Emperor

Forbidden Photos Reveal What Life In Hawaii Was Like After Pearl Harbor….


It’s no secret that the Dec. 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor, which killed more than 2,000 Americans, changed the course of history for the United States and the rest of the world.

But it also dramatically altered the identity of the island paradise of Hawaii, changing everyday life for the people who lived there and bringing tourism, one of the islands’ most important industries, to a halt.

PHOTO 12 VIA GETTY IMAGES
The West Virginia and Tennessee battleships are ablaze after the Pearl Harbor attack Dec. 7, 1941.

Hours after the attack, Hawaii, a U.S. territory at the time, was placed under martial law, and all of the islands’ residents were under the dictatorship of the U.S. military, according to Honolulu Bishop Museum historian DeSoto Brown.

Since Japanese-Americans made up 37 percent of Hawaii’s population, it was impossible for the military to incarcerate all of them, Brown told The Huffington Post. Instead, all residents of Hawaii — white, Native Hawaiian, Japanese, Filipino, Chinese — were forced to live under strict military rule.

“Everybody was under martial law and treated equally unfairly because the military couldn’t target just the Japanese, who were so important to the economy,” Brown said.

After all, Japanese-American residents had long-established themselves in Hawaii as business owners, teachers and community leaders. Without them, Brown added, Hawaii’s economy would have collapsed.

BETTMANN VIA GETTY IMAGES
A newspaper photo shows two Japanese-American workers at an emergency medical unit in Honolulu, with the caption saying they are “typical of the loyal Japanese-Americans in the Islands; they have been on continuous duty since the attack on December 7.”

Under martial law, life in Hawaii became dramatically restricted, according to Brown. Immediately after the attack, civilians were mandated by the military to dig holes for makeshift bomb shelters and were ordered to place barbed wire around everything, including beaches, water pumping stations, electrical installations and government buildings.

While they were free to live their normal lives during the day, Hawaii residents were forced to black out their windows, and a curfew banned civilians from being outside at night.

All electricity was required to be shut off after sundown, and the military enforced the curfew every night. Any unauthorized civilian out after hours faced the risk of being shot. If civilians were permitted to drive after-hours for official purposes, they were required to paint their cars’ headlights black.

Food on the island was rationed to families. There was a ban on liquor, and bars were shuttered. Waikiki’s iconic beachfront hotels, once thriving with tourists and affluent locals, were closed to the public and taken over by the military.

The military even banned Hawaii civilians from taking photographs of any of the islands’ coastlines (to prevent the Japanese from finding points of entries) and anything with war- or military-related imagery. As a result, officials reviewed and confiscated any photographs that contained barbed wire, beaches or military bases.

BISHOP MUSEUM/DESOTO BROWN
Barbed wire was installed at Waikiki Beach and other coastlines across Hawaii after the 1941 attacks on Pearl Harbor.

The harsh military rule in Hawaii ended nearly three years after the Pearl Harbor attacks, but, according to Brown, the islands were forever changed.

The poor treatment of the residents in Hawaii fueled the case for bringing the islands into statehood. And the military continued to maintain a stronghold in Hawaii, with every branch of the military stationed there today.

As a historian specializing in World War II and the attacks on Pearl Harbor, Brown has collected many of the contraband images that were photographed in Hawaii despite martial law.

Many of these images are on display at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu for the 75th anniversary of the devastating attacks.

Below, see the forbidden photos and other World War II memorabilia that reveal what life in Hawaii was like for those who lived through that day “which will live in infamy,” Dec. 7, 1941.

  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    A curfew was imposed by the military government on all civilians in Hawaii, which lasted for nearly the entire war. Without some sort of curfew pass like this one, citizens could be arrested after curfew.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    A printed schedule for Hawaii’s very strict nightly blackout, which began Dec. 7, 1941, and was gradually eased until it was eliminated in 1944.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    A blacked-out restaurant in downtown Honolulu, 1942.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    Pins like these showed a commitment to winning the war, but they also provided manufacturers some quick income.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    The patriotic slogan “Remember Pearl Harbor” was widely printed in the early war years. This sticker uses a snake to symbolize the treacherous sneak attack on Dec. 7, 1941.
  • National Archives
    Barbed wire along the front of the Royal Hawaiian Hotel in Waikiki, taken over by the U.S. Navy and used throughout the war only for military personnel.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    During World War II, Waikiki’s luxury Royal Hawaiian Hotel was seized by the Navy and was open only to military personnel, seen here in the hotel’s Coconut Grove.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    Gas masks were issued to all Hawaii civilians over the age of 7, and practices like this one were held to prepare for poison gas attacks or air raids.
  • DeSoto Brown Collection
    Every citizen of the Hawaiian Islands was required to be fingerprinted and issued an official ID card like this one. Under martial law, this card had to be carried at all times.
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Categories: Emperor, Uncategorized, WWII | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Maya ‘snake dynasty’ tomb uncovered holding body, treasure and hieroglyphs…


Xunantunich, in western Belize, where archaeologists found a tomb and hieroglyphic panels depicting the history of the ‘snake dynasty’.
Xunantunich, in western Belize, where archaeologists found a tomb and hieroglyphic panels depicting the history of the ‘snake dynasty’. Photograph: Jaime Awe

Archaeologists have uncovered what may be the largest royal tomb found in more than a century of work on Maya ruins in Belize, along with a puzzling set of hieroglyphic panels that provide clues to a “snake dynasty” that conquered many of its neighbors some 1,300 years ago.

The tomb was unearthed at the ruins of Xunantunich, a city on the Mopan river in western Belize that served as a ceremonial center in the final centuries of Maya dominance around 600 to 800 AD. Archaeologists found the chamber 16ft to 26ft below ground, where it had been hidden under more than a millennium of dirt and debris.

Researchers found the tomb as they excavated a central stairway of a large structure: within were the remains of a male adult, somewhere between 20 and 30 years old, lying supine with his head to the south.

The archaeologist Jaime Awe said preliminary analysis by osteologists found the man was athletic and “quite muscular” at his death, and that more analysis should provide clues about his identity, health and cause of death.

In the grave, archaeologists also found jaguar and deer bones, six jade beads, possibly from a necklace, 13 obsidian blades and 36 ceramic vessels. At the base of the stairway, they found two offering caches that had nine obsidian and 28 chert flints and eccentrics – chipped artefacts that resemble flints but are carved into the shapes of animals, leaves or other symbols.

The excavation site at Xunantunich.
The excavation site at Xunantunich. Photograph: Jaime Awe

“It certainly has been a great field season for us,” said Awe, who led a team from his own school, Northern Arizona University, and the Belize Institute ofArchaeology.

The tomb represents an extraordinary find, if only for its construction. At 4.5 meters by 2.4 meters, it is “one of the largest burial chambers ever discovered in Belize”, Awe said. It appears to differ dramatically from other grave sites of the era. Most Maya tombs were built “intrusively”, as additions to existing structures, but the new tomb was built simultaneously with the structure around it – a common practice among cultures such as the ancient Egyptians, but uncommon among the Mayas.

“In other words, it appears that the temple was purposely erected for the primary purpose of enclosing the tomb,” Awe said. “Except for a very few rare cases, this is not very typical in ancient Maya architecture.”

Many Maya societies ruled through dynastic families. Tombs for male and femalerulers have been found, including those of the so-called “snake dynasty”, named for the snake-head emblem associated with its house. The family had a string of conquests in the seventh century, and ruled from two capital cities. Awe said the newly discovered hieroglyphic panels could prove “even more important than the tomb”, by providing clues to the dynasty’s history.

The third hieroglyphic panel discovered at the Mayan ruins in Xunantunich, in western Belize, with Awe holding a flashlight.
The third hieroglyphic panel discovered at the Maya ruins in Xunantunich, with Jaime Awe holding a flashlight. Photograph: Christophe Helmke

The panels are believed to be part of a staircase originally built 26 miles to the south, at the ancient city of Caracol. Epigraphers say the city’s ruler, Lord Kan II of the snake dynasty, recorded his defeat of another city, Naranjo, on the hieroglyph, to go with his many other self-commemorations. On another work, he recorded a ball game involving a captured Naranjo leader whom he eventually sacrificed.

Naranjo apparently had its revenge some years later, in 680AD, having the panels dismantled and partially reassembled at home with gaps and incorrect syntax – possibly deliberately, to obscure the story of the snake dynasties’ conquests. Fragments have been discovered elsewhere in Caracol and at a fourth site along the Mopan river, but Awe said the new panels could be “bookends” to the story of war and sacrifice in the ancient Maya world.

According to the University of Copenhagen’s Christophe Helmke, the research team’s epigrapher, the panels provide a clue for Kan II’s conquests – he appears to have dedicated or commissioned the work in 642AD – and they note the death of Kan’s mother, Lady Batz’ Ek’. The panels also identify a previously unknown ruler from the Mexican site of Calakmul, Awe said.

Helmke said the panels “tell us of the existence of a king of the dynasty that was murky figure at best, who is clearly named as Waxaklajuun Ubaah Kan” . This ruler reigned sometime between 630 and 640AD, and may have been Kan’s half-brother.

“This means that there were two contenders to the throne, both carrying the same dynastic title, which appears to have been read Kanu’l Ajaw, ‘king of the place where snakes abound’,” he wrote in an email.

The panels clarify what Helmke called a “tumultuous phase of the snake-head dynasty” and explain how it splintered between cities before dominating Maya politics in the region.

The panels identify the origin of the snake dynasty at Dzibanche, in the Yucatan peninsula of modern Mexico, and refer to the family’s move to their capital of Calakmul. Awe said Lady Batz’ Ek’ “was likely a native of Yakha, a site in neighboring Guatemala, who later married the ruler of Caracol as part of a marriage alliance”.

The nine eccentrics.
The nine eccentrics. Photograph: Kelsey Sullivan, courtesy Jaime Awe

The researchers have had their work peer-reviewed for publication in the Journal of the Pre-columbian Art Research Institute.

Awe said it was not clear why the panels appeared in Xunantunich, but the city may have allied itself with or been a vassal state to Naranjo. The cities both fell into decline, along with other Maya societies, around 800 to 1,000AD, for reasons still mysterious but possibly including climate change, disease and war.

The city was called Xunantunich, meaning “stone woman” in the Yucatec Maya, long after its abandonment by original residents. The name derives from folklore around the city about a hunter who saw a ghostly, statuesque woman, dressed in indigenous garb, standing near an entrance to a temple called El Castillo – a storytouted by tourist sites today. The site was also once called Mount Maloney, after a British governor.

The temple is impressive in its own right, a stone structure that towers 130ft above the city’s main plaza, adorned with a stucco frieze that represents the gods of the sun and moon

Categories: Ancient Treasure, Archaeology, artifacts, emeralds, Emperor, gold, gold chains, gold coins, hidden, jewels, Legends, Lost Treasure, silver, Strange News, treasure, Treasure Hunting, Treasure Legends, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Locked tomb in eastern China may hold key to fate of little-known emperor 2,000 years ago…


Chinese archaeologists working on a royal cemetery dating to the Han dynasty 2,000 years ago say the site is the most complete and well-preserved set of tombs they have unearthed, state media reports.

But a key mystery remains: experts hope a locked coffin in the main mausoleum contains relics – an emperor’s seal perhaps – that could confirm the identity of the ancient occupants, according to Xinhua.

The site is large, stretching across 40,000 square metres in a rural area outside of Nanchang city in Jiangxi province. Archaeologists have uncovered eight main tombs and a chariot burial area with walls that run nearly 900 metres.

Bronze lamps shaped like ducks.

They believe it is the burial site of Liu He – the grandson of Emperor Wu, who was the most influential ruler of the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-AD25) – and Liu’s wife along with a handful of family members.

Exact details about the era remain sketchy, but it’s thought Liu had a brief but dramatic stint in power – he assumed the throne but was ousted only to later return and be forced out again.

Bronze and ceramic wares.

Archaeologists have discovered terracotta figures, musical instruments, some 10 tonnes of bronze coins and more than 10,000 items made from gold, jade, iron, wood and bamboo.

A network of roads and a drainage system can also be seen.

Xin Lixiang, a researcher from the National Museum who is leading the dig, said his team would next turn to the mysterious coffin.

Archaeologists at the site hope a sealed tomb will contain relics such as an emperor’s seal that could positively identify the interned.

“There may be a royal seal and jade clothes that will suggest the status and identity of the tomb’s occupant,” Xin said.

The State Administration of Cultural Relics has instructed the site supervisors to apply for a world heritage listing with the United Nation’s cultural body, Unesco.

Categories: Ancient Treasure, Archaeology, China, Emperor | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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