children, only one of whom survives—Alice L., wife of Robert A. Allured (see sketch).

She was born May 25, 1852. Charles H. was born Nov. 8, 1855, and died in the prime of his young manhood, Aug. 16, 1880.

He married Mira Spaulding. Mrs. Brownson was born in Wales Township, Erie Co., N. Y., Jan. 26, 1824, and is the daughter of Samuel and Sally Johnson.

The parents came from the Empire State to Almont in 1834, when that portion of Michigan was in its earliest pioneer period and when the State was in its Territorial days.

Mr. Johnson was born Sept. 20, 1797, in the State of New York. Mrs. Johnson was born Oct. 28, 1793, in Whitehall, N. Y., and died in Almont, Dec. 30, 1865.

Mr. Johnson died in the same place, Feb. 15, 1845.

They had four children.

Dr. Hosmer A., oldest son, was born Oct. 6, 1822.

He has risen to a distinguished position, solely through his own efforts, working his way through the University at Ann Arbor, where he was graduated in 1849, with the degree of B. A.

In 1850 he went to Chicago and entered Rush Medical College, graduating there as one of its most accomplished students.

He is one of the founders of the Chicago Medical College, of which he has been a Professor, since its establishment, and has held the Chair of Physiology.

In 1861 he was made a member of the Board of Medical Examiners for the State of Illinois, of which body he became President.

He married Margaretta A. Seward, niece of Hon. Wm. H. Seward, of distinguished memory.

Mrs. Brownson is the second of her parents’ children.

Emmeline L. married E. B. Hough, a farmer of Almont, and died Jan. 25, 1867.

James y F. is a farmer in Kansas.

He married Emma Fish of Flint, sister of a prominent physician of Flint, and of Dr. Fish, of California.

Mrs. Brownson began teaching when 16 years of age, and continued in the profession until 27 years old.

Mr. Brownson is a gentleman of decided moral convictions, and acts fearlessly in consonance with his views.

He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and he is officiating as a Ruling Elder in that body, to which position he was elected in 1875.

He donated liberally to the building of a church edifice for the benefit of the denomination to which he belongs, and aided personally in its erection.

The entire cost of the structure was $5,000, to which sum Messrs. Brownson and Allured contributed $2,000.

Mr. Brownson is one of the most prominent actors in the cause of Prohibition in the State of Michigan.

He is earnestly interested in the progress of the party as antagonistic to the liquor traffic, and has aided in the organization of eight local prohibition clubs.

He was delegate to two State Conventions of 1884, and to the County Conventions of the same year.

He attended the National Convention held at Pittsburg, July 24, 1884, in the capacity of delegate from his State, and was nominated on the Prohibition ticket of Michigan for Presidential Elector from the Ninth Congressional District.

 

Peter Cody, farmer, section 21, Hersey Township, was born April 4, 1816, in the County Carlow, Ireland, and is the son of James and Mary (Dunne) Cody, both of whom are natives of Ireland.

On June 22, 1830, they sailed from Dublin, with their family, including four sons and six daughters.

All are yet living but two of the latter.

They were born as follows: Mary A., Peter, Hanora (deceased), Margaret (deceased), John, James, Ellen, Bridget, Andrew and Jane.

Their father bought a farm in Simcoe Co., Ont., on which he resided about 15 years, when the place was sold, and another purchased where the family removed, and where the father died.

The township was named Tassarontio.

The mother also died there.

Mr. Cody was in charge of his parents during the last years of their lives.

After they were deceased he bought a farm in the county of Bruce, in the Dominion, where he resided 15 years, coming thence in 1869 to Osceola Co., Mich., where he bought 80 acres of land in a wholly wild state, from the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company, in Hersey Township.

He has cleared and placed 65 acres under culture, has erected a good frame barn, and is rapidly approaching assured competency.

On removal here he left his family at Big Rapids, took possession of his farm Oct. 17, 1869, and built a log house.

He was married Sept. 8, 1843, to Loretto Doyle, and they are the parents of 13 child